Science.gov

Sample records for point injection combined

  1. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  2. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  3. Stagnation Point Heat Transfer with Gas Injection Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancrayenest, B.; Tran, M. D.; Fletcher, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental study of the stagnation-point heat transfer to a cooled copper surface with gas injection under subsonic conditions. Test were made with a probe that combined a steady-state water-cooled calorimeter that allows the capability to study convective blockage and to perform heat transfer measurements in presence of gas injection in the stagnation region. The copper probe was pierced by 52 holes, representing 2.4% of the total probe surface. The 1.2 MW high enthalpy plasma wind tunnel was operated at anode powers between 130 and 230 kW and a static pressures from 35 hPa up to 200 hPa. Air, carbon dioxide and argon were injected in the mass flow range 0-0.4 g/s in the boundary layer developed around the 50 mm diameter probe. The measured stagnation-point heat transfer rates are reported and discussed.

  4. Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation-point boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.

    1984-02-01

    A theory is developed for the stagnation point boundary layer with injection under the hypothesis that turbulence is produced at the wall by injection. From the existing experimental heat transfer rate data obtained in wind tunnels, the wall mixing length is deduced to be a product of a time constant and an injection velocity. The theory reproduces the observed increase in heat transfer rates at high injection rates. For graphite and carbon-carbon composite, the time constant is determined to be 0.0002 sec from the existing ablation data taken in an arc-jet tunnel and a balistic range.

  5. Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation-point boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for the stagnation point boundary layer with injection under the hypothesis that turbulence is produced at the wall by injection. From the existing experimental heat transfer rate data obtained in wind tunnels, the wall mixing length is deduced to be a product of a time constant and an injection velocity. The theory reproduces the observed increase in heat transfer rates at high injection rates. For graphite and carbon-carbon composite, the time constant is determined to be 0.0002 sec from the existing ablation data taken in an arc-jet tunnel and a balistic range.

  6. Multi-point Observations and Modeling of Particle Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S.; Reeves, G. D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Dispersionless and dispersed particle injections associated with substorms have been studied for many years based on observations acquired primarily at geosynchronous orbit. A general picture that has emerged is that particles are energized and rapidly transported/organized behind an "injection boundary" that penetrates closer to Earth in some magnetic local time sector (e.g. the so-called double-spiral injection boundary model). While this picture provides a very good description of injections at geosynchronous orbit, with the recent launchof the Van Allen Probes mission, we are now able to explore the evolution of injection signatures well inside of geosynchronous orbit at multiple locations as well. Here we report initial results of injection boundary modeling based on simultaneous multi-point measurements at both geosynchronous orbit (from the LANL/GEO spacecraft) and inside (from Van Allen Probes spacecraft). It is shown that many of the complex dispersion features observed in Van Allen Probes particle data are reproduced by the injection boundary model.

  7. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  8. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  9. Tokamak Startup Using Point-Source dc Helicity Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Redd, A. J.; Sontag, A. C.

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  10. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-01

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation. PMID:19658871

  11. Diffusion and binding analyzed with combined point FRAP and FCS.

    PubMed

    Im, Kang-Bin; Schmidt, Ute; Kang, Moon-Sik; Lee, Ji-Young; Bestvater, Felix; Wachsmuth, Malte

    2013-09-01

    To quantify more precisely and more reliably diffusion and reaction properties of biomolecules in living cells, a novel closed description in 3D of both the bleach and the post-bleach segment of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) data acquired at a point, i.e., a diffraction-limited observation area, termed point FRAP, is presented. It covers a complete coupled reaction-diffusion scheme for mobile molecules undergoing transient or long-term immobilization because of binding. We assess and confirm the feasibility with numerical solutions of the differential equations. By applying this model to free EYFP expressed in HeLa cells using a customized confocal laser scanning microscope that integrates point FRAP and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), the applicability is validated by comparison with results from FCS. We show that by taking diffusion during bleaching into consideration and/or by employing a global analysis of series of bleach times, the results can be improved significantly. As the point FRAP approach allows to obtain data with diffraction-limited positioning accuracy, diffusion and binding properties of the exon-exon junction complex (EJC) components REF2-II and Magoh are obtained at different localizations in the nucleus of MCF7 cells and refine our view on the position-dependent association of the EJC factors with a maturating mRNP complex. Our findings corroborate the concept of combining point FRAP and FCS for a better understanding of the underlying diffusion and binding processes. PMID:23847177

  12. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  13. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  14. GPS and Glonass Combined Static Precise Point Positioning (ppp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, D.; Dwivedi, R.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), satellite navigation is undergoing drastic changes. Presently, more than 70 satellites are already available and nearly 120 more satellites will be available in the coming years after the achievement of complete constellation for all four systems- GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. The significant improvement in terms of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision and accuracy demands the utilization of combining multi-GNSS for Precise Point Positioning (PPP), especially in constrained environments. Currently, PPP is performed based on the processing of only GPS observations. Static and kinematic PPP solutions based on the processing of only GPS observations is limited by the satellite visibility, which is often insufficient for the mountainous and open pit mines areas. One of the easiest options available to enhance the positioning reliability is to integrate GPS and GLONASS observations. This research investigates the efficacy of combining GPS and GLONASS observations for achieving static PPP solution and its sensitivity to different processing methodology. Two static PPP solutions, namely standalone GPS and combined GPS-GLONASS solutions are compared. The datasets are processed using the open source GNSS processing environment gLAB 2.2.7 as well as magicGNSS software package. The results reveal that the addition of GLONASS observations improves the static positioning accuracy in comparison with the standalone GPS point positioning. Further, results show that there is an improvement in the three dimensional positioning accuracy. It is also shown that the addition of GLONASS constellation improves the total number of visible satellites by more than 60% which leads to the improvement of satellite geometry represented by Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) by more than 30%.

  15. Successful treatment of a persistent renal colic with trigger point injection.

    PubMed

    Eken, Cenker; Durmaz, Dilek; Erol, Bulent

    2009-02-01

    Renal colic is one of the painful conditions in emergency medicine practice. Opiates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the cornerstone of pain management in renal colic. However, alternative procedures should be considered in patients refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of renal colic successfully treated by trigger point injection that was refractory to 150 microg fentanyl and 5 mg morphine. PMID:19371551

  16. Safety and efficacy of administering abobotulinumtoxinA through a single injection point when treating lateral periocular rhytides.

    PubMed

    Kiripolsky, Monika G; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2011-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to assess efficacy and patient satisfaction associated with AbobotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of dynamic periocular rhytides. When keeping the total dose of ABA the same for each side of the face, one injection point yielded the same efficacy and safety as three separate injection points into the lateral periocular areas. PMID:21896136

  17. Power-combining based on master–slave injection-locking magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuan; Yi, Zhang; Wenjun, Ye; Huacheng, Zhu; Kama, Huang; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A microwave power-combining system composed of two Panasonic 2M244-M1 magnetrons based on master–slave injection-locking is demonstrated in this paper. The principle of master–slave injection-locking and the locking condition are theoretical analyzed. Experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and the experimental combined efficiency is higher than 96%. Compared with the external-injection-locked system, the power-combining based on the master–slave injection-locking magnetron is superior by taking out the external solid-state driver and the real-time phase control system. Thus, this power-combining system has great potential for obtaining a high efficiency, high stability, low cost, and high power microwave source. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501311).

  18. MHD Evolution in Point-Source Helicity Injection Driven Plasmas on Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    Point-source helicity injection for non-solenoidal startup on PEGASUS produces plasmas with Ip <= 0 . 17 MA consistent with Taylor relaxation. The helicity injection supplies an effective loop voltage Veff inversely proportional to the plasma toroidal flux ΨT. Accurate measurement of the Veff evolution requires equilibrium reconstructions. Helicity injection-driven plasmas originate on the outboard, low-field side and expand inward to fill the vessel. This evolution increases ΨT, reducing Veff from >= 10 V to <= 2 V. Supplemental loop voltage from poloidal field induction is used to obtain higher plasma current. Ip growth is accompanied by bursts of n = 1 magnetic activity with frequencies between 10-150 kHz, abrupt inward motion of the plasma, and a drop in internal inductance. This magnetic activity persists during helicity injection. Afterward, MHD quiescence is obtained and persists in discharges subsequently sustained by ohmic induction. The spectral content of these magnetic fluctuations measured with a scanning Mirnov probe does not differ significantly with distance from the plasma edge. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  19. Effect of dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination prophylaxis on intraocular pressure spikes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    PubMed Central

    Ozcaliskan, Sehnaz; Ozturk, Faruk; Yilmazbas, Pelin; Beyazyildiz, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of topical dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination prophylaxis on short term intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in patients who had intravitreal bevacizumab injection. METHODS One hundred and fifty one eyes of 151 patients which were followed up in retina clinic in Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consists of 75 patients who had topical dorzolamid-timolol medication two hours before injection; while Group 2 consists of 76 patients without prophylaxis. Demographic data, IOP measurements prior to the injection and one, thirty and sixty minutes and twenty-four hours after the injection were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS There were no significant difference between two groups in age, gender distrubition and indications for injections. The mean IOPs in Groups 1 and 2 prior to the injection (T0) were 17.84±0.43 and 18.15±0.43 mm Hg, one minute after the injection (T1) were 29.75±1.6 and 34.44±1.59 mm Hg, 30min after the injection (T30) were 20.06±0.6 and 21.71±0.59 mm Hg respectively. The mean IOPs were 18.26±0.56 mm Hg in Group 1 and 19.78±0.56 mm Hg in Group 2 sixty minutes after the injection (T60). All IOP values after the injection were compared between two groups, there was a significant difference between two groups only on T1; one minute after the injection (P=0.04). There were a statiscially significant difference between the baseline values and other recorded values; except on T60, in Groups 1 and 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION After intravitreal bevacizumab injection; we observe a transient IOP elevation which normalizes about one hour after intravitreal injection. In patients who had topical dorzolamid-timolol combination prophylaxis before injections, a significant decrease is seen in IOP spikes due to this injection. The appropiate approach will monitor IOP after

  20. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  1. Enhanced in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated groundwater by combined injection of nitrate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J A; Rahme, H; Hopkins, G D; Lebron, C; Reinhard, M

    2001-04-15

    Enhancement of in situ anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX compounds was demonstrated at a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Seal Beach, CA. Specifically, combined injection of nitrate and sulfate into the contaminated aquifer was used to accelerate BTEX removal as compared to remediation by natural attenuation. An array of multi-level sampling wells was used to monitor the evolution of the in situ spatial distributions of the electron acceptors and the BTEX compounds. Nitrate was utilized preferentially over sulfate and was completely consumed within a horizontal distance of 4-6 m from the injection well; sulfate reduction occurred in the region outside the denitrifying zone. By combining injection of both nitrate and sulfate, the total electron acceptor capacity was enhanced without violating practical considerations that limit the amount of nitrate or sulfate that can be added individually. Degradation of total xylene appears linked to sulfate utilization, indicating another advantage of combined injection versus injection of nitrate alone. Benzene degradation also appears to have been stimulated by the nitrate and sulfate injection close to the injection well but only toward the end of the 15-month demonstration. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that benzene can be biodegraded anaerobically after other preferentially degraded hydrocarbons have been removed. PMID:11329718

  2. An advanced tracker design for pointing and control of space vehicles using the charge injection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Kollodge, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of charge transfer devices (CTD) in pointing and control of space vehicles is examined, with emphasis on the use of charge injection devices (CID). The selection of CTD type and CID operation, including CID signal and noise analysis and signal improvement, are discussed. Star tracking operational advantages of the CTD are pointed out, and the tracking optical concept is discussed and graphically depicted. The position interpolation procedure and the effects of rate of stellar motion on position interpolation are considered, and error analysis is examined. Finally, the breadboard and test program are discussed in detail, coarse and fine acquisition, test for star, track pattern, test procedure and results. An overall accuracy performance of approximately 0.02 pixels or approximately 0.8 arcsec for the test equipment and tracker was obtained.

  3. Synergistic anti-tumor activity through combinational intratumoral injection of an in-situ injectable drug depot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Yeon; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Park, Kinam; Kim, Moon Suk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe combinational chemotherapy via intratumoral injection of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-fluorouracil (Fu) to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of systemically administered Fu and Dox in cancer patients. As the key concept in this work, mixture formulations of Dox-loaded microcapsules (Dox-M) and Fu-loaded Pluronic(®) hydrogels (Fu-HP) or Fu-loaded diblock copolymer hydrogels (Fu-HC) have been employed as drug depots. The in vitro and in vivo drug depot was designed as a formulation of Dox-M dispersed inside an outer shell of Fu-HP or Fu-HC after injection. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC formulations are free flowing at room temperature, indicating injectability, and formed a structural gelatinous depot in vitro and in vivo at body temperature. The Fu-HP, Fu-HC, Dox-M/Fu-HP, Dox-M/Fu-HC, and Dox-M formulations were easily injected into tumor centers in mice using a needle. Dox-M/Fu-HC produced more significant inhibitory effects against tumor growth than that by Dox-M/Fu-HP, while Fu-HP, Fu-HC and Dox-M had the weakest inhibitory effects of the tested treatments. The in vivo study of Dox and Fu biodistribution showed that high Dox and Fu concentrations were maintained in the target tumor only, while distribution to normal tissues was not observed, indicating that Dox and Fu concentrations below their toxic plasma concentrations should not cause significant systemic toxicity. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC drug depots described in this work showed excellent performance as chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The results reported here indicate that intratumoral injection using combination chemotherapy with Dox-M/Fu-HP or Dox-M/Fu-HC could be of translational research by enhancing the synergistic inhibitory effects of Dox and Fu on tumor growth, while reducing their systemic toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:26874285

  4. Injection in the cervical facet joint for shoulder pain with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study was to confirm the effectiveness of the cervical facet joint injection in treating shoulder pain with the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle secondary to cervical facet lesion. Eighty-nine patients with chronic unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle received an injection to the C4-5 facet joint in the experimental group and to the corresponding unilateral multifidi muscle in the control group. Subjective pain intensity and pressure pain threshold of the myofascial trigger point were assessed, and the prevalence of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point region was measured in 28 patients before, immediately after, and 1 month after the injection. Half of the patients in the experimental group, but none of the control patients, reported being completely pain free 1 month after the injection. Both the decrease in the pain intensity and the increase in pressure pain threshold were significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group either immediately or 1 month after the injection. There was no significant difference in the change of endplate noise prevalence between the 2 groups. This study demonstrates that intra-articular or peri-articular injection into the cervical facet joint region can effectively inactivate the upper trapezius myofascial trigger point secondary to the facet lesion. PMID:19708635

  5. Effective gene selection method with small sample sets using gradient-based and point injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, D; Chow, Tommy W S

    2007-01-01

    Microarray gene expression data usually consist of a large amount of genes. Among these genes, only a small fraction is informative for performing cancer diagnostic test. This paper focuses on effective identification of informative genes. We analyze gene selection models from the perspective of optimization theory. As a result, a new strategy is designed to modify conventional search engines. Also, as overfitting is likely to occur in microarray data because of their small sample set, a point injection technique is developed to address the problem of overfitting. The proposed strategies have been evaluated on three kinds of cancer diagnosis. Our results show that the proposed strategies can improve the performance of gene selection substantially. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed methods are very robust under all the investigated cases. PMID:17666766

  6. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  7. [Advances in cooperativity and mechanism of combination of Back-shu and Front-mu points].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Guo-Ming

    2011-09-01

    The articles related with combination of Back-shu and Front-mu points searched in CNKI and Pubmed databases during the past 10 years were studied. The conclusions indicate that the application of combination of Back-shu and Front-mu points has solid theoretical basis and experimental evidence, and it is proved that the combination of Back-shu points and Front-mu points is effective in clinic practice. However, the mechanism study still rest on the level of spinal cord, and the breakthrough of combination of Back-Shu and Front-Mu points study is that whether the superior nerve centre involves on the regulation of zang-fu organs by combination of Back-shu and Front-mu points. The key point in future study is to explore the central control mechanism of combination of Back-shu and Front-mu points. PMID:21972656

  8. Immune Check Point Inhibitors Combination in Melanoma: Worth the Toxicity?

    PubMed

    Orloff, Marlana; Weight, Ryan; Valsecchi, Matias E; Sato, Takami

    2016-01-01

    The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors ipilimumab and nivolumab has been recently been FDA approved for first line treatment of unresectable and metastatic BRAF wild type melanoma. The approval came following the impressive results of the CheckMate 067, where the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab appeared to outperform each as a single agent in regards to response rate and progression free survival. Though we await final overall survival data, the combination will likely be adapted by many oncologists and integrated into the ever changing melanoma treatment algorithm. In this article we aim to summarize the data leading up to the recent FDA approval and publication by Larkin et al. that presents the results from the CheckMate 067 trial. We will also further explore the feasibility, challenges, and applicability of combination immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27028970

  9. Combination Space Station Handrail Clamp and Pointing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for attaching an experiment carrier to a space station handrail is provided. The device has two major components, a clamping mechanism for attachment to a space station handrail, and a pointing carrier on which an experiment package can be mounted and oriented. The handrail clamp uses an overcenter mechanism and the carrier mechanism uses an adjustable preload ball and socket for carrier positioning. The handrail clamp uses a stack of disk springs to provide a spring loaded button. This configuration provides consistent clamping force over a range of possible handrail thicknesses. Three load points are incorporated in the clamping mechanism thereby spreading the clamping load onto three separate points on the handrail. A four bar linkage is used to provide for a single actuation lever for all three load points. For additional safety, a secondary lock consisting of a capture plate and push lock keeps the clamp attached to the handrail in the event of main clamp failure. For the carrier positioning mechanism, a ball in a spring loaded socket uses friction to provide locking torque; however. the ball and socket are torque limited so that the ball ran slip under kick loads (125 pounds or greater). A lead screw attached to disk spring stacks is used to provide an adjustable spring force on the socket. A locking knob is attached to the lead screw to allow for hand manipulation of the lead screw.

  10. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt. PMID:25402902

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  12. The Effect of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture Point Injections on Shoulder Pain after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu-Ri; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Park, Joo-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective and safe remedy for shoulder pain is needed as shoulder pain is a common complication of stroke and restricts recovery of patients. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Ouhyul herbal acupuncture point injection (O-API) on shoulder pain in patients with stroke. Twenty-four participants with shoulder pain after stroke were recruited and randomized to the O-API and control groups. Treatment was conducted for 2 weeks three times per week. We evaluated the effects of treatment with a numerical rating scale (NRS), painless passive range of motion (PROM) of external shoulder rotation, and the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) at baseline, each week, and 1 week after the final treatment. All measures were similar between the O-API and control groups at baseline. The O-API group showed significant improvement on the NRS compared with that in the control group after 2 weeks of treatment, and the treatment effect was maintained until the follow-up period. PROM decreased significantly in both groups, but the reduction was maintained only in the O-API group. No significant difference was observed on the FMMA between the two groups. O-API resulted in significant improvement in shoulder pain after stroke, and its effect was maintained after termination of treatment without any severe side effects. PMID:23843875

  13. 'OnePoint'--combining OneNote and SharePoint to facilitate knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben

    2009-09-01

    The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research. PMID:19596081

  14. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  15. Multi-point Observations and Modeling of Particle Injections During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Jordanova, V.; Harris, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dispersionless and dispersed particle injections associated with substorms have been studied for many years based on observations acquired primarily at geosynchronous orbit. A general picture that has emerged is that particles are energized and rapidly transported/organized behind an "injection boundary" that penetrates closer to Earth in some magnetic local time sector (e.g. the so-called double-spiral injection boundary model). While this picture provides a very good description of injections at geosynchronous orbit, with the launch of the Van Allen Probes mission, we are now able to explore the evolution of injection signatures well inside of geosynchronous orbit at multiple locations as well. We find that the injection boundary model also appears to reproduce a number of complicated types of dispersion patterns observed in the Van Allen Probes particle data. The dispersion patterns are found to depend dramatically on orbital configuration and timing of onset relative to the phasing of the spacecraft in their orbits. In addition to observational results, we present results of simulated dispersion patterns obtained from the injection boundary model using guiding center particle tracing in two different field configurations: 1) a simplistic dipole magnetic field with Volland-Stern electric field, and 2) RAM/SCB running in the Space Weather Modeling Framework.

  16. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  17. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  18. [Dynamic of myocarditis development in rats after injection of cardiac myosine combined with IFA].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M P; Gavrilova, S A; Zemtsova, L V; Pogodina, L S; Postnikov, A B; Chentsov, Iu S

    2012-02-01

    Myocarditis development was investigated after immunization rats with single subcutaneous injection of cardiac myosin (800 microg/kg) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) (M + IFA group). Control group received equal volume of IFA alone or nothing (intact group). On days 4, 14, and 21 after injection, light and electron microscopy of heart sections, morphometric analysis, estimation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1p, IL-6, VEGF, TNFa and iNOS) expression were used to evaluate inflammatory response in myocardium. In addition, we estimated cardiac myosin antibody levels in blood serum and nitrite and nitrate levels in blood serum. Our data showed that immunization with cardiac myosin combined with IFA led to inflammatory response in the rat myocardium. Acute inflammation (i.e. lymphocyte infiltration of myocardium and increase of proinflammatory cytokines level) in M + IFA group occurred on 21 days after immunization. PMID:22650071

  19. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid towards a stretching sheet with suction/injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaimi, Khairy; Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable stretching sheet in a nanofluid. By using a similarity transformation, the governing equations of fluid flow are reduced into ordinary differential equation, which are then solved numerically using a shooting method. The effects of suction/injection parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and heat transfer characteristics are obtained and graphically presented. It is found that skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with suction, while it acts in opposite manner with injection.

  1. A Novel Triple Medicine Combination Injection for the Resolution of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars remain one of the more difficult treatment concerns for clinicians. A variety of therapies have been used in the past with moderate success. On occasion, combination therapy has been used to treat these lesion, in an attempt to lessen the symptoms of pain and pruritus that often accompanies keloids and hypertrophic scars, as well as treating the actual lesions themselves. A novel triple combination injection process is introduced here in an attempt to further reduce the signs and symptoms of these lesions. The combination includes 5-fluoruracil, triamcinolone acetonide, and hyaluronidase. All three work in concert to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, and this is the first work at looking at these medicines given together, at the same time, in a series of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars. The positive results warrant further investigation and hope for those with keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25489380

  2. Effect of temperature of CO2 injection on the pH and freezing point of milks and creams.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of CO2 injection temperature (0 degree C and 40 degrees C) on the pH and freezing point (FP) of (a) milks with different fat contents (i.e., 0, 15, 30%) and (b) creams with 15% fat but different fat characteristics. Skim milk and unhomogenized creams containing 15 and 30% fat were prepared from the same batch of whole milk and were carbonated at 0 and 40 degrees C in a continuous flow CO2 injection unit (230 ml/min). At 0 degree C, milk fat was mostly solid; at 40 degrees C, milk fat was liquid. At the same total CO2 concentration with CO2 injection at 0 degree C, milk with a higher fat content had a lower pH and FP, while with CO2 injection at 40 degrees C, milks with 0%, 15%, and 30% fat had the same pH. This indicated that less CO2 was dissolved in the fat portion of the milk when the CO2 was injected at 0 degree C than when it was injected at 40 degrees C. Three creams, 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% butter oil emulsion in skim milk, and 15% vegetable oil emulsion in skim milk were also carbonated and analyzed as described above. Vegetable oil was liquid at both 0 and 40 degrees C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C, the 15% vegetable oil emulsion had a slightly higher pH than the 15% butter oil emulsion and the 15% unhomogenized cream, indicating that the liquid vegetable oil dissolved more CO2 than the mostly solid milk fat and butter oil. No difference in the pH or FP of the 15% unhomogenized cream and 15% butter oil emulsion was observed when CO2 was injected at 0 degree C, suggesting that homogenization or physical dispersion of milk fat globules did not influence the amount of CO2 dissolved in milk fat at a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 40 degrees C and at the same total CO2 concentration, the 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% vegetable oil emulsion, and 15% butter oil emulsion had similar pH. At the same total concentration of CO2 in cream, injection

  3. Surgical correction of cryptotia combined with intraoperative distention using isotonic saline injection and rotation flap method.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Matsumoto, Naozumi; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Saitoh, Tomoichi; Matsushita, Shigeto; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2005-05-01

    The following report describes the combination of surgical correction with intraoperative distention using isotonic saline injection and the rotation flap method for correction of cryptotia. This technique provided extensive skin coverage of the upper portion of the auricle and was an easy and quick method of dissecting the cartilage of the posterior auricle. The main advantages of this technique include achievement of skin expansion without the need for expander material, simple design of the skin incision, and easy dissection of the cartilage. Although one patient experienced partial congestion in the upper tip of the rotation flap, no other complications occurred. Further, cryptotia did not recur. PMID:15915119

  4. Plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling reveals the potential antipyretic mechanisms of Qingkailing injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Wang, Meiling; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-25

    Qingkailing injection (QKLI) has a notable antipyretic effect and is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine. To elucidate the pharmacological action thoroughly, following the investigation of the urine metabolome and hypothalamus metabolome, plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling of the QKLI antipyretic effect in a rat model is described in this paper. Compared with pure metabolomics profiling, this non-targeted plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) could be used for a large-scale detection of features in plasma samples. The results showed that 15 metabolites at the 1 h time point and 19 metabolites at the 2 h time point after QKLI administration were associated with the antipyretic effect of QKLI, including amino acid, phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine. The metabolism pathway analysis revealed that the potential biomarkers, which were important for the antipyretic mechanism of QKLI, were closely responsible for correcting the perturbed pathways of amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the use of complementary UPLC Q-TOF/MS based metabolomics and lipidomics allows for the discovery of new potential plasma biomarkers in the QKLI antipyretic process and the associated pathways, and aided in advancing the understanding of the holism and synergism of the Chinese drug. PMID:27208622

  5. Pharmacological and Combined Interventions to Reduce Vaccine Injection Pain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Halperin, Scott A.; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy and combined interventions for reducing vaccine injection pain in individuals across the lifespan. Design/Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Self-reported pain and fear as well as observer-rated distress were critically important outcomes. Data were combined using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Fifty-five studies that examined breastfeeding (which combines sweet-tasting solution, holding, and sucking), topical anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions (sucrose, glucose), vapocoolants, oral analgesics, and combination of 2 versus 1 intervention were included. The following results report findings of analyses of critical outcomes with the largest number of participants. Compared with control, acute distress was lower for infants breastfed: (1) during vaccination (n=792): SMD −1.78 (CI, −2.35, −1.22) and (2) before vaccination (n=100): SMD −1.43 (CI, −2.14, −0.72). Compared with control/placebo, topical anesthetics showed benefit on acute distress in children (n=1424): SMD −0.91 (CI, −1.36, −0.47) and self-reported pain in adults (n=60): SMD −0.85 (CI, −1.38, −0.32). Acute and recovery distress was lower for children who received sucrose (n=2071): SMD −0.76 (CI, −1.19, −0.34) or glucose (n=818): SMD −0.69 (CI, −1.03, −0.35) compared with placebo/no treatment. Vapocoolants reduced acute pain in adults [(n=185), SMD −0.78 (CI, −1.08, −0.48)] but not children. Evidence from other needle procedures showed no benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen. The administration of topical anesthetics before and breastfeeding during vaccine injections showed mixed results when compared with topical anesthetics alone. There were no additive benefits of combining glucose and non-nutritive sucking (pacifier) compared with

  6. Magnetic Reconnection and Ion Flows During Point-Source DC Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    A passive ion temperature polychromator has been deployed on Pegasus to study power balance and non-thermal ion distributions that arise during point source helicity injection. Spectra are recorded from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator whose output is recorded by an intensified high-speed camera. During helicity injection, stochastic magnetic fields keep Te low and thus low ionization impurities penetrate to the core. Under these conditions, high core ion temperatures are measured (Ti 1.2 keV, Te 0.1 keV) using spectral lines from CIII, NIII, and BIV. This rapid ion heating is seen to coincide with internal MHD activity. The ion temperature closely follows the injection bias voltage, indicating that power from the guns is strongly coupled to the ions through this MHD activity. Bi-directional toroidal ion flows of ˜60 km/s have been observed on the BIV line during helicity injection when looking near the front of the injectors. The flow is on the order of the Alfv'en velocity, as predicted by Sweet-Parker reconnection, and is indicative of magnetic reconnection occurring near the injectors. When looking away from the helicity injectors, the bi-directional flow appears to be replaced by strong toroidal rotation, suggesting that ion acceleration during helicity injection is asymmetric and 3D in nature.

  7. Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: different injectable anaesthetic combinations and comparison with gonadectomy at traditional age.

    PubMed

    Porters, Nathalie; de Rooster, Hilde; Moons, Christel P H; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Bosmans, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2015-06-01

    Anaesthetic and analgesic effects of three different injectable anaesthetic combinations for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) in cats were studied. One anaesthetic protocol was compared with a similar one for gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. For PPG, three different protocols were compared: (1) intramuscular (IM) administration of 60 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of the anaesthetic agent (20 mg/kg ketamine) (DB-IM protocol); (2) oral transmucosal (OTM) administration of 80 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of 20 mg/kg ketamine combined with 20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (DB-OTM protocol); (3) IM injection of a 40 μg/kg medetomidine-20 μg/kg buprenorphine-20 mg/kg ketamine combination (MBK-IM protocol). For TAG, a DB-IM protocol was used, but with different doses for dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). All cats (PPG and TAG) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory before surgery. Anaesthetic and analgesic effects were assessed pre- and postoperatively (until 6 h). Cumulative logit, linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Compared with the DB-OTM protocol, the DB-IM and MBK-IM protocols provided better anaesthesia with fewer adverse effects in PPG cats. Postoperative pain was not significantly different between anaesthetic protocols. PPG and TAG cats anaesthetised with the two DB-IM protocols differed significantly only for sedation and pain scores, but sedation and pain scores were generally low. Although there were no anaesthesia-related mortalities in the present study and all anaesthetic protocols for PPG in cats provided a surgical plane of anaesthesia and analgesia up to 6 h postoperatively, our findings were in favour of the intramuscular (DB-IM and MBK-IM) protocols. PMID:25170033

  8. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  9. Passive coherent beam combining of four Yb-doped fiber amplifier chains with injection-locked seed source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifeng; Hu, Man; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Houkang; Dai, Shoujun; Wei, Yunrong; Lou, Qihong

    2013-03-15

    An injection-locked fiber laser is introduced to the passive fiber laser coherent beam combination with all-optical feedback loop. A coherent beam combining system with two-dimensional four Yb-doped fiber amplifier chains is established, and the injection-locked fiber laser works as a switchable seed source. The 1064 nm output laser of the injection-locked fiber laser is extinguished automatically as the feedback injection power is high enough, and the injection-locked fiber laser acts as an amplifier for the feedback laser with 7.4 dB gains. We find that the phase-locked far-field interference pattern of our system with seed laser extinguished is stable, and the visibility is up to 91.5%, which is slightly higher than the prevalent method with auxiliary seed laser (88.2%). PMID:23503238

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Jose L.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S.; Kahn, James G.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Lozada, M. Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008–2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. Methods A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). Findings For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310–$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310–$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of

  11. An investigation of the performance of novel chorded keyboards in combination with pointing input devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Zhou; Wu, Fong-Gong

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing power have driven the development of smaller and lighter technology products, with novel input devices constantly being produced in response to new user behaviors and usage contexts. The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of operating chorded keyboard control modules in concert with pointing devices such as styluses and mice. We compared combinations of two novel chorded keyboards with different pointing devices in hopes of finding a better combination for future electronic products. Twelve participants were recruited for simulation testing, and paired sample t testing was conducted to determine whether input and error rates for the novel keyboards were improved significantly over those of traditional input methods. The most efficient input device combination tested was the combination of a novel cross-shaped key keyboard and a stylus, suggesting the high potential for use of this combination with future mobile IT products. PMID:25064640

  12. Technical and economic comparison of steam-injected versus combined- cycle retrofits on FT-4 engines

    SciTech Connect

    Silaghy, F.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The study discusses the findings of a conceptual site-specific investigation of the technical and economic aspects of converting the TPM FT4 simple cycle combustion turbines into either the steam injected gas turbine (SIGT) cycle or the combined cycle (CC). It describes the selection of the best retrofit alternatives through the evaluation and data analysis of a large number of sites and units at two utilities. Conceptual designs are performed on the best retrofit alternatives. Flow diagrams and general arrangement drawings are developed for various configurations utilizing drum type and once-through type multipressure heat recovery steam generators. Auxiliary power consumption and capital cost estimates are presented together with an economic evaluation and comparison of the retrofit alternatives. While the investigation is performed utilizing the FT4 combustion turbines, the steps presented in the report may be used as a guide for investigating the conversion of other gas turbines to either cycle at any utility site.

  13. Feature points detection and tracking based on SIFT combining with KLT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbing; Peng, Zhenming; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Youwang; Liao, Baobing; Wang, Yue

    2009-11-01

    For feature point detection with variable scale, rotation, variable illumination and variable 3D view port, a feature point detection and tracking method combining scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and KLT (Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi) is proposed in this paper. SIFT feature point detection method is improved and it is used to detect feature points of image, and then KLT method is used to track the feature points continuously. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method, simulation experiments are carried out in real scene image sequences with different complexity using this method, better results of detection and tracking are obtained and the obtained feature point is more stable than conventional method.

  14. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first

  15. Lidocaine injection of pericranial myofascial trigger points in the treatment of frequent episodic tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of local lidocaine injections into the myofascial trigger points (TPs) located at the pericranial muscles in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH). Methods The study included 108 patients with frequent ETTH that were randomized into 4 groups. One injection of saline (NaCl 0.9%) was administered to group 1 (n = 27), 1 injection of lidocaine (0.5%) was administered to group 2 (n = 27), group 3 (n = 27) received 5 injections of saline (NaCl 0.9%), and group 4 (n = 27) received 5 injections of lidocaine (0.5%); on alternate days 2 mL for each muscle was injected into the frontal, temporal, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, semispinalis capitis, trapezius and splenius capitis muscles bilaterally. The frequency of painful days per month (FPD) and the patients’ visual analogue scales (VAS) were evaluated before treatment, and 2, 4 and 6 months after treatment. Results Mean age of the patients was 36.28 ± 9.41 years (range: 18–54 years). FPD scores improved significantly in group 2, 3 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment compared to pre- treatment (all P < 0.05), and also VAS scores improved significantly in group 2 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment (P < 0.05) but this improvement insisted at the 6 month only in group 4. Group 2 had better VAS and FPD than group 1 only at 2. and 4. months after treatment (for VAS P < 0.0121, P = 0.0232; for FPD P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively). Group 4 had better scores than group 3 at the 2., 4. and 6. months after treatment in both parameters (all P < 0.05). Group 2 had better scores than group 1 in FPD at the 2. and 4. months posttreatment (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively), but not at the 6. month. Conclusion Local lidocaine injections into the myofascial TPs located in the pericranial muscles could be considered as an effective alternative treatment for ETTH. PMID:23698019

  16. Are tender point injections beneficial: the role of tonic nociception in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) include widespread pain, fatigue, sleep abnormalities, and distress. FM patients show psychophysical evidence for mechanical, thermal, and electrical hyperalgesia. To fulfill FM criteria, the mechanical hyperalgesia needs to be widespread and present in at least 11 out of 18 well-defined body areas (tender points). Peripheral and central abnormalities of nociception have been described in FM and these changes may be relevant for the increased pain experienced by these patients. Important nociceptor systems in the skin and muscle seem to undergo profound changes in FM patients by yet unknown mechanisms. These changes may result from the release of algesic substances after muscle or other soft tissue injury. These pain mediators can sensitize important nociceptor systems, including the transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) receptors, and purino-receptors (P2X3). Subsequently, tissue mediators of inflammation and nerve growth factors can excite these receptors and cause substantial changes in pain sensitivity. FM pain is widespread and does not seem to be restricted to tender points (TP). It frequently comprises multiple areas of deep tissue pain (trigger points) with adjacent much larger areas of referred pain. Analgesia of areas of extensive nociceptive input has been found to provide often long lasting local as well as general pain relief. Thus interventions aimed at reducing local FM pain seem to be effective but need to focus less on tender points but more on trigger points (TrP) and other body areas of heightened pain and inflammation. PMID:16454721

  17. Interstitial laser irradiation of metastatic mammary tumors in combination with intratumoral injection of immunoadjuvant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chet; Jose, Jessnie; Figueroa, Daniel; Goddard, Jessica; Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Chen, Wei R.

    2012-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed to treat metastatic cancers using a combination of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. The original design of LIT employs a non-invasive, selective laser photothermal interaction, using an in situ light-absorbing dye. However, this non-invasive treatment mode faces challenges in treating deep, large tumors. Furthermore, it has difficulties in the cases of highly pigmented skin overlying target tumors. To overcome these limitations, interstitial laser immunotherapy (ILIT) was proposed. In ILIT, a cylindrical, side-fire fiber diffuser is placed inside the target tumor to induce thermal damage. To enhance the interstitial irradiation induced photothermal interaction, an immunological modifier, glycated chitosan (GC), is injected into the tumor after the laser treatment. In this study, a cylindrical diffuser with an active length of 1 cm was used to treat tumors of 1 to 1.5 cm in size. Different laser powers (1 to 3 watts) and different irradiation durations (10 to 30 minutes) were used to test the thermal effects of ILIT. Different doses of the GC (1.0%, 0.1 to 0.6 ml per rat) were used to determine the immunological effects of ILIT. Our results show that the animal survival depends on both laser dose and GC dose. A dose of 0.2 ml per tumor appeared to result in the highest survival rate under interstitial laser irradiation with 2.5 watts and 20 minutes. While the results in this study are not conclusive, they indicate that interstitial laser irradiation can be combined with immunotherapy to treat metastatic cancers. Furthermore, our results suggest that an optimal combination of laser dose and GC dose could be obtained for future clinical protocols using interstitial laser immunotherapy.

  18. Progress in Nonsolenoidal Plasma Startup Using Point-Source Helicity Injection in the Pegasus ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Thome, K. E.

    2010-11-01

    Compact, high-current plasma guns are employed as DC helicity injectors on the Pegasus ST. This startup technique has produced Ip˜0.17 MA to date, consistent with helicity balance and Taylor relaxation constraints. Once a tokamak-like plasma is formed, passive electrodes can act as helicity injectors for further growth. This may provide additional control of the edge current density, the Taylor relaxation limit, and provide a higher helicity input rate. Ion heating to Ti˜0.5 keV is observed in the strongly-reconnecting, helicity-driven phase. Efficient handoff from helicity to inductive drive requires the buildup of core current density. Following helicity formation, OH-driven plasmas are MHD-quiescent and sustained above 0.20 MA, apparently due to increased core magnetic shear. Outstanding issues for prediction to larger fusion experiments include: structure of the edge current density; impedance of the injected current channel; impurity behavior; and the behavior of the confinement and helicity dissipation rate as Ip and Te increase.

  19. Acceptability of Rapid Point-of-Care Hepatitis C Tests Among People Who Inject Drugs and Utilize Syringe-Exchange Programs

    PubMed Central

    Barocas, Joshua A.; Linas, Benjamin P.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Fangman, John; Westergaard, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs may benefit from point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing offered at syringe exchanges. We sought to understand whether this population would be willing to undergo rapid HCV testing. We found that there was broad support for rapid HCV testing, especially among younger people who inject drugs with high perceived risk. PMID:27191007

  20. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  1. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  2. Sterilization of oil-field re-injection water using combination treatment of pulsed electric field and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2009-01-01

    It was necessary to sterilize the oil-field re-injection water for biocorrosion inhibition. Saprophytic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria were the three main microorganisms resulting in the microbial contamination. To enhance the sterilization efficiency of oil-field re-injection water by pulsed electric field (PEF), the combined treatment of PEF and ultrasound was explored in the study. Meanwhile, the effects of PEF, ultrasound and the combination treatment on the three bacteria inactivation were investigated. The combination treatment had higher inactivation efficiency than independent PEF as well as ultrasound. Obvious synergistic effects were also observed on the inactivation of saprophytic bacteria and iron bacteria by the combined treatment. PMID:18567526

  3. [Correlation analysis on combined medication with of Xiyanping injection in treatment of lung infection in real world].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-ping; Xie, Yan-ming; Zhi, Ying-jie; Yang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-fei; Huo, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the regularity in combined medication with Xiyanping injection (Xiyanping for short) in the real world by as- sociation rules. Totally 5 822 patients using Xiyanping injection was collected from the 18 Class III Grade I hospitals nationwide to study the combined medication information of the patient with lung infection and make the analysis by using association rules and Apriori. According to the results, major drugs combined with Xiyanping in treatment of lung infection included compound amino acid, inosine, coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, vitamin C. Common drugs combined with Xiyanping can be divided into 5 categories: nutrition support therapy (vitamin C, compound amino acid) , coenzymes (coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, inosine), expectorants and antiasthmatics (ambroxol, salbutamol, doxofylline), hormones (dexamethasone, budesonide), antibiotics (mainly cefminox). The main combined medicines mostly conformed to the regularity for drugs treating lung infection. In addition, there were two most common medical combination models: the model for Xiyanping combined a single medicine is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy, while the model for Xiyanping combined two or more than two medicines is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy + coenzyme. Pharmacologically, Xiyanping is mostly combined with western medicines with similar pharmacological effects to substitute or supplement the antibiotic effect in treating lung infection. However, further studies shall be conducted for the safety and rationality of the combined medication based on clinical practices, in order to provide reference for clinical medication. PMID:26591539

  4. Low-pressure, single-point grout injection for tank heel sludge mixing and in-situ immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes tests conducted in an approximately 9-ft diameter test tank situated outside the 336 building in Hanford`s 300 area. The tests were performed to measure the ability of jets of grout slurry to mobilize and mix simulated tank sludge. The technique is intended for in situ immobilization of tank waste heels. The current approach uses a single, rotated, larger-diameter nozzle driven at lower pressure. Due to the larger diameter, the potential for plugging is reduced and the effective radius around an injection point over which the jet is effective in mobilizing sludge from the tank bottom can be made larger. A total of three grout injection tests were conducted in a 9-ft diameter tank. In each case, a 2-in. layer of kaolin clay paste was placed on a dry tank floor to simulate a sludge heel. The clay was covered with 4 inches of water. The grout slurry, consisting of Portland cement, class F fly ash, and eater, was prepared and delivered by an offsite vendor. In the third test, the sludge in half of the tank was replaced by a layer of 20x50 mesh zeolite, and bentonite clay was added to the grout formulation. After injection, the grout was allowed to set and then the entire grout monolith was manually broken up and excavated using a jack hammer. Intact pieces of clay were visually apparent due to a sharp color contrast between the grout and clay. Remaining clay deposits were collected and weighed and suspended clay pieces within the monolith were photographed. The mobilization performance of the grout jets exceeded expectations.

  5. Multi-point injection: A general purpose delivery system for treatment and containment of hazardous and radiological waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Kubarewicz, J.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a proprietary jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous solid waste dumped into shallow burial trenches, bottom sludge (heel material) inside of underground tanks, and contaminated soils with widely varying soil composition (gravel, silts/clays, soft rock). The robustness of the MPI system is linked to the use of high speed mono-directional jets to deliver various types of agents for a variety of applications, such as: pretreatment of waste prior to insitu vitrification, solidification of waste for creating low conductivity monoliths, oxidants for insitu destruction of organic waste, and grouts for creating barriers (vertical, inclined, and bottom seals). The only strict limitation placed upon the MPI process is that the material can be pumped under high pressure. This paper describes the procedures to inject ordinary grout to form solidified monoliths of solid wastes.

  6. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form.

  7. Effects of Multi-Point Current-Injection Feedback on Interchange Turbulence in a Dipole-Confined Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abler, Melissa C.; Battey, Alexander; Mauel, Michael; Roberts, T. Maximillian

    2015-11-01

    Plasma confined by a strong dipole field exhibits low-frequency interchange turbulence, which previous experiments have shown responds locally to active feedback, primarily in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. New experiments on the Collisionless Terella Experiment (CTX) use a system of two electrodes with 90° azimuthal separation to study the effects of multi-point current-injection feedback on interchange turbulence. Initial open-loop experiments to excite low-frequency waves at a variety of relative phases and amplitudes indicate a significantly stronger spatial coherence when two electrodes are used rather than one. These driven low-frequency waves also generate harmonics which can persist throughout the plasma. In a closed-loop active feedback configuration, this system may be used to regulate the turbulent dynamics in new ways. Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.

  8. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads.

  9. Thermodynamic studies and maximum power point tracking in thermoelectric generator-thermoelectric cooler combined system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Kaushik, S. C.

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric generator (TEG) operated thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is a highly compatible combination for low-cooling power application. The conventional TEG-TEC combined systems have low operating efficiency and low cooling power because maximum power output from the TEG is not fully utilized. This paper proposes and analyses the combined system with maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) to maximize the cooling power and overall efficiency. This paper also presents the effect of TEG, TEC source temperature and the effect of heat transfer area in the performance of the combined system. The thermodynamic models of the combined system are developed in MATLAB simulink environment with temperature dependent material properties and analysed for variable operating temperatures. It has been found that, in the irreversible thermodynamic model of the combined system with MPPT, when the hot and cold side of TEG and TEC are kept at a temperature difference of 150 K and 10 K respectively, the power output of TEG increases from 20.49 W to 43.92 W, cooling power of TEC increases from 32.66 W to 46.51 W and the overall combined system efficiency increases from 2.606% to 4.375% respectively when compared with the irreversible combined system without MPPT. The characteristics improvements obtained by this practice in the combined system for the above mentioned operating conditions is also true for other range of operating temperatures. It is also been observed that the external irreversibilities decreases the cooling power and the overall system efficiency of the combined system by 36.49% and by 16.9% respectively.

  10. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

  11. On combining Thole's induced point dipole model with fixed charge distributions in molecular mechanics force fields.

    PubMed

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2015-04-15

    The Thole induced point dipole model is combined with three different point charge fitting methods, Merz-Kollman (MK), charges from electrostatic potentials using a grid (CHELPG), and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP), and two multipole algorithms, distributed multipole analysis (DMA) and Gaussian multipole model (GMM), which can be used to describe the electrostatic potential (ESP) around molecules in molecular mechanics force fields. This is done to study how the different methods perform when intramolecular polarizability contributions are self-consistently removed from the fitting done in the force field parametrization. It is demonstrated that the polarizable versions of the partial charge models provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational efficiency in describing the ESP of small organic molecules undergoing conformational changes. For the point charge models, the inclusion of polarizability reduced the the average root mean square error of ESP over the test set by 4-10%. PMID:25753482

  12. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25965957

  13. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007–2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6–0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25965957

  14. Combination brain and systemic injections of AAV provide maximal functional and survival benefits in the Niemann-Pick mouse

    PubMed Central

    Passini, Marco A.; Bu, Jie; Fidler, Jonathan A.; Ziegler, Robin J.; Foley, Joseph W.; Dodge, James C.; Yang, Wendy W.; Clarke, Jennifer; Taksir, Tatyana V.; Griffiths, Denise A.; Zhao, Michael A.; O'Riordan, Catherine R.; Schuchman, Edward H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.; Cheng, Seng H.

    2007-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is caused by the loss of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity, which results in widespread accumulation of undegraded lipids in cells of the viscera and CNS. In this study, we tested the effect of combination brain and systemic injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding human ASM (hASM) in a mouse model of NPD. Animals treated by combination therapy exhibited high levels of hASM in the viscera and brain, which resulted in near-complete correction of storage throughout the body. This global reversal of pathology translated to normal weight gain and superior recovery of motor and cognitive functions compared to animals treated by either brain or systemic injection alone. Furthermore, animals in the combination group did not generate antibodies to hASM, demonstrating the first application of systemic-mediated tolerization to improve the efficacy of brain injections. All of the animals treated by combination therapy survived in good health to an investigator-selected 54 weeks, whereas the median lifespans of the systemic-alone, brain-alone, or untreated ASM knockout groups were 47, 48, and 34 weeks, respectively. These data demonstrate that combination therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for treating NPD and suggest a potential strategy for treating disease indications that cause both visceral and CNS pathologies. PMID:17517638

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  16. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  17. Orchestrating immune check-point blockade for cancer immunotherapy in combinations.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Labiano, Sara; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Melero, Ignacio

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitory receptors on immune system cells respond to membrane-bound and soluble ligands to abort or mitigate the intensity of immune responses by raising thresholds of activation, halting proliferation, favoring apoptosis or inhibiting/deviating effector function differentiation. Such evolutionarily selected inhibitory mechanisms are termed check-points and therefore check-point inhibitors empower any ongoing anti-cancer immune response that might have been too weak or exhausted. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) interfering with CTLA-4-CD80/86, PD-1 - PD-L1, TIM-3-GAL9 and LAG3-MHC-II belong to this category of check-point inhibitors. The anti-CTLA-4 mAb ipilimumab has been approved for metastatic melanoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 mAbs have shown extremely encouraging clinical activity. The potential of combination strategies with these agents has recently been highlighted by clinical observations on CTLA-4+PD-1 combined blockade in melanoma patients. PMID:24485523

  18. Rapid sedation induced by fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Tian, X; Yang, Y-H; Wei, H-Y; Lao, J-Q; Wang, H-P; Tian, Y-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the sedative and analgesic effects of fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for acute leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia) among children, to relieve pain and difficulty during intrathecal injection, improve treatment compliance, increase the success rate of single puncture, and reduce procedure failure, with the aim of developing a painless procedure for children with acute leukemia. Fifty person-times received fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection among the hospitalized children with leukemia. The patients' cooperation with the procedure, response to the medication, dosages of fentanyl and propofol, reaction to the procedures, wake-up time, and changes in oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), respiration, and blood pressure (BP) before, during, and after the procedures were observed. The doctors who performed the procedures assessed the quality of sedation and analgesia. In the treatment group, the patients were quiet during the lumbar puncture and intrathecal injection, showing good sedation and analgesia. HR and respiration decreased slightly. There were no changes in SpO2 and BP. No obvious respiratory depression occurred with proper dosages. Only a few patients showed stertorous respiration, which stopped soon after the procedures. In the control group, the patients were agitated, crying, and not cooperative before and during the procedures, which made the procedures very difficult. During intrathecal injection, pain obviously reduced and the success rate of single lumbar puncture increased. It is safe and effective to apply fentanyl combined with propofol for sedation and analgesia. PMID:25966137

  19. The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Heiko; Schmidt, Albrecht

    In this paper, we show how to use the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus, the pointer is always at the position where the user expects it on the screen. This approach changes the user experience in tasks that include frequent switching between keyboard and mouse input (e.g. working with spreadsheets). In a user study, we compared the touch-sensitive mouse with a traditional mouse and observed speed improvements for pointing tasks on complex backgrounds. For pointing task on plain backgrounds, performances with both devices were similar, but users perceived the gaze-sensitive interaction of the touch-sensitive mouse as being faster and more convenient. Our results show that using a touch-sensitive mouse that positions the pointer on the user’s gaze position reduces the need for mouse movements in pointing tasks enormously.

  20. Microfluidic-based single cell trapping using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Chen, Zongzheng; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Xie, Handi; Qin, Kairong

    2016-03-01

    Single cell trapping in vitro by microfluidic device is an emerging approach for the study of the relationship between single cells and their dynamic biochemical microenvironments. In this paper, a hydrodynamic-based microfluidic device for single cell trapping is designed using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier. The microfluidic device overcomes the weakness of the traditional ones, which have been only based upon either stagnation point flows or physical barriers, and can conveniently load dynamic biochemical signals to the trapped cell. In addition, it can connect with a programmable syringe pump and a microscope to constitute an integrated experimental system. It is experimentally verified that the microfluidic system can trap single cells in vitro even under flow disturbance and conveniently load biochemical signals to the trapped cell. The designed micro-device would provide a simple yet effective experimental platform for further study of the interactions between single cells and their microenvironments.

  1. Microfluidic-based single cell trapping using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Chen, Zongzheng; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Xie, Handi; Qin, Kairong

    2016-06-01

    Single cell trapping in vitro by microfluidic device is an emerging approach for the study of the relationship between single cells and their dynamic biochemical microenvironments. In this paper, a hydrodynamic-based microfluidic device for single cell trapping is designed using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier. The microfluidic device overcomes the weakness of the traditional ones, which have been only based upon either stagnation point flows or physical barriers, and can conveniently load dynamic biochemical signals to the trapped cell. In addition, it can connect with a programmable syringe pump and a microscope to constitute an integrated experimental system. It is experimentally verified that the microfluidic system can trap single cells in vitro even under flow disturbance and conveniently load biochemical signals to the trapped cell. The designed micro-device would provide a simple yet effective experimental platform for further study of the interactions between single cells and their microenvironments.

  2. Combined Influence of Visual Scene and Body Tilt on Arm Pointing Movements: Gravity Matters!

    PubMed Central

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R.; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R.; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., ‘combined’ tilts equal to the sum of ‘single’ tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues. PMID:24925371

  3. Skin friction reduction in supersonic flow by injection through slots, porous sections and combinations of the two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Vanovereem, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of skin friction reduction in a Mach 3.0 air steam with gaseous injection through a tangential slot, a porous wall section, and combinations of the two was conducted. The primary data obtained were wall shear values measured directly with a floating element balance and also inferred from Preston Tube measurements. Detailed profiles at several axial stations, wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs are presented. The data indicate that a slot provides the greatest skin friction reduction in comparison with a reference flat plate experiment. The porous wall section arrangement suffers from an apparent roughness-induced rise in skin friction at low injection rates compared to the flat plate. The combination schemes demonstrated a potential for gain.

  4. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  5. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  6. A pilot study comparing the efficacy of radiofrequency and microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Kato, Kazuo; Majima, Tokifumi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the efficacy of radiofrequency diathermy with that of microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid into the knee of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects] A total of 17 patients with knee OA were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: a radiofrequency diathermy group (RF group, 9 subjects), and a microwave diathermy group (MW group, 8 subjects). [Methods] Subjects received radiofrequency or microwave thermal therapy 3 times at 1-week intervals. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid was administered 10 min before every thermal therapy session. The outcome was evaluated using the Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the Lequesne Index (LI) at baseline, at weeks 1 (1 week after the first thermal therapy) and 3 (1 week after the last thermal therapy). [Results] The JOA scale increased significantly after three sessions of thermal therapy in the RF group, while no significant increase was observed in the MW group. LI decreased significantly after 3 weeks in the RF group. In the MW group, there was no significant difference in LI between the two time points. [Conclusion] This study revealed that symptom relief in patients with knee OA was greater with radiofrequency diathermy than with microwave diathermy with concurrent use of hyaluronic acid injection, presumably due to the different heating characteristics of the two methods. PMID:27065540

  7. Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Buckle, Tessa; Bendle, Gavin; Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato; van de Poel, Henk G.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2011-01-01

    To improve surgical guidance toward prostate draining lymph nodes, we investigate the potential of intraoperative fluorescence imaging and combined pre- and intraoperative multimodality imaging approaches. Transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice with spontaneous prostate tumors are injected intratumorally with: 1. a cocktail of patent blue (Pb) and indocyanine green (ICG); 2. a cocktail of albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl), Pb, and ICG; or 3. a cocktail of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-Vasculosis), Pb, and ICG. The distribution of these imaging agents over the lymph nodes (LNs) are studied at different time points after injection. We find that at 60-min postinjection, ICG significantly improves the detection of the LNs compared to Pb, 53 versus 7%, respectively. Moreover, a cocktail of ICG and 99mTc-NanoColl improves the fluorescent detection rate to 86%, equalling that of the clinically applied 99mTc-NanoColl. A similar overlap is observed in our initial clinical pilot data. Fluorescent detection of the LNs using a ICG with 99mTc-Vasculosis gives similar results as ``free'' ICG (58% 60 min). A 99mTc-NanoColl, Pb, and cocktail ICG enriches the standard 99mTc-NanoColl approach by adding optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes. Furthermore, this approach improves fluorescent-based guidance and enables both accurate surgical planning and intraoperative detection, based on a single injection.

  8. Geometric Calibration of ZIYUAN-3 Three-Line Cameras Combining Ground Control Points and Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinshan; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large biases between the laboratory-calibrated values of the orientation parameters and their in-orbit true values, the initial direct georeferencing accuracy of the Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) three-line camera (TLC) images can only reach the kilometre level. In this paper, a point-based geometric calibration model of the ZY-3 TLCs is firstly established by using the collinearity constraint, and then a line-based geometric calibration model is established by using the coplanarity constraint. With the help of both the point-based and the line-based models, a feasible in-orbit geometric calibration approach for the ZY-3 TLCs combining ground control points (GCPs) and ground control lines (GCLs) is presented. Experimental results show that like GCPs, GCLs can also provide effective ground control information for the geometric calibration of the ZY-3 TLCs. The calibration accuracy of the look angles of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors achieved by using the presented approach reached up to about 1.0''. After the geometric calibration, the direct georeferencing accuracy of the ZY-3 TLC images without ground controls was significantly improved from the kilometre level to better than 11 m in planimetry and 9 m in height. A more satisfactory georeferencing accuracy of better than 3.5 m in planimetry and 3.0 m in height was achieved after the block adjustment with four GCPs.

  9. Multi-point observations of energetic particle injection deep into the inner magnetosphere: Implications for the ring current and radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Larsen, B.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J.; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    For thirty years, the "injection boundary" model of substorm injections has provided a framework for studies of the impulsive transport of energetic electrons and ions into the inner magnetosphere. New, multi-satellite observations of substorm injections show signatures that require revision and rethinking of the classical picture. Recent observations by the LANL-GEO and GOES energetic particle instruments provide unprecedented coverage at geosynchronous orbit while the Van Allen Probes satellites provide simultaneous multi-point measurements inside geosynchronous orbit. With these satellites we can observe injections at three different radial distances and up to ten different local times - simultaneously. These observations reveal a complex and varied set of dynamics that have important implications for the development of the radiation belts and ring current. In this study we look specifically at the radial penetration of energetic particle injections in storms and substorms. Radial alignments of satellites confirm and extend the CRRES/LANL-GEO observations of relatively slow inward propagation of the injection region inside geosynchronous orbit [1]. At the same time, synoptic Van Allen Probes observations show frequent storm-time "injection" of energetic (~50-500 keV) electrons to very low L-shells (L < 3) that have not previously been reported. The radial distribution of electrons and ions injected during storms and substorms have profound implications for the generation of waves, for the availability of a radiation belt "seed population", and for the radial distribution of ring current ions. In this paper we will use multi-point satellite observations to understand the processes that inject energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere, the Earthward propagation of these injections, the conditions that control variation in Earthward extent of energetic particle injections, and how particles can be injected deep inside the plasmasphere and even through the

  10. Combined Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy in Percutaneous Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Larger than 4 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallone, Paolo; Catalano, Orlando Izzo, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    2006-08-15

    Background. Optimal treatment of large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still debated, because percutaneous ablation therapies alone do not always achieve complete necrosis. Objective. To report our experience in the treatment of patients with HCC larger than 4 cm in diameter by combined percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation. Methods. In a 5-year period there were 40 consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria (24 men and 16 women; age range 41-72 years, mean 58 years). These subjects had a single HCC larger than 4 cm. Twelve subjects also had one or two additional nodules smaller than 4 cm (mean 1.2 nodules per patient). Patients were submitted to one to three sessions consisting of ethanol injection at two opposite tumor poles (mean 12 ml) and then of radiofrequency application through one or two electrodes placed at the tumor center (mean treatment duration 30 min). Results. Complete necrosis was obtained in all cases with one to three sessions (mean 1.3 sessions per patient). All patients experienced pain and fever but one only subject had a major complication requiring treatment (abscess development and fistulization). Overall follow-up was 7-69 months. Two patients showed local recurrence and 9 developed new etherotopic HCC nodules. Seven subjects died during follow-up while 33 were free from recurrence 8-69 months after treatment. Conclusion. A combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation is effective in the treatment of large HCC.

  11. Manipulating the electron distribution through a combination of electron injection and MacKenzie’s Maxwell Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on electron heating are performed in a biased hot filament-produced argon plasma. Electrons are confined by multi-dipole magnetic fields on the radial wall of the cylindrical chamber but not the planar end walls. Electron heating is provided by a combination of cold electron injection (Hershowitz N and Leung K N 1975 Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 607) and a MacKenzie Maxwell Demon (Mackenzie K R et al 1971 Appl. Phys. Lett. 18 529). This approach allows the manipulation of the electrons by introducing a depleted tail into the electron energy distribution function or by removing a depleted tail. It is found that the injected electrons mimic and thermalize with the electron species with the closest average energy or temperature. The effect of the injected electrons is optimal when they mimic the secondary electrons emitted from the wall instead of the degraded primary electrons. Both approaches combine to achieve increases in electron temperature Te from 0.67 to 2.8 eV, which was not significantly higher than using each approach alone.

  12. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  13. GPS/GLONASS time offset monitoring based on combined Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, W.; Guo, H.

    2015-06-01

    A new strategy is proposed to monitor GPS/GLONASS time offsets for common navigation users using a combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method based on the orbit and clock products of different time scales. The results of the inter-system GPS/GLONASS time offset, the user time offset and the inter-system device delay difference were obtained using the proposed method. The properties of these results were analyzed in terms of the stability, precision and variation characteristics. Moreover, the practicality of the time offset results in an actual navigation application was tested and demonstrated. The results indicate that the monitoring and prediction of the user time offset, but not the inter-system time offset, has important values for navigation users.

  14. Measurement of aspheric surface combining point diffraction interferometry and annular subaperture stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fen; Jiang, Zhuangde; Zhao, Zixin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Point diffraction interferometry (PDI) combined with annular subaperture stitching is proposed for ultrahigh-accuracy measurements of aspheric surfaces. By adding an axial movement to the test optics in the PDI system, aspheric surfaces with large departures can be measured with high accuracy by stitching the annular measurement data of different axial positions. We examine the principle of PDI-based annular subaperture stitching and the stitching algorithm. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed method. Our method retains the ultra-high accuracy of PDI while extending the vertical dynamic range of the interferometer, enabling nanometer or even subnanometer accuracy measurements of large-departure rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces.

  15. Combined impedance and dielectrophoresis portable device for point-of-care analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral Zamora, B.; Colomer-Farrarons, J.; Mir-Llorente, M.; Homs-Corbera, A.; Miribel-Català, P.; Samitier-Martí, J.

    2011-05-01

    In the 90s, efforts arise in the scientific world to automate and integrate one or several laboratory applications in tinny devices by using microfluidic principles and fabrication technologies used mainly in the microelectronics field. It showed to be a valid method to obtain better reactions efficiency, shorter analysis times, and lower reagents consumption over existing analytical techniques. Traditionally, these fluidic microsystems able to realize laboratory essays are known as Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) devices. The capability to transport cells, bacteria or biomolecules in an aqueous medium has significant potential for these microdevices, also known as micro-Total-Analysis Systems (uTAS) when their application is of analytical nature. In particular, the technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) opened the possibility to manipulate, actuate or transport such biological particles being of great potential in medical diagnostics, environmental control or food processing. This technique consists on applying amplitude and frequency controlled AC signal to a given microsystem in order to manipulate or sort cells. Furthermore, the combination of this technique with electrical impedance measurements, at a single or multiple frequencies, is of great importance to achieve novel reliable diagnostic devices. This is because the sorting and manipulating mechanism can be easily combined with a fully characterizing method able to discriminate cells. The paper is focused in the electronics design of the quadrature DEP generator and the four-electrode impedance measurement modules. These together with the lab-on-a-chip device define a full conception of an envisaged Point-of-Care (POC) device.

  16. Assessment of combination therapy in BALB/c mice injected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Noor A.; Kissoyan, Kohar Annie B.; Fadlallah, Sukayna; Cheaito, Katia; Araj, George F.; Wakim, Rima; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Matar, Ghassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapeutic options for carbapenem resistant infections are limited. Studies suggest that combination therapy may be associated with better outcomes than monotherapies. However, this is still controversial. This study assessed, the efficacy of combination therapy against carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae harboring singly various extended spectrum beta lactamase or carbapenemase encoding genes. Thus, four isolates harboring either blaCTXM-15, blaCTXM-15 and blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, or blaKPC-2 genes were selected for testing. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by broth dilution method. Gene transcript levels on single and combined treatments were done in vitro and in vivo by qRT-PCR. Assessment of treatments was done in BALB/c mice according to a specific protocol. As such, the qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease of transcript levels in all isolates upon using rifampicin or tigecycline, singly or in combination with colistin. However, variable levels were obtained using colistin singly or in combination with meropenem or fosfomycin. In vivo assessment showed that all combinations used were effective against isolates harboring blaCTXM-15, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM-1. Conversely, the most significant combination against the isolate harboring blaKPC-2 gene was colistin with either carbapenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin. As a conclusion, combination therapy selected based on the type of carbapenemase produced, appeared to be non-toxic and might be effective in BALB/c mice. Therefore, the use of a rationally optimized combination therapy might lead to better results than monotherapy, however, clinical trials are needed for human consumption. PMID:26441926

  17. Assessment of combination therapy in BALB/c mice injected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Noor A; Kissoyan, Kohar Annie B; Fadlallah, Sukayna; Cheaito, Katia; Araj, George F; Wakim, Rima; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Matar, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapeutic options for carbapenem resistant infections are limited. Studies suggest that combination therapy may be associated with better outcomes than monotherapies. However, this is still controversial. This study assessed, the efficacy of combination therapy against carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae harboring singly various extended spectrum beta lactamase or carbapenemase encoding genes. Thus, four isolates harboring either bla CTXM-15, bla CTXM-15 and bla OXA-48, bla NDM-1, or bla KPC-2 genes were selected for testing. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by broth dilution method. Gene transcript levels on single and combined treatments were done in vitro and in vivo by qRT-PCR. Assessment of treatments was done in BALB/c mice according to a specific protocol. As such, the qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease of transcript levels in all isolates upon using rifampicin or tigecycline, singly or in combination with colistin. However, variable levels were obtained using colistin singly or in combination with meropenem or fosfomycin. In vivo assessment showed that all combinations used were effective against isolates harboring bla CTXM-15, bla OXA-48, and bla NDM-1. Conversely, the most significant combination against the isolate harboring bla KPC-2 gene was colistin with either carbapenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin. As a conclusion, combination therapy selected based on the type of carbapenemase produced, appeared to be non-toxic and might be effective in BALB/c mice. Therefore, the use of a rationally optimized combination therapy might lead to better results than monotherapy, however, clinical trials are needed for human consumption. PMID:26441926

  18. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mikel; Delgado, Diego; Sánchez, Pello; Muiños-López, Emma; Paiva, Bruno; Granero-Moltó, Froilán; Prósper, Felipe; Pompei, Orlando; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Azofra, Juan; Padilla, Sabino; Fiz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 ± 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 ± 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 ± 8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04 ± 5.36 MSC/μL (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 ± 312.30 to 139.19 ± 123.61  (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32. PMID:27462609

  19. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Pello; Muiños-López, Emma; Prósper, Felipe; Pompei, Orlando; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Padilla, Sabino; Fiz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 ± 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 ± 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 ± 8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04 ± 5.36 MSC/μL (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 ± 312.30 to 139.19 ± 123.61  (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32. PMID:27462609

  20. Fast optical frequency sweeping using voltage controlled oscillator driven single sideband modulation combined with injection locking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Wei, Fang; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-03-23

    An ultrafast optical frequency sweeping technique for narrow linewidth lasers is reported. This technique exploits the large frequency modulation bandwidth of a wideband voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) which works on the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation(CS-SSB). Optical frequency sweeping of a narrow linewidth fiber laser with 3.85 GHz sweeping range and 80 GHz/μs tuning speed is demonstrated, which is an extremely high tuning speed for frequency sweeping of narrow linewidth lasers. In addition, injection locking technique is adopted to improve the sweeper's low optical power output and small side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). PMID:25837048

  1. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  2. Automatic location of facial feature points and synthesis of facial sketches using direct combined model.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ching-Ting; Lien, Jenn-Jier James

    2010-08-01

    Automatically locating multiple feature points (i.e., the shape) in a facial image and then synthesizing the corresponding facial sketch are highly challenging since facial images typically exhibit a wide range of poses, expressions, and scales, and have differing degrees of illumination and/or occlusion. When the facial sketches are to be synthesized in the unique sketching style of a particular artist, the problem becomes even more complex. To resolve these problems, this paper develops an automatic facial sketch synthesis system based on a novel direct combined model (DCM) algorithm. The proposed system executes three cascaded procedures, namely, 1) synthesis of the facial shape from the input texture information (i.e., the facial image); 2) synthesis of the exaggerated facial shape from the synthesized facial shape; and 3) synthesis of a sketch from the original input image and the synthesized exaggerated shape. Previous proposals for reconstructing facial shapes and synthesizing the corresponding facial sketches are heavily reliant on the quality of the texture reconstruction results, which, in turn, are highly sensitive to occlusion and lighting effects in the input image. However, the DCM approach proposed in this paper accurately reconstructs the facial shape and then produces lifelike synthesized facial sketches without the need to recover occluded feature points or to restore the texture information lost as a result of unfavorable lighting conditions. Moreover, the DCM approach is capable of synthesizing facial sketches from input images with a wide variety of facial poses, gaze directions, and facial expressions even when such images are not included within the original training data set. PMID:19933007

  3. Mutual injection-locking of two double-clad fibers for coherent beam combining with corner cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Xu, Lixin; Liu, Yang; Gao, Kun; Cheng, Yong; Ming, Hai

    2009-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate coherent beam combination of two double-clad fiber lasers using mutual injectionlocking in an external cavity coupling structure. The configuration employs a corner cube as a mutual injection component to couple the two lasers. A beam splitter acts as the output coupler and far field intensity has been observed at the lens focus plane. We observe interferential fringes with the contrast ratio of 0.5, and a combination efficiency of 80% is achieved. The total output power exceeds 11 W. We present simulative discussion here on the influence of multitransversal modes of element beam. The multi-mode operation degrades the quality of the output beam of main peak power, fringe contrast ratio, and other parameters. The configuration has the potential to scale to more lasers without much structural modification.

  4. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1–7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%–40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  5. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1-7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%-40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  6. Determining ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products by combining direct injection with micelle collapse on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Yao; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-02-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of analyte focusing by micelle collapse-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (AFMC-MEKC) was combined with direct injection without extraction to determine ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products. The stacking mechanism is based on the transport, release, and accumulation of analytes bound to micelle carriers that are collapsed into the micelle dilution zone. The following optimized conditions were determined: the running buffer was 10mM Tris buffer (pH 9.5) containing 60mM SDS, 7mM γ-CD and 20% ethanol; the SDS concentration was required to be slightly above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value (7.4mM) in the sample matrix, which allowed the micelle dilution zone to form when voltage was applied; and finally, the sample was prepared in 100mM Tris buffer (pH 9.0) containing 7.5mM SDS and 20% (v/v) ethanol to provide sufficient resolution and to improve the sensitivity. Samples were injected at 0.5psi for 40s, and the separation voltage was set at 15kV for first 15min and then increased to 23kV to decrease the analysis time. The detection sensitivity for ultraviolet absorbents was enhanced by approximately 41-fold using AFMC-MEKC compared to conventional MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 98nM for benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-4. The correlation of the regression curve was greater than 0.995. The relative error and relative standard deviation were lower than 9.94% with high precision and accuracy. The recoveries of nine ultraviolet absorbents in a homemade emulsion were between 95.08% and 104.57%. After optimization and validation, this AFMC-MEKC method combined with direct injection is considered to be established and successfully applicable to commercial sunscreen products. PMID:25637009

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, A.; Mahajan, A. D.; Oswal, D. S.; Erram, S. S.; Sheth, D. N.; Balamurugan, S.; Kamat, V.; Enadle, R. P.; Badadare, A.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Walvekar, R. S.; Dhorepatil, S.; Naik, R. C.; Basu, I.; Kshirsagar, S. N.; Keny, J. V.; Sengupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID0–8 hours (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic. PMID:22577544

  8. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... as described in Federal Register Notice (FRN) 76 FR 32994 (June 7, 2011). The NRC is currently... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined...

  9. Research on the multi-criteria combination in automatic recognition of marking points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yan; Dong, Keyan

    2014-11-01

    Objective: In the field of computer vision, the technology for the automatic recognition of coded pattern plays an important basic role in the camera calibration process of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, the binocular image matching process and the three-dimensional reconstruction process. Therefore, in the measurement processing, the successive rate for the automatic recognition of coded pattern must be guaranteed. Method: According to analyzing the geometric information of the coded pattern (the mixed type) and basing on the existing recognition method, a new automatic recognition method is proposed, which is the effective method to solve the multi-points recognition in single image by taking the multi-feature information of the coded pattern as the recognition criteria. Result: Both the new recognition method and the old recognition method are used in identifying the one hundred coded pattern which have been actually collected. The experimental result shows that, not only the new recognition method can achieve accurate identification of coded pattern with the recognition accuracy rate of 100%, but also its processing speed is 2.38 times faster than that in the old recognition method. Conclusion: It is obvious that there are many advantages in the new automatic recognition method, including the high effective recognition, the faster executive speed and independent on the auxiliary decoding process information. The new recognition method of multi-criteria combination can provide a strong guarantee for the realization of every aspect in the work of photogrammetry.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221

  11. Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Methods Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Results Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12–0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02–0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25–0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Conclusion Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection. PMID:26599003

  12. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  13. The promotion of osteochondral repair by combined intra-articular injection of parathyroid hormone-related protein and implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Tao, Jiadong; Hu, Changchang; Chen, Longkun; Zhao, Hongshi; Xu, Guowei; Heng, Boon C; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-08-01

    The repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with scaffolds but is often accompanied with undesirable terminal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been shown to inhibit aberrant differentiation, but administration at inappropriate time points would have adverse effects on chondrogenesis. This study aims to develop an effective tissue engineering strategy by combining PTHrP and collagen-silk scaffold for osteochondral defect repair. The underlying mechanisms of the synergistic effect of combining PTHrP administration with collagen-silk scaffold implantation for rabbit knee joint osteochondral defect repair were investigated. In vitro studies showed that PTHrP treatment significantly reduced Alizarin Red staining and expression of terminal differentiation-related markers. This is achieved in part through blocking activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. For the in vivo repair study, intra-articular injection of PTHrP was carried out at three different time windows (4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 weeks) together with implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold. Defects treated with PTHrP at the 4-6 weeks time window exhibited better regeneration (reconstitution of cartilage and subchondral bone) with minimal terminal differentiation (hypertrophy, ossification and matrix degradation), as well as enhanced chondrogenesis (cell shape, Col2 and GAG accumulation) compared with treatment at other time windows. Furthermore, the timing of PTHrP administration also influenced PTHrP receptor expression, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Our results demonstrated that intra-articular injection of PTHrP at 4-6 weeks post-injury together with collagen-silk scaffold implantation is an effective strategy for inhibiting terminal differentiation and enhancing chondrogenesis, thus improving cartilage repair and regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:23702148

  14. The combined SOHO-STEREO dataset: Simultaneous observations of comets from multiple vantage points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, M.; Begun, J.; Kelley, M.; Battams, K.; A'Hearn, M.

    2014-07-01

    The set of comets observed by Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) provides a large (>2500 comets) and unique database for studying cometary properties. Sungrazing comets are discovered in SOHO or STEREO images on average every few days, with individual comets typically observable for up to a few days. We compiled photometry of more than 20 comets observed simultaneously by the same telescope and filter on both STEREO spacecraft to construct the first dust scattering phase function ever directly computed from simultaneous observations of the same object from two vantage points, thus removing uncertainty caused by changing heliocentric distance between observations. The collective dust scattering phase function spans phase angles from 28--153 deg and agrees reasonably well with the theoretical curve from [1]. However, individual comets deviate from the predicted curve by varying amounts during their apparition. This may suggest that the dust properties of individual comets change on the timescale of hours due to the dramatically different heliocentric distance or that the number of dust grains in the coma is changing due to nucleus activity, rotation, and/or erosion. We have also begun a study of the dust tails of selected well-observed comets in our database. This project utilizes the 3-D aspects of the combined SOHO and STEREO dataset to constrain the dust properties and time of release better than is possible with observations from a single location. We will present ongoing results of these investigations and place them into the wider context of sungrazing comet studies, notably by comparison with SOHO and STEREO observations of comet C/2012 S1 ISON [2], the most extensively observed sungrazing comet in history.

  15. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  16. Effects of sub-Tenon’s capsule triamcinolone acetonide injection combined with microaneurysm photocoagulation on diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Nonomura, Sakiko; Arai, Miyuki; Takatsuna, Yoko; Sato, Eiju; Baba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of sub-Tenon’s capsule triamcinolone acetonide (STTA) injection to that of STTA injection combined with microaneurysm photocoagulation (MAPC; STTA + MAPC) on eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Patients and methods The medical records of 138 eyes of 138 patients with DME treated by either STTA or STTA + MAPC were reviewed. The degree of DME was determined by the optical coherence tomographic features: patients with serous retinal detachment (SRD+; 38 eyes) and patients without SRD (non-SRD; 100 eyes). The central macular thickness (CMT) and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured periodically for 6 months after the treatments. Results The BCVA was significantly improved in the non-SRD group after STTA + MAPC. The CMT was significantly improved in all groups and improved considerably more in the non-SRD group than in the SRD+ group after STTA + MAPC. Conclusion Our findings indicate that MAPC has an additive effect in the non-SRD type. PMID:26675141

  17. Technical and economic comparison of steam-injected versus combined- cycle retrofits on FT-4 engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silaghy, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The study discusses the findings of a conceptual site-specific investigation of the technical and economic aspects of converting the TPM FT4 simple cycle combustion turbines into either the steam injected gas turbine (SIGT) cycle or the combined cycle (CC). It describes the selection of the best retrofit alternatives through the evaluation and data analysis of a large number of sites and units at two utilities. Conceptual designs are performed on the best retrofit alternatives. Flow diagrams and general arrangement drawings are developed for various configurations utilizing drum type and once-through type multipressure heat recovery steam generators. Auxiliary power consumption and capital cost estimates are presented together with an economic evaluation and comparison of the retrofit alternatives. While the investigation is performed utilizing the FT4 combustion turbines, the steps presented in the report may be used as a guide for investigating the conversion of other gas turbines to either cycle at any utility site.

  18. Tunable release of chemotherapeutic and vascular disrupting agents from injectable fiber fragments potentiates combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoming; Xu, Guisen; Wei, Jiaojun; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-06-15

    Cancer progression and metastasis relies much on vasculature networks in tumor microenvironment, and the combination treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and vascular disrupting agents represents apparent clinical benefits. In the current study, fiber fragments with loadings of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) or combretastatin A-4 (CA4) were proposed for tumor inhibition and blood vessel disruption after local administration in tumors. To address challenges in balancing the disruption of tumor vessels and intratumoral uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, this study is focus on release tuning of HCPT and CA4 from the fiber fragment mixtures. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was blended at ratios from 0 to 10% into CA4-loaded fiber fragments (Fc) to modulate CA4 release durations from 0.5 to 24days, and HCPT-loaded fiber fragments (Fh) indicated a sustained release for over 35days. In vitro cytotoxicity tests indicated a sequential inhibition on the endothelial and tumor cell growth, and the growth inhibition of tumor cells was more significant after treatment with mixtures of Fh and Fc containing 2% HPCD (Fc2) than that of other mixtures. In an orthotopic breast tumor model, compared with those of free CA4, or Fc with a fast or slow release of CA4, Fh/Fc mixtures with CA4 release durations from 2 to 12days indicated a lower tumor growth rate, a prolonged animal survival, a lower vessel density in tumors, and a less significant tumor metastasis. In addition, the tumor cell proliferation rate, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression within tumors, and the number of surface metastatic nodules in lungs were significantly lower after treatment with Fh/Fc2 mixtures with a CA4 release duration of 5days than those of other mixtures. It demonstrates the advantages of fiber fragment mixtures in independently modulating the release of multiple drugs and the essential role of release tuning of chemotherapeutic drugs and vascular disrupting agents in improving the therapeutic

  19. Muscarinic receptor antagonist and an alpha-adrenergic agonist are required in combination to provide stable mydriasis following intravitreal injection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojumder, Deb Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Tropicamide (muscarinic receptor antagonist) and phenylephrine (α-adrenergic receptor agonist) are commonly used to dilate the pupils by topical application. These two eye drops are often used, singly or in combination, to dilate the pupil and perform acute light-evoked physiological experiments (electroretinography, for example), before and after intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents, as an assay for their affect on retinal activity. This study wanted to determine whether treatment with one of these drugs, or with both, is most effective in maintaining mydriasis after intravitreal injections. Changes in pupillary dilation before and after intravitreal injection of balanced salt solution (0.5 µl) were recorded. Phenylephrine (α-adrenergic agonist) and tropicamide (muscarinic agonist) when combined, but not singly, produced full and stable pupillary dilation following intravitreal injections. Re-instillation of topical mydriatics after intravitreal injections was required for maximal pupillary dilation. A combination of a muscarinic receptor antagonist and an alpha-adrenergic agonist is required for stable mydriasis following intravitreal injection. PMID:20852745

  20. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  1. Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo Dos Santos

    2009-01-15

    A flow injection (FI) micelle-mediated separation/preconcentration procedure for the determination of lead and cadmium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been proposed. The analytes reacted with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of 0.05% (w/v) Triton X-114 in a solution buffered at pH 8.4. In the preconcentration stage, the micellar solution was continuously injected into a flow system with four mini-columns packed with cotton, glass wool, or TNT compresses for phase separation. The analytes-containing micelles were eluted from the mini-columns by a stream of 3molL(-1) HCl solution and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables affecting the preconcentration of the analytes were studied. For 15mL of preconcentrated solution, the enhancement factors varied between 15.1 and 20.3, the limits of detection were approximately 4.5 and 0.75microgL(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. For a solution containing 100 and 10microgL(-1) of lead and cadmium, respectively, the R.S.D. values varied from 1.6 to 3.2% (n=7). The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. The method was susceptible to matrix effects, but these interferences were minimized by adding barium ions as masking agent in the sample solutions, and recoveries from spiked sample varied in the range of 95.1-107.3%. PMID:18456398

  2. Track infrared point targets based on projection coefficient templates and non-linear correlation combined with Kalman prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiming; Li, Xuelong; Han, Lei; Meng, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, tracking IR point targets is a great challenge task. We propose a tracking framework based on template matching combined with Kalman prediction. Firstly, a novel template matching method for detecting infrared point targets is presented. Different from the classic template matching, the projection coefficients obtained from principal component analysis are used as templates and the non-linear correlation coefficient is used to measure the matching degree. The non-linear correlation can capture the higher-order statistics. So the detection performance is improved greatly. Secondly, a framework of tracking point targets, based on the proposed detection method and Kalman prediction, is developed. Kalman prediction reduces the searching region for the detection method and, in turn, the detection method provides the more precise measurement for Kalman prediction. They bring out the best in each other. Results of experiments show that this framework is competent to track infrared point targets.

  3. Splitting of overlapping nuclei guided by robust combinations of concavity points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissiti, Marina E.; Louka, Eleni; Nikou, Christophoros

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a novel and robust method for the accurate separation of elliptical overlapped nuclei in microscopic images. The method is based on both the information provided by the global boundary of the nuclei cluster and the detection of concavity points along this boundary. The number of the nuclei and the area of each nucleus included in the cluster are estimated automatically by exploiting the different parts of the cluster boundary demarcated by the concavity points. More specifically, based on the set of concavity points detected in the image of the clustered nuclei, all the possible configurations of candidate ellipses that fit to them are estimated by least squares fitting. For each configuration, an index measuring the fitting residual is computed and the configuration providing the minimum error is selected. The method may successfully separate multiple (more than two) clustered nuclei as the fitting residual is a robust indicator of the number of overlapping elliptical structures even if many erroneous concavity points are present due to noise. Moreover, the algorithm has been evaluated on cytological images of conventional Pap smears and compares favorably with state of the art methods both in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  4. Co-Registration Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud Data and Synchronous Digital Image Registration Based on Combined Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zheng, T.; Lai, W. B.; Zou, Z. R.; Zou, B.

    2016-06-01

    Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  5. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  6. Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

    2009-06-10

    The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively

  7. Stepwise injection potentiometric determination of caffeine in saliva using single-drop microextraction combined with solvent exchange.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, I; Medinskaia, K; Nikolaeva, L; Kirsanov, D; Bulatov, A

    2016-04-01

    A flow potentiometric method for determination of caffeine in saliva is suggested. This task is important for non-invasive assessment of drug metabolizing system activity in hepatocytes. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) was successfully combined with single-drop liquid microextraction (SDLME) and solvent exchange procedure. The method is based on the caffeine SDLME with subsequent solvent evaporation and dissolution of analyte in sulfuric acid followed by potentiometric detection using poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate as electroactive component. SDLME was employed for elimination of interfering matrix effects of saliva and caffeine metabolites such as theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine. A linear range of 10(-5)-10(-2)M was established for caffeine with detection limit at 6 × 10(-6)M. The sample throughput was 6 samples h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of caffeine in saliva and the analytical results agreed well with the results obtained with reference HPLC method. PMID:26838455

  8. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  9. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  10. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples. PMID:25523043

  11. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  12. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy combined with anatomical resection of feline injection-site sarcoma: results in 21 cats.

    PubMed

    Bray, J; Polton, G

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the outcome of two combined treatment strategies for the treatment of feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS). Twenty-one cats with primary or recurrent FISS received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin (25 mg m(-2) ), then an anatomical resection of the entire muscle compartment containing the tumour was performed based on the findings of co-axial imaging. Cats then received a further 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was performed by telephone contact with a median follow-up time of 1072 days. Three cats (14%) developed local tumour recurrence at days 264, 664 and 1573 after surgery. A median survival time could not be calculated as over 80% of the study population remained alive or were censored due to death from other causes. When compared to historical controls, the results of this study demonstrate superior rates of tumour-free survival and disease-free interval. PMID:24502401

  13. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  14. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  15. Normal mode solutions for seismo-acoustic propagation resulting from shear and combined wave point sources.

    PubMed

    Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers. PMID:27106346

  16. Finding a Good Feature Detector-Descriptor Combination for the 2d Keypoint-Based Registration of Tls Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, S.; Weinmann, M.

    2015-08-01

    The automatic and accurate registration of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data is a topic of great interest in the domains of city modeling, construction surveying or cultural heritage. While numerous of the most recent approaches focus on keypoint-based point cloud registration relying on forward-projected 2D keypoints detected in panoramic intensity images, little attention has been paid to the selection of appropriate keypoint detector-descriptor combinations. Instead, keypoints are commonly detected and described by applying well-known methods such as the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). In this paper, we present a framework for evaluating the influence of different keypoint detector-descriptor combinations on the results of point cloud registration. For this purpose, we involve five different approaches for extracting local features from the panoramic intensity images and exploit the range information of putative feature correspondences in order to define bearing vectors which, in turn, may be exploited to transfer the task of point cloud registration from the object space to the observation space. With an extensive evaluation of our framework on a standard benchmark TLS dataset, we clearly demonstrate that replacing SIFT and SURF detectors and descriptors by more recent approaches significantly alleviates point cloud registration in terms of accuracy, efficiency and robustness.

  17. A hierarchical model combining distance sampling and time removal to estimate detection probability during avian point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Courtney L.; Royle, J. Andrew; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection during animal surveys biases estimates of abundance and can lead to improper conclusions regarding distribution and population trends. Farnsworth et al. (2005) developed a combined distance-sampling and time-removal model for point-transect surveys that addresses both availability (the probability that an animal is available for detection; e.g., that a bird sings) and perceptibility (the probability that an observer detects an animal, given that it is available for detection). We developed a hierarchical extension of the combined model that provides an integrated analysis framework for a collection of survey points at which both distance from the observer and time of initial detection are recorded. Implemented in a Bayesian framework, this extension facilitates evaluating covariates on abundance and detection probability, incorporating excess zero counts (i.e. zero-inflation), accounting for spatial autocorrelation, and estimating population density. Species-specific characteristics, such as behavioral displays and territorial dispersion, may lead to different patterns of availability and perceptibility, which may, in turn, influence the performance of such hierarchical models. Therefore, we first test our proposed model using simulated data under different scenarios of availability and perceptibility. We then illustrate its performance with empirical point-transect data for a songbird that consistently produces loud, frequent, primarily auditory signals, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); and for 2 ptarmigan species (Lagopus spp.) that produce more intermittent, subtle, and primarily visual cues. Data were collected by multiple observers along point transects across a broad landscape in southwest Alaska, so we evaluated point-level covariates on perceptibility (observer and habitat), availability (date within season and time of day), and abundance (habitat, elevation, and slope), and included a nested point

  18. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  19. Assessment on the Efficacy and Safety of Aidi Injection Combined with Vinorelbine and Cisplatin for Treatment of Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua-Ye; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ting; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shu-Ya; Cao, Jun-Ling; Li, Guo-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of vinorelbine and cisplatin (NP chemotherapy) alone or in combination with Aidi injection for the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Pertinent publications were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CQVIP, and Wanfang databases, up to December 8, 2015. After quality assessment of all included randomized controlled trials evaluating Aidi injection combined with NP chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, a meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.2 and STATA 12.0 for statistical analyses. Results: Twelve studies including 509 and 503 cases in the experimental and control groups, respectively, were finally analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed that when cisplatin dose ranging from 20 to 40 mg/m2, combination of Aidi injection and NP chemotherapy was statistically different compared with NP chemotherapy alone in enhancing efficiency (relative risk [RR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.05–1.47], P = 0.010) and reducing the incidence of Grade II or above nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.30–0.80], P = 0.005). Meanwhile, with cisplatin ranging from 80 to 120 mg/m2, no significant differences in efficiency (RR = 1.11, 95% CI [0.87–1.42], P = 0.390) and Grade II or above nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.88, 95% CI [0.71–1.10], P = 0.260) were obtained. In addition, Aidi injection combined with NP chemotherapy was superior to NP chemotherapy alone in improving the quality of life, alleviating Grade II or above leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Aidi injection combined with NP chemotherapy can enhance efficiency, improve the quality of life, and decrease adverse effects in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:26960377

  20. Short Communication: Comparative Evaluation of Coformulated Injectable Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Jones, Gregg S; Li, Bei; Hattersley, Jillian; Zheng, Jim; Piatak, Michael; Keele, Brandon F; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2016-02-01

    The use of nonhuman primate (NHP) models to study persistent residual virus and viral eradication strategies in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated individuals requires regimens that effectively suppress SIV replication to clinically relevant levels in macaques. We developed and evaluated two novel cART regimens in SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques: (1) a "triple regimen" containing the nucleo(s/t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [TDF, prodrug of tenofovir (TFV, PMPA)] with the integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) (n = 3), or (2) a "quad regimen" containing the same three drugs plus the protease inhibitor darunavir (DRV) (n = 3), with each regimen coformulated for convenient administration by a single daily subcutaneous injection. Plasma drug concentrations were consistent across animals within the triple and quad regimen-treated groups, although DTG levels were lower in the quad regimen animals. Time to achieve plasma viral loads stably <30 viral RNA copies/ml ranged from 12 to 20 weeks of treatment between animals, and viral loads <30 viral RNA copies/ml plasma were maintained through 40 weeks of follow-up on cART. Notably, although we show virologic suppression and development of viral resistance in a separate cohort of SIV-infected animals treated with oral DRV monotherapy, the addition of DRV in the quad regimen did not confer an apparent virologic benefit during early treatment, hence the quad regimen-treated animals were switched to the triple regimen after 4 weeks. This coformulated triple cART regimen can be safely, conveniently, and sustainably administered to durably suppress SIV replication to clinically relevant levels in rhesus macaques. PMID:26150024

  1. Combined uncertainty estimation for the determination of the dissolved iron amount content in seawater using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Floor, Geerke H.; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C.; Ussher, Simon J.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work assesses the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with the measurement of the Fe amount content by flow injection chemiluminescence (FI‐CL) in <0.2 μm filtered and acidified seawater samples. Amounts of loaded standard solutions and samples were determined gravimetrically by differential weighing. Up to 5% variations in the loaded masses were observed during measurements, in contradiction to the usual assumptions made when operating under constant loading time conditions. Hence signal intensities (V) were normalised to the loaded mass and plots of average normalised intensities (in V kg−1) vs. values of the Fe amount content (in nmol kg−1) added to a “low level” iron seawater matrix were used to produce the calibration graphs. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation process developed were validated from the agreement obtained with consensus values for three SAFe and GEOTRACES reference materials (D2, GS, and GD). Relative expanded uncertainties for peak height and peak area based results were estimated to be around 12% and 10% (coverage factor k = 2), respectively. The most important contributory factors were the uncertainty on the sensitivity coefficient (i.e., calibration slope) and the within‐sequence‐stability (i.e., the signal stability over several hours of operation; here 32 h). For GD, using peak height measurements, these factors contributed respectively 69.7% and 21.6% while the short‐term repeatability accounted for only 7.9%. Therefore, an uncertainty estimation based on the intensity repeatability alone, as is often done in FI‐CL studies, is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty of the procedure. PMID:27610049

  2. Cloud point extraction of vanadium in parenteral solutions using a nonionic surfactant (PONPE 5.0) and determination by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wuilloud, Gustavo M; de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Silva, Maria F; Olsina, Roberto A; Martinez, Luis D

    2002-10-16

    A preconcentration and determination methodology for vanadium at trace levels in parenteral solutions was developed. Cloud point extraction was successfully employed for the preconcentration of vanadium prior to inductively coupled plasma atomic optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) coupled to a flow injection (FI) system. The vanadium was extracted as vanadium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol [V-(5-Br-PADAP)] complex, at pH 3.7 mediated by micelles of the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene (5.0) nonylphenol (PONPE 5.0). The extracted surfactant-rich phase (100 mul) was mixed with 100 mul of ethanol and this final volume injected into ICP-OES for the vanadium determination. Under these conditions, the 50 ml sample solution preconcentration allowed raising an enrichment factor of 250-fold; however, it was possible to obtain a theoretical enrichment factor of 500-fold. The lower limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 16 ng l(-1). The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 mug l(-1) V level was 2.3% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for vanadium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 50 mug l(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in parenteral solution samples. PMID:18968790

  3. SO sub 2 and NO sub x control by combined dry injection of hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Helfritch, D.J.; Botz, S.J. ); Beittel, R. ); Bergman, P.D. ); Toole-O'Neil, B. )

    1992-01-01

    The dry sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal form coal-fired boiler flue gas consists of the use of low NO{sub x} burner technology for primary NO{sub x} reduction, injection of hydrated lime at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2} and injection of sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. This concept has been separately tested at the .25 and 50 MM Btu/hour scales, utilizing test systems that duplicate the flue gas time-temperature profile found in full scale boiler systems. The results of these tests, including the effects of the sorbent injection on particle control devices, are described in this paper.

  4. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure. PMID:11575789

  5. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Combined with Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanhong; Zhang, Guijuan; Ma, Yi; Ma, Min; Liao, Rui; Xiang, Jingfang; Chen, Ruixue; Yan, Xianxin; Bie, Fengjie; Huang, Maojie; Liang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of shenqi fuzheng injection (SFI) in the associated chemotherapy of breast cancer. Methods. 1247 subjects were included in this study for meta-analysis with RevMan 5.3. Results. The clinical curative effective rate (OR = 2.03, 95% Cl [1.44, 2.86], P < 0.0001), grades of KPS (OR = 4.11, 95% Cl [2.74, 6.16], P < 0.00001), CD3(+) cells (MD = 7.05, 95% Cl [0.45, 13.64], P = 0.04) and CD4(+) cells (MD = 8.60, 95% Cl [2.67, 14.54], P = 0.004) and CD4/CD8(+) cells (MD = 0.35, 95% Cl [0.14, 0.56], P = 0.001), WBC (OR = 0.30, 95% Cl [0.20, 0.46], P ≤ 0.0001), PLT (OR = 0.36, 95% Cl [0.20, 0.67], P = 0.001), gastrointestinal reaction (OR = 0.21, 95% Cl [0.14, 0.32], P < 0.00001), and ECG (OR = 0.26, 95% Cl [0.13, 0.51], P < 0.0001) in the experimental group were superior to the control group. While there were no differences between two groups in CD8(+) (MD = 0.21, 95% Cl [-2.81, 3.23], P = 0.89), NK(+) (MD = 1.06, 95% Cl [-9.40, 11.53], P = 0.84), RBC (OR = 0.49, 95% Cl [0.14, 1.74], P = 0.27), liver function (OR = 0.59, 95% Cl [0.28, 1.24], P = 0.16), renal function (OR = 0.56, 95% Cl [0.13, 2.45], P = 0.44), and bone marrow suppression (OR = 0.50, 95% Cl [0.25, 1.01], P = 0.05). Conclusion. SFI combined with chemotherapy, to some extent, can improve the effectiveness and the security in the treatment of breast cancer; the mechanism may be related to the elevated immunity. PMID:26495018

  6. Combination of Tls Point Clouds and 3d Data from Kinect v2 Sensor to Complete Indoor Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2016-06-01

    The combination of data coming from multiple sensors is more and more applied for remote sensing issues (multi-sensor imagery) but also in cultural heritage or robotics, since it often results in increased robustness and accuracy of the final data. In this paper, the reconstruction of building elements such as window frames or door jambs scanned thanks to a low cost 3D sensor (Kinect v2) is presented. Their combination within a global point cloud of an indoor scene acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is considered. If the added elements acquired with the Kinect sensor enable to reach a better level of detail of the final model, an adapted acquisition protocol may also provide several benefits as for example time gain. The paper aims at analyzing whether the two measurement techniques can be complementary in this context. The limitations encountered during the acquisition and reconstruction steps are also investigated.

  7. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation. Forty-three patients (26–62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:27336892

  8. Can combined use of low-level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints?

    PubMed Central

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that half-yearly hyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement. PMID:26346122

  9. Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on

  10. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  11. Suppressing the Skin-Core Structure of Injection-Molded Isotactic Polypropylene via Combination of an in situ Microfibrillar Network and an Interfacial Compatibilizer

    SciTech Connect

    X Yi; C Chen; G Zhong; L Xu; J Tang; X Ji; B Hsiao; Z Li

    2011-12-31

    Injection-molded semicrystalline polymer parts generally exhibited a so-called skin-core structure basically as a result of the large gradients of temperature, shear rate, stress, and pressure fields created by the boundary conditions of injection molding. Suppression of the skin-core structure is a long-term practical challenge. In the current work, the skin-core structure of the conventional injection-molded isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was largely relieved by the cooperative effects of an in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer. The in situ poly(ethylene terephthalate) microfibrils of 1-8 {micro}m in diameter and large aspect ratios of above 40 tended to entangle with each other to generate a microfibrillar network in the iPP melt. During injection molding, the iPP molecules experienced confined flow in the microchannels or pores formed by the microfibrillar network, which could redistribute and homogenize the flow field of polymer melt. Addition of the compatibilizer, glycidyl methacrylate-grafted iPP, restrained the molecular orientation but facilitated preservation of oriented molecules due to the chemical bonds at the interface between PET microfibrils and iPP. The cooperative effects of in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer led to almost the same molecular orientation across the whole thickness of the injection-molded parts. Additionally, the content of {beta} crystals in different layers of injection-molded iPP parts depended on the combined effects of the molecular orientation, the amount of oriented crystals, and the crystallization time between 105 and 140 C. The presence of the interfacial compatibilizer facilitated formation of the {beta} crystals because of preservation of the oriented molecules.

  12. Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco by Chemometric Optimization and Cation-Selective Exhaustive Injection in Combination with Sweeping-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Ko, Po-Yun; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine is a potent chemical that excites the central nervous system and refreshes people. It is also physically addictive and causes dependence. To reduce the harm of tobacco products for smokers, a law was introduced that requires tobacco product containers to be marked with the amount of nicotine as well as tar. In this paper, an online stacking capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with cation-selective exhaustive injection sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping-MEKC) is proposed for the optimized analysis of nicotine in tobacco. A higher conductivity buffer (160 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3)) zone was injected into the capillary, allowing for the analytes to be electrokinetically injected at a voltage of 15 kV for 15 min. Using 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 25% methanol in the sweeping buffer, nicotine was detected with high sensitivity. Thus, optimized conditions adapted from a chemometric approach provided a 6000-fold increase in the nicotine detection sensitivity using the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method in comparison to normal CZE. The limits of detection were 0.5 nM for nicotine. The stacking method in combination with direct injection which matrix components would not interfere with assay performance was successfully applied to the detection of nicotine in tobacco samples. PMID:26101695

  13. Individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate and glucose on somatic characteristics, energy status, and posthatch performance of broiler embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhu, X D; Wang, X F; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2016-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate ( CMH: ) and glucose on the somatic characteristics and energy status of broiler embryos and hatchlings and the growth performance of chicks during the first wk posthatch. In trial 1, 550 17.5-day-old living, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, including 1) a noninjected control, 2) a 0.4 mL diluent-injected control, or 0.4 mL diluents containing 3) 6 mg CMH, 4) 25 mg glucose, or 5) a combination of 6 mg CMH and 25 mg glucose (identified as CMH+G: ). In trial 2, after hatch, 48 hatchlings with individual body weight ( BW: ) close to the average BW of their incubation group were randomly selected and placed in 6 replicates of 8 birds each to evaluate their growth performance during the first wk posthatch. Compared with the noninjected and the 0.4-mL diluent-injected control groups, individual injection of CMH or glucose did not affect the hatching time, hatchability, somatic characteristics, or concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and pectoralis major ( PM: ) muscle, although injection of CMH increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of creatine ( CR: ) and phosphocreatine ( PCR: ) in the PM muscle on d 19 of incubation (E19.5). However, the CMH+G treatment increased (P < 0.05) BW relative to set egg weight ( SEW: ) on E19.5, as well as residual yolk sac weight on the day of hatch. Moreover, the CMH+G treatment also increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and concentrations of Cr and PCr in the PM muscle on E19.5. Chicks in the CMH+G group also exhibited higher BW gain during the first wk than controls (P < 0.05). These results indicate that combined injection of CMH and glucose during the last stage of incubation have a synergistic effect on improvement of the energy status of embryos and hatchlings, which is useful for enhancing embryo development, and subsequently improving

  14. Fetal Gene Therapy for Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency by Intrahepatic Plasmid DNA-Micro-Bubble Injection Combined with Hepatic Ultrasound Insonation.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yuan, Wenji; Kuno, Shuichi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of hepatic transfection of plasmid DNA using micro-bubbles and ultrasound insonation for fetal correction of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in mice. Twenty-three sparse-fur heterozygous pregnant mice (day 16 of gestation) were divided into three groups: injection of plasmid-DNA micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with ultrasound insonation (Tr, n = 11); control group 1 (C1), injection of plasmid-DNA micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with no insonation (n = 5); and control group 2 (C2), injection of saline-micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with ultrasound insonation (n = 7). Levels of blood ammonia and urinary orotic acid were significantly lower in the Tr group than in the C1 and C2 groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas OTC activity was not different between groups. Therefore, ultrasound insonation with micro-bubbles enhanced plasmid DNA transfection into fetal mouse liver, leading to one of the therapeutic methods in ammonia metabolism. This might provide more time for OTC-deficient infants until liver transplantation. PMID:26995155

  15. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  16. Differentiation of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus using Flow- injection Mass spectrometric (FIMS) Metabolic Fingerprinting Method Combined with Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chen, Pei

    2015-01-01

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric metabolic fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics was used to differentiate Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from its counterfeit Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus. Flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints of 9 Aurantii Fructus Immaturus samples and 12 Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus samples were acquired and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The authentic herbs were differentiated from their counterfeits easily. Eight characteristic components which were responsible for the difference between the samples were tentatively identified. Furthermore, three out of the eight components, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, were quantified. The results are useful to help identify the authenticity of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. PMID:25622204

  17. MoO3 as combined hole injection layer and tapered spacer in combinatorial multicolor microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Xu, Chun; Biswas, Rana; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2011-09-01

    Multicolor microcavity ({mu}C) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) arrays were fabricated simply by controlling the hole injection and spacer MoO{sub 3} layer thickness. The normal emission was tunable from {approx}490 to 640 nm and can be further expanded. A compact, integrated spectrometer with two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of {mu}C OLEDs was realized. The MoO{sub 3} yields more efficient and stable devices, revealing a new breakdown mechanism. The pixel current density reaches {approx}4 A/cm{sup 2} and a maximal normal brightness {approx}140 000 Cd/m{sup 2}, which improves photoluminescence-based sensing and absorption measurements.

  18. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  19. Intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2014-07-01

    We present a method of intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma. During surgery, before dye infusion into the feeding portal vein, the targeted portal vein branch was directly punctured, and a microbubble contrast agent was administered under sonographic guidance. Simultaneous enhancement of the resected hepatic parenchyma with a microbubble contrast agent and blue dye improved estimation of the segmental border in the cutting plane and the tumor resection margin during liver surgery. PMID:24958416

  20. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven E.; Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  1. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Removal of Residual Elements in The Steel Ladle by a Combination of Top Slag and Deep Injection Practice

    SciTech Connect

    S. Street; K.S. Coley; G.A. Iron

    2001-08-31

    The objective of this work was to determine if tin could be removed from liquid steel by a combination of deep injection of calcium and a reducing top-slag practice. The work was carried out in three stages: injection of Ca wire into 35 Kg heats in an induction furnace under laboratory condition; a fundamental study of the solubility of Sn in the slag as a function of oxygen potential, temperature and slag composition; and, two full-scale plant trials. During the first stage, it was found that 7 to 50% of the Sn was removed from initial Sn contents of 0.1%, using 8 to 16 Kg of calcium per tonne of steel. The Sn solubility study suggested that low oxygen potential, high basicity of the slag and lower temperature would aid Sn removal by deep injection of Ca in the bath. However, two full-scale trials at the LMF station in Dofasco's plant showed virtually no Sn removal, mainly because of very low Ca consumption rates used (0.5 to 1.1 Kg/tonne vs. 8 to 16 Kg/tonne used during the induction furnace study in the laboratory). Based on the current price of Ca, addition of 8 to 16 Kg/tonne of steel to remove Sn is too cost prohibitive, and therefore, it is not worthwhile to pursue this process further, even though it may be technically feasible.

  2. Constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection in combination with in-capillary derivatization for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Zaifang; Zhang, Huige; Zhou, Ximin; Chen, Xingguo

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a novel method combining constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection (PA-HC-FASI) with in-capillary derivatization was developed for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis. PA-HC-FASI uses an appropriate positive pressure to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow in the capillary column during electrokinetic injection, while taking advantage of the field amplification in the sample matrix and the water of the "head column". Accordingly, the analytes were stacked at the stationary boundary between water and background electrolyte. After 600s PA-HC-FASI, 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as derivatization reagent was injected, followed by an electrokinetic step (5kV, 45s) to enhance the mixing efficiency of analytes and reagent plugs. Standing a specified time of 10min for derivatization reaction under 35 degrees C, then the capillary temperature was cooled to 25 degrees C and the derivatives were immediately separated and determined under 25 degrees C. By investigating the variables of the presented approach in detail, on-line preconcentration, derivatization and separation could be automatically operated in one run and required no modification of current CE commercial instrument. Moreover, the sensitivity enhancement factor of 520 and 800 together with the detection limits of 16.32 and 6.34pg/mL was achieved for model compounds: glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, demonstrating the high detection sensitivity of the presented method. PMID:19342058

  3. Treatment of cystic ovarian disease in dairy cattle. Comparative observation of the effects of an intramuscular injection of corticosteroids and an intravenous injection of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Nakao, T; Ono, H

    1977-01-01

    Of 67 cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD), 34 were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg of betamethasone of 10 mg of dexamethasone (CC) and 33 intravenously with a combination of 3,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin and 125 mg of progesterone (HCG -P). Pregnancy rates and intervals between treatment and conception were 32.4% and 32.1 +/- 30.5 days, respectively, in the CC-treated cows and 30.3% and 51.6 +/- 29.5 days in the HCG -P-treated ones. Cows which had not responded to gonadotropin treatment showed a considerably higher pregnancy rate when treated with CC and a lower pregnancy rate when administered with HCG -P than those which had received no treatment before. There was a trend that the earlier a cow was treated, the more readily she recovered. CC injection gave a satisfactory result even when performed long after calving. The estrous behaviour seemed to be related with prognosis in cows with COD. In both CC-treated and HCG -P-treated cows, the pregnancy rate was the highest in cows showing anestrus and the lowest in those exhibiting irregular estrus. PMID:64331

  4. Set points, settling points and some alternative models: theoretical options to understand how genes and environments combine to regulate body adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.; Levitsky, David A.; Allison, David B.; Bray, Molly S.; de Castro, John M.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Clapham, John C.; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Gruer, Laurence; Haw, Sally; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hetherington, Marion M.; Higgs, Susanne; Jebb, Susan A.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luckman, Simon; Luke, Amy; Mohammed-Ali, Vidya; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Pereira, Mark; Perusse, Louis; Robinson, Tom N.; Rolls, Barbara; Symonds, Michael E.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2011-01-01

    The close correspondence between energy intake and expenditure over prolonged time periods, coupled with an apparent protection of the level of body adiposity in the face of perturbations of energy balance, has led to the idea that body fatness is regulated via mechanisms that control intake and energy expenditure. Two models have dominated the discussion of how this regulation might take place. The set point model is rooted in physiology, genetics and molecular biology, and suggests that there is an active feedback mechanism linking adipose tissue (stored energy) to intake and expenditure via a set point, presumably encoded in the brain. This model is consistent with many of the biological aspects of energy balance, but struggles to explain the many significant environmental and social influences on obesity, food intake and physical activity. More importantly, the set point model does not effectively explain the ‘obesity epidemic’ – the large increase in body weight and adiposity of a large proportion of individuals in many countries since the 1980s. An alternative model, called the settling point model, is based on the idea that there is passive feedback between the size of the body stores and aspects of expenditure. This model accommodates many of the social and environmental characteristics of energy balance, but struggles to explain some of the biological and genetic aspects. The shortcomings of these two models reflect their failure to address the gene-by-environment interactions that dominate the regulation of body weight. We discuss two additional models – the general intake model and the dual intervention point model – that address this issue and might offer better ways to understand how body fatness is controlled. PMID:22065844

  5. The use of injectable alphaxalone as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea.

    PubMed

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Posner, Lysa P; Stoskopf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of the injectable anesthetic, alphaxalone, as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea. Between two and four animals were evaluated for each anesthetic protocol, and two unanesthetized animals were evaluated for comparative purposes. Anesthetic duration, depth, and quality were assessed by scoring responses to tactile and trichobothria stimulation, muscle tone, purposeful movement, righting response, and heart rate throughout each anesthetic event. Alphaxalone administered into the dorsal opisthosoma in the location of the heart at 200 mg/kg produced moderate anesthetic effect with a median duration of 28 min (n = 3; range 25-50). A combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of ketamine induced a deep anesthetic state with a median anesthetic duration of 27 min (n = 4; range 16-42). The combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of xylazine produced deep anesthesia with a median duration of 70 min (n = 4; range 37-207). Morphine administered at 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection with 200 mg/kg alphaxalone had anesthetic durations of 9 and 30 min (n = 2). Heartbeats could not be detected for periods of 7-27 min following anesthetic induction for the majority of animals receiving the alphaxalone/ketamine and alphaxalone/xylazine anesthetic combinations. No mortality was associated with any of the anesthetic protocols used; however, ambient temperature and ecdysis were identified as important factors that may alter response to anesthetics in these animals. PMID:25632665

  6. Combining Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Local Injection of {alpha}-Galactosylceramide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Inhibits Lung Metastases in an In Vivo Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Yu; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Seino, Ken-Ichiro; Nakawatari, Miyako; Wada, Haruka; Kamijuku, Hajime; Nakamura, Etsuko; Nakano, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Our previous report indicated that carbon ion beam irradiation upregulated membrane-associated immunogenic molecules, underlining the potential clinical application of radioimmunotherapy. The antimetastatic efficacy of local combination therapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and immunotherapy was examined by use of an in vivo murine model. Methods and Materials: Tumors of mouse squamous cell carcinoma (NR-S1) cells inoculated in the legs of C3H/HeSlc mice were locally irradiated with a single 6-Gy dose of carbon ions (290 MeV/nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak). Thirty-six hours after irradiation, {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were injected into the leg tumor. We investigated the effects on distant lung metastases by counting the numbers of lung tumor colonies, making pathologic observations, and assessing immunohistochemistry. Results: The mice with no treatment (control) presented with 168 {+-} 53.8 metastatic nodules in the lungs, whereas the mice that received the combination therapy of carbon ion irradiation and DCs presented with 2.6 {+-} 1.9 (P = 0.009) at 2 weeks after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that intracellular adhesion molecule 1, which activates DCs, increased from 6 h to 36 h after irradiation in the local tumors of the carbon ion-irradiated group. The expression of S100A8 in lung tissue, a marker of the lung pre-metastatic phase, was decreased only in the group with a combination of carbon ions and DCs. Conclusions: The combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with the injection of {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed DCs into the primary tumor effectively inhibited distant lung metastases.

  7. The clinical effects of dendritic cell vaccines combined with cytokine-induced killer cells intraperitoneal injected on patients with malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yue-Qin; Cai, Kai; Hu, Jian-Hua; Jiang, Long-Wei; Gao, Yan-Rong; Zhao, Hua; Jia, Shao-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) is a pathological condition due to a variety of primary abdominal and extra-abdominal neoplasms. It is a primary cause of morbidity and presents many difficulties in evaluation and treatment. In this study we used dendritic cell vaccines combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells intraperitoneal injected in patients with MA, and evaluated the safety and efficacy of this treatment. The results showed that the percentage of CD3+ CD56+ CIK cells after treatment increased significantly while the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells decreased (P < 0.05). The clinical response rate (RR) was 40.9% and disease control rate (DCR) was 77.3%. We then studied and identified the mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of the vaccines by analyzing a series of cytokines that are commonly involved in tumor progression and ascitic development including granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TGF-α), tumor necrosis factor-β (TGF-β), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). These data demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection with DC vaccines combined with CIK cells in patients with malignant peritoneal effusion is safe and feasible. This therapy modality can achieve a certain clinical benefit even in patients resistant to conventional treatments. PMID:25550942

  8. Randomized controlled trial between surgery and aspiration combined with methylprednisolone acetate injection plus wrist immobilization in the treatment of dorsal carpal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2004-12-01

    Dorsal carpal ganglion is one of the most common benign tumors of the hand. Many treatment modalities had been proposed and yielded the same success rate. In the present study, the authors conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the success of treatment between surgery and aspiration combined with methylprednisolone acetate injection plus wrist immobilization. There were 28 patients enrolled and randomized into two treatment groups. Only 24 patients were available for the final follow up at 6 months. According to the present study, dorsal carpal ganglion was more common in females (83.3%) at an average age of 30 years. Pain was the most common presenting symptom (58.3%). The success by excision was 81.8% and by aspiration combined with methylprednisolone acetate injection plus wrist immobilization was 38.46%. The p-value was 0.047 by Fisher exact test. The present study has clearly shown that surgical excision gave a better success rate in the treatment of dorsal carpal ganglion. PMID:15822550

  9. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point-to-catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, J. R.; Sebok, E.; Duque, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Engesgaard, P. K.

    2015-04-01

    Detecting, quantifying and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the groundwater-surface water interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point-to-catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point-scale, groundwater fluxes to the stream were quantified based on vertical streambed temperature profiles (VTPs). At the reach scale (0.15-2 km), the spatial distribution of zones of focused groundwater discharge was investigated by the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Groundwater discharge to the stream was quantified using differential gauging with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). At the catchment scale (26-114 km2), runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on electrical conductivity (EC) and stable isotopes 2H/1H. Clear differences in runoff sources between catchments were detected, ranging from approximately 65% event water for the most responsive sub-catchment to less than 10% event water for the least responsive sub-catchment. This was supported by the groundwater head gradients, where the location of weaker gradients correlated with a stronger response to precipitation events. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during precipitation events. There were also clear spatial patterns of focused groundwater discharge detected by the DTS and ADCP measurements at the reach scale indicating high spatial variability

  10. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point to catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, J. B.; Sebok, E.; Duque, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Engesgaard, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Detecting, quantifying, and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the surface water-groundwater interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point to catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point scale groundwater fluxes to the stream were quantified based on Vertical streambed Temperature Profiles (VTP). At the reach scale (0.15-2 km) the spatial distribution of zones of focused groundwater discharge was investigated by the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). Groundwater discharge to the stream was quantified using differential gauging with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). At the catchment scale (26-114 km2) runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) and stable isotopes 2H / 1H. Clear differences in runoff sources between catchments were detected, ranging from approximately 65% event water for the most responsive sub-catchment and less than 10% event water for the least responsive sub-catchment. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments, indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during events. There were also clear spatial patterns of focused groundwater discharge detected by the DTS and ADCP measurements at the reach scale suggesting high spatial variability, where a significant part of groundwater discharge was concentrated in few zones indicating the possibility of concentrated nutrient or pollutant transport-zones from

  11. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates. PMID:25672777

  12. Determination of metformin in rat plasma by HILIC-MS/MS combined with Tecan automation and direct injection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Futian; Zhao, Harry; Lin, Zhongping John; Huang, Qingtao Mike; Weng, Naidong

    2012-10-01

    Metformin is a well-known oral antihyperglycemic drug used in treatment of type II diabetes. Analysis of metformin in biological fluids is a challenge owing to its high polarity and small molecular size, which lead to poor retention of metformin on reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns. A high-throughput method was developed and validated for the determination of metformin in rat plasma in support of preclinical toxicology studies, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) and Tecan automated sample preparation. Extracted samples were directly injected onto the unbounded silica column with an aqueous-organic mobile phase. This HILIC-MS/MS method was validated for accuracy, precision, sensitivity, stability, matrix effect, recovery and calibration range. Acceptable intra-run and inter-run assay precision (coefficient of variation ≤ 3.9%) and accuracy (99.0-101.8%) were achieved over a linear range of 50-50,000 ng/mL. Metformin is stable in rat plasma for at least 6 h at room temperature, 147 days at -70°C and through three freeze (-70°C) and thaw cycles. Metformin is also stable in rat whole blood for at least 2 h at room temperature and in an ice-water bath. The validated method was successfully used in support of several preclinical studies where metformin is dosed together with an investigational drug substance. The ruggedness of the validated method was demonstrated by the incurred sample reproducibility test. PMID:22213213

  13. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by full-capillary sample injection combined with a sweeping CE stacking method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2013-02-01

    This study describes an on-line stacking CE approach by sweeping with whole capillary sample filling for analyzing five anabolic androgenic steroids in urine samples. The five anabolic steroids for detection were androstenedione, testosterone, epitestosterone, boldenone, and clostebol. Anabolic androgenic steroids are abused in sport doping because they can promote muscle growth. Therefore, a sensitive detection method is imperatively required for monitoring the urine samples of athletes. In this research, an interesting and reliable stacking capillary electrophoresis method was established for analysis of anabolic steroids in urine. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-hexane, the supernatant was dried and reconstituted with 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.00) and loaded into the capillary by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 99.9 s). The stacking and separation were simultaneously accomplished at -20 kV in phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 5.0) containing 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 40 % methanol. During the method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.990) over a range of 50-1,000 ng/mL for the five analytes. In the evaluation of precision and accuracy for this method, the absolute values of the RSD and the RE in the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analyses were all less than 6.6 %. The limit of detection for the five analytes was 30 ng/mL (S/N=5, sampling 99.9 s at 10 psi). Compared with simple MECK, this stacking method possessed a 108- to 175-fold increase in sensitivity. This simple and sensitive stacking method could be used as a powerful tool for monitoring the illegal use of doping. PMID:23263519

  14. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table. PMID:21030134

  15. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  16. Effect of Danhong Injection Combined with Naoxintong Tablets on Prognosis and Inflammatory Factor Expression in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lv*, Yun; Pan, Yaping; Gao*, Yan; Lu, Jingqian; Li, Yi; Bai, Jie; Zhai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Danhong is a Chinese medical component that has been broadly used to treat various cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to investigate the effect of Danhong injection combined with Naoxintong tablets on the short-term prognosis and expression of inflammatory factor-soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 100 ACS patients with PCI were randomly divided equally into treatment and control groups. The control group was treated with conventional secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Based on secondary prevention, Danhong injection combined with Naoxintong tablets was administered in the treatment group. The incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac functions, including ejection fraction (EF) and six-minute walk test distance, during hospital discharge and at the third postoperative month were observed. The serum sCD40 levels at different times were also noted. Results There were 2 patients in the treatment group and 7 in the control group that were lost during follow-up, so the collected data were from only 48 patients in the treatment and 43 in the control group. During hospital discharge and at the third postoperative month, no significant difference in death, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris and readmission were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Upon hospital discharge, EF, six-minute walk test distance and serum sCD40L level in the two groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). At the third postoperative month, EF and six-minute walk test distance in treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05), and the serum sCD40L level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01). In addition, serum sCD40L levels in the two groups at the third postoperative month were significantly lower than those during hospital

  17. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n = 10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  18. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n=10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater. PMID:22209249

  19. Successful emergency combined therapy with partial splenic arterial embolization and endoscopic injection therapy against a bleeding duodenal varix in a child.

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Hironori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugimori, Satoshi; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Shino; Nakaya, Masaharu; Cho, Yuki; Matsui, Katsutoshi; Kasuga, Saki; Sakae, Yukari; Yamato, Kazumi; Nishida, Norifumi; Tokimasa, Sadao; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus guidelines for treating duodenal variceal bleeding, which is a rare and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Here we report an exceedingly unusual case in a 9-year-old boy who had developed left-sided portal hypertension after surgical treatment for pancreatoblastoma followed by a duodenal variceal bleeding with massive melena, severe anemia (hemoglobin 4.5 g/dL) and hypovolemic shock. Emergency partial splenic arterial embolization (PSE) provided a reduction of variceal bleeding and improved blood pressure. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was subsequently performed and stopped the duodenal variceal bleeding without the complication of portal vein thrombosis caused by injected sclerosant under hepatopetal flow. Our case demonstrates that emergency combined therapy with PSE and EIS can be considered as the therapeutic option for the management of left-sided portal hypertension-induced ectopic variceal bleedings in order to avoid the complication of portal embolization by EIS and provide effective hematostasis. PMID:25851961

  20. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously. PMID:18218561

  1. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient’s walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport®) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  2. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Sibel; Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient's walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport(®)) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  3. Analysis of triazolopyrimidine herbicides in soils using field-enhanced sample injection-coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis combined with solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Borges, Javier; García-Montelongo, Francisco J; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2005-12-30

    In this work, a combined methodology using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE), on-line field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis with UV detection (CE-UV) is developed for the trace analysis of five triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide pesticides (i.e., flumetsulam, florasulam, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam and metosulam). An adequate background electrolyte (BGE) was obtained for the separation of these pesticides using hexadimethrine bromide (HDB) as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier. This BGE consisted of 0.00042% HDB, 11 mM formic acid, 16 mM ammonium carbonate and 2.5 mM alpha-CD solution at pH 7.6. The use of this running buffer together with the FESI preconcentration method provided limits of detection (LODs) in the low microg/L range (i.e., between 13.0 and 31.5 microg/L). The optimized FESI-CE-UV method was combined with off-line SPE using C(18) cartridges and applied to the determination of the selected group of pesticides in soil samples. Recovery percentages ranged between 50 and 84% in these samples with LODs between 18 and 34 microg/kg. This work shows the great possibilities of the combined use of SPE-FESI-CE-UV to improve CE sensitivity allowing the achievement of LODs similar to other analytical techniques as GC or HPLC. PMID:16212970

  4. [Systematic review and Meta-analysis of Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Hao, Teng-teng; Xie, Yan-ming; Liao, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    The paper is to systematically evaluate the effect and safety of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy (experiment group) and chemotherapy alone group ( control group) were electronically retrieved from Medline, EMbase, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data base. All trials were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention and then Meta-analysis was performed withRevMan5. 2 Software. A total of 43 RCTs (3433 patients) were included after screening and selecting. Results of Meta-analysis showed that: Objective remission rate (ORR): ORR of experimental group was about 20% higher than that of control group [RR = 1.23, 95% CI (1.11,1.35), P < 0.0001]. Disease control rate (DCR):DCR of SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy was 11% higher than that of first-line chemotherapy alone [RR = 1.11, 95% CI (1.07, 1.16), P < 0.000 01]. Life quality evaluated by Kosovan performance status (KPS) showed that: life quality improvement rate of experimental group was about twice of that in control group [RR = 2.02, 95% CI (1.81, 2.26), P < 0.000 01]. Toxic and side reaction analysis showed that: the incidence of side reactions in experimental group was about 50% lower than that in control group [RR = 0.59, 95% CI (0.53, 0.66), P < 0.000 01]. Immune function test showed that: the function of experimental group was 3.2 (standard deviations) times greater than that of control group [MD = 3.23, 95% CI (2.86, 3.60), P < 0.000 01]. We can see that SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC can increase objective efficacy, improve life quality, decrease toxic and side reactionsinduced by chemotherapy, and improve the immune functions. As most of the included studies in this systematic evaluation had poor quality

  5. Dressings Combined with Injection of Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. Methods This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. Findings ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (−7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −0.23% (−13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −6.21%(−18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was −2.22% (−22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (−15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (−12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. Conclusion It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i

  6. The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Compound Kushen Injection Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao; Li, Rui-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Huang, Yin-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yan; Wang, Ji; Su, Hai-Bin; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Liu, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Cong-En; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese patent medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. CKI, combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), is believed to increase the therapeutic efficacy of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report an updated and extended meta-analysis with detailed outcomes of both the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CKI combined with TACE therapy. Materials and methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang, the VIP medicine information system (VMIS) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were examined for relevant articles before November 13, 2015. An odds ratio (OR) was used to estimate tumor response (TR), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) improvement, Child-Pugh (CP) improvement, survival rate (SR) and AEs. A publication bias and a subgroup analysis were also assessed. Results: Eighteen studies, with a total of 1,338 HCC patients who met the criteria for the meta-analysis, were included. TR, KPS improvement and CP improvement were significantly enhanced for the combination therapy compared to TACE alone (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.46, 2.33], P < 0.00001; OR = 2.37, 95% CI: [1.76, 3.18], P < 0.00001; OR = 1.81, 95% CI: [1.08, 3.03], P = 0.02, respectively). The combination therapy was associated with an improvement in 1-year and 2-year SRs but not an improved 3-year SR (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: [1.59, 3.62], P < 0.0001; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [1.24, 5.00], P = 0.01; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [0.94, 6.61], P = 0.07, respectively). A safety analysis indicated that AEs (including nausea/vomiting, fever, hepatalgia, increased transaminase, increased bilirubin and leukopenia) were reduced for the combination treatment compared to TACE alone. Conclusion: The combination treatment of TACE and CKI was associated with improved TR, KPS and CP improvement and improved

  7. A Jiles-Atherton and fixed-point combined technique for time periodic magnetic field problems with hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chiampi, M.; Repetto, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1995-11-01

    The hysteresis phenomenon can significantly affect the behavior of magnetic cores in electrical machines and devices. This paper presents a finite element solution of periodic steady state magnetic field problems in soft materials with scalar hysteresis. The Jiles-Atherton model is employed for the generation of symmetric B-H loops and it is coupled with the Fixed Point Technique for handling magnetic nonlinearities. The proposed procedure is applied to a hysteretic model problem whose analytical solution is available. The results show that the Fixed Point Technique can efficiently deal with non-single valued material characteristics under periodic operating conditions.

  8. Injecting drug use via femoral vein puncture: preliminary findings of a point-of-care ultrasound service for opioid-dependent groin injectors in treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the UK, injecting in the femoral vein (FV), often called 'groin injecting', is a serious cause of risk and harm. This study aimed to use ultrasound scanning as a means to engage groin injectors (GIs), examine their femoral injecting sites and assess their venous health, with the intention of developing improved responses. Methods Between September 2006 and March 2009, GIs attending a network of community drug treatment centres in South East England were invited to attend an ultrasound 'health-check' clinic. This paper provides a narrative account of the scanning procedure and operation of the service, with descriptive statistical analysis of GIs who attended. The analysis uses a structured, specially-developed clinical data set that incorporates a categorisation for the severity of FV damage. Case studies using ultrasound images and a link to a video are provided to illustrate the range of presentations encountered and the categorisations used for severity. Results A total of 160 groin scans (76 bilateral and 8 unilateral) were performed in 84 GIs. The majority were men (69.0%) and the mean age of the sample was 36.8 years. The mean duration of drug use and injecting drug use was 19.7 years and 13.8 years, respectively. FV damage at the injecting site in the right groin was graded as minimal in 20 patients (25%), moderate in 27 (33.8%), severe in 16 (20.0%) and very-severe in 17 (21.3%). Corresponding figures for left FV were 24 (30.0%), 22 (27.5%), 18 (22.5%) and 16 (20.0%). Wide variation was observed in the time to the development of these grades of FV damage. Conclusions Modern, portable ultrasound scanners make it possible to examine the venous health of GIs in community treatment settings. Ultrasound scanning identified extensive FV damage, much hitherto-unrecognised in this population. These findings should further alert clinicians, policy-makers and patients to the urgent need for effective harm reduction responses to GI behaviour. Images

  9. Combined Treatment of Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with a Multipronged Needle: Experimental and Clinical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Rinako; Seki, Toshihito Umehara, Hideto; Ikeda, Kozo; Inokuchi, Ryosuke; Asayama, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Yu; Sakao, Masayuki; Lencioni, Riccardo; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) with a multipronged needle for the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An experimental animal study and a clinical investigation were performed. Methods: In the experimental study, 20 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected into porcine liver in vivo with a multipronged needle (n = 5) or a straight needle (n = 5), and the volumes of coagulation necrosis were compared. In the clinical investigation, PEI was performed in 17 patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 73.4 {+-} 6.7 years) with single, large HCC (mean tumor diameter, 47.2 {+-} 11.5 mm; range, 32-70 mm) by using a multipronged needle. Fifteen of 17 patients received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before PEI. Results: The volume of coagulation in porcine liver in vivo was significantly increased with the multipronged needle compared with the straight needle (longest perpendicular diameters, 34.2 {+-} 3.6 mm Multiplication-Sign 30.2 {+-} 3.6 mm vs. 22.6 {+-} 2.5 mm Multiplication-Sign 19 {+-} 2.2 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). In the clinical trial, initial complete response (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 17 of 17 patients, 7 of whom required two PEI sessions. During the follow-up, local recurrence was detected in 4 of 17 patients at 3-19 months after the procedure, for a rate of sustained local CR of 76%. No major complication occurred. Conclusions: Use of a multipronged needle substantially increases the volume of coagulation in vivo with respect to the conventional PEI technique. Combined TACE and PEI with multipronged needles is a safe and effective option for percutaneous treatment of single, large HCC.

  10. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  11. Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography. PMID:23812882

  12. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with or without Combined Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinomas in High Risk Locations

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Dong Ik; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) alone and combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in high risk locations. Materials and Methods We performed PEI for HCCs in RFA-high risk locations, either alone or in combination with RFA. There were 20 HCCs (1.7 ± 0.9 cm) in 20 patients (PEI group: n = 12; PEI + RFA group: n = 8). We evaluated technical success, local tumor progression and complications in both groups. Results Technical success was achieved in all HCCs in both groups. During follow-up, local tumor progression was found in 41.7% (5/12) in the PEI group, whereas 12.5% (1/8) for the PEI + RFA group (p = 0.32). Bile duct dilatation was the most common complication, especially when the tumors were in periportal locations; 55% (5/9) in the PEI group and 50% (2/4) in the PEI + RFA group (p = 1.00). One patient in the PEI group developed severe biliary stricture and upstream dilatation that resulted in atrophy of the left hepatic lobe. One patient treated with PEI + RFA developed cholangitis and an abscess. Conclusion Combined PEI and RFA treatment has a tendency to be more effective than PEI alone for managing HCCs in high risk locations, although the difference is not statistically significant. Even though PEI is generally accepted as a safe procedure, it may cause major biliary complications for managing HCCs adjacent to the portal vein. PMID:23483664

  13. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  14. Intratumoral spread of wild-type adenovirus is limited after local injection of human xenograft tumors: virus persists and spreads systemically at late time points.

    PubMed

    Sauthoff, Harald; Hu, Jing; Maca, Cielo; Goldman, Michael; Heitner, Sheila; Yee, Herman; Pipiya, Teona; Rom, William N; Hay, John G

    2003-03-20

    Oncolytic replicating adenoviruses are a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer. Despite the assumed biologic advantage of continued viral replication and spread from infected to uninfected cancer cells, early clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of current vectors is limited. In xenograft tumor models using immune-incompetent mice, wild-type adenovirus is also rarely able to eradicate established tumors. This suggests that innate immune mechanisms may clear the virus or that barriers within the tumor prevent viral spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of viral distribution and spread after intratumoral injection of virus in a human tumor xenograft model. After intratumoral injection of wild-type virus, high levels of titratable virus persisted within the xenograft tumors for at least 8 weeks. Virus distribution within the tumors as determined by immunohistochemistry was patchy, and virus-infected cells appeared to be flanked by tumor necrosis and connective tissue. The close proximity of virus-infected cells to the tumor-supporting structure, which is of murine origin, was clearly demonstrated using a DNA probe that specifically hybridizes to the B1 murine DNA repeat. Importantly, although virus was cleared from the circulation 6 hr after intratumoral injection, after 4 weeks systemic spread of virus was detected. In addition, vessels of infected tumors were surrounded by necrosis and an advancing rim of virus-infected tumor cells, suggesting reinfection of the xenograft tumor through the vasculature. These data suggest that human adenoviral spread within tumor xenografts is impaired by murine tumor-supporting structures. In addition, there is evidence for continued viral replication within the tumor, with subsequent systemic dissemination and reinfection of tumors via the tumor vasculature. Despite the limitations of immune-incompetent models, an understanding of the interactions between the virus and the tumor

  15. Accurate experimental determination of the isotope effects on the triple point temperature of water. II. Combined dependence on the 18O and 17O abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, V.; Kozicki, M.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Jansen, H. G.; Spriensma, J. J.; Peruzzi, A.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is the second of two articles on the quantification of isotope effects on the triple point temperature of water. In this second article, we address the combined effects of 18O and 17O isotopes. We manufactured five triple point cells with waters with 18O and 17O abundances exceeding widely the natural abundance range while maintaining their natural 18O/17O relationship. The 2H isotopic abundance was kept close to that of VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). These cells realized triple point temperatures ranging between  -220 μK to 1420 μK with respect to the temperature realized by a triple point cell filled with VSMOW. Our experiment allowed us to determine an accurate and reliable value for the newly defined combined 18, 17O correction parameter of AO  =  630 μK with a combined uncertainty of 10 μK. To apply this correction, only the 18O abundance of the TPW needs to be known (and the water needs to be of natural origin). Using the results of our two articles, we recommend a correction equation along with the coefficient values for isotopic compositions differing from that of VSMOW and compare the effect of this new equation on a number of triple point cells from the literature and from our own institute. Using our correction equation, the uncertainty in the isotope correction for triple point cell waters used around the world will be  <1 μK.

  16. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  17. Triangular libration points in the R3BP under combined effects of oblateness, radiation and power-law profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, B. J.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Oyewumi, K. J.; Falaiye, O. A.; Joshua, E. S.; Omojola, J.; Abimbola, O. J.; Kalu, O.; Ikhdair, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of oblateness up to J4 of the primaries and power-law density profile (PDP) on the linear stability of libration location of an infinitesimal mass within the framework of restricted three body problem (R3BP), by using a more realistic model in which a disc with PDP is rotating around the common center of the system mass with perturbed mean motion. The existence and stability of triangular equilibrium points have been explored. It has been shown that triangular equilibrium points are stable for 0 < μ <μc and unstable for μc ⩽ μ≤ 1 / 2 , where μc denotes the critical mass parameter. We find that, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation reduces the stability range while the oblateness up to J4 of the primaries increases the size of stability both in the context where PDP is considered and ignored. The PDP has an effect of about ≈ 0.01 reduction on the application of μc to Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Moons systems. We find that the comprehensive effects of the perturbations have a stabilizing proclivity. However, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation of the primaries have tendency for instability, while coefficients up to J4 of the primaries have stability predisposition. In the limiting case c = 0 , and also by setting appropriate parameter(s) to zero, our results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained previously. Libration points play a very important role in space mission and as a consequence, our results have a practical application in space dynamics and related areas. The model may be applied to study the navigation and stationkeeping operations of spacecraft (infinitesimal mass) around the Jupiter (more massive) -Callisto (less massive) system, where PDP accounts for the circumsolar ring of asteroidal dust, which has a cloud of dust permanently in its wake.

  18. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E ‑2.5 and E ‑2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  19. Optical pressure sensor based on the combined system of a variable liquid lens and a point diffraction interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Arellano, Anmi; Gómez-García, Manuel; Acosta, Eva

    2011-09-01

    In this work we present an experimental proposal for an efficient optical pressure sensor based on a Variable Liquid Lens (VLL) and a modified Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI). The working principle of the proposed sensor relies on the fact that a pressure variation induces a change in the lens curvature and hence in its focal length which can be tracked and measured with the interferometer. The pressure is then measured by recording and processing the interferometric images. The calibration of the sensor in this proposal demonstrated a working range of 0-26 kPa with an accuracy of less than 0.1 kPa in the whole range.

  20. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  1. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  2. Evaluation of the combination of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping and cation selective exhaustive injection for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles in egg samples.

    PubMed

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2016-12-15

    A methodology is presented for the sensitive determination of nitromidazole residues in egg by means of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in combination with cation selective exhaustive injection and ultraviolet detection. Six compounds have been considered and the separation has been achieved in less than 12min in a 61.5-cm effective length capillary with 50-μm internal diameter. Phosphate buffer 44mM pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofurane and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed as running buffer. Solid phase extraction has been employed for sample clean-up. The methodology has been successfully validated in hen eggs, obtaining method detection limits in the range of 2.1-5.0ng/g. Precision was studied in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations lower than 18.0%. Recoveries were calculated in quail eggs and a commercial pasteurized egg white product, reaching over 70% for most of the considered 5-nitroimidazoles. PMID:27451174

  3. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint-efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  4. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  5. Determination of ofloxacin and gatifloxacin by mixed micelle-mediated cloud point extraction-fluorimetry combined methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Zhao, Guo-yan; Du, Li-ming

    2010-05-01

    A cloud point extraction process using mixed micelle of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(7.5)nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) to extract two fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, from aqueous media was investigated. The method is based on the mixed micelle-mediated extraction of fluoroquinolones in the presence of NaCl as an inducing agent in phase separation, followed by spectrofluorimetric determination. The effect of different variables such as pH, PONPE7.5 concentration, SDS concentration, NaCl concentration, cloud point temperature, and time was investigated, and optimum conditions were established. At optimum conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-150 and 0.1-250 ng mL -1 for ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, and the limits of detection were 0.04 and 0.06 ng mL -1, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied successfully for the detection of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms, in spiked plasma, spiked urine, and urine samples, with good precision and accuracy.

  6. Combined Transcriptomics Analysis for Classification of Adverse Effects As a Potential End Point in Effect Based Screening.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Janssens, Thierry K S; Legler, Juliette; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-12-15

    Environmental risk assessment relies on the use of bioassays to assess the environmental impact of chemicals. Gene expression is gaining acceptance as a valuable mechanistic end point in bioassays and effect-based screening. Data analysis and its results, however, are complex and often not directly applicable in risk assessment. Classifier analysis is a promising method to turn complex gene expression analysis results into answers suitable for risk assessment. We have assembled a large gene expression data set assembled from multiple studies and experiments in the springtail Folsomia candida, with the aim of selecting a set of genes that can be trained to classify general toxic stress. By performing differential expression analysis prior to classifier training, we were able to select a set of 135 genes which was enriched in stress related processes. Classifier models from this set were used to classify two test sets comprised of chemical spiked, polluted, and clean soils and compared to another, more traditional classifier feature selection. The gene set presented here outperformed the more traditionally selected gene set. This gene set has the potential to be used as a biomarker to test for adverse effects caused by chemicals in springtails to provide end points in environmental risk assessment. PMID:26523736

  7. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  8. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, Todd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Willey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms which make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses 4 stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  9. Combined point mutation in KRAS or EGFR genes and EML4-ALK translocation in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Jessica; Engel-Riedel, Walburga; Prickartz, Alexander; Ludwig, Corinna; Schildgen, Oliver; Tillmann, Ramona-Liza; Stoelben, Erich; Brockmann, Michael; Schildgen, Verena

    2014-03-01

    A total of three cases with novel constellations regarding mutation patterns in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are reported. The mutation patterns that are observed are novel and unexpected. First, a combined simultaneous KRAS mutation and EML4-ALK translocation, both in the main tumor and a bone metastasis, were observed, these mutations are assumed to mutually exclude each other. A further two cases include a father and a daughter, both of whom are suffering from NSCLC with different EGFR mutation patterns. A common cause was assumed; however, could not be deduced to mutations in the KRAS, BRAF and EGFR genes. The aforementioned cases are important, as it must be taken into account that mutations previously assumed to be exclusive can occur in combination, may influence the clinical outcome and may require different therapy compared with single mutated tumors. It has to be discussed whether diagnostic algorithms need to be adapted. The cases of father and daughter show that further unknown factors can influence development of NSCLC. PMID:24754584

  10. High volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation improve greater trochanter pain syndrome in the short and medium term: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Price, Jessica; Pritchard, Melanie; Crisp, Tom; Perry, John D.; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim of this study was to measure the effects of high volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) for greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). Methods 31 consecutive subjects were recruited (23 retrospectively; 8 prospectively) over 5 months. GTPS was diagnosed based on history and examination findings, alongside radiological examination. The HVI-GI used a 22-gauge spinal needle to administer 10ml of 0.5% Marcaine and 50 mg hydrocortisone just deep to the periosteum underlying the gluteal tendon insertion under ultrasound guidance, followed by structured rehabilitation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used as the main outcome measure. Results the mean VAS improved from 81.7 mm (±17.6) to 42.3 mm (±28.3), (p<0.05) in the prospective subjects at a mean of 6 weeks, considered clinically significant. In the retrospective subjects the mean VAS had improved from 74.6 (±10.9) mm to 38.2(±31.2) mm at two weeks (p<0.01) and 31.3 (±27.6) mm at the final time point, a mean of 60 weeks (p<0.01). The Hip and Groin Outcome Score in the prospective group showed a non-significant increase from 173.2 to 296.1 (p=0.12). Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered when short- and medium-term pain-relieving treatment for GTPS is required. Controlled studies are warranted to fully establish effectiveness, and assess long term effects. Level of evidence case series. PMID:26261785

  11. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated for the fi...

  12. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for quality assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated fo...

  13. Combining Isoelectric Point-Based Fractionation, Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Improve Peptide Detection and Protein Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cologna, Stephanie M.; Russell, William K.; Lim, Peniel J.; Vigh, Gyula; Russell, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The off-line coupling of an isoelectric trapping device termed membrane separated wells for isoelectric focusing and trapping (MSWIFT) to mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies is described. The MSWIFT is a high capacity, high-throughput, mass spectrometry compatible, isoelectric trapping device that provides isoelectric point (pI) based separations of complex mixtures of peptides. In MSWIFT, separation and analyte trapping are achieved by migrating the peptide ions through membranes having fixed pH values until the peptide pI is bracketed by the pH values of adjacent membranes. The pH values of the membranes can be tuned, thus affording a high degree of experimental flexibility. Specific advantages of using MSWIFT for sample pre-fractionation include: (i) small sample volumes (~200 μl), (ii) customized membranes over a large pH range, (iii) flexibility in the number of desired fractions, (iv) membrane compatibility with a variety of solvents systems and (v) resulting fractions do not require sample cleanup prior to MS analysis. Here, we demonstrate the utility of MSWIFT for mass spectrometry-based detection of peptides in improving dynamic range and the reduction of ion suppression effects for high-throughput separations of tryptic peptides. PMID:20537905

  14. Phenotypic reversion of an IS1-mediated deletion mutation: a combined role for point mutations and deletions in transposon evolution.

    PubMed

    Lida, S; Marcoli, R; Bickle, T A

    1982-01-01

    We have physically characterised a deletion mutant of the R plasmid R100 which has lost all of the antibiotic resistances, including chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr), coded by its IS1-flanked r-determinant. The deletion was mediated by one of the flanking IS1 elements and terminates within the carboxyl terminus of the Cmr gene. DNA sequence analysis showed that the mutated gene would produce a protein 20 amino acids longer than the wild-type due to fusion with an open reading frame in the IS element. Surprisingly for a deletion mutation, rare, spontaneous Cmr revertants could be recovered. Two of the four revertants studied had frame shifts due to the insertion of a single AT base pair at the same position; the revertants would code for a protein five amino acids shorter than the wild-type. The other two revertants had acquired duplications of the 34-bp inverted terminal repeat sequences of the IS1 element and would direct the synthesis of a protein six amino acids longer than the wild-type. The reverted Cmr markers were still capable of transposition. These observations suggest a role for point mutations and small DNA rearrangements in the formation of new gene organisations produced by mobile genetic elements. PMID:6329702

  15. Injectable Bone Substitute Based on β-TCP Combined With a Hyaluronan-Containing Hydrogel Contributes to Regeneration of a Critical Bone Size Defect Towards Restitutio ad Integrum.

    PubMed

    Barbeck, Mike; Hoffmann, Christiane; Sader, Robert; Peters, Fabian; Hübner, Wolf-Dietrich; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    In the present in vivo study, the regenerative potential of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan was tested in a rabbit distal femoral condyle model. To achieve this, 2 defects of 6 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were drilled into each femur condyle in a total of 12 animals. For each animal, 1 hole was filled with the substitute material, and the other was left empty to serve as the control. After 1, 3, and 6 months, the regenerative process was analyzed by radiography as well as by histological and histomorphometrical analysis. The results revealed that bone tissue formation took place through osteoconductive processes over time, starting from the defect borders to the center. Both the β-TCP content and the hydrogel support bone tissue growth. The histomorphometrical measurements showed that the amount of bone formation in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with that found in the control group after 3 months (19.51 ± 5.08% vs. 1.96 ± 0.77%, P < .05) and 6 months (4.57 ± 1.56% vs. 0.23 ± 0.21%, P < .05). The application of the IBS gave a restitutio ad integrum result after 6 months and was associated with its nearly complete degradation, in contrast to the results found in the control group. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IBS contributes to sufficient bone regeneration by serving as a scaffold-like structure, combined with its degradation within 6 months. PMID:26301338

  16. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  17. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  18. Characterization and cytocompatibility of a new injectable multiphasic bone substitute based on a combination of polysaccharide gel-coated OSPROLIFE(®) HA/TTCP granules and bone marrow concentrate.

    PubMed

    Pierini, Michela; Lucarelli, Enrico; Duchi, Serena; Prosperi, Susanna; Preve, Eleonora; Piccinini, Marzio; Bucciotti, Francesco; Donati, Davide

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro cytocompatibility of a novel injectable multiphasic bone substitute (MBS) based on polysaccharide gel-coated OSPROLIFE(®) hydroxyapatite (HA)/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) granules combined with bone marrow concentrate (BMC). Polysaccharide gel-coated granules loaded in syringe were combined with BMC diluted in ionic crosslinking solution. The product was then maintained in culture to investigate the cytocompatibility, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation function of cells contained in the BMC. The in vitro cytocompatibility was assessed after 0, 24, and 96 h from the injectable MBS preparation using the LIVE/DEAD(®) staining kit. The results highlighted that cells remained viable after combination with the polysaccharide gel-coated granules; also, viability was maintained over time. The distribution of the cells in the product, observed using confocal microscopy, showed viable cells immersed in the polysaccharide gel formed between the granules after ionic crosslinking. The mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) contained in the injectable MBS, the basic elements for bone tissue regeneration, were able to differentiate toward osteoblasts, producing an osteogenic matrix as evidenced by alizarin red-s (AR-S) staining. In conclusion, we found that the injectable MBS may have the potential to be used as a bone substitute by applying a "one-step" procedure in bone tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 894-902, 2016. PMID:25952003

  19. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  20. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  1. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  2. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  3. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  4. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  5. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  6. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  7. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  8. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  10. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  11. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  12. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  13. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  15. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  17. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  18. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  20. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  1. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  2. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  3. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  4. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  5. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  6. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  7. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  9. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Topical Benzocaine Gel Combined with Hyaluronidase for Supplemental Intrapulpal Injection in Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis- A Double Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Abarajithan, M.; Sathish, Emmanuel Solomon; Suryakumari, Nujella Bhaskara Padma; Gade, Winner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrapulpal injection technique is one of the most commonly employed method to achieve profound pulpal anaesthesia during an endodontic procedure. To determine if the topical application of benzocaine gel along with hyaluronidase to the pulp chamber could reduce the pain felt with the intrapulpal injection technique. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis undergoing endodontic treatment for mandibular first molars in which the primary anaesthetic technique failed were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the control group intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. In the experimental group topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase was done over the exposed pulp following which intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. Pain assessment was done on a visual analogue scale. Results There was statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the two groups. The mean value in the control group corresponded to the pain perception "strong”, whereas that of the experimental group corresponded to the pain perception "weak”. Conclusion Topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase to the exposed pulp reduces the pain encountered with the intrapulpal injection. PMID:26436058

  10. Combined use of the EPA-QUAL2E simulation model and factor analysis to assess the source apportionment of point and non point loads of nutrients to surface waters.

    PubMed

    Azzellino, A; Salvetti, R; Vismara, R; Bonomo, L

    2006-12-01

    Diffuse pollution is generally indirectly estimated by area and specific emission factors as function of land use. However in many cases these estimates were proven to be remarkably inaccurate. Aim of this study was to combine a water quality simulation model, (USEPA-QUAL2E) and Factor Analysis to increase the understanding of the water pollutants source apportionment. The study concerned two different watersheds, an upland area characterised by a very scarce agricultural use, and another area covering both the upland and the lowland physiographic regions. Particularly the lowland region is included in one of the most productive agricultural areas in Italy. By comparing instream measurements with QUAL2E simulations during dry and wet weather conditions, a good fit (errors +/-20%) was found for the dry weather scenario, whereas very poor was the model performance on the wet weather scenario. This was in the same way expected since the rainfall-driven pollutants scenario deviates significantly from QUAL2E general assumptions of constant emissions in steady state streamflow conditions. However the poor fit was also due to the scarcer reliability of the adopted non point emission estimates. Despite of approximations the model wet weather simulations enabled to estimate the non point contribution to the instream load at the rainfall event scale resolution. Such diffuse sources contribution was found around 80% in the area of extensive agricultural land use, and around 40% in the upland region. Factor Analysis applied to the instream measurements data shed light on the exchange from the groundwater to the surface water system that occurred in the upland region. The hypothesis of a groundwater contribution to the instream total load of nitrates was also supported by QUAL2E simulations that, when considering only the point loads, systematically underestimate the dry weather nitrate concentrations. The same pattern was not observed for the lowland region. PMID:16677687

  11. Synergistic enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination nickel in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chujie; Xu, Xili; Zhou, Neng; Lin, Yao

    A new method based on enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction trace amounts of nickel combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination was developed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used enhancement reagent and chelating reagent, respectively. The addition of room temperature ionic liquids leads to 3.0 times improvement in the determination of nickel. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was used as the extractant. When the temperature of the system was higher than the cloud point of Triton X-100, Ni-DTC complex was extracted into Triton X-100 and separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Some parameters that influenced cloud point extraction and subsequent determination were evaluated in detail, such as the concentrations of RTILs, DDTC and Triton X-100; pH of sample solution, as well as interferences. Under optimized conditions, an enrichment factor of 72 could be obtained, and the detection limit (LOD) for Ni was 0.5 ng mL-1. Relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the standard solution containing 50 ng mL-1 Ni was 3.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nickel in certified reference materials with satisfactory results.

  12. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  13. Large copy number variations in combination with point mutations in the TYMP and SCO2 genes found in two patients with mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Alžběta; Veselá, Kateřina; Kratochvílová, Hana; Kučerová Vidrová, Vendula; Vinšová, Kamila; Stránecký, Viktor; Honzík, Tomáš; Hansíková, Hana; Zeman, Jiří; Tesařová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are caused by defects in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Although the existence of large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is well known, deletions affecting whole genes are not commonly described in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Based on the results of whole-genome analyses, copy number variations (CNVs) occur frequently in the human genome and may overlap with many genes associated with clinical phenotypes. We report the discovery of two large heterozygous CNVs on 22q13.33 in two patients with mitochondrial disorders. The first patient harboured a novel point mutation c.667G>A (p.D223N) in the SCO2 gene in combination with a paternally inherited 87-kb deletion. As hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) was not documented in the patient, this observation prompted us to compare his clinical features with all 44 reported SCO2 patients in the literature. Surprisingly, the review shows that HCMP was present in only about 50% of the SCO2 patients with non-neonatal onset. In the second patient, who had mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), a maternally inherited 175-kb deletion and the paternally inherited point mutation c.261G>T (p.E87D) in the TYMP gene were identified. PMID:23838601

  14. Large copy number variations in combination with point mutations in the TYMP and SCO2 genes found in two patients with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Alžběta; Veselá, Kateřina; Kratochvílová, Hana; Kučerová Vidrová, Vendula; Vinšová, Kamila; Stránecký, Viktor; Honzík, Tomáš; Hansíková, Hana; Zeman, Jiří; Tesařová, Markéta

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are caused by defects in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Although the existence of large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is well known, deletions affecting whole genes are not commonly described in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Based on the results of whole-genome analyses, copy number variations (CNVs) occur frequently in the human genome and may overlap with many genes associated with clinical phenotypes. We report the discovery of two large heterozygous CNVs on 22q13.33 in two patients with mitochondrial disorders. The first patient harboured a novel point mutation c.667G>A (p.D223N) in the SCO2 gene in combination with a paternally inherited 87-kb deletion. As hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) was not documented in the patient, this observation prompted us to compare his clinical features with all 44 reported SCO2 patients in the literature. Surprisingly, the review shows that HCMP was present in only about 50% of the SCO2 patients with non-neonatal onset. In the second patient, who had mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), a maternally inherited 175-kb deletion and the paternally inherited point mutation c.261G>T (p.E87D) in the TYMP gene were identified. PMID:23838601

  15. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiuming; Wen, Shengping; Xiang, Guoqiang

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by l-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3 sigma) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL(-1) for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c=1.0 ng mL(-1), n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results. PMID:19853991

  16. Laser cooling of the vibrational motion of Na{sub 2} combining the effects of zero-width resonances and exceptional points

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.; Jaouadi, A.; Dulieu, O.; Atabek, O.

    2011-10-15

    We propose various scenarios for molecular vibrational cooling combining the effects of two kinds of resonance states occurring during the photodissociation of Na{sub 2} taken as an illustrative example. Such resonances result from an appropriate sampling of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity): (a) For particular choices of intensity and wavelength, two resonance energies can be brought to complete coalescence, with their positions and widths becoming equal and leading to a so-called exceptional point (EP) in the parameter plane. Advantage can be taken from such points for very selective laser-controlled vibrational transfer strategies. (b) For specific intensities, far beyond the perturbation regime, some resonances can have a zero width (infinite lifetime). They are referred to as a zero-width resonance (ZWR) and may be used for vibrational purification purposes. We show how appropriately shaped, experimentally reachable laser pulses, encircling EPs or inducing ZWRs, may be used for a thorough and comprehensive control aiming at population transfer or purification schemes, which, starting from an initial field-free vibrational distribution, ends up in the ground vibrational level.

  17. Combining docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis and k-nearest neighbor correlation for the discovery of new check point kinase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nour Jamal; Khanfar, Mohammad A; Habash, Maha; Taha, Mutasem Omar

    2015-06-01

    Check point kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important protein in G2 phase checkpoint arrest required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Therefore, Chk1 inhibitors should have potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis (dbCICA) is a new three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship method that depends on the quality and number of contact points between docked ligands and binding pocket amino acid residues. In this presented work we implemented a novel combination of k-nearest neighbor/genetic function algorithm modeling coupled with dbCICA to select critical ligand-Chk1 contacts capable of explaining anti-Chk1 bioactivity among a long list of inhibitors. The finest set of contacts were translated into two valid pharmacophore hypotheses that were used as 3D search queries to screen the National Cancer Institute's structural database for new Chk1 inhibitors. Three potent Chk1 inhibitors were discovered with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 to 69.7 µM. PMID:25956379

  18. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  19. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  20. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  1. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  2. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  3. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  4. Combining Concentrated Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells Injection With Core Decompression Improves Outcome for Patients with Early-Stage Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee, Reza Mostafavi; Saberi, Sadegh; Parvizi, Javad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Farzan, Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    The management of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) remains challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of core decompression and concentrated bone marrow implantation on ONFH. The study recruited 28 hips with early ONFH randomly assigned into two groups of core decompression with (group A) and without (group B) bone marrow injection. Patients were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain index, and MRI. The mean WOMAC and VAS scores in all patients improved significantly (P<0.001). MRI showed a significant improvement in group A (P=0.046) and significant worsening in group B (P<0.001). Bone marrow stem cell injection with core decompression can be effective in early ONFH. PMID:26143238

  5. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  6. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  7. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies.

  8. Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients

  9. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  10. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  11. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  12. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  13. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  14. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  15. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  16. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  17. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  18. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  19. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  20. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  1. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  2. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  3. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  4. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  5. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  6. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  8. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  9. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  10. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  11. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  12. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  13. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  14. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  15. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  16. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  17. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  18. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  19. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  20. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  1. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  2. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  3. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes with needles attached, and alcohol swab pads. Throw away needles, syringes, and vials ...

  4. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  5. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  6. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  7. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  8. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  9. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  11. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  12. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  13. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  14. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  15. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  16. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  17. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  18. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  19. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  20. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  1. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  2. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  3. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a person ... Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that developed in people who were in a ...

  4. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent ... tissues that may be caused when an anthracycline chemotherapy medication such as daunorubicin (Daunoxome, Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Doxil), ...

  5. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  6. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid ... a class of medications called anthracenediones. Mitoxantrone treats MS by stopping certain cells of the immune system ...

  7. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexrazoxane injection or any other medications.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  8. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  9. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  10. Exenatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... month. Exenatide extended-release solution is injected once weekly at any time of day without regard to ... you remember it and then continue your regular weekly schedule. However, if there are less than 3 ...

  11. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  12. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH; a rare inherited condition that ...

  13. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  14. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  15. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  16. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment.You may receive methylprednisolone injection in a hospital or medical facility, or you may be given ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  17. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have.You may receive ampicillin injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  18. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, burning on urination, worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  19. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  20. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  1. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  2. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  3. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  4. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  5. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  6. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat in the stomach area in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body ... injection is in a class of medications called human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works ...

  7. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  8. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  9. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to ... stomach pain sudden weight loss paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes shortness of breath ...

  10. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. ...

  11. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for CML and can no longer benefit from these medications or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is ... side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: ...

  12. Basiliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. Metoclopramide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms include ... When metoclopramide injection is used to treat slowed stomach emptying due to diabetes, it may be given up ...

  14. Intrathymic Injection.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  15. Quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in medical records: evaluation of combined interventions in a teaching hospital by repeated point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Vercheval, C; Gillet, M; Maes, N; Albert, A; Frippiat, F; Damas, P; Van Hees, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the computerized medical records of inpatients. A prospective, uncontrolled, interrupted time series (ITS) study was conducted by repeated point prevalence survey (PPS) to audit the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the medical records before and after a combined intervention strategy (implementation of guidelines, distribution of educational materials, educational outreach visits, group educational interactive sessions) from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) in the academic teaching hospital (CHU) of Liège, Belgium. The primary outcome measure was the documentation rate on three quality indicators in the computerized medical records: (1) indication for treatment, (2) antibiotics prescribed, and (3) duration or review date. Segmented regression analysis was used to analyze the ITS. The medical records of 2306 patients receiving antibiotics for an infection (1177 in the pre-intervention period and 1129 in the post-intervention period) were analyzed. A significant increase in mean percentages in the post-intervention period was observed as compared with the pre-intervention period for the three quality indicators (indication documented 83.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 90.3 ± 6.6 %, p = 0.0013; antibiotics documented 87.9 ± 9.0 % vs. 95.6 ± 5.1 %, p < 0.0001; and duration or review date documented 31.9 ± 15.4 % vs. 67.7 ± 15.2 %, p < 0.0001). The study demonstrated the successful implementation of a combined intervention strategy from the AST. This strategy was associated with significant changes in the documentation rate in the computerized medical records for the three quality indicators. PMID:27255220

  16. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPI{trademark}). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  17. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-11-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration.

  18. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-01-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration. PMID:26526140

  19. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy. PMID:24864393

  20. Combined effects of suction/injection and wall surface curvature on natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, B. K.; Aina, B.; Muhammad, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates analytically the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of a fully developed natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous-annulus (MPA) taking into account the velocity slip and temperature jump at the outer surface of inner porous cylinder and inner surface of outer porous cylinder. A closed — form solution is presented for velocity, temperature, volume flow rate, skin friction and rate of heat transfer expressed as a Nusselt number. The influence of each governing parameter on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour is discussed with the aid of graphs. During the course of investigation, it is found that as suction/injection on the cylinder walls increases, the fluid velocity and temperature is enhanced. In addition, it is observed that wall surface curvature has a significant effect on flow and thermal characteristics.

  1. Characterization of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum., is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1 min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  2. Long-term effects of injection of botulinum toxin type A combined with home-based functional training for post-stroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Toru; Abo, Masahiro; Ebihara, Kazuaki; Taguchi, Kensuke; Sase, Yousuke; Kakuda, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection with home-based functional training for passive and active motor function, over a 6-month period in post-stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. We studied 190 patients with at least 6-month history of stroke. They received injections of BoNT-A in upper limb muscles and detailed one-to-one instructions for home-based functional training. At baseline (before therapy), and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) were used to assess active motor function, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for assessment of spasticity, and the range of motion (ROM) for passive motor function. The total score for upper limb and scores of categories A and B of the FMA increased significantly at 1, 3 and 6 months, while the FMA score for category D increased significantly at 3 and 6 months, but not at 1 month. Significant decreases in the MAS scores were noted in all muscles examined at 1, 3 and 6 months, compared with baseline. The ROM for elbow joint extension significantly improved at 1, 3, and 6 months, while that for wrist joint extension increased significantly at 1 month, but not 3 or 6 months, compared with baseline. The results suggest that comprehensive improvement of motor function requires improvement of motor function in the proximal part of the upper limb and that BoNT-A followed by rehabilitation reduces spasticity and improves motor function of fingers. PMID:23716062

  3. Comprehensive identification of active compounds in tablets by flow-injection data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry combined with library search.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Marion; Schubert, Birthe; Libiseller, Kathrin; Oberacher, Herbert

    2010-04-15

    A convenient mass spectrometric approach for the identification of toxicologically relevant compounds in tablets and tablet residues is presented. For comprehensive forensic-toxicological analysis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was accomplished in positive as well as in negative ion mode on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument. Dissolved samples were introduced into the mass spectrometer by flow-injection. Mass spectra as well as tandem mass spectra were acquired. A data-dependent acquisition strategy was used to switch between the mass spectrometric modes. Identification was accomplished via search within a tandem mass spectral library. The applied database contained 8252 spectra collected from 836 compounds in positive ion mode as well as 1023 spectra collected from 103 compounds in negative ion mode. A total of 22 casework samples collected during autopsies from mouth, oesophagus or gastric contents, seized by the police, or found with patients at hospital were screened. Twelve samples contained compounds only detectable in positive ion mode (sildenafil, dihydrocodeine, diphenhydramine, oxprenolol, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, morphine, amphetamine, caffeine, pemoline, orphenadrine, m-chlorphenylpiperazine and tramadol), six samples contained species exclusively detectable in negative ion mode (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketorolac, valproic acid and phenobarbital), and three samples contained diclofenac detectable in both ionization polarities. One sample did not contain any compound amenable to mass spectrometric analysis. For verification all samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. Both methods revealed identical results for all but one sample. The beta-adrenergic blocker oxprenolol was exclusively detected by the flow-injection method. PMID:20097023

  4. Comparison of intramuscular injection techniques to reduce site discomfort and lesions.

    PubMed

    Keen, M F

    1986-01-01

    The Z-track intramuscular injection technique was compared with the standard injection technique for incidence and severity of discomfort and lesions at the injection site. Fifty subjects received injections of meperidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with promethazine hydrochloride every 3 to 4 hours for a total of two to eight injections. Subjects served as their own controls by receiving both techniques. They were evaluated for the presence and severity of discomfort on a 4-point Likert scale. Injection site lesions were determined by visualization and palpation. The Z-track technique significantly decreased incidence of selected descriptors of discomfort and lesions at selected time intervals, severity of discomfort at selected time intervals, and severity of lesions at all time intervals postinjection. PMID:3636818

  5. Improved computer modelling of magnetron injection guns for gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Thorington, C.

    1984-01-01

    A variable mesh finite-element electron gun design code has been developed to simulate hollow beams produced by magnetron injection guns. Very accurate solutions of the self-consistent space charge forces are obtained by using a computational mesh, distorted in a way which allows a high density of mesh points within the hollow beam. A generalized hybrid model for cathode emission has been incorporated which combines temperature limited and space charge limited emission in a way justified from empirical and physical arguments. Beam characteristics of a magnetron injection gun are presented as the transition from temperature limited to space charge limited operation is made. Limited comparisons with experimental results are presented.

  6. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that causes loss of the ability to see straight ahead and may make it more ... used to treat macular edema after retinal vein occlusion (an eye disease ...

  7. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in a class of medications called microtubule inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.

  8. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  9. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  10. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sudden wave of mild or intense body heat) decreased sexual ability or desire leg or joint pain breast pain pain, itching, swelling, or redness at the place where injection was given difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  11. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  12. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  13. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: allergy shots (a series of injections given regularly to prevent the body from developing ...

  14. Famotidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Famotidine injection is in a class of ...

  15. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a class of ...

  16. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  17. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be given to you two times a day for 2 to 3 weeks, and then once a day, 5 to 7 days of each week.Your dose of ganciclovir will ... may give you several doses (enough for a day's supply) of premixed ganciclovir injection solution at one ...

  18. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  19. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  20. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Dulaglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  1. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Liraglutide injection also slows the emptying of the ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  2. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Albiglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  3. Flow injection combined with ICP-MS for accurate high throughput analysis of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical products according to USP <232>/<233>.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lisa; Zipfel, Barbara; Koellensperger, Gunda; Kovac, Jessica; Bilz, Susanne; Kunkel, Andrea; Venzago, Cornel; Hann, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    New guidelines of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) and international organization (ICH, International Conference on Harmonization) regulating elemental impurity limits in pharmaceuticals seal the end of unspecific analysis of metal(oid)s as outlined in USP <231> and EP 2.4.8. Chapter USP <232> and EP 5.20 as well as drafts from ICH Q3D specify both daily doses and concentration limits of metallic impurities in pharmaceutical final products and in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. In chapters USP <233> and EP 2.4.20 method implementation, validation and quality control during the analytical process are described. By contrast with the--by now--applied methods, substance specific quantitative analysis features new basic requirements, further, significantly lower detection limits ask for the necessity of a general changeover of the methodology toward sensitive multi element analysis by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively. A novel methodological approach based on flow injection analysis and ICP-SFMS/ICP-QMS for the quick and accurate analysis of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ir, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Cr, Mo, Ni, V, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in drug products by prior dilution, dissolution or microwave assisted closed vessel digestion according to the regulations is presented. In comparison to the acquisition of continuous signals, this method is advantageous with respect to the unprecedented high sample throughput due to a total analysis time of approximately 30s and the low sample consumption of below 50 μL, while meeting the strict USP demands on detection/quantification limits, precision and accuracy. PMID:24667566

  4. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Jin, Yan; Han, Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi, Shuping

    2006-07-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h - 1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l - 1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l - 1 for CH 3Hg +. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l - 1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  6. Vincristine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine is used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to treat certain types of leukemia (cancer of ... of white blood cells that normally fights infection). Vincristine is also used in combination with other chemotherapy ...

  7. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells) in combination with other medications to destroy bone marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. ... in combination with other drugs to destroy the bone marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant ...

  8. Dyke and sill injections: what mostly trigger volcano flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catry, Thibault; Cayol, Valérie; Michon, Laurent; Famin, Vincent; Romagnoli, Claudia; Chaput, Marie

    2010-05-01

    There is a large number of evidences that the morphostructural evolution of basaltic oceanic volcanoes (e.g. Stromboli, Hawaï and Canary Islands) results of alternating phases of growth and destruction. Among dismantling processes, flank collapses have been largely documented and interpreted as gravitational destabilization triggered by vertical injections of magma (dykes). In most cases, this interpretation has not been sustained by field observations because active volcanoes have poor occurrence of outcropped intrusions. From this point of view, Piton des Neiges volcano (La Réunion Island) represents a case in point because it has been deeply incised by erosion, providing large outcropped surfaces exhibiting the geometrical relationship between intrusions and host volcanic formations. The recent discovery of a highly deformed pile of sills at the interface between a debris avalanche deposit and a fossilized magma chamber brought to light the role of horizontal injections in the triggering of lateral collapses. The validation of this assumption rests on a digital model developed from the Mixed Boundary Element Method of elastic deformation field analysis. In this study, we modelled the intensity and the distribution of deformation and Coulomb stresses perturbation due to the injection of dykes along rift zones and a sill below the flank of a basaltic volcano. We quantified the influence of the intrusions in the mechanical state of the edifice, based on the deformation detected during an intrusion of magma at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. By comparing the deformation generated by sills to that generated by dykes, our modelling approach concludes that the area deformed by a sill injection is much wider than that deformed by a dyke injection. Moreover, we found that sill injection reaches higher intensities of lateral displacements. The combination of field data and our modelling results suggests therefore that repeated sill injection is an underestimated trigger

  9. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  10. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  11. Evidence for a tricritical point coinciding with the triple point in (Pb0.94Sr0.06)(ZrxTi1-x)O3: A combined synchrotron x-ray diffraction, dielectric, and Landau theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Ravindra Singh; Mishra, S. K.; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2013-11-01

    We present here results of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and dielectric studies in conjunction with Landau theory considerations on (Pb0.94Sr0.06)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 compositions in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) to find evidence for the flattening of the free-energy surface at the MPB proposed in recent ab initio studies on strongly piezoelectric ceramics. SXRD results reveal that the tetragonal and pseudorhombohedral monoclinic compositions with x = 0.515 and 0.550 transform directly into the cubic paraelectric phase, whereas for 0.520 ≤ x ≤ 0.545, the pseudotetragonal and pseudorhombohedral monoclinic compositions transform first to the tetragonal phase and then to the cubic phase. Our results reveal the existence of a triple point at x ≃ 0.550. It is shown that the tetragonal-to-cubic transition, irrespective of the composition, up to x ≃ 0.545 is accompanied with a discontinuous change in the unit cell volume and thermal hysteresis, confirming the first-order nature of this transition. However, the pseudorhombohedral monoclinic composition for x = 0.550 transforms directly into the cubic phase in a second-order manner. Our experimental results thus reveal a crossover from a first-order to a second-order phase transition through a tricritical point around x = 0.550. Landau theory calculations also confirm gradual flattening of the free-energy surface on approaching the tricritical composition x = 0.550. We conclude that the triple point in the Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 phase diagram is a tricritical point.

  12. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  13. Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

    2012-08-01

    Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (ΩP) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

  14. Cyclophosphamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyclophosphamide is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease) and ... organs where eggs are formed), and breast cancer. Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat nephrotic syndrome (a ...

  15. Ifosfamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ifosfamide is used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not ... after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Ifosfamide is in a class of medications called alkylating ...

  16. Enoxaparin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on bedrest or who are having hip replacement, knee replacement, or stomach surgery. It is used in combination with aspirin to prevent complications from angina (chest pain) and heart attacks. It is also used in ...

  17. Irinotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat colon or rectal cancer (cancer that begins in the large intestine). Irinotecan is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  18. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hours before transplant surgery and once a day after the surgery until medication can be taken by ... Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); cimetidine (Tagamet);ciprofloxacin (Cipro); clarithromycin (Biaxin); colchicine; dalfopristin and quinupristin combination ( ...

  19. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  20. A novel combination of K-ras and myc amplification accompanied by point mutational activation of K-ras in a human lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Y; Hosogai, K; Hirohashi, S; Shimosato, Y; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuchida, N; Fushimi, M; Sekiya, T; Nishimura, S

    1984-01-01

    Amplifications of two oncogenes, c-K-ras-2 and c-myc, were found in a human lung giant cell carcinoma (LGCC) Lu-65, which is maintained in nude mice. The extent of c-K-ras-2 and myc amplifications were estimated to be 10- and 8-fold, respectively, by means of the Southern hybridization procedure. In addition, NIH3T3 cells were transformed by transfection of Lu-65 DNA and the transforming gene was identified as c-K-ras-2. c-K-ras-2 genes were cloned from a gene library of Lu-65 and a single point mutation causing a substitution of cysteine for glycine in codon 12 was found by DNA sequencing. It was concluded that the amplification of the c-myc and c-K-ras-2 genes are accompanied by point mutational activation of c-K-ras-2 in the human LGCC Lu-65. This is the first report of multiple gene amplification accompanied by a point mutation of oncogenes in human cancer cells, providing further support for the idea that co-operation of at least two activated cellular oncogenes is required for carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6098458

  1. Surface-assisted defect engineering of point defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Ertekin, Elif; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2016-06-01

    Semiconductor surfaces facilitate the injection of highly mobile point defects into the underlying bulk, thereby offering a special means to manipulate bulk defect concentrations. The present work combines diffusion experiments and first-principles calculations for polar ZnO (0001) surface to demonstrate such manipulation. The rate behavior of oxygen interstitial injection varies dramatically between the Zn- and O-terminated ZnO surfaces. A specific injection pathway for the Zn-terminated surface is identified, and activation barrier determined from the first-principles calculations agrees closely with the experimental activation energy of 1.7 eV.

  2. Investigation of critical lines and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures in the combined pressure-temperature-concentration planes around the van Laar point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençaslan, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    We investigate critical curves and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures at the van Laar point and its vicinity. The van Laar point is only point at which the mathematical double point curve is stable, and also the intersection of the tricritical point and the double critical end point. The critical line structure is displayed for various combinations of the chain length and system parameters in the reduced pressure (P∗) temperature (T∗) plane, as is usually done with experimental results and temperature-concentration (T, x) plane. The P∗,T∗ diagrams are discussed in accordance with the Scott and van Konynenburg binary phase diagram classification. We found that our P∗,T∗ plots correspond to the type II, type III, type IV phase diagram behaviors and they are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental studies. It is also found that the critical lines and phase behavior are extremely sensitive to small modifications in the system parameters.

  3. The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Andrew D; Handel, Ian G; Shervell, Kate; Roux, Tarryn; Mayer, Dagmar; Muyila, Stanford; Maruwo, Golden B; Nkhulungo, Edwin M S; Foster, Rachel A; Chikungwa, Patrick; Chimera, Bernard; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2016-07-01

    An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimated 13 million USD and 484 human deaths annually, with an increasing paediatric incidence in Blantyre City. Consequently, the aim of this study was to vaccinate a minimum of 75% of all the dogs within Blantyre city during a one month period. Blantyre's 25 administrative wards were divided into 204 working zones. For initial planning, a mean human:dog ratio from the literature enabled estimation of dog population size and dog surveys were then performed in 29 working zones in order to assess dog distribution by land type. Vaccination was conducted at static point stations at weekends, at a total of 44 sites, with each operating for an average of 1.3 days. On Monday to Wednesday, door-to-door vaccination sessions were undertaken in the areas surrounding the preceding static point stations. 23,442 dogs were vaccinated at static point stations and 11,774 dogs were vaccinated during door-to-door vaccinations. At the end of the 20 day vaccination programme, an assessment of vaccination coverage through door-to-door surveys found that of 10,919 dogs observed, 8,661 were vaccinated resulting in a vaccination coverage of 79.3% (95%CI 78.6-80.1%). The estimated human:dog ratio for Blantyre city was 18.1:1. Mobile technology facilitated the collection of data as well as efficient direction and coordination of vaccination teams in near real time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of vaccinating large numbers of dogs at a high vaccination coverage, over a short time period in a large African city. PMID:27414810

  4. The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Andrew D; Handel, Ian G; Shervell, Kate; Roux, Tarryn; Mayer, Dagmar; Muyila, Stanford; Maruwo, Golden B; Nkhulungo, Edwin M. S; Foster, Rachel A; Chikungwa, Patrick; Chimera, Bernard; Bronsvoort, Barend M.deC; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimated 13 million USD and 484 human deaths annually, with an increasing paediatric incidence in Blantyre City. Consequently, the aim of this study was to vaccinate a minimum of 75% of all the dogs within Blantyre city during a one month period. Blantyre’s 25 administrative wards were divided into 204 working zones. For initial planning, a mean human:dog ratio from the literature enabled estimation of dog population size and dog surveys were then performed in 29 working zones in order to assess dog distribution by land type. Vaccination was conducted at static point stations at weekends, at a total of 44 sites, with each operating for an average of 1.3 days. On Monday to Wednesday, door-to-door vaccination sessions were undertaken in the areas surrounding the preceding static point stations. 23,442 dogs were vaccinated at static point stations and 11,774 dogs were vaccinated during door-to-door vaccinations. At the end of the 20 day vaccination programme, an assessment of vaccination coverage through door-to-door surveys found that of 10,919 dogs observed, 8,661 were vaccinated resulting in a vaccination coverage of 79.3% (95%CI 78.6–80.1%). The estimated human:dog ratio for Blantyre city was 18.1:1. Mobile technology facilitated the collection of data as well as efficient direction and coordination of vaccination teams in near real time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of vaccinating large numbers of dogs at a high vaccination coverage, over a short time period in a large African city. PMID:27414810

  5. Solute interaction with point defects in α Fe during thermal ageing: A combined ab initio and atomic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, E.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2006-06-01

    Solute Cu plays a major role in the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under radiation. In RPV steels and dilute FeCu alloys, characterization techniques such as the tomographic atom probe (TAP), or the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) have revealed the formation of solute rich clusters (with Cu, Ni, Mn and Si) under neutron flux. It is thus very important to characterize the interactions of these solutes with radiation-induced point defects in order to understand the elementary mechanisms behind the formation of these clusters. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory have been made in order to build a database used to parameterise an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model. The interactions of point defects and solute atoms in dilute FeX alloys (X = Cu, Mn, Ni or Si) have been evaluated for different configurations of small solute clusters and solute-vacancy complexes. First results obtained with the kinetic Monte Carlo model will be presented and compared to some experimental observations.

  6. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  7. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the southern sky with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios-Martí, J.; Finley, C.

    2016-04-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino point-like sources using the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes over the Southern Hemisphere is presented. The ANTARES data were collected between January 2007 and December 2012, whereas the IceCube data ranges from April 2008 to May 2011. An unbinned maximum likelihood method is used to search for a localized excess of muon events in the southern sky assuming an E-2 neutrino source spectrum. A search over a pre-selected list of candidate sources has also been carried out for different source assumptions: spectral indices of 2.0 and 2.5, and energy cutoffs of 1 PeV, 300 TeV and 100 TeV. No significant excess over the background has been found, and upper limits for the candidate sources are presented compared to the individual experiments.

  8. The Effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection in Combination with Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone on the Improvement of Efficacy and Immune Function in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    dedong, Cao; huilin, Xu; Anbing, He; Ximing, Xu; wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) on cellular immunity and clinical efficacy in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) when combined with chemotherapy. Methods Electronic databases including EMBASE, PUBMED, the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Cochrane, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biological Medical disc(CBM) were searched, until July, 2015. The randomized controlled clinical studies reporting results of efficacy and immune function were collected according to the inclusion criteria. Cochrane handbook 5.1.0 was applied to assess the quality of included trials and Revman 5 software was used for data analysis. Results Fifteen studies including 1006 cases of advanced NSCLC were included based on the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in percentages of CD3+ cells (SMD = 13.48; 95%CI: 8.11–18.85; p<0.01), CD4+ cells (SMD = 10.78; 95%CI, 6.38–15.18; p<0.01), NK [WMD = 8.59, 95% CI(3.97, 13.21), p = 0.003], and ratio of CD4+/ CD8+ (SMD = 0.32; 95%: 0.28–0.36; p<0.01) between SFI combination group and control group, whereas the difference was not significant in CD8+ (SMD = -1.44; 95%CI, -4.53–1.65; p = 0.36). Funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation test and Egger's linear regression analysis indicated that there was significant publication bias across studies. Conclusion SFI is effective to improve the efficacy of chemotherpay and function of cellular immunity in NSCLC patients, however, high quality RCTs are needed to further confirm the findings. PMID:27015629

  9. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

  10. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  11. Anthropological perspectives on injections: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative studies from developing countries have pointed to the widespread popularity of injections. In addition to their use by formal and informal providers and traditional healers, there is now increasing evidence of the use of injections and injection equipment by lay people. Epidemiological research links the large number of unsafe injections to serious bloodborne infections such as viral hepatitis B and C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The present article examines the reasons behind the demand for injections by consumers and the administration of unnecessary or unsafe injections by different types of provider. Interventions aimed at reducing the risk of unsafe injections are discussed in relation to cultural and social factors as well as those factors associated with health systems. Suggestions are made for approaches to the design of such interventions. PMID:10686748

  12. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  13. Research and operational products from the combination of a monthly hydrographic station and an oceanic buoy: The Biscay AGL fixed-point water column observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Alicia; Cano, Daniel; González-Pola, Cesar; Tel, Elena; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz, Manuel; Somavilla, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Long term time series are an important tool for increasing the knowledge of ocean processes as well as for studying water masses variability in different time scales and changes and tendencies in marine ecosystems. Time series has been classically obtained by oceanographic ships that regularly cover standard sections and stations. From 1991, shelf and slope waters of the Southern Bay of Biscay are regularly sampled in a monthly hydrographic line north of Santander to a depth of 1000 m in early stages and for the whole water column down to 2580 m in recent times. Nearby, in June 2007, the IEO deployed an oceanic-meteorological buoy (AGL Buoy, 43° 50.67'N; 3° 46.20'W, and 40 km offshore, www.boya-agl.st.ieo.es). The long-term hydrographical record have allowed to define the seasonality, trends, and interannual variability at all levels, including the mixing layer and the main water masses North Atlantic Central Water and Mediterranean Water. The relation of these changes with high frequency surface conditions has been examined using the AGL buoy data from 2007 as well as satellite and reanalysis data. On that context and using that combination of sources, some products and quality controlled series of high interest and utility for scientific purposes have been developed and are offered hourly in the web page. Main products obtained are: SST and SSS anomalies, wave significant height character with respect to monthly average, and currents with respect to seasonal averages. Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes (latent and sensible) are computed from the buoy atmospheric and oceanic measurements. Estimations of the mixed layer depth and bulk series at different water levels are provided in a monthly basis. Quality controlled series are provided for sea surface salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll data. Some sensors are particularly affected by biofouling, and monthly visits to the buoy permit to follow these sensors behaviour. Chlorophyll-fluorescence sensor is the main concern

  14. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  15. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in Combination with Local OK-432 Injection Prolongs Survival and Suppresses Distant Tumor Growth in the Rabbit Model with Intra- and Extrahepatic VX2 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken Yamamoto, Akira Okuma, Tomohisa Hamamoto, Shinichi Takeshita, Toru Sakai, Yukimasa Nishida, Norifumi Matsuoka, Toshiyuki Miki, Yukio

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and distant tumor growth after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local OK-432 injection at a single tumor site in a rabbit model with intra- and extrahepatic VX2 tumors and to examine the effect of this combination therapy, which we termed immuno-radiofrequency ablation (immunoRFA), on systemic antitumor immunity in a rechallenge test. Methods: Our institutional animal care committee approved all experiments. VX2 tumors were implanted to three sites: two in the liver and one in the left ear. Rabbits were randomized into four groups of seven to receive control, RFA alone, OK-432 alone, and immunoRFA treatments at a single liver tumor at 1 week after implantation. Untreated liver and ear tumor volumes were measured after the treatment. As the rechallenge test, tumors were reimplanted into the right ear of rabbits, which survived the 35 weeks and were followed up without additional treatment. Statistical significance was examined by log-rank test for survival and Student's t test for tumor volume. Results: Survival was significantly prolonged in the immunoRFA group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Untreated liver and ear tumor sizes became significantly smaller after immunoRFA compared to controls (P < 0.05). In the rechallenge test, the reimplanted tumors regressed without further therapy compared to the ear tumors of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ImmunoRFA led to improved survival and suppression of distant untreated tumor growth. Decreases in size of the distant untreated tumors and reimplanted tumors suggested that systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by immunoRFA.

  16. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Julien; Ford, Jon; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Hahne, Andrew; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Huguenin, Leesa; Norsworthy, Cameron; Shah, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of intra-articular chondral defects in the knee remains a challenge. Inadequate healing in areas of weight bearing leads to impairment in load transmission and these defects predispose to later development of osteoarthritis. Surgical management of full thickness chondral defects include arthroscopic microfracture and when appropriate autologous chondrocyte implantation. This latter method however is technically challenging, and may not offer significant improvement over microfracture. Preclinical and limited clinical trials have indicated the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to influence chondral repair. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic microfracture alone for isolated knee chondral defects versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell injections. Methods and analysis A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18–50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0–10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received prospective ethics approval through

  17. Drug-Related Arrest Rates and Spatial Access to Syringe Exchange Programs in New York City Health Districts: Combined Effects on the Risk of Injection-Related Infections among Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Jarlais, Don C Des; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Ross, Zev; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-01-01

    Drug-related law enforcement activities may undermine the protective effects of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) on local injectors’ risk of injection-related infections. We explored the spatial overlap of drug-related arrest rates and access to SEPs over time (1995-2006) in New York City health districts, and used multilevel models to investigate the relationship of these two district-level exposures to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe. Districts with better SEP access had higher arrest rates, and arrest rates undermined SEPs’ protective relationship with unsterile injecting. Drug-related enforcement strategies targeting drug users should be de-emphasized in areas surrounding SEPs. PMID:22047790

  18. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  19. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  20. A point matching algorithm based on reference point pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Huanxin; Zhu, Youqing; Zhou, Shilin; Lei, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Outliers and occlusions are important degradation in the real application of point matching. In this paper, a novel point matching algorithm based on the reference point pairs is proposed. In each iteration, it firstly eliminates the dubious matches to obtain the relatively accurate matching points (reference point pairs), and then calculates the shape contexts of the removed points with reference to them. After re-matching the removed points, the reference point pairs are combined to achieve better correspondences. Experiments on synthetic data validate the advantages of our method in comparison with some classical methods.

  1. Treatment Outcomes of Transurethral Macroplastique Injection for Postprostatectomy Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Woo; Kang, Jung Hun; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeong, U-Seok; Lee, Young-Suk; Baek, Minki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the efficacy of transurethral injection of Macroplastique bulking agent (Uroplasty) for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after prostate surgery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included men with SUI treated by transurethral injection for symptoms resulting from prostate surgery. Patients were evaluated at 1 month and 6 months after injection by determining the number of pads used per day and changes in incontinence symptoms. Treatment success was defined as use of 1 pad or fewer per day combined with subjective symptom improvement. Results The study population comprised 30 men with a mean age of 66.1±5.3 years. Of the 30 patients, 24 (80.0%) underwent prostate cancer surgery and the remaining 6 (20.0%) underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The preinjection pad number was 2.9±1.9 pads per day. After injection treatment, the mean follow-up period was 9.3±12.7 months and the success rate was 43% (13/30) at 1 month and 32% (6/19) at 6 months. Injection was more likely to result in a successful outcome in patients with no preinjection radiation treatment history and higher abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) than in those with a previous history of radiation treatment and lower ALPP, although this result was not statistically significant. Acute urinary retention occurred in 5 patients (17%). Conclusions Transurethral Macroplastique injection treatment is a relatively non-invasive treatment method for male SUI with a success rate of 43% at 1 month and 32% at 6 months. Patients with a higher ALPP and no previous history of radiation therapy may experience better treatment outcomes. PMID:24648873

  2. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  7. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  8. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age; episodes of symptoms in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... When corticotropin repository injection is used to treat multiple sclerosis, it is usually injected once a day for ...

  9. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  10. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  11. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  12. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  13. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  14. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  15. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  16. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  20. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  1. Treatment of vertebral body compression fractures using percutaneous kyphoplasty guided by a combination of computed tomography and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point.

    PubMed

    Wang, G Y; Zhang, C C; Ren, K; Zhang, P P; Liu, C H; Zheng, Z A; Chen, Y; Fang, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the results and complications of image-guided percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) using computed tomography (CT) and C-arm fluoroscopy, with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point. Of the 86 patients (106 PKP) examined, 56 were treated for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and 30 for vertebral tumors. All patients underwent image-guided treatment using CT and conventional fluoroscopy, with finger-touch identification of a puncture point within a small incision (1.5 to 2 cm). Partial or complete pain relief was achieved in 98% of patients within 24 h of treatment. Moreover, a significant improvement in functional mobility and reduction in analgesic use was observed. CT allowed the detection of cement leakage in 20.7% of the interventions. No bone cement leakages with neurologic symptoms were noted. All work channels were made only once, and bone cement was distributed near the center of the vertebral body. Our study confirms the efficacy of PKP treatment in osteoporotic and oncological patients. The combination of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance reduces the risk of complications compared with conventional fluoroscopy alone, facilitates the detection of minor cement leakage, improves the operative procedure, and results in a favorable bone cement distribution. PMID:25867298

  2. NIF injection laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisoff, Peter J.; Bowers, Mark W.; Erbert, Gaylen V.; Browning, Donald F.; Jedlovec, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-power, 192-beam laser facility being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 192 laser beams that will converge on the target at the output of the NIF laser system originate from a low power fiber laser in the Master Oscillator Room (MOR). The MOR is responsible for generating the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system. This single pulse is phase-modulated to add bandwidth, and then amplified and split into 48 separate beam lines all in single-mode polarizing fiber. Before leaving the MOR, each of the 48 output pulses are temporally sculpted into high contrast shapes using Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG). Each output pulse is then carried by optical fiber to the Preamplifier Module (PAM) where it is amplified to the multi-joule level using a diode-pumped regenerative amplifier and a multi-pass, flashlamp-pumped rod amplifier. Inside the PAM, the beam is spatially shaped to pre-compensate for the spatial gain profile in the main laser amplifiers. The output from the PAM is sampled by a diagnostic package called the Input Sensor Package (ISP) and then split into four beams in the Preamplifier Beam Transport System (PABTS). Each of these four beams is injected into one of NIF's 192 beam lines. The combination of the MOR, PAM, ISP and PABTS constitute the Injection Laser System (ILS) for NIF. This system has proven its flexibility of providing a wide variety of pulse shapes and energies during the first experiments utilizing four beam lines of NIF.

  3. Divergent and point-to-point connections in the commissural pathway between the inferior colliculi

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, Manuel S; Hernández, Olga; Antunes, Flora M; Rees, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The commissure of the inferior colliculus interconnects the left and right sides of the auditory midbrain and provides the final opportunity for interaction between the two sides of the auditory pathway at the subcortical level. Although the functional properties of the commissure are beginning to be revealed, the topographical organization of its connections is unknown. A combination of neuroanatomical tracing studies, 3D reconstruction, and neuronal density maps was used to study the commissural connections in rat. The results demonstrate that commissural neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus send a divergent projection to the equivalent frequency-band laminae in the central nucleus and dorsal and lateral cortices on the opposite side. The density of this projection, however, is weighted toward a point that matches the position of the tracer injection; consistent with a point-to-point emphasis in the wiring pattern. In the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus there may be two populations of neurons that project across the commissure, one projecting exclusively to the frequency-band laminae in the central nucleus and the other projecting diffusely to the dorsal cortex. Neurons in the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus make only a very weak contribution to the commissural pathway. The point-to-point pattern of connections permits interactions between specific regions of corresponding frequency-band laminae, whereas the divergent projection pattern could subserve integration across the lamina. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:226–239, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19296464

  4. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  5. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  6. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  7. Point and Shoot Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, John E.

    2011-05-01

    A new generation of point and shoot digital cameras, when combined with open source firmware enhancements can operate as astrographs. This paper explores the research and astro-photographic opportunities and capabilities offered by this pairing of mass production optics and open source functional extensions that retail for as little as $200.

  8. Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniela S; Hong, Zhongkui; Mano, João F

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18835230

  9. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C.; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G.; Alfieri, Fabio M.; Filippo, Thais R.; da Rocha, Ivan D.; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. PMID:26828801

  10. Development of an advanced boron injection tank

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yuasa, Tetsushi; Makihara, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Kazuharu; Ichioka, Takehiko

    1996-12-31

    Mitsubishi has developed a hybrid safety system. This is an optimum combination of active and passive safety systems that provides improved safety, higher reliability, and better economy. As one option of the passive safety systems, Mitsubishi is studying a passive boron injection system that uses an advanced boron injection tank (BIT). The boron injection system to be developed in this study is passive and does not use nitrogen gas as a driving force. These features realize the higher reliability and eliminate a bad influence of the nitrogen gas during natural circulation cooling in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The driving force of the boric acid water injection in our advanced BIT is the boiling and steam expansion due to the depressurization inside the tank. Mitsubishi carried out tests to verify that the injection mechanism of the advanced BIT is basically feasible.

  11. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  12. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  13. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  14. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  15. Membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-amplified sample injection CE-UV for high-sensitivity analysis of six cardiovascular drugs in human urine sample.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Qing; Hu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    An effective dual preconcentration method involving off-line membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) and on-line field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was proposed for the extraction of six cardiovascular drugs, including mexiletine, xylocaine, propafenone, propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol from aqueous solution prior to CE-UV. In MS-LLLME, the analytes were extracted from 9 mL sample solution into toluene, and then back extracted into a drop of acceptor phase of 10 μL 20 mmol/L acetic acid. After that, the acceptor phase was directly introduced into CE for FASI without any modification. In FASI process, water plug was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar, 3 s) into the capillary prior to sample injection (+6 kV, 18 s). Six target analytes were separated in less than 10 min at 25°C with a BGE consisting of 70 mmol/L Tris-H3 PO4 (pH 2.2) containing 10% v/v methanol. Under the optimized conditions, LODs obtained by the proposed MS-LLLME-FASI-CE-UV method were in the range of 0.02-0.82 μg/L (based on S/N = 3) with enrichment factors of 546- to 7300-fold for the target analytes. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.7-12.9% (n = 7). Good linearity (R(2) = 0.9928-0.9997) was obtained in concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/L for mexiletine and propranolol, 0.2-100 μg/L for xylocaine and metoprolol, 0.5-100 μg/L for propafenone and 2.0-100 μg/L for carvedilol, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for real-time determination of metoprolol in human urine samples within 26 h after uptake. PMID:26763094

  16. Combined cloud point-solid phase extraction by dispersion of TiO₂ nanoparticles in micellar media followed by semi-microvolume UV-vis spectrophotometric detection of zinc.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Naghdi, Tina

    2014-10-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper by using dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a combined cloud point and solid phase extraction for the efficient preconcentration and determination of Zn(2+) in various samples. In this method Zn(2+) ions are adsorbed on TiO2-NPs and transferred into surfactant rich phase. Subsequently the Zn(2+) ions are desorbed from TiO2-NPs by a dithizone solution via forming a color complex which could be detected colorimetrically. The influence of chemical variables such as pH of the sample solution, electrolyte, amount of TiO2-NPs, type and volume of the eluent on the extraction system was studied. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-90.0 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) (r=0.9996). An enrichment factor of 80 was achieved and the limit of detection for Zn(2+) was 0.33 µg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate measurements of 10 µg L(-1) and 60 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) was 1.8% and 1.5% respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of Zn(2+) in tap water, powder milk and Zinc sulfate tablet with satisfactory results. PMID:25059144

  17. Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, N. D.; Ewen, R. J.; de Lacy Costello, B.; Garner, C. E.; Probert, C. S. J.; Vaughan, K.; Ratcliffe, N. M.

    2014-06-01

    Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor sensor and artificial neural network software. For direct analysis of biological samples this prototype offers alternatives to conventional gas chromatography (GC) detectors and electronic nose technology. The performance was compared to an identical instrument incorporating a long single capillary column (LSCC). The ability of the prototypes to separate complex mixtures was assessed using gas standards and homogenized in house ‘standard’ stool samples, with both capable of detecting more than 24 peaks per sample. The elution time was considerably faster with the SMCC resulting in a run time of 10 min compared to 30 min for the LSCC. The diagnostic potential of the prototypes was assessed using 50 C. difficile positive and 50 negative samples. The prototypes demonstrated similar capability of discriminating between positive and negative samples with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 80% respectively. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea, with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A device capable of rapidly diagnosing the disease at the point of care would reduce cases, deaths and financial burden.

  18. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  19. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with field-amplified sample injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography for improved determination of β-blockers in human urine.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana

    2016-03-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of carvedilol and propranolol in human urine samples. In this study, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (VALLE) coupled with field-amplified sample injection and sweeping was employed for biological sample clean-up and sensitivity enhancement in MEKC. After VALLE, the urine samples were analyzed by MEKC. Tris-phosphate buffer (60mmolL(-1), pH 2.0) containing 40% (v/v) methanol was first filled into an uncoated fused-silica capillary (56cm, 50µm i.d.). The pretreated urine sample was loaded by electrokinetic injection (10kV, 250s). The stacking and separation were performed using Tris-phosphate buffer (30mmolL(-1), pH 3.0) containing 30% (v/v) methanol and 50mmolL(-1) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at -25kV. Detection was carried out at 195 and 214nm for carvedilol and propranolol, respectively. The suggested method is linear (r(2)≥0.997) over a dynamic range of 0.005-1µgmL(-1) in urine. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative error values of the method were below 20%, which shows good precision and accuracy. Finally, this method was successfully applied to the analysis of real urine samples. PMID:26717845

  20. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  1. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  2. Tevatron reverse injection

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-25

    In the new injection scenario antiprotons are injected onto a helical orbit in the Tevatron in order to avoid the detrimental effects of the beam-beam interaction at 150 GeV. The new scenario required changes in the tuning procedure. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning, therefore the antiproton injection line has to be tuned with protons by reverse injecting them from the Tevatron into the Main Pang (MR). Previously, the reverse injection was performed in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS dock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus marking it possible to inject 6 proton batches and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR.

  3. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  4. Spin injection into semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  5. Combinations Therapies.

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, Niels; Reck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer encompasses different strategies that elicit or enhance the immune response against tumors. The first results from clinical studies have provided promising data for the treatment of lung cancer patients with immunomodulating monotherapies. To improve the potential benefit of cancer immunotherapy, synergistic combinations of the various immunotherapy approaches or of different elements within each of the immunotherapy approaches are being explored. The rationale typically involves different but complementary mechanisms of action, eventually impinging on more than one immune system mechanism. As a prominent example, the simultaneous blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 is giving rise to therapeutic synergy, while still offering room for efficacy improvement. Moreover, combinations of immunomodulating agents with chemotherapy or targeted molecules are being tested. Animal models suggest that immunotherapies in combination with these various options offer evidence for synergistic effects and are likely to radically change cancer treatment paradigms. However, data obtained so far indicate that toxic side effects are also potentiated, which may even restrict the selection of patients that are suitable for these combinational approaches. Advancing the field of combinatorial immunotherapy will require changes in the way investigational agents are clinically developed as well as novel experimental end-points for efficacy evaluation. However, this combined therapeutic manipulation of both tumor and stromal cells may lead to a dramatic change in the therapeutic options of lung cancer patients in any disease stage that can only grossly be appreciated by the current studies. PMID:26384009

  6. Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dreifke, Michael B.; Ebraheim, Nabil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly (propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behaviorin vitro andin vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects. PMID:23401336

  7. Resistance of Female Mice to Vaginal Infection Induced by Herpesvirus hominis Type 2: Effects of Immunization with Mycobacterium bovis, Intravenous Injection of Specific Herpesvirus hominis Type 2 Antiserum, and a Combination of These Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M. B.; Larson, C. L.; Ushijima, R. N.; Anderson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    The susceptibility of 4- to 6-week-old female white Swiss mice to intravaginal inoculation with Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (HVH2) and the effect of prior intravenous immunization with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and/or treatment with specific HVH2 antiserum (SAS) were investigated. Mice inoculated intravaginally developed vaginitis, posterior paralysis, encephalitis, and death. Prior immunization with BCG either had no effect or appeared in some cases to enhance the course of the disease, whereas a single 0.5-ml intravenous injection of SAS provided significant protection. However, synergistic interaction of BCG immunization and treatment with SAS produced the greatest degree of protection in mice challenged intravaginally with HVH2. PMID:4373394

  8. Ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent based on emulsification liquid phase microextraction combined with microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry for valence speciation of chromium(III/VI) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    A new type of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been prepared and used as extraction solvents for ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent based emulsification liquid phase microextraction method (UA-DES-ELPME) for the determination and speciation of total chromium, chromium(III) and chromium(VI). The chromium concentration in DES rich phase (extraction phase) was determined by using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit (LOD), the quantification limit (LOQ), preconcentration factor and relative standard deviation were found as 5.5µgL(-1), 18.2µgL(-1), 20 and 6%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated by the analysis of water the certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified environmental water and TMDA-54.4 Fortified Lake Water) and addition-recovery tests for water samples. PMID:27591663

  9. [Combination of programmable temperature vaporizer-large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system for the determination of 32 pesticides in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Wu, Li; Lin Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2014-12-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 pesticides including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid and carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile, and the organic layer was cleaned up with ENVI-Carb and LC-NH2 cartridges. A large volume of 20 µL purified solution was injected into the GC system using programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). The mass spectrometric detection was operated with full scan mode. The automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) and an isotopic internal standard were used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 32 pesticides, respectively. The conditions for PTV-large volume injection were studied. Furthermore, the selectivity and durability of the method were also assessed. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental results showed that all the linearities were good within their test ranges, with correlation coefficients more than 0. 995, and the method detection limits of the pesticides were 2.0-5.0 µg/kg. The spiked recoveries (n=6) at three levels in the 0. 010 - 0. 50 mg/kg using spinach, snap bean and cucumber samples as blank matrices were in the range of 65. 2% - 120. 3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varying from 4. 1% to 22. 3%, showing good accuracy of the method. The advantages of the proposed method include high throughput, high sensitivity, reliability, robustness, and the ability to meet the demand of multi-residue pesticide analysis in fruits and vegetables. PMID:25902649

  10. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  11. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-30

    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. PMID:25249123

  12. Gas injection apparatus. [Air or steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrov, A.A.

    1986-04-22

    A gas injection apparatus is described in combination with a lined vessel wherein the lined vessel includes a vessel wall and an inner liner. The inner liner consists of a series of parallel tubes radially joined together by web members, the inner liner being spaced apart from the vessel wall and having an inner surface and an outer surface. The gas injection apparatus consists of at least one plenum assembly sealably attached to the outer surface of the inner liner; the inner liner having openings positioned and arranged to provide communication between the interior of the vessel and the area defined by the plenum assembly and the inner liner for injection of gas into the interior of the vessel perpendicularly to the plane of the inner liner; the gas injection apparatus further comprising an expansible supply duct attached to and extending between the vessel wall and the plenum assembly.

  13. Nonmedical-grade Injections of Permanent Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Bayers, Stephanie; Beer, Michael; Beer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Silicone injections may result in complications that bring patients to a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These complications may be due to the use of nonmedical grade products, large volume injections, incorrect placement of the product, or a combination of the above. Frequently, complications result when injections are performed by unlicensed practitioners. Individuals who undergo large volume procedures may develop a variety of life-threatening problems ranging from infections to pulmonary emboli. Once they develop problems, these patients often present to licensed and board-certified physicians for treatment. Based on a review of the literature, this article provides a management algorithm for various complications. In addition, a medicolegal perspective is presented. Finally, the transgender experience as it relates to silicone injections is also reviewed. PMID:23630638

  14. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  15. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  16. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  17. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ... syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  18. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. If you experience a severe reaction, ...

  19. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on dialysis. Ferric carboxymaltose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... rapid, weak pulse; chest pain; or loss of consciousness. If you experience a severe reaction, your doctor ...

  20. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  1. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  2. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Amphotericin B Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by slowing the growth of fungi ... amikacin, gentamicin, or tobramycin (Bethkis, Kitabis Pak, Tobi); antifungals such as clotrimazole, fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox), ...

  4. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's ... injection is used to decrease the risk that blood transfusions will be required due to surgery, it is ...

  5. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may tell you not to use darbepoetin alfa injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  6. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  7. Insulin Lispro Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... if it is colored, cloudy, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin lispro suspension, the ...

  8. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  9. Ceftazidime and Avibactam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may receive ceftazidime and avibactam injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  10. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure you are not having a serious reaction to the medication. You will be given other medications 30 minutes before your infusion to prevent reactions to sipuleucel-T injection. Tell your doctor or ...

  11. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  12. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also used to temporarily smooth frown lines (wrinkles between the eyebrows). AbobotulinumtoxinA injection is in a ... to treat excessive sweating, many types of facial wrinkles, anal fissures, and to prevent headaches in patients ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys to stop working) who are on dialysis and are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, ... gluconate injection is usually given during 8 consecutive dialysis sessions for a total of 8 doses. If ...

  14. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  15. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  16. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  17. Application of dynamic liquid-phase microextraction and injection port derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of acidic pharmaceutically active compounds in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lee, Hian Kee

    2009-10-30

    A method has been established for the determination of four pharmaceutically active compounds (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid) in water samples using dynamic hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF/LPME) followed by gas chromatography (GC) injection port derivatization and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) determination. Dynamic HF/LPME is a novel approach to microextraction that involves the use of a programmable syringe pump to move the liquid phases participating in the extraction so as to facilitate the process. Trimethylanilinium hydroxide (TMAH) was used as derivatization reagent for the analytes to increase their volatility and improve chromatographic separation. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency (selection of organic solvent, volume of organic solvent, agitation in the donor phase, plunger movement and extraction time) were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method provided good enrichment factors up to 251, reproducibility ranging from 3.26% to 10.61%, and good linearity from 0.2 to 50 microg/L. The limits of detection ranged between 0.01 and 0.05 microg/L (S/N=3) using selective ion monitoring. This method was applied to the determination of the four pharmaceutically active compounds in tap water and wastewater collected from a drain in the vicinity of a hospital. PMID:19345366

  18. Treatment of ischiofemoral impingement: results of diagnostic injections and arthroscopic resection of the lesser trochanter.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark D; Keene, James S

    2016-07-01

    Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is an often unrecognized cause of hip pain caused by abnormal contact between the lesser trochanter and the ischium. To date, surgical treatment for those whose pain is not relieved by activity modification and steroid injections has not been defined. This study describes our imaging protocol and reports the results of arthroscopic, lesser trochanteric resections that were performed to treat this condition. Seven patients with symptomatic, MRI-documented IFI had ultrasound injections of ropivicaine and steroid into their ischiofemoral space. The injections provided complete but only transient relief of their groin and buttock pain and thus, all seven ultimately had an arthroscopic resection of their lesser trochanter. All hips were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively with Byrd's modified Harris hip scoring system. Average age of the seven patients was 46 years and there were five females and one male. Preoperative scores averaged 43 points. After surgery, all patients used crutches for 4-6 weeks, and had 6-week scores that averaged 58 points. The patients and their scores continued to improve and at 6 and 12 months, their scores averaged 86 and 91 points, and none had chronic hip flexor weakness or recurrence of their hip pain or snapping. Arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies in combination with a resection of the lesser trochanter will provide complete relief of the painful snapping, groin and buttock pain caused by ischiofemoral impingement. PMID:27583151

  19. Treatment of ischiofemoral impingement: results of diagnostic injections and arthroscopic resection of the lesser trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark D.; Keene, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is an often unrecognized cause of hip pain caused by abnormal contact between the lesser trochanter and the ischium. To date, surgical treatment for those whose pain is not relieved by activity modification and steroid injections has not been defined. This study describes our imaging protocol and reports the results of arthroscopic, lesser trochanteric resections that were performed to treat this condition. Seven patients with symptomatic, MRI-documented IFI had ultrasound injections of ropivicaine and steroid into their ischiofemoral space. The injections provided complete but only transient relief of their groin and buttock pain and thus, all seven ultimately had an arthroscopic resection of their lesser trochanter. All hips were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively with Byrd’s modified Harris hip scoring system. Average age of the seven patients was 46 years and there were five females and one male. Preoperative scores averaged 43 points. After surgery, all patients used crutches for 4–6 weeks, and had 6-week scores that averaged 58 points. The patients and their scores continued to improve and at 6 and 12 months, their scores averaged 86 and 91 points, and none had chronic hip flexor weakness or recurrence of their hip pain or snapping. Arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies in combination with a resection of the lesser trochanter will provide complete relief of the painful snapping, groin and buttock pain caused by ischiofemoral impingement. PMID:27583151

  20. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426