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Sample records for point particle limit

  1. Collisions of unequal mass black holes and the point particle limit

    SciTech Connect

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Cardoso, Vitor; Ott, Christian D.; Schnetter, Erik; Witek, Helvi

    2011-10-15

    Numerical relativity has seen incredible progress in the last years, and is being applied with success to a variety of physical phenomena, from gravitational wave research and relativistic astrophysics to cosmology and high-energy physics. Here we probe the limits of current numerical setups, by studying collisions of unequal mass, nonrotating black holes of mass ratios up to 1 ratio 100 and making contact with a classical calculation in general relativity: the infall of a pointlike particle into a massive black hole. Our results agree well with the predictions coming from linearized calculations of the infall of pointlike particles into nonrotating black holes. In particular, in the limit that one hole is much smaller than the other, and the infall starts from an infinite initial separation, we recover the point-particle limit. Thus, numerical relativity is able to bridge the gap between fully nonlinear dynamics and linearized approximations, which may have important applications. Finally, we also comment on the 'spurious' radiation content in the initial data and the linearized predictions.

  2. Point-particle limit and the far-zone quadrupole formula in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Futamase, T.

    1985-11-15

    Strong internal gravity is incorporated in a divergent-free post-Newtonian approximation scheme by introducing a body-zone limit. When incorporated into the notion of sequences of solutions, this provides the first rigorous point-particle limit in general relativity. The scheme is applied to construct an asymptotic approximation to a binary system composed of two rotating neutron stars. The lowest-order calculation is carried out in the near and far zones, giving Newton's equations of motion and the far-zone quadrupole formula. The quadrupole moment of the system is expressed in terms of a mass integral over each compact star. The same mass appears in Newton's equations of motion. The mass is indeed the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass the compact star would have if it were isolated. Thus the equivalence principle for strong gravity is confirmed, even for gravitational radiation: gravitational potential energy radiates the same amount of gravitational waves as any other form of energy does.

  3. Limits on light weakly interacting massive particles from the CDEX-1 experiment with a p -type point-contact germanium detector at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.

  4. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  5. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Polygon Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Yan-Ting; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) assumes that particles perform pure random walk at a finite temperature and aggregate when they come close enough and stick together. Although it is well known that DLA in two dimensions results in a ramified fractal structure, how the particle shape influences the formed morphology is still unclear. In this work, we perform the off-lattice two-dimensional DLA simulations with different particle shapes of triangle, quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon, respectively, and compare with the results for circular particles. Our results indicate that different particle shapes only change the local structure, but have no effects on the global structure of the formed fractal cluster. The local compactness decreases as the number of polygon edges increases.

  6. Preliminary particle scoop limiter measurements in PDX

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, R.

    1981-08-01

    A plasma edge particle scoop limiter has been installed on the equator of the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), a large tokamak. The scoop limiter is unique in that it is designed such that the plasma plugs the entrance throat thereby impeding the return flow of neutralized gas to the discharge. Neutral gas pressures of the order of 50 microns were measured inside the scoop. The pressure dependence on electron density in the scrapeoff plasma at the throat entrance was stronger than linear.

  7. Diffusion-limited deposition of dipolar particles.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, F; Tavares, J M; Tasinkevych, M; Telo da Gama, M M

    2004-06-01

    Deposits of dipolar particles are investigated by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We found that the effect of the interactions is described by an initial, nonuniversal, scaling regime characterized by orientationally ordered deposits. In the dipolar regime, the order and geometry of the clusters depend on the strength of the interactions and the magnetic properties are tunable by controlling the growth conditions. At later stages, the growth is dominated by thermal effects and the diffusion-limited universal regime obtains, at finite temperatures. At low temperatures the crossover size increases exponentially as T decreases and at T=0 only the dipolar regime is observed. PMID:15244567

  8. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2009-12-15

    Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

  9. Bounded limit for the Monte Carlo point-flux-estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Grimesey, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    In a Monte Carlo random walk the kernel K(R,E) is used as an expected value estimator at every collision for the collided flux phi/sub c/ r vector,E) at the detector point. A limiting value for the kernel is derived from a diffusion approximation for the probability current at a radius R/sub 1/ from the detector point. The variance of the collided flux at the detector point is thus bounded using this asymptotic form for K(R,E). The bounded point flux estimator is derived. (WHK)

  10. Fundamental concepts and limitations in precision pointing and tracking problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Carroll D.; Masten, Michael K.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, we first describe the generic pointing and tracking problems in a general dynamical system/state-space context. Then, we analyze the information-theoretical aspects of the various uncertain signals in those problems, and establish some fundamental performance limitations those uncertainties induce, using various results and principles of modern control theory. It is shown that the introduction of 'waveform models' for uncertain signals, leading to an extended-state formulation of pointing and tracking problems, is the most effective rational means of coping with those fundamental limitations.

  11. Continuum Limit of Total Variation on Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Trillos, Nicolás; Slepčev, Dejan

    2016-04-01

    We consider point clouds obtained as random samples of a measure on a Euclidean domain. A graph representing the point cloud is obtained by assigning weights to edges based on the distance between the points they connect. Our goal is to develop mathematical tools needed to study the consistency, as the number of available data points increases, of graph-based machine learning algorithms for tasks such as clustering. In particular, we study when the cut capacity, and more generally total variation, on these graphs is a good approximation of the perimeter (total variation) in the continuum setting. We address this question in the setting of Γ-convergence. We obtain almost optimal conditions on the scaling, as the number of points increases, of the size of the neighborhood over which the points are connected by an edge for the Γ-convergence to hold. Taking of the limit is enabled by a transportation based metric which allows us to suitably compare functionals defined on different point clouds.

  12. Two-point particle tracking microrheology of nematic complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Manuel; Del Álamo, Juan C

    2016-06-29

    Many biological and technological complex fluids exhibit tight microstructural alignment that confers them nematic mechanical properties. Among these we count liquid crystals and biopolymer networks, which are often available in microscopic amounts. However, current microrheological methods cannot measure the directional viscoelastic coefficients that appear in the constitutive relation of nematic complex fluids. This article presents directional two-point particle-tracking microrheology (D2PTM) - a novel microrheology technique to determine these coefficients. We establish the theoretical foundation for D2PTM by analyzing the motion of a probing microscopic particle embedded in a nematic complex fluid, and the mutual hydrodynamic interactions between pairs of distant particles. From this analysis, we generalize the formulation of two-point particle tracking microrheology for nematic complex fluids, and demonstrate that the new formulation provides sufficient information to fully characterize the anisotropic viscoelastic coefficients of such materials. We test D2PTM by simulating the Brownian motion of particles in nematic viscoelastic fluids with prescribed directional frequency-dependent shear moduli, showing that D2PTM accurately recovers the prescribed shear moduli. Furthermore, we experimentally validate D2PTM by applying it to a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal, and demonstrate that this new microrheology method provides results in agreement with dynamic light scattering measurements. Lastly, we illustrate the experimental application of the new technique to characterize nematic F-actin solutions. These experiments constitute the first microrheological measurement of the directional viscoelastic coefficients of an anisotropic soft material. PMID:27270816

  13. Microscale Simulations of Shock Interaction with Large Assembly of Particles for Developing Point-Particle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Sridharan, Prashanth; Jackson, Tom; Balachandar, S.; University of Florida Team

    2015-06-01

    Micrsoscale simulations are being conducted for developing point-particle models that are needed for macroscale simulations of explosive dispersal of particles. These particle models are required to compute instantaneous force and heat transfer between particles and surroundings. A strategy for a sequence of microscale simulations has been devised for systematic development of hybrid surrogate models that are applicable at conditions representative of explosive dispersal. The microscale simulations examine particle force dependence on: Mach number, Reynolds number, and volume fraction (particle arrangements such as cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic and random). Future plans include investigation of sequences of fully-resolved microscale simulations consisting of an array of particles subjected to more realistic time-dependent flows that progressively better approximate the problem of explosive dispersal. Additionally, effects of particle shape, size, and number as well as the transient particle deformation dependence on parameters including: (a) particle material, (b) medium material, (c) multiple particles, (d) incoming shock pressure and speed, (e) medium to particle impedance ratio, (f) particle shape and orientation to shock, etc. are being investigated.

  14. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2016-08-21

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water - a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge - in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed. PMID:27544113

  15. Influence of particle size on diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z J; Zou, X W; Zhang, W B; Jin, Z Z

    1999-11-01

    The influence of particle size on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) has been investigated by computer simulations. For DLA clusters consisting of two kinds of particles with different sizes, when large particles are in the minority, the patterns of clusters appear asymmetrical and nonuniform, and their fractal dimensions D(f) increase compared with one-component DLA. With increasing size of large particles, D(f) increases. This increase can be attributed to two reasons: one is that large particles become new growth centers; the other is the big masses of large particles. As the concentration ratio x(n) of large particles increases, D(f) will reach a maximum value D(f(m)) and then decrease. When x(n) exceeds a certain value, the morphology and D(f) of the two-component DLA clusters are similar to those of one-component DLA clusters. PMID:11970534

  16. The dynamics of point particles around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Michael Francis Ian G., II

    A point particle moving in a curved spacetime gives rise to fields that in turn affect its motion. One conveniently thinks of this interplay as the response of the particle to its self-force. To date, models of point particle motion in the vicinity of black holes have ignored parts of this self-force because it is such a challenge to calculate. This work is part of a larger effort to develop systematic tools for the efficient calculation of such self-forces. This development is made with the aim of accurately simulating the inspiraling motion of compact objects onto supermassive black holes (also known as extreme-mass-ratio binary inspirals, or EMRIs), and of obtaining good predictions of the gravitational waves they emit. EMRIs are the main targets for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For the mission to succeed, accurate templates of the gravitational waves it will pick up are necessary. This work is an attempt to address this need. The main contribution of this dissertation is the design and testing of a novel method for simultaneously calculating self-forces and radiation fluxes due point particle sources using (3+1) codes. Concrete calculations of self-forces for particles in strong-field gravity have only previously been done through mode sum approaches, which, while having been critical to the development of the subject, appears inconvenient for the eventual goal of using a calculated self-force to update particle trajectories. The new method avoids a mode decomposition entirely, and instead properly replaces the distributional source of the curved spacetime wave equation by an effective regular source. The resulting regular solution of the wave equation, under appropriate boundary conditions, results in the physical retarded field when evaluated in the wavezone, while its gradient at the location of the particle gives the full self-force. This prescription is founded on the possibility of

  17. The Observed squeezed limit of cosmological three-point functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-10-01

    The squeezed limit of the three-point function of cosmological perturbations is a powerful discriminant of different models of the early Universe. We present a conceptually simple and complete framework to relate any primordial bispectrum in this limit to late time observables, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature bispectrum and the scale-dependent halo bias. We employ a series of convenient coordinate transformations to capture the leading nonlinear effects of cosmological perturbation theory on these observables. This makes crucial use of Fermi normal coordinates and their conformal generalization, which we introduce here and discuss in detail. As an example, we apply our formalism to standard slow-roll single-field inflation. We show explicitly that Maldacena’s results for the squeezed limits of the scalar bispectrum [proportional to (ns-1) in comoving gauge] and the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum lead to no deviations from a Gaussian universe, except for projection effects. In particular, the primordial contributions to the squeezed CMB bispectrum and scale dependent halo bias vanish, and there are no primordial “fossil” correlations between long-wavelength tensor perturbations and small-scale perturbations. The contributions to observed correlations are then only due to projection effects such as gravitational lensing and redshift perturbations.

  18. Shock interaction with a deformable particle: Direct numerical simulation and point-particle modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Y.; Haselbacher, A.; Balachandar, S.; Najjar, F. M.; Stewart, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of shock waves with deformable particles is an important fundamental problem. In some applications, e.g., the detonation of explosives loaded with metal particles, the pressure behind the shock wave can be significantly larger than the yield strength of the particle material. This means that particles can deform severely during their interaction with the shock wave. The experimental and theoretical studies of shock interaction with deformable particles (SIDP) are extremely challenging because of its highly transient nature. As a result, no accurate model exists yet that can be used in simulations. The objective of this paper is to develop a simple point-particle model that accurately captures the unsteady force and heat-transfer in SIDP. In the development of this model, we build on earlier models by Ling et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow 37, 1026-1044 (2011)) for the unsteady force and heat-transfer contributions for rigid particles. Insights gained from direct numerical simulations (DNS) guide the extension of these models to deforming particles. Results obtained with the extended model for the interaction of a deforming particle with a shock wave and a Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave compare well with DNS results and therefore offer significant improvements over standard models.

  19. Energy straggling eliminated as a limitation to charge resolution of transmission detectors. [used for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, G.; Ahlen, S. P.; Price, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that detectors of the energy loss of penetrating charged particles are widely used for particle identification. These measurements are hampered, however, by fluctuations in the amount of energy deposited within the detector. It is shown that this limitation can be overcome with a new nuclear track detector, CR-39(DOP), and that the charge resolution of this detector exceeds that of any other, including semiconductor diodes.

  20. A Diffusion Limit for a Test Particle in a Random Distribution of Scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, G.; Nota, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a point particle moving in a random distribution of obstacles described by a potential barrier. We show that, in a weak-coupling regime, under a diffusion limit suggested by the potential itself, the probability distribution of the particle converges to the solution of the heat equation. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associated to the generator of the diffusion process dictated by the linear Landau equation.

  1. Multi-point Observations and Modeling of Particle Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S.; Reeves, G. D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Dispersionless and dispersed particle injections associated with substorms have been studied for many years based on observations acquired primarily at geosynchronous orbit. A general picture that has emerged is that particles are energized and rapidly transported/organized behind an "injection boundary" that penetrates closer to Earth in some magnetic local time sector (e.g. the so-called double-spiral injection boundary model). While this picture provides a very good description of injections at geosynchronous orbit, with the recent launchof the Van Allen Probes mission, we are now able to explore the evolution of injection signatures well inside of geosynchronous orbit at multiple locations as well. Here we report initial results of injection boundary modeling based on simultaneous multi-point measurements at both geosynchronous orbit (from the LANL/GEO spacecraft) and inside (from Van Allen Probes spacecraft). It is shown that many of the complex dispersion features observed in Van Allen Probes particle data are reproduced by the injection boundary model.

  2. Stochastic dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Minjung; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock; Park, Pyeong Jun

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a model for Brownian dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit. Our system consists of several identical active particles and one passive particle. Each active particle is elastically coupled to the passive particle and there is no direct coupling among the active particles. We investigate the dynamics of the system with respect to the number of active particles, viscous friction, and coupling between the active and passive particles. For this purpose, we consider an intracellular transport process as an application of our model and perform a Brownian dynamics simulation using realistic parameters for processive molecular motors such as kinesin-1. We determine an adequate energy conversion function for molecular motors and study the dynamics of intracellular transport by multiple motors. The results show that the average velocity of the coupled system is not affected by the number of active motors and that the stall force increases linearly as the number of motors increases. Our results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. We also examine the effects of coupling between the motors and the cargo, as well as of the spatial distribution of the motors around the cargo. Our model might provide a physical explanation of the cooperation among active motors in the cellular transport processes.

  3. Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-07

    The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

  4. Nucleation of mesospheric cloud particles: Sensitivities and limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Henrike; Rapp, Markus; Kirsch, Annekatrin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleation of mesospheric ice particles is thought to occur via heterogeneous nucleation on meteor smoke particles. However, several factors determining the nucleation rate are poorly known. To study the effect of uncertainties in the nucleation rate on cloud properties, we use the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres and systematically vary the nucleation rate over ±10 orders of magnitude. In one set of simulations, the background state of the atmosphere is described by climatological conditions. In a second set, gravity wave-perturbed profiles from the Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model (KMCM) are used with typical temperature (vertical wind) perturbations at the mesopause on the order of 9 K (0.45 m/s). The resulting noctilucent cloud (NLC) characteristics are compared to lidar and satellite measurements. Realistic NLCs compared to the lidar measurements can only be modeled if the nucleation rate is reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude compared to standard assumptions. For the same cases, the simulated NLCs compare best to the satellite measurements if the nucleation rate is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude or more. Dynamical processes at the mesopause strongly influence the NLC development. In a gravity wave-perturbed atmosphere, the ice particles have only limited time for nucleation and growth. The growth time is limited by the vertical wind, because the vertical wind determines the residence time of the ice particles in the supersaturated region. Since the vertical wind amplitudes reach 1.5 m/s in KMCM (compared to a mean upwelling of ˜4 cm/s in the climatology), the ice particles remain significantly smaller in a gravity wave-perturbed atmosphere than in climatological background conditions.

  5. Influence of neighboring reactive particles on diffusion-limited reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, Changsun; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Competition between reactive species is commonplace in typical chemical reactions. Specifically the primary reaction between a substrate and its target enzyme may be altered when interactions with secondary species in the system are substantial. We explore this competition phenomenon for diffusion-limited reactions in the presence of neighboring particles through numerical solution of the diffusion equation. As a general model for globular proteins and small molecules, we consider spherical representations of the reactants and neighboring particles; these neighbors vary in local density, size, distribution, and relative distance from the primary target reaction, as well as their surface reactivity. Modulations of these model variables permit inquiry into the influence of excluded volume and competition on the primary reaction due to the presence of neighboring particles. We find that the surface reactivity effect is long-ranged and a strong determinant of reaction kinetics, whereas the excluded volume effect is relatively short-ranged and less influential in comparison. As a consequence, the effect of the excluded volume is only modestly dependent on the neighbor distribution and is approximately additive; this additivity permits a linear approximation to the many-body effect on the reaction kinetics. In contrast, the surface reactivity effect is non-additive, and thus it may require higher-order approximations to describe the reaction kinetics. Our model study has broad implications in the general understanding of competition and local crowding on diffusion-limited chemical reactions.

  6. Theoretical limit in the magnetization reversal of stoner particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, X R; Sun, Z Z

    2007-02-16

    Magnetization reversal of uniaxial Stoner particles under the Slonczewski spin-transfer torques of polarized electric currents is investigated. Based on the modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of magnetization dynamics, the theoretical limit of critical currents required to reverse a magnetization with an arbitrary polarized current is obtained. Under a constant polarization degree and constant current amplitude, the optimal current pulse for the fastest magnetization reversal is derived. These results can be used as benchmarks to evaluate different reversal strategies besides other possible usages. PMID:17359053

  7. Limitation of point source pesticide pollution: results of bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Spanoghe, P; Maes, A; Steurbaut, W

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water is at risk of contamination from the use of some agricultural pesticides. In many circumstances pesticide contamination of water resources is more likely to result from point sources than from diffuse sources following approved application to crops in the field. Such point sources include areas on farms where pesticides are handled, filled into sprayers or where sprayers are washed down. To overcome this way of contamination different kind of bio-remediation systems are nowadays in development. In Flanders, Belgium two pilot plants of bioremediation systems for the in situ retention and/or degradation of pesticides were installed. Both systems were based on the Phytobac concept, a watertight excavation filled with straw, peat, compost and soil. The channel was made in the bottom from plastic foil. All kinds of spray rests were captured by the phytobacs. This study focuses on what level pesticides leach, bio-degrade or are retained by the filling of the phytobac. The soil-properties of the filling were investigated. Pesticide tracers were added for monitoring to both phytobacs. Soil and water samples were taken during one year. Pesticides are retained at least for one month by the filling of the phytobac. Almost no pesticide leached out. In winter hardly any pesticide degradation was observed in the filling of the phytobac. In summer no detectable pesticides were still left in the phytobacs. PMID:15756863

  8. Cosmological limits on axions and axion-like particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadamuro, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The axion is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. It appears after the spontaneous breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry, which was proposed to solve the strong-CP problem. Other pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, postulated in some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, are called axion-like particles (ALPs) if they share certain characteristics with the axion, in particular a coupling to two photons. Thus far, axion and ALP searches have been unsuccessful, indicating that their couplings have to be extremely weak. However, axions and ALPs could be responsible for some observable effects in astrophysics and cosmology, which can also be exploited to constrain the parameter space of these particles. We focus on limits coming from cosmology, which is an optimal field for studying axions and ALPs. In particular, we first investigate the possibility of a primordial population of axions and ALPs arising during the earliest epochs of the universe. The importance of this analysis lies on the fact that axions and ALPs are ideal dark matter candidates because of their faint interactions and their peculiar production mechanisms. Finally, we consider the consequences of the decay of such a population on specific cosmological observables, namely the photon spectrum of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, the effective number of neutrino species, and the abundance of primordial elements. Our bounds constitute the most stringent probes of early decays and exclude a part of the ALP parameter space that is otherwise very difficult to test experimentally.

  9. Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.

    PubMed Central

    Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

    1997-01-01

    To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described. PMID:9400750

  10. Optical multi-point measurements of the acoustic particle velocity with frequency modulated Doppler global velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas; König, Jörg; Haufe, Daniel; Schlüssler, Raimund; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    To reduce the noise of machines such as aircraft engines, the development and propagation of sound has to be investigated. Since the applicability of microphones is limited due to their intrusiveness, contactless measurement techniques are required. For this reason, the present study describes an optical method based on the Doppler effect and its application for acoustic particle velocity (APV) measurements. While former APV measurements with Doppler techniques are point measurements, the applied system is capable of simultaneous measurements at multiple points. In its current state, the system provides linear array measurements of one component of the APV demonstrated by multi-tone experiments with tones up to 17 kHz for the first time. PMID:23927110

  11. New Dirac equation from the view point of particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali; Susam, Lidya Amon; Arik, Metin; Yarman, Tolga

    2012-09-06

    According to the classical approach, especially the Lorentz Invariant Dirac Equation, when particles are bound to each other, the interaction term appears as a quantity belonging to the 'field'. In this work, as a totally new approach, we propose to alter the rest masses of the particles due to their interaction, as much as their respective contributions to the static binding energy. Thus we re-write and solve the Dirac Equation for the hydrogen atom, and amazingly, obtain practically the same numerical results for the ground states, as those obtained from the Dirac Equation.

  12. Semiclassical limit for Dirac particles interacting with a gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of a spin-1/2 particle in a weak static gravitational field is considered. The Dirac Hamiltonian is diagonalized by the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation providing also the simple form for the momentum and spin polarization operators. The operator equations of momentum and spin motion are derived for a first time. Their semiclassical limit is analyzed. The dipole spin-gravity coupling in the previously found (another) Hamiltonian does not lead to any observable effects. The general agreement between the quantum and classical approaches is established, contrary to several recent claims. The expression for the gravitational Stern-Gerlach force is derived. The helicity evolution in the gravitational field and corresponding accelerated frame coincides, being the manifestation of the equivalence principle.

  13. Evidence for equilibrium gels of valence-limited particles.

    PubMed

    Dudukovic, Nikola A; Zukoski, Charles F

    2014-10-21

    We explore the formation and structure of gels produced from solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mixing these solutions with water results in the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into space-filling fibrous networks, exhibiting mechanical properties characteristic of gels. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observe the gel transition in situ and find that, upon the addition of water, the solution undergoes a rapid transition to a non-equilibrium state forming ∼ 2 μm spheres, followed by the formation of fibers 5-10 nm in diameter, nucleating at a sphere surface and expanding into the solution as the remaining spheres dissolve, extending the network. The gel aging process is associated with the network becoming increasingly uniform through apparent redissolution/reaggregation of the Fmoc-FF molecules, corresponding to the observed increase in the elastic modulus to a plateau value. We demonstrate that this increase in uniformity and elastic modulus can be expedited by controlling the temperature of the system, as well as that these gels are thermally reversible, further indicating that the system is in equilibrium in its fibrous network state. X-ray scattering information suggests that the packing of the molecules within a fiber is based on π-π stacking of β-sheets, consistent with models proposed in the literature for similar systems, implying that each particle (molecule) possesses a limited number of interaction sites. These observations provide experimental evidence that these low molecular weight gelator molecules can be considered valence-limited "patchy" particles, which associate at low enough temperature to form equilibrium gels. PMID:25155031

  14. Estimating the contribution of point sources to atmospheric metals using single-particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David C.; Schauer, James J.; Gross, Deborah S.; Turner, Jay R.

    Single-particle mass spectra were collected using an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) during December of 2003 and February of 2004 at an industrially impacted location in East St. Louis, IL. Hourly integrated peak areas for twenty ions were evaluated for their suitability in representing metals/metalloids, particularly those reported in the US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Of the initial twenty ions examined, six (Al, As, Cu, Hg, Ti, and V) were found to be unsuitable due to strong isobaric interferences with commonly observed organic fragments, and one (Be) was found to have no significant signal. The usability of three ions (Co, Cr, and Mn) was limited due to suspected isobaric interferences based on temporal comparisons with commonly observed organic fragments. The identity of the remaining ions (Sb, Ba, Cd, Ca, Fe, Ni, Pb, K, Se, and Zn) was substantiated by comparing their signals with the integrated hourly signals of one or more isotope ions. When compared with one-in-six day integrated elemental data as determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), the daily integrated ATOFMS signal for several metal ions revealed a semi-quantitative relationship between ATOFMS peak area and XRF concentrations, although in some cases comparison of these measurements were poor at low elemental concentrations/ion signals due to isobaric interferences. A method of estimating the impact of local point sources was developed using hourly integrated ATOFMS peak areas, and this method attributed as much as 85% of the concentration of individual metals observed at the study site to local point sources. Hourly surface wind data were used in conjunction with TRI facility emissions data to reveal likely point sources impacting metal concentrations at the study site and to illustrate the utility of using single-particle mass spectral data to characterize atmospheric metals and identify point sources.

  15. A Covariance Analysis Tool for Assessing Fundamental Limits of SIM Pointing Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of the instrument pointing control system for NASA's Space Interferometer Mission (SIM). SIM has a complex pointing system that uses a fast steering mirror in combination with a multirate control architecture to blend feed forward information with feedback information. A pointing covariance analysis tool (PCAT) is developed specifically to analyze systems with such complexity. The development of PCAT as a mathematical tool for covariance analysis is outlined in the paper. PCAT is then applied to studying performance of SIM's science pointing system. The analysis reveals and clearly delineates a fundamental limit that exists for SIM pointing performance. The limit is especially stringent for dim star targets. Discussion of the nature of the performance limit is provided, and methods are suggested to potentially improve pointing performance.

  16. A covariance analysis tool for assessing fundamental limits of SIM pointing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of the instrument pointing control system for NASA's Space Interferometer Mission (SIM). SIM has a complex pointing system that uses a fast steering mirror in combination with a multirate control architecture to blend feedforward information with feedback information. A pointing covariance analysis tool (PCAT) is developed specifically to analyze systems with such complexity. The development of PCAT as a mathematical tool for covariance analysis is outlined in the paper. PCAT is then applied to studying performance of SIM's science pointing system. The analysis reveals and clearly delineates a fundamental limit that exists for SIM pointing performance. The limit is especially stringent for dim star targets. Discussion of the nature of the performance limit is provided, and methods are suggested to potentially improve pointing performance.

  17. Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas model with on-site potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei

    2015-05-15

    Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas of elastically colliding particles are studied. In the nonequal mass case, due to the presence of on-site potential, the heat conduction of the model obeys the Fourier law and all the transport coefficients asymptotically approach constants in the thermodynamic limit. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT increases slowly with the system length L and is proportional to the height of the potential barriers H in high H regime. These findings may serve as a guide for future theoretical and experimental studies.

  18. Lieb-Thirring inequality for a model of particles with point interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Rupert L.; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-09-15

    We consider a model of quantum-mechanical particles interacting via point interactions of infinite scattering length. In the case of fermions we prove a Lieb-Thirring inequality for the energy, i.e., we show that the energy is bounded from below by a constant times the integral of the particle density to the power (5/3).

  19. Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Kolja; Khalili, Arzhang; Stocker, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We present results of an experimental investigation of porous particles settling through a density interface at Reynolds numbers between 0.1 and 1. We tracked 100 to 500 μm hydrogel spheres with 95.5% porosity and negligible permeability. We found that a small negative initial excess density relative to the lower (denser) fluid layer, a common scenario in the ocean, results in long retention times of particles at the interface. We hypothesized that the retention time was determined by the diffusive exchange of the stratifying agent between interstitial and ambient fluid, which increases excess density of particles that have stalled at the interface, enabling their settling to resume. This hypothesis was confirmed by observations, which revealed a quadratic dependence of retention time on particle size, consistent with diffusive exchange. These results demonstrate that porosity can control retention times and therefore accumulation of particles at density interfaces, a mechanism that could underpin the formation of particle layers frequently observed at pycnoclines in the ocean. We estimate retention times of 3 min to 3.3 d for the characteristic size range of marine particles. This enhancement in retention time can affect carbon transformation through increased microbial colonization and utilization of particles and release of dissolved organics. The observed size dependence of the retention time could further contribute to improve quantifications of vertical carbon flux. PMID:21135242

  20. Object detection and tracking with active camera on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Shang, Lei; Hu, Eric

    2013-06-01

    A method based on motion vectors of feature points and particle filter has been proposed and developed for an active∕moving camera for object detection and tracking purposes. The object is detected by histogram of motion vectors first, and then, on the basis of particle filter algorithm, the weighing factors are obtained via color information. In addition, re-sampling strategy and surf feature points are used to remedy the drawback of particle degeneration. Experimental results demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the new method and are presented in the paper. PMID:23822380

  1. Accurate calculation of Stokes drag for point-particle tracking in two-way coupled flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, J. A. K.; Mani, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose and test a method for calculating Stokes drag applicable to particle-laden fluid flows where two-way momentum coupling is important. In the point-particle formulation, particle dynamics are coupled to fluid dynamics via a source term that appears in the respective momentum equations. When the particle Reynolds number is small and the particle diameter is smaller than the fluid scales, it is common to approximate the momentum coupling source term as the Stokes drag. The Stokes drag force depends on the difference between the undisturbed fluid velocity evaluated at the particle location, and the particle velocity. However, owing to two-way coupling, the fluid velocity is modified in the neighborhood of a particle, relative to its undisturbed value. This causes the computed Stokes drag force to be underestimated in two-way coupled point-particle simulations. We develop estimates for the drag force error as function of the particle size relative to the grid size. Because the disturbance field created by the particle contaminates the surrounding fluid, correctly calculating the drag force cannot be done solely by direct interpolation of the fluid velocity. Instead, we develop a correction method that calculates the undisturbed fluid velocity from the computed disturbed velocity field by adding an estimate of the velocity disturbance created by the particle. The correction scheme is tested for a particle settling in an otherwise quiescent fluid and is found to reduce the error in computed settling velocity by an order of magnitude compared with common interpolation schemes.

  2. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  3. Limitation of electrostatic charging of dust particles in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Ip, W.-H.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in a dusty plasma consisting of a plasma (density n and temperature T) and dust grains (density N and radius a) the charge on a grain is not given by its free-space value. Instead, the charge is reduced by a factor 1 + x. Except for the optically thin E and G rings, this factor is large. Usually electromagnetic forces on dust particles in Saturn's ring system are too small to produce observable effects. The current carried by dust particles moving relative to the plasma with a speed w is to a good approximation given by j = NQw. Thus, magnetic perturbations by the F ring should be much smaller than previously estimated.

  4. Liquidus slopes of impurities in ITS-90 fixed points from the mercury point to the copper point in the low concentration limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Jonathan V.; Gisby, John A.; Steur, Peter P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A knowledge of the effect of impurities at the level of parts per million on the freezing temperature of very pure metals is essential for realisation of ITS-90 fixed points. New information has become available for use with the thermodynamic modelling software MTDATA, permitting calculation of liquidus slopes, in the low concentration limit, of a wider range of binary alloy systems than was previously possible. In total, calculated values for 536 binary systems are given. In addition, new experimental determinations of phase diagrams, in the low impurity concentration limit, have recently appeared. All available data have been combined to provide a comprehensive set of liquidus slopes for impurities in ITS-90 metal fixed points. In total, liquidus slopes for 838 systems are tabulated for the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, Au, and Cu. It is shown that the value of the liquidus slope as a function of impurity element atomic number can be approximated using a simple formula, and good qualitative agreement with the existing data is observed for the fixed points Al, Ag, Au and Cu, but curiously the formula is not applicable to the fixed points Hg, Ga, In, Sn, and Zn. Some discussion is made concerning the influence of oxygen on the liquidus slopes, and some calculations using MTDATA are discussed. The BIPM’s consultative committee for thermometry has long recognised that the sum of individual estimates method is the ideal approach for assessing uncertainties due to impurities, but the community has been largely powerless to use the model due to lack of data. Here, not only is data provided, but a simple model is given to enable known thermophysical data to be used directly to estimate impurity effects for a large fraction of the ITS-90 fixed points.

  5. Radiation reaction and renormalization in classical electrodynamics of a point particle in any dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2002-07-01

    The effective equations of motion for a point charged particle taking into account the radiation reaction are considered in various space-time dimensions. The divergences stemming from the pointness of the particle are studied and an effective renormalization procedure is proposed encompassing uniformly the cases of all even dimensions. It is shown that in any dimension the classical electrodynamics is a renormalizable theory if not multiplicatively beyond d=4. For the cases of three and six dimensions the covariant analogues of the Lorentz-Dirac equation are explicitly derived.

  6. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  7. Integration of GPS Precise Point Positioning and MEMS-Based INS Using Unscented Particle Filter

    PubMed Central

    Abd Rabbou, Mahmoud; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models. However, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is commonly used as the estimation filter, which might lead to solution divergence. This is usually encountered during GPS outages, when low-cost micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. To enhance the navigation system performance, alternatives to the standard EKF should be considered. Particle filtering (PF) is commonly considered as a nonlinear estimation technique to accommodate severe MEMS inertial sensor biases and noise behavior. However, the computation burden of PF limits its use. In this study, an improved version of PF, the unscented particle filter (UPF), is utilized, which combines the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and PF for the integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based inertial systems. The proposed filter is examined and compared with traditional estimation filters, namely EKF, UKF and PF. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw GPS and INS measurement domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combinations of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements are used for PPP. The performance of the UPF is analyzed using a real test scenario in downtown Kingston, Ontario. It is shown that the use of UPF reduces the number of samples needed to produce an accurate solution, in comparison with the traditional PF, which in turn reduces the processing time. In addition, UPF enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 15% during GPS outages, in comparison with EKF. However, all filters produce comparable results when the GPS measurement updates are available. PMID:25815446

  8. Integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based INS using unscented particle filter.

    PubMed

    Abd Rabbou, Mahmoud; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models. However, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is commonly used as the estimation filter, which might lead to solution divergence. This is usually encountered during GPS outages, when low-cost micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. To enhance the navigation system performance, alternatives to the standard EKF should be considered. Particle filtering (PF) is commonly considered as a nonlinear estimation technique to accommodate severe MEMS inertial sensor biases and noise behavior. However, the computation burden of PF limits its use. In this study, an improved version of PF, the unscented particle filter (UPF), is utilized, which combines the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and PF for the integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based inertial systems. The proposed filter is examined and compared with traditional estimation filters, namely EKF, UKF and PF. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw GPS and INS measurement domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combinations of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements are used for PPP. The performance of the UPF is analyzed using a real test scenario in downtown Kingston, Ontario. It is shown that the use of UPF reduces the number of samples needed to produce an accurate solution, in comparison with the traditional PF, which in turn reduces the processing time. In addition, UPF enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 15% during GPS outages, in comparison with EKF. However, all filters produce comparable results when the GPS measurement updates are available. PMID:25815446

  9. The point of no return: A fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958. Thinking. New York: Basic Books) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough "lead time" for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  10. The pedagogical value of the four-dimensional picture: I. Relativistic mechanics of point particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyakov, B. P.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we outline two subjects of relativistic mechanics: (i) the set of allowable world lines, and (ii) the origin of the relativistic law of dynamics governing point particles. We show that: (i) allowable world lines in the classical theory of particles and fields are quite simple geometric objects as opposed to their associated three-dimensional trajectories; and (ii) Newton’s second law requires neither modification nor generalization, it should only be smoothly embedded in the four-dimensional geometry of Minkowski spacetime to yield the dynamical law for relativistic particles.

  11. Limits on spin-independent couplings of WIMP dark matter with a p-type point-contact germanium detector.

    PubMed

    Li, H B; Liao, H Y; Lin, S T; Liu, S K; Singh, L; Singh, M K; Soma, A K; Wong, H T; Wu, Y C; Zhao, W; Asryan, G; Chuang, Y C; Deniz, M; Fang, J M; Hsu, C L; Huang, T R; Kiran Kumar, G; Lee, S C; Li, J; Li, J M; Li, Y J; Li, Y L; Lin, C W; Lin, F K; Liu, Y F; Ma, H; Ruan, X C; Shen, Y T; Singh, V; Tang, C J; Tseng, C H; Xu, Y; Yang, S W; Yu, C X; Yue, Q; Zeng, Z; Zeyrek, M; Zhou, Z Y

    2013-06-28

    We report new limits on a spin-independent weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon interaction cross section using 39.5 kg days of data taken with a p-type point-contact germanium detector of 840 g fiducial mass at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory. Crucial to this study is the understanding of the selection procedures and, in particular, the bulk-surface events differentiation at the sub-keV range. The signal-retaining and background-rejecting efficiencies were measured with calibration gamma sources and a novel n-type point-contact germanium detector. Part of the parameter space in the cross section versus WIMP-mass implied by various experiments is probed and excluded. PMID:23848861

  12. Hand-Grip Strength Cut-Points to Screen Older Persons at Risk for Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Sallinen, Janne; Stenholm, Sari; Rantanen, Taina; Heliövaara, Markku; Sainio, Päivi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine optimal hand-grip strength cut-points for increased likelihood for mobility limitation among older people and to study whether these cut-points differ according to body mass index (BMI). Design and setting Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the Finnish population-based Health 2000 Survey. Participants and measurements 1 084 men and 1 562 women aged 55 years and older with complete data on anthropometry, hand-grip strength and self-reported mobility. Mobility limitation was defined as difficulties in walking 0.5-km or climbing stairs. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis was used to estimate hand-grip strength cut-points for increased likelihood for mobility limitation. Results The overall hand-grip strength cut-points for increased likelihood for mobility limitation were 37 kg (sensitivity 62% and specificity 76%) for men and 21 kg (67% and 73%) for women. Hand-grip strength by BMI interaction on mobility limitation was significant among men (p = 0.022), while no such interaction was observed among women (p = 0.156). Among men, most optimal cut-offs were 33 kg (73% and 79%) for normal-weight men, 39 kg (67% and 71%) for overweight men and 40 kg (57% and 68%) for obese men. Among women, BMI-specific hand-grip strength cut-off values did not markedly increase accuracy over the overall cut-off value. Conclusion Hand-grip strength test is a useful tool to identify persons with increased risk for mobility limitation. Among men, the hand-grip strength cut-points for mobility increased along with BMI, while among women only one hand-grip strength threshold was identified. PMID:20863331

  13. 75 FR 68305 - Proposed Rule Staying Numeric Limitation for the Construction and Development Point Source Category

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 450 Proposed Rule Staying Numeric Limitation for the Construction and Development... requirements for the Construction and Development Point Source Category. This action is necessary so that EPA... regulated by this action, you should carefully examine the applicability criteria in 40 CFR 450.10 (74...

  14. 78 FR 19434 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...EPA is proposing changes to the effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Construction and Development point source category. EPA is proposing these changes pursuant to a settlement agreement to resolve litigation. This proposed rule would withdraw the numeric discharge standards, which are currently stayed, and change several of the non-numeric provisions of the existing...

  15. Calculation of a velocity distribution from particle trajectory end-points.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Lowell A.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal component of the velocity of a particle at or near a glacier surface is considered, its position as a function of time being termed its trajectory. Functional relationships are derived for obtaining the trajectory from the spatial distribution of velocity and for obtaining the velocity distribution from the trajectory. It is established that the trajectory end-points impose only an integral condition on the velocity distribution and that no individual point on the velocity distribution can be determined if only the end-points are known.-from Author

  16. Thermal runaway limit of tubular reactors, defined at the inflection point of the temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, S.; Chovan, T.; Masri, B.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Pant, A.; Sen, S.; Vijayaragharvan, P. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Berty, J.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The predicted maximum temperature difference between reacting fluid and wall to avoid thermal runaways can be exceeded in production reactors. This has been known for some time but the explanation has been lacking. The reason for this deviation was found in that the traditional approximation of the sensitivity criterion by [Delta]T [le] RT[sup 2]/E is correct for a limiting value at the inflection point but not at the hot spot, where it can be much higher. The exact expression for the limiting value at the inflection point is the total temperature derivative of the rate, and this is proven in this paper mathematically. The total temperature derivative of a rate can be measured in a few, well-designed recycle reactor experiments. Results were checked by computer simulation of tubular reactors. Matching to those predicted from CSTR or recycle reactor (RR) measurements was excellent. The proposed interpretation explains why previously predicted limits could be exceeded in practice.

  17. Measuring the isoelectric point of the edges of clay mineral particles: the case of montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Pecini, Eliana M; Avena, Marcelo J

    2013-12-01

    The isoelectric point (IEP) of the edge surface of a montmorillonite sample was determined by using electrophoretic mobility measurements. This parameter, which is fundamental for the understanding of the charging behavior of clay mineral surfaces, was never measured so far because of the presence of permanent negative charges within the montmorillonite structure, charges that mask the electrokinetic behavior of the edges. The strategy was to block or neutralize the structural charges with two different cations, methylene blue (MB(+)) and tetraethylenepentaminecopper(II) ([Cu(tetren)](2+)), so that the charging behavior of the particles becomes that of the edge surfaces. Adsorption isotherms of MB(+) and [Cu(tetren)](2+) at different ionic strengths (NaCl) were performed to establish the uptakes that neutralize the cation exchange capacity (CEC, 0.96 meq g(-1)) of the sample. At high adsorptive concentrations, there was a superequivalent adsorption of MB(+) (adsorption exceeding the CEC) and an equivalent adsorption of [Cu(tetren)](2+) (adsorption reaching the CEC). In both cases, structural charges were neutralized at uptakes very close to the CEC. Zeta potential (ζ) vs pH data at different ionic strengths of montmorillonite with adsorbed MB(+) allowed to estimate an upper limit of the edge's IEP, 5.3 ± 0.2. The same kind of data obtained with adsorbed [Cu(tetren)](2+) provided a lower limit of the IEP, 4.0 ± 0.2. These values are in agreement with previously informed IEP and point of zero charge of pyrophyllite, which is structurally analogous to montmorillonite but carries no permanent charges. The importance of knowing the IEP of the edge surface of clay minerals is discussed. This value characterizes the intrinsic reactivity of edges, that is, the protonating capacity of edge groups in absence of any electric field generated by structural charges. It also allows us to correct relative edge charge vs pH curves obtained by potentiometric titrations and to

  18. Landauer limit of energy dissipation in a magnetostrictive particle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kuntal

    2014-12-10

    According to Landauer's principle, a minimum amount of energy proportional to temperature must be dissipated during the erasure of a classical bit of information compensating the entropy loss, thereby linking the information and thermodynamics. Here, we show that the Landauer limit of energy dissipation is achievable in a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet having two mutually anti-parallel degenerate magnetization states that store a bit of information. We model the magnetization dynamics using the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of thermal fluctuations and show that on average the Landauer bound is satisfied, i.e. it is in accordance with the generalized Landauer's principle for small systems with stochastic fluctuations. PMID:25379608

  19. PDEs on moving surfaces via the closest point method and a modified grid based particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petras, A.; Ruuth, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) on surfaces arise in a wide range of applications. The closest point method (Ruuth and Merriman (2008) [20]) is a recent embedding method that has been used to solve a variety of PDEs on smooth surfaces using a closest point representation of the surface and standard Cartesian grid methods in the embedding space. The original closest point method (CPM) was designed for problems posed on static surfaces, however the solution of PDEs on moving surfaces is of considerable interest as well. Here we propose solving PDEs on moving surfaces using a combination of the CPM and a modification of the grid based particle method (Leung and Zhao (2009) [12]). The grid based particle method (GBPM) represents and tracks surfaces using meshless particles and an Eulerian reference grid. Our modification of the GBPM introduces a reconstruction step into the original method to ensure that all the grid points within a computational tube surrounding the surface are active. We present a number of examples to illustrate the numerical convergence properties of our combined method. Experiments for advection-diffusion equations that are strongly coupled to the velocity of the surface are also presented.

  20. Sound Radiation from Moving Point-Like Charged Particles in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Guio, P.; Miloch, W. J.; Pecseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J.

    2008-10-15

    The electrostatic potential and plasma density variations around a point-like charged object in a plasma flow are studied. These objects can represent small charged dust particles, for instance. The radiation patterns can be interpreted as the result of sound waves being radiated by the obstacle. For large electron to ion temperature ratios we find that radiation patterns develop for the sub-as well as the supersonic case. The results are illustrated by numerical simulations using a hybrid Particle In Cell (PIC) code, where the electrons are treated as an isothermal massless fluid, giving a nonlinear Poisson equation. The analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  1. A Northern Sky Survey for Point-like Sources of EeV Neutral Particles with the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the search for steady point-like sources of neutral particles around 1018 eV between 2008 and 2013 May with the scintillator SD of the Telescope Array experiment. We found overall no significant point-like excess above 0.5 EeV in the northern sky. Subsequently, we also searched for coincidence with the Fermi bright Galactic sources. No significant coincidence was found within the statistical uncertainty. Hence, we set an upper limit on the neutron flux that corresponds to an averaged flux of 0.07 km-2 yr-1 for E\\gt 1 EeV in the northern sky at the 95% confidence level. This is the most stringent flux upper limit in a northern sky survey assuming point-like sources. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the neutron flux from Cygnus X-3 is also set to 0.2 km-2 yr-1 for E\\gt 0.5 EeV. This is an order of magnitude lower than previous flux measurements.

  2. Plant responses, climate pivot points, and trade-offs in water-limited ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species in dryland ecosystems are limited by water availability and may be vulnerable to increases in aridity. Methods are needed to monitor and assess the rate of change in plant abundance and composition in relation to climate, understand the potential for degradation in dryland ecosystems, and forecast future changes in plant species assemblages. I employ nearly a century of vegetation monitoring data from three North American deserts to demonstrate an approach to determine plant species responses to climate and critical points over a range of climatic conditions at which plant species shift from increases to decreases in abundance (climate pivot points). I assess these metrics from a site to regional scale and highlight how these indicators of plant performance can be modified by the physical and biotic environment. For example, shrubs were more responsive to drought and high temperatures on shallow soils with limited capacity to store water and fine-textured soils with slow percolation rates, whereas perennial grasses were more responsive to precipitation in sparse shrublands than in relatively dense grasslands and shrublands, where competition for water is likely more intense. The responses and associated climate pivot points of plant species aligned with their lifespan and structural characteristics, and the relationship between responses and climate pivot points provides evidence of the trade-off between the capacity of a plant species to increase in abundance when water is available and its drought resistance.

  3. Propagator, sewing rules, and vacuum amplitude for the Polyakov point particles with ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, I.; Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zucchini, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors apply techniques developed for strings to the case of the spinless point particle. The Polyakov path integral with ghosts is used to obtain the propagator and one-loop vacuum amplitude. The propagator is shown to correspond to the Green's function for the BRST field theory in Siegel gauge. The reparametrization invariance of the Polyakov path integral is shown to lead automatically to the correct trace log result for the one-loop diagram, despite the fact that naive sewing of the ends of a propagator would give an incorrect answer. This type of failure of naive sewing is identical to that found in the string case. The present treatment provides, in the simplified context of the point particle, a pedagogical introduction to Polyakov path integral methods with and without ghosts.

  4. Nordstroem gravity coupled to point particles in (1+1) dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A. D.

    2010-03-15

    We consider a (1+1)-dimensional model of general relativity that is based on a geometric theory of gravity due to Nordstroem. We show that the theory is formally equivalent to scalar field theory in flat spacetime, and we exploit this equivalence to solve the initial value problem for the system for the case of point particle sources. We illustrate our results by obtaining several example solutions to the model.

  5. KINETIC MODELING OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A SOLAR NULL-POINT RECONNECTION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, G.; Haugbolle, T.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-07-10

    The primary focus of this paper is on the particle acceleration mechanism in solar coronal three-dimensional reconnection null-point regions. Starting from a potential field extrapolation of a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) magnetogram taken on 2002 November 16, we first performed magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with horizontal motions observed by SOHO applied to the photospheric boundary of the computational box. After a build-up of electric current in the fan plane of the null point, a sub-section of the evolved MHD data was used as initial and boundary conditions for a kinetic particle-in-cell model of the plasma. We find that sub-relativistic electron acceleration is mainly driven by a systematic electric field in the current sheet. A non-thermal population of electrons with a power-law distribution in energy forms in the simulated pre-flare phase, featuring a power-law index of about -1.78. This work provides a first step toward bridging the gap between macroscopic scales on the order of hundreds of Mm and kinetic scales on the order of centimeter in the solar corona, and explains how to achieve such a cross-scale coupling by utilizing either physical modifications or (equivalent) modifications of the constants of nature. With their exceptionally high resolution-up to 135 billion particles and 3.5 billion grid cells of size 17.5 km-these simulations offer a new opportunity to study particle acceleration in solar-like settings.

  6. Mapping out spin and particle conductances in a quantum point contact

    PubMed Central

    Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Grenier, Charles; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    We study particle and spin transport in a single-mode quantum point contact, using a charge neutral, quantum degenerate Fermi gas with tunable, attractive interactions. This yields the spin and particle conductance of the point contact as a function of chemical potential or confinement. The measurements cover a regime from weak attraction, where quantized conductance is observed, to the resonantly interacting superfluid. Spin conductance exhibits a broad maximum when varying the chemical potential at moderate interactions, which signals the emergence of Cooper pairing. In contrast, the particle conductance is unexpectedly enhanced even before the gas is expected to turn into a superfluid, continuously rising from the plateau at 1/h for weak interactions to plateau-like features at nonuniversal values as high as 4/h for intermediate interactions. For strong interactions, the particle conductance plateaus disappear and the spin conductance gets suppressed, confirming the spin-insulating character of a superfluid. Our observations document the breakdown of universal conductance quantization as many-body correlations appear. The observed anomalous quantization challenges a Fermi liquid description of the normal phase, shedding new light on the nature of the strongly attractive Fermi gas. PMID:27357668

  7. Mapping out spin and particle conductances in a quantum point contact.

    PubMed

    Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Grenier, Charles; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-07-19

    We study particle and spin transport in a single-mode quantum point contact, using a charge neutral, quantum degenerate Fermi gas with tunable, attractive interactions. This yields the spin and particle conductance of the point contact as a function of chemical potential or confinement. The measurements cover a regime from weak attraction, where quantized conductance is observed, to the resonantly interacting superfluid. Spin conductance exhibits a broad maximum when varying the chemical potential at moderate interactions, which signals the emergence of Cooper pairing. In contrast, the particle conductance is unexpectedly enhanced even before the gas is expected to turn into a superfluid, continuously rising from the plateau at [Formula: see text] for weak interactions to plateau-like features at nonuniversal values as high as [Formula: see text] for intermediate interactions. For strong interactions, the particle conductance plateaus disappear and the spin conductance gets suppressed, confirming the spin-insulating character of a superfluid. Our observations document the breakdown of universal conductance quantization as many-body correlations appear. The observed anomalous quantization challenges a Fermi liquid description of the normal phase, shedding new light on the nature of the strongly attractive Fermi gas. PMID:27357668

  8. Probing surface characteristics of diffusion-limited-aggregation clusters with particles of variable size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, A. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a technique for probing the harmonic measure of a diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) cluster surface with variable-size particles and generate 1000 clusters with 50×106 particles using an original off-lattice killing-free algorithm. Taking, in sequence, the limit of the vanishing size of the probing particles and then sending the growing cluster size to infinity, we achieve unprecedented accuracy in determining the fractal dimension D=1.7100(2) crucial to the characterization of the geometric properties of DLA clusters.

  9. Electrostatics in dissipative particle dynamics using Ewald sums with point charges.

    PubMed

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2016-10-26

    A proper treatment of electrostatic interactions is crucial for the accurate calculation of forces in computer simulations. Electrostatic interactions are typically modeled using Ewald-based methods, which have become some of the cornerstones upon which many other methods for the numerical computation of electrostatic interactions are based. However, their use with charge distributions rather than point charges requires the inclusion of ansatz for the solutions of the Poisson equation, since there is no exact solution known for smeared out charges. The interest in incorporating electrostatic interactions at the scales of length and time that are relevant for the study the physics of soft condensed matter has increased considerably. Using mesoscale simulation techniques, such as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), allows us to reach longer time scales in numerical simulations, without abandoning the particulate description of the problem. The main problem with incorporating electrostatics into DPD simulations is that DPD particles are soft and those particles with opposite charge can form artificial clusters of ions. Here we show that one can incorporate the electrostatic interactions through Ewald sums with point charges in DPD if larger values of coarse-graining degree are used, where DPD is truly mesoscopic. Using point charges with larger excluded volume interactions, the artificial formation of ionic pairs with point charges can be avoided and one obtains correct predictions. We establish ranges of parameters useful for detecting boundaries where artificial formation of ionic pairs occurs. Lastly, using point charges we predict the scaling properties of polyelectrolytes in solvents of varying quality, and obtain predictions that are in agreement with calculations that use other methods and with recent experimental results. PMID:27541198

  10. Magnetic particle hyperthermia—biophysical limitations of a visionary tumour therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergt, Rudolf; Dutz, Silvio

    2007-04-01

    Loss processes being relevant for magnetic particle hyperthermia are analysed with respect to specific loss power under the condition of a limitation of the alternating magnetic field amplitude and frequency. Extrapolations to the maximum specific loss power of magnetic nanoparticles are discussed and conclusions are drawn with respect to the minimum particle concentration being necessary for hyperthermia or thermoablation under intra-tumoural or systemic particle supply. As a result, much efforts are necessary to render magnetic particle hyperthermia a valuable tumour therapy keeping at least part of the promises found in literature.

  11. First direct limits on lightly ionizing particles with electric charge less than e/6.

    PubMed

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Balakishiyeva, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2015-03-20

    While the standard model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers finds no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200. PMID:25839256

  12. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; et al

    2015-03-18

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically- produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200.

  13. Particle in Cell Simulations of the Pulsar Y-Point -- Nature of the Accelerating Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decade, satellite observations have yielded a wealth of data on pulsed high-energy emission from pulsars. Several different models have been advanced to fit this data, all of which “paint” the emitting region onto a different portion of the magnetosphere.In the last few years, particle in cell simulations of pulsar magnetospheres have reached the point where they are able to self-consistently model particle acceleration and dissipation. One of the key findings of these simulations is that the region of the current sheet in and around the Y-point provides the highest rate of dissipation of Poynting flux (Belyaev 2015a). On the basis of this physical evidence, it is quite plausible that this region should be associated with the pulsed high energy emission from pulsars. We present high resolution PIC simulations of an axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere, which are run using PICsar (Belyaev 2015b). These simulations focus on the particle dynamics and electric fields in and around the Y-point region. We run two types of simulations -- first, a force-free magnetosphere and second, a magnetosphere with a gap between the return current layer and the outflowing plasma in the polar wind zone. The latter setup is motivated by studies of pair production with general relativity (Philippov et al. 2015, Belyaev & Parfrey (in preparation)). In both cases, we find that the Y-point and the current sheet in its direct vicinity act like an “electric particle filter” outwardly accelerating particles of one sign of charge while returning the other sign of charge back to the pulsar. We argue that this is a natural behavior of the plasma as it tries to adjust to a solution that is as close to force-free as possible. As a consequence, a large E dot J develops in the vicinity of the Y-point leading to dissipation of Poynting flux. Our work is relevant for explaining the plasma physical mechanisms underlying pulsed high energy emission from pulsars.

  14. Two-particle correlations in high-energy collisions and the gluon four-point function

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Adrian; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2010-05-01

    We derive the rapidity evolution equation for the gluon four-point function in the dilute regime and at small x from the JIMWLK functional equation. We show that beyond leading order in N{sub c} the mean field (Gaussian) approximation where the four-point function is factorized into a product of two-point functions is violated. We calculate these factorization breaking terms and show that they contribute at leading order in N{sub c} to correlations of two produced gluons as a function of their relative rapidity and azimuthal angle, for generic (rather than back-to-back) angles. Such two-particle correlations have been studied experimentally at the BNL-RHIC collider and could be scrutinized also for pp (and, in the future, also AA) collisions at the CERN-LHC accelerator.

  15. Straight-line motion of classical point particles in a three-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, R.

    2016-07-01

    By means of the usual definition of inner product and of the Gauss condition on the sum of squares of three integers in number theory, it can be seen that there exist specific directions in continuous space in which a classical point particle moving in a three-dimensional lattice cannot propagate. When representing all directions for which propagation is possible as points on a unitary sphere, the forbidden directions appear as vacancies on this sphere. By means of a stereographic projection of the allowed direction, it is argued that propagation is not allowed for specific sets of points on the stereographic plane. The present work can be considered as an interdisciplinary lecture for advanced high-school students or to first-year college students.

  16. Fixed points of the SRG evolution and the on-shell limit of the nuclear force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, E. Ruiz; Szpigel, S.; Timóteo, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    We study the infrared limit of the similarity renormalization group (SRG) using a simple toy model for the nuclear force aiming to investigate the fixed points of the SRG evolution with both the Wilson and the Wegner generators. We show how a fully diagonal interaction at the similarity cutoff λ → 0 may be obtained from the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian and quantify the diagonalness by means of operator norms. While the fixed points for both generators are equivalent when no bound-states are allowed by the interaction, the differences arising from the presence of the Deuteron bound-state can be disentangled very clearly by analyzing the evolved interactions in the infrared limit λ → 0 on a finite momentum grid. Another issue we investigate is the location on the diagonal of the Hamiltonian in momentum-space where the SRG evolution places the Deuteron bound-state eigenvalue once it reaches the fixed point. This finite momentum grid setup provides an alternative derivation of the celebrated trace identities, as a by product. The different effects due to either the Wilson or the Wegner generators on the binding energies of A = 2 , 3 , 4 systems are investigated and related to the occurrence of a Tjon-line which emerges as the minimum of an avoided crossing between Eα = 4Et - 3Ed and Eα = 2Et. All infrared features of the flow equations are illustrated using the toy model for the two-nucleon S-waves.

  17. Rapid torque-limited line-of-sight pointing of SCOLE (Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The design concept of a control for rapid torque-limited slewing of a rigid-mast version of the NASA SCOLE configuration is presented and demonstrated by means of numerical simulation. The time-optimal control problem for the system is decomposed into separate single-axis problems, expanding analytically the implicit nonlinear transcendental expression for the SCOLE line-of-sight error, and the final Euler attitude angles and slew angles are determined. The simulation results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is found that bang-bang or bang-pause-bang slew maneuvers with control moment applied to the Shuttle and control force applied to the reflector, and with a 5-deg/s slew-rate limit, produce the best pointing accuracy and the shortest slew times, although the specified line-of-sight error of 0.02 deg cannot be achieved using such open-loop single-axis maneuvers.

  18. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Cortez, B.G.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.

    1985-07-03

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is <0.06 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of <0.009 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  20. Evaluation of parameters for particles acceleration by the zero-point field of quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueda, A.

    1985-01-01

    That particles may be accelerated by vacuum effects in quantum field theory has been repeatedly proposed in the last few years. A natural upshot of this is a mechanism for cosmic rays (CR) primaries acceleration. A mechanism for acceleration by the zero-point field (ZPE) when the ZPE is taken in a realistic sense (in opposition to a virtual field) was considered. Originally the idea was developed within a semiclassical context. The classical Einstein-Hopf model (EHM) was used to show that free isolated electromagnrtically interacting particles performed a random walk in phase space and more importantly in momentum space when submitted to the perennial action of the so called classical electromagnrtic ZPE.

  1. Diffusion Rate Limitations in Actin-Based Propulsion of Hard and Deformable Particles

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Richard B.; Purich, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism by which actin polymerization propels intracellular vesicles and invasive microorganisms remains an open question. Several recent quantitative studies have examined propulsion of biomimetic particles such as polystyrene microspheres, phospholipid vesicles, and oil droplets. In addition to allowing quantitative measurement of parameters such as the dependence of particle speed on its size, these systems have also revealed characteristic behaviors such a saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory deformation of soft particles. Such measurements and observations provide tests for proposed mechanisms of actin-based motility. In the actoclampin filament end-tracking motor model, particle-surface-bound filament end-tracking proteins are involved in load-insensitive processive insertion of actin subunits onto elongating filament plus-ends that are persistently tethered to the surface. In contrast, the tethered-ratchet model assumes working filaments are untethered and the free-ended filaments grow as thermal ratchets in a load-sensitive manner. This article presents a model for the diffusion and consumption of actin monomers during actin-based particle propulsion to predict the monomer concentration field around motile particles. The results suggest that the various behaviors of biomimetic particles, including dynamic saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory vesicle deformations, can be quantitatively and self-consistently explained by load-insensitive, diffusion-limited elongation of (+)-end-tethered actin filaments, consistent with predictions of the actoclampin filament-end tracking mechanism. PMID:16731556

  2. A point-of-care PCR test for HIV-1 detection in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Sujit R; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Sur, Kunal; Kelso, David M

    2013-04-15

    A low-cost, fully integrated sample-to-answer, quantitative PCR (qPCR) system that can be used for detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA in infants at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings has been developed and tested. The system is based on a novel DNA extraction method, which uses a glass fiber membrane, a disposable assay card that includes on-board reagent storage, provisions for thermal cycling and fluorescence detection, and a battery-operated portable analyzer. The system is capable of automated PCR mix assembly using a novel reagent delivery system and performing qPCR. HIV-1 and internal control targets are detected using two spectrally separated fluorophores, FAM and Quasar 670. In this report, a proof-of-concept of the platform is demonstrated. Initial results with whole blood demonstrate that the test is capable of detecting HIV-1 in blood samples containing greater than 5000 copies of HIV-1. In resource-limited settings, a point-of-care HIV-1 qPCR test would greatly increase the number of test results that reach the infants caregivers, allowing them to pursue anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:23202333

  3. Unitarity limits on the mass and radius of dark matter particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griest, Kim; Kamionkowski, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Using partial wave unitarity and the observed density of the Universe, it is show that a stable elementary particle which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a mass greater than 340 TeV. An extended object which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a radius less than 7.5 x 10(exp -7) fm. A lower limit to the relic abundance of such particles is also found.

  4. Mode confinement in photonic quasicrystal point-defect cavities for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gennaro, E.; Savo, S.; Andreone, A.; Galdi, V.; Castaldi, G.; Pierro, V.; Masullo, M. Rosaria

    2008-10-01

    In this letter, we present a study of the confinement properties of point-defect resonators in finite-size photonic-bandgap structures composed of aperiodic arrangements of dielectric rods, with special emphasis on their use for the design of cavities for particle accelerators. Specifically, for representative geometries, we study the properties of the fundamental mode (as a function of the filling fraction, structure size, and losses) via two-dimensional and three-dimensional full-wave numerical simulations, as well as microwave measurements at room temperature. Results indicate that for reduced-size structures, aperiodic geometries exhibit superior confinement properties by comparison with periodic ones.

  5. Reassessment of data used in setting exposure limits for hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Kaurin, D.G.

    1991-05-01

    A critical review and a reassessment of data reviewed in NCRP Report 106 on effects of hot particles'' on the skin of pigs, monkeys, and humans were made. Our analysis of the data of Forbes and Mikhail on effects from activated UC{sub 2} particles, ranging in diameter from 144 {mu}m to 328 {mu}m, led to the formulation of a new model for prediction of both the threshold for acute ulceration and for ulcer diameter. A dose of 27 Gy at a depth of 1.33 mm in tissue in this model will result in an acute ulcer with a diameter determined by the radius over which this dose (at 1.33-mm depth) extends. Application of the model to the Forbes-Mikhail data yielded a threshold'' (5% probability) of 6 {times} 10{sup 9} beta particles from a point source on skin of mixed fission product beta particles, or about 10{sup 10} beta particles from Sr--Y-90, since few of the Sr-90 beta particles reach this depth. The data of Hopewell et al. for their 1 mm Sr-Y-90 exposures were also analyzed with the above model and yielded a predicted threshold of 2 {times} 10{sup 10} Sr-Y-90 beta particles for a point source on skin. Dosimetry values were employed in this latter analysis that are 3.3 times higher than previously reported for this source. An alternate interpretation of the Forbes and Mikhail data, derived from linear plots of the data, is that the threshold depends strongly on particle size with the smaller particles yielding a much lower threshold and smaller minimum size ulcer. Additional animal exposures are planned to distinguish between the above explanations. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional point vortices: relaxation equations and strong mixing limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-04-01

    We complement the literature on the statistical mechanics of point vortices in two-dimensional hydrodynamics. Using a maximum entropy principle, we determine the multi-species Boltzmann-Poisson equation and establish a form of Virial theorem. Using a maximum entropy production principle (MEPP), we derive a set of relaxation equations towards statistical equilibrium. These relaxation equations can be used as a numerical algorithm to compute the maximum entropy state. We mention the analogies with the Fokker-Planck equations derived by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes. We then consider the limit of strong mixing (or low energy). To leading order, the relationship between the vorticity and the stream function at equilibrium is linear and the maximization of the entropy becomes equivalent to the minimization of the enstrophy. This expansion is similar to the Debye-Hückel approximation for electrolytes, except that the temperature is negative instead of positive so that the effective interaction between like-sign vortices is attractive instead of repulsive. This leads to an organization at large scales presenting geometry-induced phase transitions, instead of Debye shielding. We compare the results obtained with point vortices to those obtained in the context of the statistical mechanics of continuous vorticity fields described by the Miller-Robert-Sommeria (MRS) theory. At linear order, we get the same results but differences appear at the next order. In particular, the MRS theory predicts a transition between sinh and tanh-like ω - ψ relationships depending on the sign of Ku - 3 (where Ku is the Kurtosis) while there is no such transition for point vortices which always show a sinh-like ω - ψ relationship. We derive the form of the relaxation equations in the strong mixing limit and show that the enstrophy plays the role of a Lyapunov functional.

  7. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weroński, P.; Nosek, M.; Batys, P.

    2013-09-01

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 μm silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 μm monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  8. Point and column aerosol radiative closure during ACE 1: Effects of particle shape and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2003-02-01

    We used data collected during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) to study point and column aerosol radiative closure over the remote ocean. To test point closure, total and hemispheric backscattering coefficients calculated with a Mie single-scattering model were compared with measurements made by ship and aircraft at three wavelengths (400, 550, and 700 nm). On the ship, assuming spherical particles, calculated total scattering was usually within 10% of measurements (closure obtained in >80% of the cases) but calculated backscattering was usually 15-25% lower than measurements (closure obtained in <50% of the cases). When a model for particle nonsphericity was applied to the dried sea spray, assuming the particles to be ideal cubes or irregular convex and concave crystals resulted in overestimation of backscattering. However, when nonsphericity parameters were fit to the measurements, calculated backscattering was also usually within 10% of measurements (closure obtained in >80% of the cases). On the aircraft, however, calculated scattering and backscattering were usually lower than measurements by 20-45% regardless of assumed particle shape (closure obtained in <50% of the cases), likely owing to differences in the aerosol inlet penetration efficiencies to each instrument or unidentified uncertainties in the measured number size distributions or scattering coefficients. To test column closure, aerosol extinction profiles calculated from in situ observations (below 5.5 km) and satellite observations (above 5.5 km) were vertically integrated, and the resulting aerosol optical depth was compared with measurements made on the ship during two clear-sky days at three wavelengths (500, 778, and 862 nm). Calculated spectral optical depths were usually within 25% of measurements (closure obtained at one or more wavelengths on both days), and agreement at longer wavelengths was improved when satellite measurements were spectrally scaled using in situ

  9. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  11. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  12. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  13. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  14. Limits on deeply penetrating particles in the 10(17) eV cosmic ray flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Gerhardy, J. W.; Mizumoto, Y.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Loh, P. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    Deeply penetrating particles in the 10 to the 17th power eV cosmic ray flux were investigated. No such events were found in 8.2 x 10 to the 6th power sec of running time. Limits were set on the following: quark-matter in the primary cosmic ray flux; long-lived, weakly interacting particles produced in p-air collisions; the astrophysical neutrino flux. In particular, the neutrino flux limit at 10 to the 17th power eV implies that z, the red shift of maximum activity is 10 in the model of Hill and Schramm.

  15. The chaotic four-body problem in Newtonian gravity I: Identical point-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Stone, Nicholas C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Shara, Michael M.; Muddu, Harsha; Solano-Oropeza, Diana; Thomas, Yancey

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the chaotic four-body problem in Newtonian gravity. Assuming point particles and total encounter energies ≤ 0, the problem has three possible outcomes. We describe each outcome as a series of discrete transformations in energy space, using the diagrams first presented in Leigh & Geller (2012; see the Appendix). Furthermore, we develop a formalism for calculating probabilities for these outcomes to occur, expressed using the density of escape configurations per unit energy, and based on the Monaghan description originally developed for the three-body problem. We compare this analytic formalism to results from a series of binary-binary encounters with identical point particles, simulated using the FEWBODY code. Each of our three encounter outcomes produces a unique velocity distribution for the escaping star(s). Thus, these distributions can potentially be used to constrain the origins of dynamically-formed populations, via a direct comparison between the predicted and observed velocity distributions. Finally, we show that, for encounters that form stable triples, the simulated single star escape velocity distributions are the same as for the three-body problem. This is also the case for the other two encounter outcomes, but only at low virial ratios. This suggests that single and binary stars processed via single-binary and binary-binary encounters in dense star clusters should have a unique velocity distribution relative to the underlying Maxwellian distribution (provided the relaxation time is sufficiently long), which can be calculated analytically.

  16. Analysis of ultrasonically rotating droplet using moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Numerical analysis of the rotation of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The ultrasonically levitated droplet is often reported to rotate owing to the surface tangential component of acoustic radiation force. To observe the torque from an acoustic wave and clarify the mechanism underlying the phenomena, it is effective to take advantage of numerical simulation using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require a calculation grid or mesh. In this paper, the numerical treatment of the viscoacoustic torque, which emerges from the viscous boundary layer and governs the acoustical droplet rotation, is discussed. The Reynolds stress traction force is calculated from the DPSM result using the idea of effective normal particle velocity through the boundary layer and input to the MPS surface particles. A droplet levitated in an acoustic chamber is simulated using the proposed calculation method. The droplet is vertically supported by a plane standing wave from an ultrasonic driver and subjected to a rotating sound field excited by two acoustic sources on the side wall with different phases. The rotation of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically and its acceleration is discussed and compared with those in the literature.

  17. Scaling Limits of a Tagged Particle in the Exclusion Process with Variable Diffusion Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton

    2008-09-01

    We prove a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem for a tagged particle in a symmetric simple exclusion process in ℤ with variable diffusion coefficient. The scaling limits are obtained from a similar result for the current through -1/2 for a zero-range process with bond disorder. For the CLT, we prove convergence to a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst exponent 1/4.

  18. String limit of the isotropic Heisenberg chain in the four-particle sector

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, A. G. Komarov, I. V.

    2008-05-15

    The quantum method of variable separation is applied to the spectral problem of the isotropic Heisenberg model. The Baxter difference equation is resolved by means of a special quasiclassical asymptotic expansion. States are identified by multiplicities of limiting values of the Bethe parameters. The string limit of the four-particle sector is investigated. String solutions are singled out and classified. It is shown that only a minor fraction of solutions demonstrate string behavior.

  19. Positions of equilibrium points for dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pástor, P.

    2014-11-01

    For a body with negligible mass moving in the gravitational field of a star with one planet in a circular orbit (the circular restricted three-body problem), five equilibrium points exist and are known as the Lagrangian points. The positions of the Lagrangian points are not valid for dust particles because in the derivation of the Lagrangian points it is assumed that no other forces besides the gravitation act on the body with negligible mass. Here, we determined positions of the equilibrium points for the dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation. The equilibrium points are located on curves connecting the Lagrangian points in the circular restricted three-body problem. The equilibrium points for Jupiter are distributed in large interval of heliocentric distances due to its large mass. The equilibrium points for the Earth explain a cloud of dust particles trailing the Earth observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The dust particles moving in the equilibrium points are distributed in interplanetary space according to their properties.

  20. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  1. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-04-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  2. VIV of a Flexible Cylinder: Three-dimensional Response Reconstruction from Limited Localized Measurement Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-11-01

    Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a low mass ratio flexible cylinder (m*<1), is studied experimentally. The flexible tension-dominated cylinder was held fixed at both ends and was immersed in the uniform incoming flow. Dynamic response of the system was studied in the reduced velocity range of U* = 2.9 - 14.5 and the Reynolds number range of Re = 315 - 1580. Continuous response of the cylinder was reconstructed from limited number of measurement points based on modal expansion theorem modified using Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC). This reconstruction technique made it possible to properly reconstruct a continuous response along the length of the cylinder, even when the measurement points were localized in a small region of the cylinder. Mono- and multi-frequency excitation responses as well as transition from low mode numbers to higher ones were studied. Also, flow forces acting on the cylinder were calculated and they showed a consistent relation between the regions where the cylinder was being excited by the flow (CLv>0) and the counterclockwise figure-eight trajectories of oscillations in which the phase difference between the inline and crossflow directions were in the range of φxy =[ 0 π].

  3. Feasibility of HIV point-of-care tests for resource-limited settings: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy; Gous, Natasha; Ford, Nathan; Scott, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Improved access to anti-retroviral therapy increases the need for affordable monitoring using assays such as CD4 and/or viral load in resource-limited settings. Barriers to accessing treatment, high rates of loss to initiation and poor retention in care are prompting the need to find alternatives to conventional centralized laboratory testing in certain countries. Strong advocacy has led to a rapidly expanding repertoire of point-of-care tests for HIV. point-of-care testing is not without its challenges: poor regulatory control, lack of guidelines, absence of quality monitoring and lack of industry standards for connectivity, to name a few. The management of HIV increasingly requires a multidisciplinary testing approach involving hematology, chemistry, and tests associated with the management of non-communicable diseases, thus added expertise is needed. This is further complicated by additional human resource requirements and the need for continuous training, a sustainable supply chain, and reimbursement strategies. It is clear that to ensure appropriate national implementation either in a tiered laboratory model or a total decentralized model, clear country-specific assessments need to be conducted. PMID:25197773

  4. Oklahoma Retailers’ Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health’s voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point of sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers’ perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove non-contractual POS advertisements for a six-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. PMID:25767197

  5. The (not so) squeezed limit of the primordial 3-point function

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Musso, Marcello; D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge E-mail: gda2@nyu.edu E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu

    2011-11-01

    We prove that, in a generic single-field model, the consistency relation for the 3-point function in the squeezed limit receives corrections that vanish quadratically in the ratio of the momenta, i.e. as (k{sub L}/k{sub S}){sup 2}. This implies that a detection of a bispectrum signal going as 1/k{sub L}{sup 2} in the squeezed limit, that is suppressed only by one power of k{sub L} compared with the local shape, would rule out all single-field models. The absence of this kind of terms in the bispectrum holds also for multifield models, but only if all the fields have a mass much smaller than H. The detection of any scale dependence of the bias, for scales much larger than the size of the haloes, would disprove all single-field models. We comment on the regime of squeezing that can be probed by realistic surveys.

  6. Oklahoma Retailers' Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. PMID:25767197

  7. Self-limiting trajectories of a particle moving deterministically in a random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, B. Z.; Cohen, E. G. D.

    2015-12-01

    We study the motion of a particle moving on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, whose sites are randomly occupied by either right or left rotators. These rotators deterministically scatter the particle to the right or left, additionally changing orientation from left to right or from right to left after scattering the particle. In the model we consider, the scatterers are each initially oriented to the right with probability p\\in [0,1]. The initial configuration of scatterers, which forms the medium through which the particle moves, is set up so that the scatterer’s orientations are independent and identically distributed. For p\\in (0,1), we show that as the particle moves through the lattice, it creates a number of reflecting structures. These structures ultimately limit the particle’s motion, causing it to have a periodic trajectory. As p approaches either 0 or 1, and the medium becomes increasingly homogenous, the particle’s dynamics undergoes a discontinuous transition from this self-limiting, periodic motion to a self-avoiding motion, where the particle’s trajectory, away from its initial position, is a self-avoiding walk. In a generalization of this model, we also show the same periodic behavior exists if the model’s initial configuration of scatterers are independently but not identically distributed. However, if these orientations are not chosen independently, we demonstrate that this can drastically change the particle’s motion causing it to have a nonperiodic behavior.

  8. Calculation of the limiting parameters for oxide ceramic particles during HVOF spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, V.; Evdokimenko, Y.; Kisel, V.; Kadyrov, E.

    1994-12-31

    The authors analyze numerically gas-dynamical schemes peculiar for HVOF spraying equipment and present methods to calculate velocity and thermal state of sprayed particles which allow one to find the limiting values of these parameters and to define the applicability limitations of modern HVOF spraying apparatus. The method includes gas dynamical calculations of gas flow in accelerating channel (AC) and calculations of sprayed particle motion and its thermal state (temperature and melted mass fraction). The calculations were performed for particles of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide with the size distributions of 10--80 {micro}m. Three different jet schemes were considered: with supersonic AC, with subsonic AC, and with combined gas dynamical path having functionally separated regions of heating and acceleration. Analysis of the results obtained at limiting parameters of jet operation suggests that energetic potentialities of HVOF method are not utilized completely. Although accelerated to a high speed the ceramic oxide particles have a thermal state which is far from optimal. It is possible to significantly increase the powder temperature and fraction of melted material by using new configuration solutions without essential constructive complications. The authors propose one of the possible solutions to optimize gas dynamical path. The results obtained for heating and acceleration in such a path suggest that the utilized approach is correct and allows one to predict the creation of a new family of more efficient HVOF torches and an expanded applicability of HVOF method.

  9. Focal Image Plane Detection Based on Central Coordinate Point Spectral Value in Off-Axis Digital Particle Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Peizhen; Deng, Lijun; Lu, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    A method to detect the focal image plane from a single off-axis digital particle hologram is proposed. This method utilizes the central coordinate point spectral value of the reconstructed particle image as focusing criterion to detect the focal image plane. It is found that the central coordinate point spectral values come into maximum when the reconstruction distance is equal to the actual distance that was used in experiment of hologram acquisition. Numerical simulations are given to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is a potential and better option for studying three dimensional particles by using digital holography.

  10. Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter for optical indoor navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhi; Gu, Wenjun; Chen, Chunyi; Chowdhury, M. I. S.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    With the fast growing and popularization of smart computing devices, there is a rise in demand for accurate and reliable indoor positioning. Recently, systems using visible light communications (VLC) technology have been considered as candidates for indoor positioning applications. A number of researchers have reported that VLC-based positioning systems could achieve position estimation accuracy in the order of centimeter. This paper proposes an Indoors navigation environment, based on visible light communications (VLC) technology. Light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), which are essentially semiconductor devices, can be easily modulated and used as transmitters within the proposed system. Positioning is realized by collecting received-signal-strength (RSS) information on the receiver side, following which least square estimation is performed to obtain the receiver position. To enable tracking of user's trajectory and reduce the effect of wild values in raw measurements, different filters are employed. In this paper, by computer simulations we have shown that Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) outperforms other filters such as basic Kalman filter and sequential importance-resampling particle filter (SIR-PF), at a reasonable computational cost.

  11. Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Andrew J.; McHale, Kevin; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We report near-optimal tracking of freely diffusing fluorescent particles in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry via photon counting and real-time feedback. We present a quantitative statistical model of our feedback network and find excellent agreement with the experiment. We monitor the motion of a single fluorescent particle with a sensitivity of 15 nm/sqrt Hz while collecting fewer than 5000 fluorescence photons/s. Fluorescent microspheres (diffusion coefficient 1.3 μm2/s) are tracked with a root-mean-square tracking error of 170 nm, within a factor of 2 of the theoretical limit set by photon counting shot noise.

  12. Particle velocity and sediment transport at the limit of deposition in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ota, J J; Perrusquía, G S

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the sediment particle while it is transported at the limit of deposition in storm sewers, i.e. as bed load at the limit of concentration that leads to sediment deposition. Although many empirical sediment transport equations are known in the literature, there is only limited knowledge concerning particle velocity. Sediment particle and sphere velocity measurements were carried out in two pipe channels and these results led to the development of a semi-theoretical equation for sediment transport at the limit of deposition in sewers. Even in the transport process without deposition, sediment movement is slower than water velocity and depends on the angle of repose of sediment with a diameter d on the roughness k of the pipe channel. Instead of classical dimensionless bed shear stress ψ, a modified dimensionless bed shear stress ψ (d/k)(2/3) was suggested, based on the angle of repose and this parameter was proved to be significant for quantifying the transport capacity. The main purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of careful observation of experiments. Not only number of tests, but physical understanding are essential for better empirical equations. PMID:23416585

  13. Melting and solidification point of fcc-metal nanoparticles with respect to particle size: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Suzuki, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    The phase transition between liquid droplets and solid nanoparticles of face-centered cubic (fcc) metals is investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Depression of both the melting and solidification points is negatively correlated with the inverse of particle radius. Polycrystalline nanoparticles are obtained by cooling and the polycrystalline structure causes a fluctuation in the trend of the melting point with respect to particle size. It was found that the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient is proportional to the melting point among various body-centered cubic (bcc) and fcc metals in the same matter, even though different interatomic potentials are employed between bcc and fcc metals.

  14. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  15. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  16. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  17. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  18. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  19. Particle acceleration and turbulence in cosmic Ray shocks: possible pathways beyond the Bohm limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, M. A.; Diamond, P. H.

    2007-08-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration is discussed in terms of its potential to accelerate cosmic rays (CR) to 1018 eV (beyond the ``knee,'' as observations suggest) and in terms of the related observational signatures (spectral features). One idea to reach this energy is to resonantly generate a turbulent magnetic field via accelerated particles much in excess of the background field. We identify difficulties with this scenario and suggest two separate mechanisms that can work in concert with one another leading to a significant acceleration enhancement. The first mechanism is based on a nonlinear modification of the flow ahead of the shock supported by particles already accelerated to some specific (knee) momentum. The particles gain energy by bouncing off converging magnetic irregularities frozen into the flow in the shock precursor and not so much by re-crossing the shock itself. The acceleration rate is determined by the gradient of the flow velocity and turns out to be formally independent of the particle mean free path. The velocity gradient is set by the knee-particles. The acceleration rate of particles above the knee does not decrease with energy, unlike in the linear acceleration regime. The knee (spectrum steepening) forms because particles above it are effectively confined to the shock only if they are within limited domains in the momentum space, while other particles fall into ``loss-islands'', similar to the ``loss-cone'' of magnetic traps. This also maintains the steep velocity gradient and high acceleration rate. The second mechanism is based on the generation of Alfven waves at the gyroradius scale at the background field level, with a subsequent transfer to longer scales via interaction with strong acoustic turbulence in the shock precursor. The acoustic turbulence in turn, may be generated by Drury instability or by parametric instability of the Alfven (A) waves.

  20. The polar cusp from a particle point of view: A statistical study based on Viking data

    SciTech Connect

    Aparicio, B.; Thelin, B.; Lundin, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors present results from the particle measurements made on board the Viking satellite. For the period of interest the Viking orbits covered at high latitudes the whole dayside sector. Data from the Viking V-3 particle experiment acquired during the Polar Region Outer Magnetospheric International Study period have been used to study the extension of the cusp and cleft in magnetic local time and invariant latitude, and furthermore, their dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters. The study is limited to the MLT range from 0900 to 1500 and to invariant latitudes (ILAT) from 74{degree} to 82{degree}. This region is divided into bins of size. The authors concentrated on the region where magnetosheath solar wind plasma penetrates more directly into the magnetosphere and is measured at Viking altitudes. This region is called the cusp proper, to be distinguished from a broader region denoted the cleft, where more energetic particles are observed. Statistically, they find the cusp proper to extend from invariant latitudes of 75{degree} to 82{degree} and magnetic local times from 0930 to 1400 MLT. The width in ILAT is found to be on average {approx}2{degree} and in MLT {approx}2 hours. It is shown that a clear correlation exists between the densities in the cusp proper calculated from the Viking V-3 experiment in the cusp proper and those in the solar wind calculated from IMP 8 measurements. It is also shown that the position of the cusp proper in MLT depends on the sense of the By component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By), giving a well-defined displacement of the region of maximum occurrence toward earlier MLTs for IMF By < 0 and a less defined displacement toward later MLTs for IMF By > 0.

  1. Model of alpha particle diffusion in the outer limiter shadow of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. |; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    A new code, Monte Carlo Collisional Stochastic Orbit Retracing (MCCSOR), has been developed to model the alpha particle loss signal as measured by the outer midplane scintillator detector in TFTR. The shadowing effects due to the outer limiters and the detector itself have been included, along with a pitch angle scattering and stochastic ripple diffusion. Shadowing by the outer limiters has a strong effect on both the magnitude and pitch angle distribution of the calculated loss. There is at least qualitative agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data.

  2. Collective scattering and oscillation modes of optically bound point particles trapped in a single mode waveguide field.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Daniela; Ritsch, Helmut

    2015-12-14

    Collective coherent scattering of laser light induces strong light forces between polarizable point particles. These dipole forces are strongly enhanced in magnitude and distance within the field of an optical waveguide so that at low temperature the particles self-order in strongly bound regular patterns. The stationary configurations typically exhibit super-radiant scattering with strong particle and light confinement. Here we study collective excitations of such self-consistent crystalline particle-light structures as function of particle number and pump strength. Multiple scattering and absorption modify the collective particle-field eigenfrequencies and create eigenmodes of surprisingly complex nature. For larger arrays this often leads to dynamical instabilities and disintegration of the structures even if additional damping is present. PMID:26698971

  3. CHARGE-EXCHANGE LIMITS ON LOW-ENERGY {alpha}-PARTICLE FLUXES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary {alpha} particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He II bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. We study 10 events in total, including the {gamma}-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic particles. The absence of charge-exchange line wings may point to a need for more complete theoretical work. Some of the events do have broadband signatures, which could correspond to continua from other origins, but these do not have the spectral signatures expected from the Orrall-Zirker mechanism.

  4. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  5. Secondary nitrogen limitation in a subtropical lake impacted by non-point source agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Havens, K E

    1995-01-01

    A 20-year history of nutrient limitation was quantified for Lake Okeechobee, a nutrient-impacted lake in Florida, USA. Limiting status (nitrogen versus phosphorus) was estimated from deviations between trophic state index (TSI) parameters, calculated from routine monitoring data. The lake is presently nitrogen-limited. However, historical trends in the TSI deviations indicate that contemporary nitrogen limitation is a secondary, unnatural condition that has arisen due to excessive phosphorus loading. Prior to 1980, there was evidence of lake-wide limitation by phosphorus, rather than nitrogen. The finding of secondary nitrogen limitation in Lake Okeechobee has important management implications. Phosphorus loads are presently being reduced in order to reduce in-lake concentrations and create phosphorus-limited conditions (nitrogen limitation is undersirable because it has favored bloom-forming cyanobacteria). The present results indicate that this long-term management goal is ecologically sound; it is consistent with the concept of restoration of the lake. PMID:15091513

  6. Multi-Scale Simulation of Atomization with small drops represented by Lagrangian Point-Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yue; Zaleski, Stéphane; Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert Team

    2014-11-01

    Numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the drop formation and evolution in gas-assisted atomization. The atomizer consists of two parallel planar jets: the fast gas jet and the slow liquid jet. Due to the shear between gas and liquid streams, the liquid-gas interface is unstable, and this eventually leads to full atomization. A fundamental challenge in atomization simulations is the existence of multiple length scales involved. In order to accurately capture both the gas-liquid interface instability and the drop dynamics, a multi-scale multiphase flow simulation strategy is proposed. In the present model, the gas-liquid interface is resolved by the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, while the small drops are represented by Lagrangian point-particle (LPP) models. Particular attention is paid on validating the coupling and conversion between LPP and VOF. The present model is validated by comparing with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results and also experimental data. The simulation results show complex coupling between the interface instability and the turbulent gas jet, which in turn influence the formation and evolution of the drops formed in atomization. ANR-11-MONU-0011.

  7. Inverse dependency of particle residence times in ponds to the concentration of phosphate, the limiting nutrient.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly A; Santschi, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    234Th, a commonly used short-lived particle-reactive tracer in marine systems, was measured in three different holding pond series at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Colorado, along with its parent nuclide 238U, to determine steady-state residence times of particle-reactive actinides such as Pu, and of particles. Series B ponds, which received industrial effluent that includes ortho-phosphate (PO4) and actinides, differed from series A and C ponds, which did not. This difference was also evident in the calculated particle residence times, which were <1 day for the ponds B4 and B5, where PO4 concentrations were higher (1.4 and 1.8 mg/l), and 3 and 3.4 days for ponds A3 and C2, respectively, where ortho-phosphate concentrations were lower (<0.1 mg/l). Particle residence times thus showed an inverse relationship with the concentration of ortho-phosphate, the limiting nutrient in fresh water systems. The same relationship to the concentration of ortho-phosphate or any of the other nutrient elements was not evident for the residence times of dissolved 234Th, which ranged between 0.1 and 2 days. This can be attributed to higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate ligands with greater binding potential for actinides such as four-valent Th and Pu in ponds with higher ortho-phosphate concentrations. Regardless of actual ortho-phosphate concentration, however, at water residence (holding) times of 1 month in these ponds, particles and associated actinides would be expected to be completely removed from the pond water to sediments. PMID:15261419

  8. The Mean-Field Limit for Solid Particles in a Navier-Stokes Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvillettes, Laurent; Golse, François; Ricci, Valeria

    2008-06-01

    We propose a mathematical derivation of Brinkman's force for a cloud of particles immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. Specifically, we consider the Stokes or steady Navier-Stokes equations in a bounded domain Ω⊂ℝ3 for the velocity field u of an incompressible fluid with kinematic viscosity ν and density 1. Brinkman's force consists of a source term 6 π ν j where j is the current density of the particles, and of a friction term 6 π ν ρ u where ρ is the number density of particles. These additional terms in the motion equation for the fluid are obtained from the Stokes or steady Navier-Stokes equations set in Ω minus the disjoint union of N balls of radius ɛ=1/ N in the large N limit with no-slip boundary condition. The number density ρ and current density j are obtained from the limiting phase space empirical measure 1/Nsum_{1le kle N}δ_{xk,vk} , where x k is the center of the k-th ball and v k its instantaneous velocity. This can be seen as a generalization of Allaire's result in [Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 113:209-259, [1991

  9. Gravitational dynamics of an infinite shuffled lattice: Particle coarse-graining, nonlinear clustering, and the continuum limit.

    PubMed

    Baertschiger, T; Joyce, M; Gabrielli, A; Sylos Labini, F

    2007-07-01

    We study the evolution under their self-gravity of particles evolving from infinite "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. We focus here specifically on the comparison between the evolution of such a system and that of "daughter" coarse-grained particle distributions. These are sparser (i.e., lower density) particle distributions, defined by a simple coarse-graining procedure, which share the same large-scale mass fluctuations. We consider both the case that such coarse-grainings are performed (i) on the initial conditions, and (ii) at a finite time with a specific additional prescription. In numerical simulations we observe that, to a first approximation, these coarse-grainings represent well the evolution of the two-point correlation properties over a significant range of scales. We note, in particular, that the form of the two-point correlation function in the original system, when it is evolving in the asymptotic "self-similar" regime, may be reproduced well in a daughter coarse-grained system in which the dynamics are still dominated by two-body (nearest neighbor) interactions. This provides a simple physical description of the origin of the form of part of the asymptotic nonlinear correlation function. Using analytical results on the early time evolution of these systems, however, we show that small observed differences between the evolved system and its coarse-grainings at the initial time will in fact diverge as the ratio of the coarse-graining scale to the original interparticle distance increases. The second coarse-graining studied, performed at a finite time in a specified manner, circumvents this problem. It also makes it more physically transparent why gravitational dynamics from these initial conditions tends toward a self-similar evolution. We finally discuss the precise definition of a limit in which a continuum (specifically Vlasov-type) description of the observed linear and nonlinear evolution should be applicable. This requires the introduction

  10. Collinearity constraints for on-shell massless particle three-point functions, and implications for allowed-forbidden n +1 -point functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2016-03-01

    A simple collinearity argument implies that the massless particle three-point function of helicities h1,h2,h3 with corresponding real-valued four-momenta k1,k2,k3 taken as all incoming or all outgoing (i.e., k1+k2+k3=0 ) vanishes by helicity conservation unless h1+h2+h3=0 . When any one particle with four-momentum k is off mass shell, this constraint no longer applies; a forbidden amplitude with h1+h2+h3≠0 on shell can be nonzero off shell, but it vanishes proportionally to k2 as k approaches mass shell. When an on-shell forbidden amplitude is coupled to an allowed n -point amplitude to form an n +1 -point function, this k2 factor in the forbidden amplitude cancels the k2 in the propagator, leading to an n +1 -point function that has no pole at k2=0 . We relate our results for real-valued four-momenta to the corresponding selection rules that have been derived in the on-shell literature for complexified four-momenta.

  11. Nuclear Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at the Limit of Particle Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Norbert Pietralla

    2006-03-29

    The research project ''Nuclear Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at the Limit of Particle Stability'' with sponsor ID ''DE-FG02-04ER41334'' started late-summer 2004 and aims at the investigation of highly excited low-spin states of selected key-nuclei in the vicinity of the particle separation threshold by means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy in electromagnetic excitation reactions. This work addresses nuclear structures with excitation energies close to the binding energy or highly excited off-yrast states in accordance with the NSAC milestones. In 2005 the program was extended towards additional use of virtual photons and theoretical description of the low-lying collective excitations in the well deformed nuclei.

  12. Quantum heat engine in the relativistic limit: the case of a Dirac particle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Enrique; Peña, Francisco J

    2012-12-01

    We studied the efficiency of two different schemes for a quantum heat engine, by considering a single Dirac particle trapped in an infinite one-dimensional potential well as the "working substance." The first scheme is a cycle, composed of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic reversible trajectories in configuration space. The trajectories are driven by a quasistatic deformation of the potential well due to an external applied force. The second scheme is a variant of the former, where isoenergetic trajectories are replaced by isothermal ones, along which the system is in contact with macroscopic thermostats. This second scheme constitutes a quantum analog of the classical Carnot cycle. Our expressions, as obtained from the Dirac single-particle spectrum, converge in the nonrelativistic limit to some of the existing results in the literature for the Schrödinger spectrum. PMID:23367894

  13. Phase transition in diffusion limited aggregation with patchy particles in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartha, Moses J.; Sayeed, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    The influence of patchy interactions on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) has been investigated by computer simulations. In this model, the adsorption of the particle is irreversible, but the adsorption occurs only when the 'sticky patch' makes contact with the sticky patch of a previously adsorbed particle. As we vary the patch size, growth rate of the cluster decreases, and below a well-defined critical patch size, pc the steady state growth rate goes to zero. The system reaches an absorbing phase producing a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition. The order parameter close to the critical value of the patch size shows a power law behavior ρ (∞) ∼(p -pc) β, where β = 0.2840. We have found that the value of the critical exponent convincingly shows that this transition in patchy DLA belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  14. Characterizing the size distribution of particles in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample-collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and in collaboration with the Root River Municipal Stormwater Permit Group monitored eight urban source areas representing six types of source areas in or near Madison, Wis. in an effort to improve characterization of particle-size distributions in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample collection methods. The types of source areas were parking lot, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and mixed use. This information can then be used by environmental managers and engineers when selecting the most appropriate control devices for the removal of solids from urban stormwater. Mixed-use and parking-lot study areas had the lowest median particle sizes (42 and 54 (u or mu)m, respectively), followed by the collector street study area (70 (u or mu)m). Both arterial street and institutional roof study areas had similar median particle sizes of approximately 95 (u or mu)m. Finally, the feeder street study area showed the largest median particle size of nearly 200 (u or mu)m. Median particle sizes measured as part of this study were somewhat comparable to those reported in previous studies from similar source areas. The majority of particle mass in four out of six source areas was silt and clay particles that are less than 32 (u or mu)m in size. Distributions of particles ranging from 500 (u or mu)m were highly variable both within and between source areas. Results of this study suggest substantial variability in data can inhibit the development of a single particle-size distribution that is representative of stormwater runoff generated from a single source area or land use. Continued development of improved sample collection methods, such as the depth-integrated sample arm, may reduce variability in particle-size distributions by mitigating the effect of sediment bias inherent with a fixed-point sampler.

  15. Quantifying the kinetic limitations of atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, A.; Murphy, B.; Riipinen, I.; Percival, C.; Topping, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, remain a major uncertainty in the Earth system: they impact the climate by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation, as well as regulating the properties of clouds. On regional scales, aerosols are among the main pollutants deteriorating air quality, their impacts on both poorly quantified. Reducing these uncertainties requires accurate knowledge on the composition, concentrations and size distributions of these particles as they reside in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there are currently huge uncertainties in many fundamental parameters that are required to predict their environmental impacts. This is largely down to the fact that a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles are comprised of organic material (20-90% of particle mass), containing potentially thousands of compounds with largely uncertain properties It is becoming increasingly evident that aerosols exist as metastable amorphous states, rather than simple liquid/solid mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that particles can form glass like substances. As the glass transition temperature is approached, an increase in viscosity leads to a reduced rate of molecular diffusion and an arrested non-equilibrium structure. Partitioning between the gas and condensed phase is kinetically limited in such amorphous states. Traditional organic aerosol models do not account for this, they assume that 1) the aerosol phase is a well-mixed non-viscous liquid; 2) the aerosol phase instantaneously equilibrates with the gas phase constituents. This adds significant uncertainty to predictions of gas/particle mass transfer as mixing timescales are ultimately governed by the diffusion coefficients of the aerosol constituents in the aerosol, which, on the other hand, are connected to the viscosity of the particulate matter. For typical aerosol sizes, the characteristic time for mixing could increase from a few milliseconds to hours or

  16. Holographic interpretation of 1-point toroidal block in the semiclassical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, K. B.; Belavin, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose the holographic interpretation of the 1-point conformal block on a torus in the semiclassical regime. To this end we consider the linearized version of the block and find its coefficients by means of the perturbation procedure around natural seed configuration corresponding to the zero-point block. From the AdS/CFT perspective the linearized block is given by the geodesic length of the tadpole graph embedded into the thermal AdS plus the holomorphic part of the thermal AdS action.

  17. Interaction of fission products and SiC in TRISO fuel particles: a limiting HTGR design parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.; Homan, F.J.; Simon, W.A.; Turner, R.F.

    1983-09-01

    The fuel particle system for the steam cycle cogeneration HTGR being developed in the US consists of 20% enriched UC/sub 0/./sub 3/O/sub 1/./sub 7/ and ThO/sub 2/ kernels with TRISO coatings. The reaction of fission products with the SiC coating is the limiting thermochemical coating failure mechanism affecting performance. The attack of the SiC by palladium (Pd) is considered the controlling reaction with systems of either oxide or carbide fuels. The lanthanides, such as cerium, neodymium, and praseodymium, also attack SiC in carbide fuel particles. In reactor design, the time-temperature relationships at local points in the core are used to calculate the depth of SiC-Pd reaction. The depth of penetration into the SiC during service varies with core power density, power distribution, outlet gas temperature, and fuel residence time. These parameters are adjusted in specifying the core design to avoid SiC coating failure.

  18. 77 FR 112 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Section 450.10 of the December 1, 2009 final rule (74 FR 62995) and the definition of ``storm water... Development Point Source Category (hereafter referred to as the ``C&D rule'') on December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62995... Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater regulations (55 FR 47990) on November 16, 1990. The Phase I...

  19. The Point of Departure of a Particle Sliding on a Curved Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A particle is thrown tangentially on a surface. It is shown that for some surfaces and for special initial velocities the thrown particle immediately leaves the surface, and for special conditions it never leaves the surface. The conditions for leaving the surface are investigated. The problem is studied for a surface with the cross-section y =…

  20. A critical reassessment of particle Dark Matter limits from dwarf satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullio, Piero; Valli, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Dwarf satellite galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying particle Dark Matter signals. When setting limits on particle Dark Matter properties from null searches, it becomes however crucial the level at which the Dark Matter density profile within these systems is constrained by observations. In the limit in which the spherical Jeans equation is assumed to be valid for a given tracer stellar population, we study the solution of this equation having the Dark Matter mass profile as an output rather than as a trial parametric input. Within our new formulation, we address to what level dwarf spheroidal galaxies feature a reliable mass estimator. We assess then possible extrapolation of the density profiles in the inner regions and—keeping explicit the dependence on the orbital anisotropy profile of the tracer population—we derive general trends on the line-of-sight integral of the density profile squared, a quantity commonly dubbed J-factor and crucial to estimate fluxes from prompt Dark Matter pair annihilations. Taking Ursa Minor as a study case among Milky Way satellites, we perform Bayesian inference using the available kinematical data for this galaxy. Contrary to all previous studies, we avoid marginalization over quantities poorly constrained by observations or by theoretical arguments. We find minimal J-factors to be about 2 to 4 times smaller than commonly quoted estimates, approximately relaxing by the same amount the limit on Dark Matter pair annihilation cross section from gamma-ray surveys of Ursa Minor. At the same time, if one goes back to a fixed trial parametric form for the density, e.g. using a NFW or Burkert profile, we show that the minimal J can hardly be reduced by more than a factor of 1.5.

  1. Optical atmospheric scattering and absorption limitations on offset pointing from Earth Observatory Satellite /EOS/ sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The Braslau-Dave atmospheric model which calculates the upward monochromatic light fluxes leaving the top of the atmosphere as a function of viewing angle, sun angle, and ground reflectance was employed to study the effect of atmospheric scattering and attenuation on universal apparent contrast for two EOS remote sensors operated at very large offset or pointing angles: the Thematic Mapper (TM) and the High Resolution Pointable Imager (HRPI). The TM offset off nadir could be plus or minus 20 degrees with an 11 degree scan angle and the HRPI pointing angle off nadir could be plus or minus 45 degrees with a 3 degree scan angle. The reduction of universal apparent contrast of EOS imagery is studied as a function of sun elevation angle, atmospheric aerosol loading, radiation wavelength and sensor look angles.

  2. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... days. DATES: Comments. The public-comment period for the proposed rule published June 7, 2013, (78 FR.../courier. Please refer to the proposal (78 FR 34432) for the addresses and detailed instructions. Docket... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 423 RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam...

  3. 78 FR 34431 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... the development of BCT limitations in July 9, 1986 (51 FR 24974). Section 304(a)(4) designates the... grease as an additional conventional pollutant on July 30, 1979 (44 FR 44501; 40 CFR 401.16). 3. Best... standards that apply to all non-domestic dischargers. See 52 FR 1586 (January 14, 1987). 6....

  4. 75 FR 68215 - Direct Final Rule Staying Numeric Limitation for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ....10 (74 FR 62995) and the definition of ``storm water discharges associated with industrial activity.... Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2010- 0884. EPA's policy is that all comments... Federal Register (74 FR 62995) effluent limitations guidelines and new source performance standards...

  5. Evaluation of design parameters for TRISO-coated fuel particles to establish manufacturing critical limits using PARFUME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skerjanc, William F.; Maki, John T.; Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.

    2016-02-01

    The success of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors is highly dependent on the performance of the tristructural-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particle and the quality to which it can be manufactured. During irradiation, TRISO-coated fuel particles act as a pressure vessel to contain fission gas and mitigate the diffusion of fission products to the coolant boundary. The fuel specifications place limits on key attributes to minimize fuel particle failure under irradiation and postulated accident conditions. PARFUME (an integrated mechanistic coated particle fuel performance code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory) was used to calculate fuel particle failure probabilities. By systematically varying key TRISO-coated particle attributes, failure probability functions were developed to understand how each attribute contributes to fuel particle failure. Critical manufacturing limits were calculated for the key attributes of a low enriched TRISO-coated nuclear fuel particle with a kernel diameter of 425 μm. These critical manufacturing limits identify ranges beyond where an increase in fuel particle failure probability is expected to occur.

  6. Evaluation of design parameters for TRISO-coated fuel particles to establish manufacturing critical limits using PARFUME

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Skerjanc, William F.; Maki, John T.; Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.

    2015-12-02

    The success of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors is highly dependent on the performance of the tristructural-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particle and the quality to which it can be manufactured. During irradiation, TRISO-coated fuel particles act as a pressure vessel to contain fission gas and mitigate the diffusion of fission products to the coolant boundary. The fuel specifications place limits on key attributes to minimize fuel particle failure under irradiation and postulated accident conditions. PARFUME (an integrated mechanistic coated particle fuel performance code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory) was used to calculate fuel particle failure probabilities. By systematically varyingmore » key TRISO-coated particle attributes, failure probability functions were developed to understand how each attribute contributes to fuel particle failure. Critical manufacturing limits were calculated for the key attributes of a low enriched TRISO-coated nuclear fuel particle with a kernel diameter of 425 μm. As a result, these critical manufacturing limits identify ranges beyond where an increase in fuel particle failure probability is expected to occur.« less

  7. Evaluation of design parameters for TRISO-coated fuel particles to establish manufacturing critical limits using PARFUME

    SciTech Connect

    Skerjanc, William F.; Maki, John T.; Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.

    2015-12-02

    The success of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors is highly dependent on the performance of the tristructural-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particle and the quality to which it can be manufactured. During irradiation, TRISO-coated fuel particles act as a pressure vessel to contain fission gas and mitigate the diffusion of fission products to the coolant boundary. The fuel specifications place limits on key attributes to minimize fuel particle failure under irradiation and postulated accident conditions. PARFUME (an integrated mechanistic coated particle fuel performance code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory) was used to calculate fuel particle failure probabilities. By systematically varying key TRISO-coated particle attributes, failure probability functions were developed to understand how each attribute contributes to fuel particle failure. Critical manufacturing limits were calculated for the key attributes of a low enriched TRISO-coated nuclear fuel particle with a kernel diameter of 425 μm. As a result, these critical manufacturing limits identify ranges beyond where an increase in fuel particle failure probability is expected to occur.

  8. Detectability limitations with 3-D point reconstruction algorithms using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Erik

    2015-03-31

    The estimated impact of pores in clusters on component fatigue will be highly conservative when based on 2-D rather than 3-D pore positions. To 3-D position and size defects using digital radiography and 3-D point reconstruction algorithms in general require a lower inspection time and in some cases work better with planar geometries than X-ray computed tomography. However, the increase in prior assumptions about the object and the defects will increase the intrinsic uncertainty in the resulting nondestructive evaluation output. In this paper this uncertainty arising when detecting pore defect clusters with point reconstruction algorithms is quantified using simulations. The simulation model is compared to and mapped to experimental data. The main issue with the uncertainty is the possible masking (detectability zero) of smaller defects around some other slightly larger defect. In addition, the uncertainty is explored in connection to the expected effects on the component fatigue life and for different amount of prior object-defect assumptions made.

  9. A Bayesian approach for suppression of limited angular sampling artifacts in single particle 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Toshio; Acar, Erman; Cheng, R Holland; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2015-09-01

    In the single particle reconstruction, the initial 3D structure often suffers from the limited angular sampling artifact. Selecting 2D class averages of particle images generally improves the accuracy and efficiency of the reference-free 3D angle estimation, but causes an insufficient angular sampling to fill the information of the target object in the 3D frequency space. Similarly, the initial 3D structure by the random-conical tilt reconstruction has the well-known "missing cone" artifact. Here, we attempted to solve the limited angular sampling problem by sequentially applying maximum a posteriori estimate with expectation maximization algorithm (sMAP-EM). Using both simulated and experimental cryo-electron microscope images, the sMAP-EM was compared to the direct Fourier method on the basis of reconstruction error and resolution. To establish selection criteria of the final regularization weight for the sMAP-EM, the effects of noise level and sampling sparseness on the reconstructions were examined with evenly distributed sampling simulations. The frequency information filled in the missing cone of the conical tilt sampling simulations was assessed by developing new quantitative measurements. All the results of visual and numerical evaluations showed the sMAP-EM performed better than the direct Fourier method, regardless of the sampling method, noise level, and sampling sparseness. Furthermore, the frequency domain analysis demonstrated that the sMAP-EM can fill the meaningful information in the unmeasured angular space without detailed a priori knowledge of the objects. The current research demonstrated that the sMAP-EM has a high potential to facilitate the determination of 3D protein structures at near atomic-resolution. PMID:26193484

  10. Physical constraints, fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lalit; Umanand, Loganathan

    2015-12-01

    The inverted pendulum is a popular model for describing bipedal dynamic walking. The operating point of the walker can be specified by the combination of initial mid-stance velocity (v0) and step angle (φm) chosen for a given walk. In this paper, using basic mechanics, a framework of physical constraints that limit the choice of operating points is proposed. The constraint lines thus obtained delimit the allowable region of operation of the walker in the v0-φm plane. A given average forward velocity vx,avg can be achieved by several combinations of v0 and φm. Only one of these combinations results in the minimum mechanical power consumption and can be considered the optimum operating point for the given vx,avg. This paper proposes a method for obtaining this optimal operating point based on tangency of the power and velocity contours. Putting together all such operating points for various vx,avg, a family of optimum operating points, called the optimal locus, is obtained. For the energy loss and internal energy models chosen, the optimal locus obtained has a largely constant step angle with increasing speed but tapers off at non-dimensional speeds close to unity. PMID:26502096

  11. Dynamics of charged particle motion in the vicinity of three dimensional magnetic null points: Energization and chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Gascoyne, Andrew

    2015-03-15

    Using a full orbit test particle approach, we analyse the motion of a single proton in the vicinity of magnetic null point configurations which are solutions to the kinematic, steady state, resistive magnetohydrodynamics equations. We consider two magnetic configurations, namely, the sheared and torsional spine reconnection regimes [E. R. Priest and D. I. Pontin, Phys. Plasmas 16, 122101 (2009); P. Wyper and R. Jain, Phys. Plasmas 17, 092902 (2010)]; each produce an associated electric field and thus the possibility of accelerating charged particles to high energy levels, i.e., > MeV, as observed in solar flares [R. P. Lin, Space Sci. Rev. 124, 233 (2006)]. The particle's energy gain is strongly dependent on the location of injection and is characterised by the angle of approach β, with optimum angle of approach β{sub opt} as the value of β which produces the maximum energy gain. We examine the topological features of each regime and analyse the effect on the energy gain of the proton. We also calculate the complete Lyapunov spectrum for the considered dynamical systems in order to correctly quantify the chaotic nature of the particle orbits. We find that the sheared model is a good candidate for the acceleration of particles, and for increased shear, we expect a larger population to be accelerated to higher energy levels. In the strong electric field regime (E{sub 0}=1500 V/m), the torsional model produces chaotic particle orbits quantified by the calculation of multiple positive Lyapunov exponents in the spectrum, whereas the sheared model produces chaotic orbits only in the neighbourhood of the null point.

  12. Improved Limits on Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Reanalysis of 2013 LUX Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.

  13. Improved Limits on Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Reanalysis of 2013 LUX Data.

    PubMed

    Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2016-04-22

    We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4×10^{4}  kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4  GeV c^{-2}, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33  GeV c^{-2} WIMP mass. PMID:27152785

  14. Improved limits on scattering of weakly interacting massive particles from reanalysis of 2013 LUX data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Akerib, D. S.

    2016-04-20

    Here, we present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 × 104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signalmore » only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c–2, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c–2 WIMP mass.« less

  15. Fixed points and limit cycles in the population dynamics of lysogenic viruses and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2010-07-01

    Starting with stochastic rate equations for the fundamental interactions between microbes and their viruses, we derive a mean-field theory for the population dynamics of microbe-virus systems, including the effects of lysogeny. In the absence of lysogeny, our model is a generalization of that proposed phenomenologically by Weitz and Dushoff. In the presence of lysogeny, we analyze the possible states of the system, identifying a limit cycle, which we interpret physically. To test the robustness of our mean-field calculations to demographic fluctuations, we have compared our results with stochastic simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. Finally, we estimate the range of parameters that delineate the various steady states of our model. PMID:20866659

  16. Fixed points and limit cycles in the population dynamics of lysogenic viruses and their hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2010-07-01

    Starting with stochastic rate equations for the fundamental interactions between microbes and their viruses, we derive a mean-field theory for the population dynamics of microbe-virus systems, including the effects of lysogeny. In the absence of lysogeny, our model is a generalization of that proposed phenomenologically by Weitz and Dushoff. In the presence of lysogeny, we analyze the possible states of the system, identifying a limit cycle, which we interpret physically. To test the robustness of our mean-field calculations to demographic fluctuations, we have compared our results with stochastic simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. Finally, we estimate the range of parameters that delineate the various steady states of our model.

  17. Behavior of the particle transport coefficients near the density limit in MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    The perturbed particle transport coefficients were determined for a range of plasma conditions in the Alcator C tokamak, a component of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), from analysis of density perturbations created in gas modulation experiments. Density measurements from a 15 chord far-infrared interferometer were sufficiently detailed to allow radial profiles of the transport coefficients to be resolved. Gas modulation experiments were carried out on plasmas over a range of relatively low currents and a wide variety of line-averaged densities, including values near the Greenwald density limit. With this technique the perturbed diffusion coefficient D and the perturbed convection velocity V can be determined simultaneously. Measured profiles of D rise toward the outside of the plasma column in a manner generally similar to those determined previously for {chi}{sub e,HP} from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Values of D are typically smaller than those of {chi}{sub e,HP} given for the same line-averaged densities by a factor of 2-5. Diffusion coefficients from a series of discharges at constant current showed little variation with density through most of the saturated ohmic confinement regime. At the Greenwald density limit threshold a dramatic increase occurred in both the perturbed convective and diffusive transport coefficients in the outer region of the plasma. The increases were most pronounced at the outermost range of the radii where coefficients were determined (r/a = 0.8), but were apparent over a region which extended well into the plasma interior. Density profiles maintained a similar shape near the density limit, congruous with the similar behavior of the transport coefficients. No dramatic deterioration was evident in the global energy confinement.

  18. Multi-point Observations and Modeling of Particle Injections During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Jordanova, V.; Harris, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dispersionless and dispersed particle injections associated with substorms have been studied for many years based on observations acquired primarily at geosynchronous orbit. A general picture that has emerged is that particles are energized and rapidly transported/organized behind an "injection boundary" that penetrates closer to Earth in some magnetic local time sector (e.g. the so-called double-spiral injection boundary model). While this picture provides a very good description of injections at geosynchronous orbit, with the launch of the Van Allen Probes mission, we are now able to explore the evolution of injection signatures well inside of geosynchronous orbit at multiple locations as well. We find that the injection boundary model also appears to reproduce a number of complicated types of dispersion patterns observed in the Van Allen Probes particle data. The dispersion patterns are found to depend dramatically on orbital configuration and timing of onset relative to the phasing of the spacecraft in their orbits. In addition to observational results, we present results of simulated dispersion patterns obtained from the injection boundary model using guiding center particle tracing in two different field configurations: 1) a simplistic dipole magnetic field with Volland-Stern electric field, and 2) RAM/SCB running in the Space Weather Modeling Framework.

  19. Nanoparticle size detection limits by single particle ICP-MS for 40 elements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungyun; Bi, Xiangyu; Reed, Robert B; Ranville, James F; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The quantification and characterization of natural, engineered, and incidental nano- to micro-size particles are beneficial to assessing a nanomaterial's performance in manufacturing, their fate and transport in the environment, and their potential risk to human health. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) can sensitively quantify the amount and size distribution of metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous matrices. To accurately obtain the nanoparticle size distribution, it is critical to have knowledge of the size detection limit (denoted as Dmin) using spICP-MS for a wide range of elements (other than a few available assessed ones) that have been or will be synthesized into engineered nanoparticles. Herein is described a method to estimate the size detection limit using spICP-MS and then apply it to nanoparticles composed of 40 different elements. The calculated Dmin values correspond well for a few of the elements with their detectable sizes that are available in the literature. Assuming each nanoparticle sample is composed of one element, Dmin values vary substantially among the 40 elements: Ta, U, Ir, Rh, Th, Ce, and Hf showed the lowest Dmin values, ≤10 nm; Bi, W, In, Pb, Pt, Ag, Au, Tl, Pd, Y, Ru, Cd, and Sb had Dmin in the range of 11-20 nm; Dmin values of Co, Sr, Sn, Zr, Ba, Te, Mo, Ni, V, Cu, Cr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Al, Li, and Ti were located at 21-80 nm; and Se, Ca, and Si showed high Dmin values, greater than 200 nm. A range of parameters that influence the Dmin, such as instrument sensitivity, nanoparticle density, and background noise, is demonstrated. It is observed that, when the background noise is low, the instrument sensitivity and nanoparticle density dominate the Dmin significantly. Approaches for reducing the Dmin, e.g., collision cell technology (CCT) and analyte isotope selection, are also discussed. To validate the Dmin estimation approach, size distributions for three engineered nanoparticle samples were

  20. Explaining Melting and Evaporation below Boiling Point. Can Software Help with Particle Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, George; Johnson, Philip; Fotiades, Fotis

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study exploring the use of a software package to help pupils understand particulate explanations for melting and evaporation below boiling point. Two matched classes in a primary school in Greece (ages 11-12, n = 16 and 19) were involved in a short intervention of six one hour lessons. Covering the same…

  1. Analysis of the ideal phase-Doppler System: Limitations imposed by the single-particle constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.F.; Marx, K.D.

    1991-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of particles statistics on the ability of a phase-Doppler system (or any single-particle diagnostic) to make accurate measurements of complex particle flows. This is accomplished by analyzing the response of an ideal phase-Doppler system to a postulated particle flux. The ideal system defined here senses particles of all sizes and velocities with perfect accuracy, but is subject to one constraint: in order for a measurement to be considered valid there must be only one particle in the probe volume at a time. A consequence of this constraint is that the measured flux of particles is similar to the true flux, but reduced by passage through two stages of filters. The first rejects particles for insufficient spacing and is controlled by a spatial Poisson process, while the second rejects particles for excessive residence time and is driven by a temporal Poisson process. The key filter parameters are the expected values of the number of particles in the probe volume and the number of particles entering the probe region during the residence time of a previous particle. Only if these values are kept below order 10{sup {minus}2} can the measured joint distribution function, flux rate, and derived quantities, be assumed to reflect the true nature of the flow. 8 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. SIMULATIONS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION BEYOND THE CLASSICAL SYNCHROTRON BURNOFF LIMIT IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION: AN EXPLANATION OF THE CRAB FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C. E-mail: greg.werner@colorado.edu E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2013-06-20

    It is generally accepted that astrophysical sources cannot emit synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV in their rest frame. This limit is given by the balance between the accelerating electric force and the radiation reaction force acting on the electrons. The discovery of synchrotron gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula, well above this limit, challenges this classical picture of particle acceleration. To overcome this limit, particles must accelerate in a region of high electric field and low magnetic field. This is possible only with a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic process, like magnetic reconnection. We present the first numerical evidence of particle acceleration beyond the synchrotron burnoff limit, using a set of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of ultra-relativistic pair plasma reconnection. We use a new code, Zeltron, that includes self-consistently the radiation reaction force in the equation of motion of the particles. We demonstrate that the most energetic particles move back and forth across the reconnection layer, following relativistic Speiser orbits. These particles then radiate >160 MeV synchrotron radiation rapidly, within a fraction of a full gyration, after they exit the layer. Our analysis shows that the high-energy synchrotron flux is highly variable in time because of the strong anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the energetic particles. We discover a robust positive correlation between the flux and the cut-off energy of the emitted radiation, mimicking the effect of relativistic Doppler amplification. A strong guide field quenches the emission of >160 MeV synchrotron radiation. Our results are consistent with the observed properties of the Crab flares, supporting the reconnection scenario.

  3. Simulations of Particle Acceleration beyond the Classical Synchrotron Burnoff Limit in Magnetic Reconnection: An Explanation of the Crab Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    It is generally accepted that astrophysical sources cannot emit synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV in their rest frame. This limit is given by the balance between the accelerating electric force and the radiation reaction force acting on the electrons. The discovery of synchrotron gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula, well above this limit, challenges this classical picture of particle acceleration. To overcome this limit, particles must accelerate in a region of high electric field and low magnetic field. This is possible only with a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic process, like magnetic reconnection. We present the first numerical evidence of particle acceleration beyond the synchrotron burnoff limit, using a set of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of ultra-relativistic pair plasma reconnection. We use a new code, Zeltron, that includes self-consistently the radiation reaction force in the equation of motion of the particles. We demonstrate that the most energetic particles move back and forth across the reconnection layer, following relativistic Speiser orbits. These particles then radiate >160 MeV synchrotron radiation rapidly, within a fraction of a full gyration, after they exit the layer. Our analysis shows that the high-energy synchrotron flux is highly variable in time because of the strong anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the energetic particles. We discover a robust positive correlation between the flux and the cut-off energy of the emitted radiation, mimicking the effect of relativistic Doppler amplification. A strong guide field quenches the emission of >160 MeV synchrotron radiation. Our results are consistent with the observed properties of the Crab flares, supporting the reconnection scenario.

  4. Comparison of dust charging between orbital-motion-limited theory and particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2015-11-15

    The Orbital-Motion-Limited (OML) theory has been modified to predict the dust charge and the results were contrasted with the Whipple approximation [X. Z. Tang and G. L. Delzanno, Phys. Plasmas 21, 123708 (2014)]. To further establish its regime of applicability, in this paper, the OML predictions (for a non-electron-emitting, spherical dust grain at rest in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma) are compared with particle-in-cell simulations that retain the absorption radius effect. It is found that for large dust grain radius r{sub d} relative to the plasma Debye length λ{sub D}, the revised OML theory remains a very good approximation as, for the parameters considered (r{sub d}/λ{sub D} ≤ 10, equal electron and ion temperatures), it yields the dust charge to within 20% accuracy. This is a substantial improvement over the Whipple approximation. The dust collected currents and energy fluxes, which remain the same in the revised and standard OML theories, are accurate to within 15%–30%.

  5. Revisiting the SN1987A gamma-ray limit on ultralight axion-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Payez, Alexandre; Ringwald, Andreas; Evoli, Carmelo; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Fischer, Tobias; Giannotti, Maurizio E-mail: carmelo.evoli@desy.de E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de

    2015-02-01

    We revise the bound from the supernova SN1987A on the coupling of ultralight axion-like particles (ALPs) to photons. In a core-collapse supernova, ALPs would be emitted via the Primakoff process, and eventually convert into gamma rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. The lack of a gamma-ray signal in the GRS instrument of the SMM satellite in coincidence with the observation of the neutrinos emitted from SN1987A therefore provides a strong bound on their coupling to photons. Due to the large uncertainty associated with the current bound, we revise this argument, based on state-of-the-art physical inputs both for the supernova models and for the Milky-Way magnetic field. Furthermore, we provide major amendments, such as the consistent treatment of nucleon-degeneracy effects and of the reduction of the nuclear masses in the hot and dense nuclear medium of the supernova. With these improvements, we obtain a new upper limit on the photon-ALP coupling: g{sub aγ} ∼< 5.3 × 10{sup -12} GeV{sup -1}, for m{sub a} ∼< 4.4 × 10{sup -10} eV, and we also give its dependence at larger ALP masses m{sub a}. Moreover, we discuss how much the Fermi-LAT satellite experiment could improve this bound, should a close-enough supernova explode in the near future.

  6. Non-Gaussian particle number fluctuations in vicinity of the critical point for van der Waals equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, V.; Poberezhnyuk, R. V.; Anchishkin, D. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The non-Gaussian measures of the particle number fluctuations—skewness Sσ and kurtosis κ {σ }2—are calculated in a vicinity of the critical point (CP). This point corresponds to the end point of the first-order liquid-gas phase transition. The gaseous phase is characterized by the positive values of skewness while the liquid phase has negative skew. The kurtosis appears to be significantly negative at the critical density and supercritical temperatures. The skewness and kurtosis diverge at the CP. The classical van der Waals (VDW) equation of state in the grand canonical ensemble formulation is used in our studies. Neglecting effects of the quantum statistics we succeed to obtain the analytical expressions for the rich structures of the skewness and kurtosis in a wide region around the CP. These results have universal form, i.e., they do not depend on particular values of the VDW parameters a and b. The strongly intensive measures of particle number and energy fluctuations are also considered and show singular behavior in the vicinity of the CP.

  7. Quantum phase transition in trigonal triple quantum dots: The case of quantum dots deviated from particle-hole symmetric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Hyok; Kang, Chol-Jin; Kim, Yon-Il; Kim, Kwang-Hyon

    2015-05-01

    We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. We investigate quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point. The effect of on-site energy of dots on quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots is studied based on the analytical arguments and the numerical renormalization group method. The results show that the critical value of tunnel coupling between side dots decreases when the energy level of embedded dot rises up from the symmetric point to the Fermi level and the critical value increases when the energy levels of two side dots rise up. The study of the influence of on-site-energy changes on the quantum phase transitions in triple quantum dots has the importance for clarifying the mechanism of Kondo screening in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point.

  8. Glass-transition properties of Yukawa potentials: from charged point particles to hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Anoosheh; Ivlev, Alexei; Khrapak, Sergey; Thomas, Hubertus; Morfill, Gregor E; Löwen, Hartmut; Wysocki, Adam; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The glass transition is investigated in three dimensions for single and double Yukawa potentials for the full range of control parameters. For vanishing screening parameter, the limit of the one-component plasma is obtained; for large screening parameters and high coupling strengths, the glass-transition properties cross over to the hard-sphere system. Between the two limits, the entire transition diagram can be described by analytical functions. Unlike other potentials, the glass-transition and melting lines for Yukawa potentials are found to follow shifted but otherwise identical curves in control-parameter space. PMID:25019902

  9. Estimating the Collision Rate of Inertial Particles in a Turbulent Flow: Limitations of the "Ghost Collision" Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voßkuhle, Michel; Pumir, Alain; Lévêque, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Most studies of collisions in turbulent flows are based on the "ghost collision" approximation, whereby one follows a number of particles, and simply counts the number of times the distance between two particles becomes less than the sum of their radii; particles are kept in the flow after they collided. We discuss here the limitations of this approximation, and demonstrate, using a simple model flow, that it leads to overestimates of the real collision rate by as much as ~ 30% at small Stokes numbers.

  10. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  11. Investigation of point and extended defects in electron irradiated silicon—Dependence on the particle energy

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, R.; Pintilie, I.; Nistor, L. C.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Makarenko, L. F.

    2015-04-28

    This work is focusing on generation, time evolution, and impact on the electrical performance of silicon diodes impaired by radiation induced active defects. n-type silicon diodes had been irradiated with electrons ranging from 1.5 MeV to 27 MeV. It is shown that the formation of small clusters starts already after irradiation with high fluence of 1.5 MeV electrons. An increase of the introduction rates of both point defects and small clusters with increasing energy is seen, showing saturation for electron energies above ∼15 MeV. The changes in the leakage current at low irradiation fluence-values proved to be determined by the change in the configuration of the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}). Similar to V{sub 3}, other cluster related defects are showing bistability indicating that they might be associated with larger vacancy clusters. The change of the space charge density with irradiation and with annealing time after irradiation is fully described by accounting for the radiation induced trapping centers. High resolution electron microscopy investigations correlated with the annealing experiments revealed changes in the spatial structure of the defects. Furthermore, it is shown that while the generation of point defects is well described by the classical Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL), the formation of small defect clusters is better described by the “effective NIEL” using results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  12. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1973-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 atomic percent at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 atomic percent of oxygen. These oxide particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility of oxygen in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably significantly lower than that reported in the literature.

  13. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1974-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 at. pct at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 at. pct oxygen. These particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably lower than that reported in the literature.

  14. Two-point one-dimensional δ-{\\delta }^{\\prime } interactions: non-abelian addition law and decoupling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Mateos-Guilarte, J.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution to the study of one-dimensional point potentials, we prove that if we take the limit q\\to 0 on a potential of the type {v}0δ (y)+2{v}1{δ }\\prime (y)+{w}0δ (y-q)+2{w}1{δ }\\prime (y-q), we obtain a new point potential of the type {u}0δ (y)+2{u}1{δ }\\prime (y), when u 0 and u 1 are related to v 0, v 1, w 0 and w 1 by a law with the structure of a group. This is the Borel subgroup of {{SL}}2({{R}}). We also obtain the non-abelian addition law from the scattering data. The spectra of the Hamiltonian in the decoupling cases emerging in the study are also described in full. It is shown that for the {v}1=+/- 1, {w}1=+/- 1 values of the {δ }\\prime couplings the singular Kurasov matrices become equivalent to Dirichlet at one side of the point interaction and Robin boundary conditions at the other side.

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe...

  19. Prompt particle acceleration around moving X-point magnetic field during impulsive phase of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakai, Jun-Ichi

    1992-01-01

    We present a model for high-energy solar flares to explain prompt proton and electron acceleration, which occurs around moving X-point magnetic field during the implosion phase of the current sheet. We derive the electromagnetic fields during the strong implosion phase of the current sheets, which is driven by the converging flow derived from the magnetohydrodynamic equations. It is shown that both protons and electrons can be promptly (within 1 second) accelerated to approximately 70 MeV and approximately 200 MeV, respectively. This acceleration mechanism can be applicable for the impulsive phase of the gradual gamma ray and proton flares (gradual GR/P flare), which have been called two-ribbon flares.

  20. Near-Infrared and Optical Limits for the Central X-Ray Point Source in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, R. A.; Pavlov, G. G.; Sanwal, D.

    2006-01-01

    We set new near-infrared and optical magnitude limits for the central X-ray point source (XPS) in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on HST images. Near-infrared images of the center of Cas A taken with the NICMOS 2 camera in combination with the F110W and F160W filters (~J and H bands) have magnitude limits >=26.2 and >=24.6, respectively. These images reveal no sources within a 1.2" radius (corresponding to a 99% confidence limit) of the Chandra XPS position. The NICMOS data, taken together with broadband optical magnitude limits (R~28 mag) obtained from a deep STIS CCD exposure taken with a clear filter (50CCD), indicate that the XPS luminosities are very low in the optical/NIR bands (e.g., LH<3×1029 ergs s-1) with no optical, J-, or H-band counterpart to the XPS easily detectable by HST. The closest detected object lies 1.8" from the XPS's nominal coordinates, with magnitudes R=25.7, mF110W=21.9, and mF160W=20.6, and is a foreground, late-type star as suggested by Kaplan, Kulkarni, and Murray. We discuss the nature of the Cas A central compact object on the basis of these near-infrared and optical flux limits. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-8692 and GO-9798.

  1. Gravitational radiation from the radial infall of highly relativistic point particles into Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, José P.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of highly relativistic particles with rotating Kerr black holes. We use the Sasaki-Nakamura formalism to compute the waveform, energy spectra, and total energy radiated during this process. We show that the gravitational spectrum for high-energy collisions has definite characteristic universal features, which are independent of the spin of the colliding objects. We also discuss the possible connections between these results and black-hole black-hole collisions at the speed of light. Our results show that during the high-speed collision of a nonrotating hole with a rotating one, at most 35% of the total energy can get converted into gravitational waves. This 35% efficiency occurs only in the most optimistic situation, that of a zero impact parameter collision, along the equatorial plane, with an almost extreme Kerr black hole. In the general situation, the total gravitational energy radiated is expected to be much less, especially if the impact parameter increases. Thus, if one is able to produce black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, at most 35% of the partons’ energy should be emitted during the so-called balding phase. This energy will be missing, since we do not have gravitational wave detectors able to measure such amplitudes. The collision at the speed of light between one rotating black hole and a nonrotating one or two rotating black holes turns out to be the most efficient gravitational wave generator in the Universe.

  2. Limitations on analysis of small particles with an electron probe: pollution studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidel, R.H.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the size and composition of airborne lead particles in automobile exhaust emissions determined by electron microprobe analysis reports 14 distinct lead compounds. Particle sizes reported were from 0.2 ??m to 2 ??m in the diameter. The determination of chemical formulae for compounds requires quantitative elemental data for individual particles. It was also assumed that the lead bearing particles analysed were solid (specifically non porous or non fluffy) compounds which occurred as discrete (non aggregate) particles. Intensity data obtained in the laboratory from the excited volume in a 1 ??m diameter sphere of solid lead chloride indicate insufficient precision and sensitivity to obtain chemical formulae as reported in the literature for exhaust emission products.

  3. Space Weather Measurements Despite Resource Limitations: A Conceptual Overview of Novel Energetic Particle Instruments at a Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burward-Hoy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Solar energetic particle events, cosmic rays, and relativistic electrons in the outer edge of the radiation belts produce single event upsets in the electronics and spacecraft charging on a host satellite located at a geostationary orbit. In order to determine the space weather environment for the host, particle instruments capable of measuring both electrons and protons in a wide energy range, with a large angular coverage but finite angular resolution are necessary. In order to adhere to resource limitations, including weight and power consumption and whether or not a host platform is spinning or three-axis stabilized, energetic particle instruments must be designed accordingly. I will present a conceptual overview of novel LANL instruments, specifically two-element collimated telescopes with solid-state sensors, and describe how the requirements for accurate space weather determination are met despite the resource limitations.

  4. Kinetic Study of Radiation-Reaction-Limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Force-Free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Blandford, Roger D.; East, William E.; Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over short time scales. This might be due to prodigal dissipation in a highly magnetized outflow. In order to understand the generic behavior of relativistic plasma with high magnetization, we consider a class of prototypical force-free equilibria which are shown to be unstable to ideal modes (East et al 2015 PRL 115, 095002). Kinetic simulations are carried out to follow the evolution of the instability and to study the basic mechanisms of particle acceleration, especially in the radiation-reaction-limited regime. We find that the instability naturally produces current layers and these are sites for efficient particle acceleration. Detailed calculations of the gamma ray spectrum, the evolution of the particle distribution function and the dynamical consequences of radiation reaction will be presented.

  5. Potential of mean force of association of large hydrophobic particles: toward the nanoscale limit.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Mariusz; Czaplewski, Cezary; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-01-21

    The potentials of mean force (PMFs) were determined, in both water with the TIP3P water model and in vacuo, for systems involving formation of nonpolar dimers composed of bicyclooctane, adamantane (both an all-atom model and a sphere with the radius of 3.4 A representing adamantane), and fullerene, respectively. A series of umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations with the AMBER force field were carried out for each pair under both environmental conditions. The PMFs were calculated by using the weighted histogram analysis method. The results were compared with our previously determined PMF for neopentane. The shape of the PMFs for dimers of all four nonpolar molecules is characteristic of hydrophobic interactions with contact and solvent-separated minima and desolvation maxima. The positions of all these minima and maxima change with the size of the nonpolar molecule; for larger molecules they shift toward larger distances. Comparison of the PMFs of the bicyclooctane, adamantane, and fullerene dimers in water and in vacuo shows that hydrophobic interactions in each dimer are different from that for the dimer of neopentane. Interactions in the bicyclooctane, adamantane, and fullerene dimers are stronger in vacuo than in water. These dimers cannot be treated as classical, spherical, hydrophobic objects. The solvent contribution to the PMF was also computed by subtracting the PMF determined in vacuo from that in explicit solvent. The solvent contribution to the PMFs of bicyclooctane, adamantane, and fullerene is positive, as opposed to that of neopentane. The water molecules in the first solvation sphere of both adamantane and neopentane dimers are more ordered as compared to bulk water, with their dipole moments pointing away from the surface of the dimers. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in the first hydration shell of adamantane is smaller compared to that in bulk water, but this shell is thicker for all-atom adamantane than for

  6. Transient resonances in the inspirals of point particles into black holes.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Eanna E; Hinderer, Tanja

    2012-08-17

    We show that transient resonances occur in the two-body problem in general relativity for spinning black holes in close proximity to one another when one black hole is much more massive than the other. These resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. At such points, the adiabatic approximation to the orbital evolution breaks down, and there is a brief but order unity correction to the inspiral rate. The resonances cause a perturbation to orbital phase of order a few tens of cycles for mass ratios ∼10(-6), make orbits more sensitive to changes in initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine nonperturbative effects that are not seen at any order in a standard post-Newtonian expansion. Our results apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, the gradual inspiral of white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes into much more massive black holes. Resonances' effects will increase the computational challenge of accurately modeling these sources. PMID:23006355

  7. Limitations on the use of laser velocimeter signals for particle sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, K. L.; Myer, F. C.; Mikasa, M. F.; Phillips, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the complex relationship existing between the diameter of a particle, its index of refraction, and the output signal of a fringe-type laser velocimeter, and describes a special purpose laser velocimeter for aerosol sizing that determines aerosol size distributions on the basis of Farmer's (1973) relationship between visibility and particle size. In experiments with particles of known size, this relationship is in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed results, the main differences being that (1) the visibility does not assume a minimum value of zero, as predicted, and (2) the visibility value above which there is no ambiguity in the corresponding fringe spacing is higher than that predicted.

  8. A microfluidic platform with digital readout and ultra-low detection limit for quantitative point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Xuan, Jie; Song, Yujun; Wang, Ping; Qin, Lidong

    2015-08-21

    Quantitative assays are of great importance for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics because they can offer accurate information on the analytes. However, current POC devices often require an accessory instrument to give quantitative readouts for protein biomarkers, especially for those at very low concentration levels. Here, we report a microfluidic platform, the digital volumetric bar-chart chip (DV-chip), for quantitative POC diagnostics with ultra-low detection limits that are readable with the naked eye. Requiring no calibration, the DV-chip presents a digital ink bar chart (representing multiple bits composed of 0 and 1) for the target biomarker based on direct competition between O2 generated by the experimental and control samples. The bar chart clearly and accurately defines target concentration, allowing identification of disease status. For the standard PtNP solutions, the detection limit of the platform is approximately 0.1 pM and the dynamic range covers four orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 1000 pM. CEA samples with concentrations of 1 ng mL(-1) and 1.5 ng mL(-1) could be differentiated by the device. We also performed the ELISA assay for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in 20 plasma samples from heart failure patients and the obtained on-chip data were in agreement with the clinical results. In addition, BNP was detectable at concentrations of less than 5 pM, which is three orders of magnitude lower than the detection limit of the previously reported readerless digital methods. By the integration of gas competition, volumetric bar chart, and digital readout, the DV-chip possesses merits of portability, visible readout, and ultra-low detection limit, which should offer a powerful platform for quantitative POC diagnostics in clinical settings and personalized detection. PMID:26170154

  9. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  10. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  11. Pushing the limit: investigation of hydrodynamic forces on a trapped particle kicked by a laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, Naja; Andreasen, Daniel Ø; Hagelskjær, Jesper; Thøgersen, Jan; Imparato, Alberto; Keiding, Søren Rud

    2015-05-18

    We introduce a new optical technique where a train of short optical pulses is utilized to disturb a trapped microscopic particle. Using fast (250 kHz) and accurate (nm) detection of the position of the particle, accurately synchronized to the repetition rate of the laser pulses, we can coherently superimpose the displacement caused by each individual laser pulse. Thereby we are able to both bypass the influence from the Brownian motion of the trapped particle and to simultaneously increase the ability to localize its average trajectory by √n, where n is the number of repetitive pulses. In the results presented here we utilize a train of 1200 pulses to kick a 5 μm polystyrene sphere and obtain a spatial resolution corresponding to 0.09 nm and a time resolution of 4 μs. The magnitude of the optical force pushing the particle corresponds to ∼ 10(4)g and enables an investigation of both the hydrodynamical drag and the inertial effects caused by the particle and the surrounding liquid. Our results enables a more accurate testing of the existing extended models for the hydrodynamic drag and we discuss the observed agreement between experiments and theory. PMID:26074567

  12. LIMITS ON ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND DIFFERENTIAL FLOW FROM KINETIC INSTABILITIES: SOLAR WIND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed temperature anisotropies of protons and alpha particles in the solar wind are constrained by theoretical thresholds for pressure and anisotropy driven instabilities such as the Alfvén/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instabilities. In this Letter, we use a long period of in situ measurements provided by the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups to investigate the combined constraint on the alpha proton differential flow velocity and the alpha particle temperature anisotropy due to A/IC and FM/W instabilities. We show that the majority of the data are constrained to lie within the region of parameter space in which A/IC and FM/W waves are either stable or have extremely low growth rates. In the minority of observed cases in which the growth rate of the A/IC (FM/W) instability is comparatively large, we find relatively higher values of T {sub α}/T {sub p} (T {sub ∥α}/T {sub ∥p}) when the alpha proton differential flow velocity is small, where T {sub α} and T {sub p} (T {sub ∥α} and T {sub ∥p}) are the perpendicular (parallel) temperatures of alpha particles and protons. We conjecture that this observed feature might arise from preferential alpha particle heating which can drive the alpha particles beyond the instability thresholds.

  13. Lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988 - Signature of small, solid particles above the frost point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Osborn, M. T.; Hunt, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents recent (January 1988) Arctic airborne lidar data which suggest that Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of small solid particles with radii on the order of 0.5 micron. PSCs were observed remotely in the 21-24 km altitude range north of Greenland during a round-trip flight from Andenes, Norway on January 29, 1988, aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility P-3 Orion aircraft. Synoptic analyses at the 30-mb level show local temperatures of 191-193 K, which are well above the estimated frost point temperature of 185 K; this suggests that the PSCs were probably of the binary HNO3-H2O (Type I) class.

  14. Dynamic analysis of ultrasonically levitated droplet with moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    Numerical analysis of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The droplet is known to change its shape from sphere to spheroid when it is suspended in a standing wave owing to the acoustic radiation force. However, few studies on numerical simulation have been reported in association with this phenomenon including fluid dynamics inside the droplet. In this paper, coupled analysis using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require grids or meshes to handle the moving boundary with ease, is suggested. A droplet levitated in a plane standing wave field between a piston-vibrating ultrasonic transducer and a reflector is simulated with the DPSM-MPS coupled method. The dynamic change in the spheroidal shape of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically, and the gravitational center and the change in the spheroidal aspect ratio are discussed and compared with the previous literature.

  15. Diffusion limited aggregation of particles with different sizes: Fractal dimension change by anisotropic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, F. L.; Mattos, O. A.; Amorin, V. S.; Souza, A. B.

    2015-07-01

    Clusters formation models have been extensively studied in literature, and one of the main task of this research area is the analysis of the particle aggregation processes. Some work support that the main characteristics of this processes are strictly correlated to the cluster morphology, for example in DLA. It is expected that in the DLA clusters formation with particles containing different sizes the modification of the aggregation processes can be responsible for changes in the DLA morphology. The present article is going to analyze the formation of DLA clusters of particles with different sizes and show that the aggregates obtained by this approach generate an angle selection mechanism on dendritic growth that influences the shielding effect of the DLA edge and affect the fractal dimension of the clusters.

  16. Three dimensional indoor positioning based on visible light with Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenjun; Zhang, Weizhi; Wang, Jin; Amini Kashani, M. R.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, location based services (LBS) have found their wide applications in indoor environments, such as large shopping malls, hospitals, warehouses, airports, etc. Current technologies provide wide choices of available solutions, which include Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Ultra wideband (UWB), wireless local area network (WLAN) and Bluetooth. With the rapid development of light-emitting-diodes (LED) technology, visible light communications (VLC) also bring a practical approach to LBS. As visible light has a better immunity against multipath effect than radio waves, higher positioning accuracy is achieved. LEDs are utilized both for illumination and positioning purpose to realize relatively lower infrastructure cost. In this paper, an indoor positioning system using VLC is proposed, with LEDs as transmitters and photo diodes as receivers. The algorithm for estimation is based on received-signalstrength (RSS) information collected from photo diodes and trilateration technique. By appropriately making use of the characteristics of receiver movements and the property of trilateration, estimation on three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates is attained. Filtering technique is applied to enable tracking capability of the algorithm, and a higher accuracy is reached compare to raw estimates. Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) is proposed for this 3-D system, which introduces the notion of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The number of particles in the filter is reduced by approximating the probability distribution with Gaussian components.

  17. The Use of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) to Study the Movement of Inclusions in Low-Melting-Point Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, W. D.; Beshay, Y.; Caden, A. J.; Fan, X.; Gargiuli, J.; Leadbeater, T. W.; Parker, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) employs a radioactive particle that decays by emission of positrons. These positrons collide with local electrons to produce γ-rays emitted at 180 deg to each other; detection of these γ-ray pairs allows the location of the radioactive particle to be identified within a few millimeters. This technique has been tested to determine its applicability to the study of inclusions in cast metals. To use particles representative of inclusion sizes in castings, both alumina particles and particles of an ion exchange resin were employed. These were within a size range of approximately 60 to 100 μm, made radioactive by adsorption and ion exchange techniques, respectively. The radioactive particles, of activity 100 to 1000 μCi, were introduced into tube-shaped castings made from the low-melting-point alloys Field's metal and Lensalloy-136, cast into an acrylic mold. The technique allowed the particle track to be determined from the point of initial introduction to the final resting place of the particle, with increasing reproducibility being obtained as the reproducibility as the casting technique was improved. Experiments in which filters were placed in to the running system showed that the removal of the particles by the filters varied according to the filter pore size.

  18. Fundamental limitations to the spatial resolution and flow volume that can be mapped using holographic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, Jeremy M.; Lobera Salazar, Julia; Halliwell, Neil A.

    2000-08-01

    We have recently proposed a variant of holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) to measure three-component measurements of fluid velocity throughout an extended flow volume. In essence the technique uses double exposure holography to record the positions of seeding particles at two, close spaced constants in time. Analysis of the resulting record is achieved by computing the auto (or cross) correlation of the complex amplitude distributions transmitted by a sampling aperture placed within a real, reconstruction of the holographic image. IN the case of sparsely seeded flows, it is straightforward to show that the field transmitted by the aperture is dominated by the particle images reconstructed close to the aperture itself and the measurement is therefore attributed to the instantaneous flow velocity at the centre of the aperture. As the seeding concentration is increased, however, a significant contribution of the transmitted field is due to light scattered from more distant particles. If significant velocity gradients exist, the contribution due to distant particles is largely un- correlated and the local particle displacement can be extracted even if the field is dominated by this component. If a significant proportion of the scattered light that passes from the aperture is collected from areas in the flow with similar velocity (for example from stagnant regions or light scattered from the flow vessel) then spurious peaks can occur in the correlation signal. This paper examines the limitations on the flow volume that can be mapped at a given seeding concentration and hence the fundamental limits on the number of velocity measurements that can be retrieved from a single recording.

  19. A search for acoplanar pairs of leptons or jets in Z0 decays. Mass limits on supersymmetric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Bavaria, G.; Beck, F.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davies, O. W.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchesneau, D.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gandois, B.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Heintze, J.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinde, P. S.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imori, M.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jin, E.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Köpke, L.; Kokott, T. P.; Koshiba, M.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; von Krogh, J.; Kroll, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Lasota, M. M. B.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Lupu, N.; Ma, J.; MacBeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, A. C.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Muller, A.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Perez, A.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Possoz, A.; Pouladdej, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Roehner, F.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; von der Schmitt, H.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Spreadbury, E. J.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stier, H. E.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk, G.; van den Plas, D.; Vandalen, G. J.; Virtue, C. J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Wang, H.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Waterhouse, J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yamashita, H.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; Zylberajch, S.

    1990-04-01

    We have searched for Z0 decays into acoplanar pairs of leptons or jets. The data were recorded with the OPAL detector during an energy scan around the Z0 peak and correspond to about 17000 produced Z0,s. We have determined model independent limits on branching ratios for the Z0 to decay into pairs of heavy particles with subsequent decays leading to the above topologies. In the context of supersymmetric models, mass bounds close to the kinematic limit were obtained for the scalar leptons, e~, g~m, g~t, and for the chargino, X~+/-.

  20. Youden Index and Optimal Cut-Point Estimated from Observations Affected by a Lower Limit of Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ruopp, Marcus D.; Perkins, Neil J.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is used to evaluate a biomarker’s ability for classifying disease status. The Youden Index (J), the maximum potential effectiveness of a biomarker, is a common summary measure of the ROC curve. In biomarker development, levels may be unquantifiable below a limit of detection (LOD) and missing from the overall dataset. Disregarding these observations may negatively bias the ROC curve and thus J. Several correction methods have been suggested for mean estimation and testing; however, little has been written about the ROC curve or its summary measures. We adapt non-parametric (empirical) and semi-parametric (ROC-GLM [generalized linear model]) methods and propose parametric methods (maximum likelihood (ML)) to estimate J and the optimal cut-point (c*) for a biomarker affected by a LOD. We develop unbiased estimators of J and c* via ML for normally and gamma distributed biomarkers. Alpha level confidence intervals are proposed using delta and bootstrap methods for the ML, semi-parametric, and non-parametric approaches respectively. Simulation studies are conducted over a range of distributional scenarios and sample sizes evaluating estimators’ bias, root-mean square error, and coverage probability; the average bias was less than one percent for ML and GLM methods across scenarios and decreases with increased sample size. An example using polychlorinated biphenyl levels to classify women with and without endometriosis illustrates the potential benefits of these methods. We address the limitations and usefulness of each method in order to give researchers guidance in constructing appropriate estimates of biomarkers’ true discriminating capabilities. PMID:18435502

  1. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  2. Evaluation of generic medical information accessed via mobile phones at the point of care in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Hayley; Chang, Aileen Y; Kyer, Andrea; Ketshogileng, Dineo; Taylor, Lynne; Chandra, Amit; Dacso, Matthew; Kung, Shiang-Ju; Rijken, Taatske; Fontelo, Paul; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many mobile phone resources have been developed to increase access to health education in the developing world, yet few studies have compared these resources or quantified their performance in a resource-limited setting. This study aims to compare the performance of resident physicians in answering clinical scenarios using PubMed abstracts accessed via the PubMed for Handhelds (PubMed4Hh) website versus medical/drug reference applications (Medical Apps) accessed via software on the mobile phone. Methods A two-arm comparative study with crossover design was conducted. Subjects, who were resident physicians at the University of Botswana, completed eight scenarios, each with multi-part questions. The primary outcome was a grade for each question. The primary independent variable was the intervention arm and other independent variables included residency and question. Results Within each question type there were significant differences in ‘percentage correct’ between Medical Apps and PubMed4Hh for three of the six types of questions: drug-related, diagnosis/definitions, and treatment/management. Within each of these question types, Medical Apps had a higher percentage of fully correct responses than PubMed4Hh (63% vs 13%, 33% vs 12%, and 41% vs 13%, respectively). PubMed4Hh performed better for epidemiologic questions. Conclusions While mobile access to primary literature remains important and serves an information niche, mobile applications with condensed content may be more appropriate for point-of-care information needs. Further research is required to examine the specific information needs of clinicians in resource-limited settings and to evaluate the appropriateness of current resources in bridging location- and context-specific information gaps. PMID:23535665

  3. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  4. Terrestrial and Solar Limits on Long-Lived Particles in a Dark Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Yavin, Itay; /CCPP, New York U.

    2010-08-26

    Dark matter charged under a new gauge sector, as motivated by recent data, suggests a rich GeV-scale 'dark sector' weakly coupled to the Standard Model by gauge kinetic mixing. The new gauge bosons can decay to Standard Model leptons, but this mode is suppressed if decays into lighter 'dark sector' particles are kinematically allowed. These particles in turn typically have macroscopic decay lifetimes that are constrained by two classes of experiments, which we discuss. Lifetimes of 10 cm {approx}< c{tau} {approx}< 10{sup 8} cm are constrained by existing terrestrial beam-dump experiments. If, in addition, dark matter captured in the Sun (or Earth) annihilates into these particles, lifetimes up to {approx} 10{sup 15} cm are constrained by solar observations. These bounds span fourteen orders of magnitude in lifetime, but they are not exhaustive. Accordingly, we identify promising new directions for experiments including searches for displaced di-muons in B-factories, studies at high-energy and -intensity proton beam dumps, precision gamma-ray and electronic measurements of the Sun, and milli-charge searches re-analyzed in this new context.

  5. Terrestrial and solar limits on long-lived particles in a dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Yavin, Itay

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter charged under a new gauge sector, as motivated by recent data, suggests a rich GeV-scale “dark sector” weakly coupled to the standard model by gauge kinetic mixing. The new gauge bosons can decay to standard model leptons, but this mode is suppressed if decays into lighter “dark sector” particles are kinematically allowed. These particles in turn typically have macroscopic decay lifetimes that are constrained by two classes of experiments, which we discuss. Lifetimes of 10cm≲cτ≲108cm are constrained by existing terrestrial beam-dump experiments. If, in addition, dark matter captured in the Sun (or Earth) annihilates into these particles, lifetimes up to ˜1015cm are constrained by solar observations. These bounds span 14 orders of magnitude in lifetime, but they are not exhaustive. Accordingly, we identify promising new directions for experiments including searches for displaced di-muons in B factories, studies at high-energy and -intensity proton beam dumps, precision gamma-ray and electronic measurements of the Sun, and milli-charge searches reanalyzed in this new context.

  6. Students' Understanding of Limiting Behavior at a Point for Functions from [Set of Real Numbers][superscript 2] to [Set of Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamona-Downs, Joanna K.; Megalou, Foteini J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine students' understanding of the limiting behavior of a function from [set of real numbers][superscript 2] to [set of real numbers] at a point "P." This understanding depends on which definition is used for a limit. Several definitions are considered; two of these concern the notion of a neighborhood of "P", while…

  7. SAMBA HIV semiquantitative test, a new point-of-care viral-load-monitoring assay for resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Allyson V; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Edemaga, Daniel; Joshi, Hrishikesh A; De Ruiter, Annemiek; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Jendrulek, Isabelle; McGuire, Megan; Goel, Neha; Sharma, Pia I; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Lee, Helen H

    2014-09-01

    Routine viral-load (VL) testing of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to monitor treatment efficacy. However, due to logistical challenges, implementation of VL has been difficult in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SAMBA semi-Q (simple amplification-based assay semiquantitative test for HIV-1) in London, Malawi, and Uganda. The SAMBA semi-Q can distinguish between patients with VLs above and below 1,000 copies/ml. The SAMBA semi-Q was validated with diluted clinical samples and blinded plasma samples collected from HIV-1-positive individuals. SAMBA semi-Q results were compared with results from the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, v2.0. Testing of 96 2- to 10-fold dilutions of four samples containing HIV-1 subtype C as well as 488 samples from patients in the United Kingdom, Malawi, and Uganda yielded an overall accuracy for the SAMBA semi-Q of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.8 to 99.9%) and 96.9% (95% CI 94.9 to 98.3%), respectively, compared to to the Roche test. Analysis of VL data from patients in Malawi and Uganda showed that the SAMBA cutoff of 1,000 copies/ml appropriately distinguished treated from untreated individuals. Furthermore, analysis of the viral loads of 232 patients on ART in Malawi and Uganda revealed similar patterns for virological control, defined as either <1,000 copies/ml (SAMBA cutoff) or <5,000 copies/ml (WHO 2010 criterion; WHO, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach, 2010). This study suggests that the SAMBA semi-Q has adequate concurrency with the gold standard measurements for viral load. This test can allow VL monitoring of patients on ART at the point of care in resource-limited settings. PMID:25031444

  8. Orientational kinetics of dipolar particles in a Maxwell fluid matrix: inertialess limit for the rotary microrheology.

    PubMed

    Raikher, Yu L; Rusakov, V V

    2005-12-01

    We study magnetic response of an assembly of ferroparticles suspended in a viscoelastic matrix which is modeled by a Maxwell fluid with a unique stress relaxation time. The problem refers to the magnetic microrheology approach where deformational properties of a complex fluid are tested with the aid of embedded nanoparticle probes set to motion by an external ac magnetic field. A possibility is considered to simplify the description of the orientational kinetics of the system at the expense of neglecting inertia effects in particle rotary motion. It is shown that in this aspect a Maxwell matrix differs essentially from the Newtonian one. In the latter the inertialess approximation for the particles of the approximately 10nm size is valid practically unboundedly. For a viscoelastic matrix the inertialess approximation means an important restriction on the value of the stress relaxation time. Assuming weak nonequilibrium, the magneto-orientational relaxation times are found and low-frequency magnetic spectra of a viscoelastic suspension are determined in the presence of a constant (magnetizing) field. PMID:16485946

  9. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT) Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Christopher T.; Krieger, Marlee S.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Asma, Betsy; Muasher, Lisa C.; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope) for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope’s concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies. Results Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems. Conclusion The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community

  10. Functional renormalization-group approaches, one-particle (irreducible) reducible with respect to local Green’s functions, with dynamical mean-field theory as a starting point

    SciTech Connect

    Katanin, A. A.

    2015-06-15

    We consider formulations of the functional renormalization-group (fRG) flow for correlated electronic systems with the dynamical mean-field theory as a starting point. We classify the corresponding renormalization-group schemes into those neglecting one-particle irreducible six-point vertices (with respect to the local Green’s functions) and neglecting one-particle reducible six-point vertices. The former class is represented by the recently introduced DMF{sup 2}RG approach [31], but also by the scale-dependent generalization of the one-particle irreducible representation (with respect to local Green’s functions, 1PI-LGF) of the generating functional [20]. The second class is represented by the fRG flow within the dual fermion approach [16, 32]. We compare formulations of the fRG approach in each of these cases and suggest their further application to study 2D systems within the Hubbard model.

  11. On the non-relativistic limit of a spin- {1}/{2} particle in a classical gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäuerle, G. G. A.; Twelker, H. F.

    1985-04-01

    An external gravitational field modifies the description of a spin- {1}/{2} particle in various ways. For instance, the inner product of Dirac wave functions, and the equal-time anti-commutation relations and the canonical energy-momentum tensor of the quantized Dirac field are modified. This has the following consequences. The Dirac-Hamiltonian (2.29) of a spin- {1}/{2} particle in a time-dependent gravitational field is not Hermitian. Furthermore, the Euler-Lagrange equation and the Heisenberg equation for the quantized Dirac field are not consistent. We obviate these deficiencies by the introduction of the η-field as the fundamental variable instead of the Dirac field. At the same time, the non-relativistic limit is most conveniently discussed in the η-description. For this purpose, we introduce a modification of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation.

  12. Limits of PowerPoint's Power: Enhancing Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes but Not Their Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susskind, Joshua E.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of accompanying lectures with computer-mediated PowerPoint presentations or PowerPoint generated overheads on students' self-efficacy, attitudes, course performance, and class-related behaviors were examined. Two Introduction to Developmental Psychology sections were initially taught with lectures accompanied by either overheads or…

  13. X-ray microanalysis in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM): Small size particles analysis limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchaf, L.; Verstraete, J.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we will present a study of the effects of some parameters such as pressure and data acquisition duration in EDS microanalysis results. The chamber pressure has been increased from 1Torr (133Pa) to 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Measurements with times of measurement varying between 180 seconds and 1800 seconds were carried out. Small size particles of iron and silicon are analyzed. The results show that at 1Torr (133Pa), the primary electron beam can move if the time of measurement is long, which introduces some mistakes in the microananlysis results. Moreover an increase in the chamber pressure induces an amplification of the skirt beam phenomena up to 160 microns. This fact adds some noise coming from the environment around the analyzed particle. We showed that, the displacement of the electron beam during measurement caused a decrease in the iron concentration versus the time of measurment which reachs approximately 15% when the time of measurement is 1800seconds. Dans cette étude nous présenterons les effets de certains paramètres tels que la durée d'acquisition et la pression dans la chambre du microscope électronique à balayage environnemental sur les résultats de la microanalyse X. La pression dans la chambre a été augmentée de 1 Torr (133 Pa) à 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Des mesures avec des durées d'acquisition entre 180 secondes et 1800 secondes ont été effectuées. Des particules de fer et de silicium de petites tailles sont analysées. Les résultats ont montré qu'à 1 Torr (133 Pa), le faisceau d'électrons primaire peut fluctuer si la durée d'acquisition est longue, ce qui induit quelques erreurs dans les résultats obtenus. Une augmentation de la pression dans la chambre induit une amplification des phénomènes de diffusion du faisceau d'électrons jusqu'à 160 microns. Ce fait, ajoute un certain bruit venant de l'environnement autour de la particule analysée. Nous avons ensuite montré que le déplacement du faisceau d'électrons pendant

  14. Exponential Scaling Limit of the Single-Particle Anderson Model Via Adaptive Feedback Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulaevsky, Victor

    2016-02-01

    We propose a twofold extension of the Germinet-Klein bootstrap multi-scale analysis (BMSA) for the Anderson models on graphs. First, we show, with the help of a single scaling algorithm, that power-law decay bounds at some initial scale imply an asymptotically exponential decay of eigenfunctions (EFs) and of EF correlators (EFCs), even on graphs (of polynomial growth) which do not fulfill the uniform scalability condition required for the existing BMSA techniques. We also show that the exponential scaling limit of the EFs and EFCs holds true for a class of marginal distributions of the random potential with regularity lower than Hölder continuity of any positive order.

  15. Assessing the limits of hidden Markov model analysis for multi-state particle tracks in living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Dylan

    Particle tracking offers significant insight into the molecular mechanics that govern the behavior of living cells. The analysis of molecular trajectories that transition between different motive states, such as diffusive, driven and tethered modes, is of considerable importance, with even single trajectories containing significant amounts of information about a molecule's environment and its interactions with cellular structures such as the cell cytoskeleton, membrane or extracellular matrix. Hidden Markov models (HMM) have been widely adopted to perform the segmentation of such complex tracks, however robust methods for failure detection are required when HMMs are applied to individual particle tracks and limited data sets. Here, we show that extensive analysis of hidden Markov model outputs using data derived from multi-state Brownian dynamics simulations can be used for both the optimization of likelihood models, and also to generate custom failure tests based on a modified Bayesian Information Criterion. In the first instance, these failure tests can be applied to assess the quality of the HMM results. In addition, they provide critical information for the successful design of particle tracking experiments where trajectories containing multiple mobile states are expected.

  16. Transcutaneous CO(2) plateau as set-point for respiratory drive during upper airway flow-limitation.

    PubMed

    Rimpilä, Ville; Saaresranta, Tarja; Huhtala, Heini; Virkki, Arho; Salminen, Aaro V; Polo, Olli

    2014-01-15

    Upper airway flow-limitation is often but not always associated with prolonged gradually increasing respiratory effort. We investigated the changes in transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcCO(2)) during episodes of upper airway flow limitation during sleep with or without respiratory effort response. Seventy-seven episodes of progressive flow-limitation were analyzed in 36 patients with sleep-disordered breathing. TcCO(2) and arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) were measured during steady breathing and during episodes of flow-limitation with and without effort response. After lights-off tcCO(2) increased and leveled-off at plateau, when breathing stabilized. During flow-limitation tcCO(2) increased at rate of 4.0kPa/h. Flow-limitation with increasing respiratory effort associated with tcCO(2) increase above the plateau (terminating at 105.2%, p<0.001), whereas flow-limitation without effort response associated with tcCO(2) increase starting below the plateau (95.8%, p<0.001). We conclude that the nocturnal tcCO(2) plateau indicates the level above which the increasing respiratory effort is triggered as response to upper airway flow-limitation. We propose that flow-limitation below the tcCO(2) plateau is an event related to stabilization of sleep and breathing. PMID:24200642

  17. Particle production and aeolian transport from a ``supply-limited'' source area in the Chihuahuan desert, New Mexico, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Chen, Weinan

    2001-03-01

    Wind erosion mechanisms were investigated for the "scrape site" at the Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, New Mexico, in the Chihuahuan desert. The scrape site was denuded of vegetation and scraped flat in 1991. We adopted the site in 1994 because it offered an opportunity to study wind erosion mechanisms for a large area of unprotected sandy and crusted soil in an otherwise natural setting and over a period of several years. We installed and operated the following instrumentation for a period of 35 months: three meteorological towers, each 2 m in height, with wind speed sensors at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above ground; air temperature at 0.2 and 2 m height; rain gauge; seven sets of particle collectors at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 m heights; and three fast-response particle mass flux sensors at 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m heights; all along a transect crossing the site and parallel to the predominant southwesterly wind direction. The minimum threshold friction velocity for the scrape site with a thin layer of loose material was 25 cm s-1. This minimum threshold velocity increased to as high as 100 cm s-1 depending on the degree of particle depletion and the site's status which varied between supply unlimited just after a high wind episode and supply limited which was more typical for the rest of the time. The dominant mechanism producing fresh sediment for transport was sandblasting of the surface crust. The measurements showed that supply and availability of loose, fine particles on the surface is a strong control of rates of erosion rather than wind energy alone.

  18. Two-flavor lattice QCD with a finite density of heavy quarks: heavy-dense limit and "particle-hole" symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of the half-filling point in lattice QCD (LQCD), in particular the disappearance of the sign problem and the emergence of an apparent particle-hole symmetry, and try to understand where these properties come from by studying the heavy-dense fermion determinant and the corresponding strong-coupling partition function (which can be integrated analytically). We then add in a first step an effective Polyakov loop gauge action (which reproduces the leading terms in the character expansion of the Wilson gauge action) to the heavy-dense partition function and try to analyze how some of the properties of the half-filling point change when leaving the strong coupling limit. In a second step, we take also the leading nearest-neighbor fermion hopping terms into account (including gauge interactions in the fundamental representation) and mention how the method could be improved further to incorporate the full set of nearest-neighbor fermion hoppings. Using our mean-field method, we also obtain an approximate ( μ, T) phase diagram for heavy-dense LQCD at finite inverse gauge coupling β. Finally, we propose a simple criterion to identify the chemical potential beyond which lattice artifacts become dominant.

  19. REVISED BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS WITH LONG-LIVED, NEGATIVELY CHARGED MASSIVE PARTICLES: UPDATED RECOMBINATION RATES, PRIMORDIAL {sup 9}Be NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND IMPACT OF NEW {sup 6}Li LIMITS

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: kyungsik@kau.ac.kr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp E-mail: gmathews@nd.edu

    2014-09-01

    We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X {sup –}, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X {sup –} particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, {sup 7}Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X {sup –} particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 4}He with X {sup –}. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X {sup –} mass, m{sub X} ≳ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for {sup 7}Li and {sup 7,} {sup 9}Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the {sup 7}Be recombination for m{sub X} = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for {sup 9}Be production: the recombination of {sup 7}Li and X {sup –} followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of {sup 7}Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of {sup 7}Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X {sup –} are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial {sup 6}Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the {sup 7}Li problem and the primordial {sup 9}Be abundances are revised.

  20. Revised Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with Long-lived, Negatively Charged Massive Particles: Updated Recombination Rates, Primordial 9Be Nucleosynthesis, and Impact of New 6Li Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant. J.

    2014-09-01

    We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X -, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X - particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the 6, 7Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, 7Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X - particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of 7Be, 7Li, 9Be, and 4He with X -. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X - mass, mX >~ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for 7Li and 7, 9Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the 7Be recombination for mX = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for 9Be production: the recombination of 7Li and X - followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of 7Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of 7Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X - are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial 6Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the 7Li problem and the primordial 9Be abundances are revised.

  1. Polarization of intersecting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paley, A. V.; Radchik, A. V.; Smith, G. B.; Vagov, A. V.

    1994-06-01

    An exact expression for the polarizability of intersecting circular cylinders has been derived covering all degrees of intersection and arbitrary complex dielectric constants for the particle material. This enables a comparison between the induced dipole moment on two particles of almost identical shape; a cardioid and a particular pair of overlapping cylinders. The absorption spectra in the small particle limit are extremely sensitive to the detailed shape of the surfaces near the point of intersection.

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Biological Treatment Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly average shall not exceed...

  8. Kinetic Study of Radiation-reaction-limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Unstable Force-free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; East, William E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-09-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focus on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The “flares” are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. Higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.

  9. On the limit of existence of Borromean binding in three-particle systems with screened Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Bylicki, Mirosław; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.

    2014-05-01

    Molecular-type systems, (m1)±(m2)±(m3)∓, consisting of three particles of masses mi and of unit electric charges with the Coulomb interactions weakened by the Debye screening are considered. Existence and range of Borromean binding in symmetric systems (of masses m1 = m2) is investigated with respect to the masses of their constituents. It is shown that such systems can exist in Borromean ground states if the mass ratio q = m3/m1 is less or equal to 1.668. This improves considerably the lower bound to the limit of existence of the Borromean binding of symmetric systems suggested by Pont and Serra (2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 032508) as q ⩽ 1. Qualitative meaning of the improvement is that the Borromean binding occurs not only for systems where two identical particles are heavier than the third one but it is also possible for systems of the opposite mass relation. The range of screening parameter in which a system is Borromean known as a Borromean window is also determined for μ+μ+e-, π+π+μ-, π+μ-μ- and e+e-e-.

  10. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-18

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically- produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200.

  11. Conserved and narrow temperature limits in alpine insects: Thermal tolerance and supercooling points of the ice-crawlers, Grylloblatta (Insecta: Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae).

    PubMed

    Schoville, Sean D; Slatyer, Rachel A; Bergdahl, James C; Valdez, Glenda A

    2015-07-01

    For many terrestrial species, habitat associations and range size are dependent on physiological limits, which in turn may influence large-scale patterns of species diversity. The temperature range experienced by individuals is considered to shape the breadth of the thermal niche, with species occupying temporally and/or geographically stable climates tolerating a narrow temperature range. High-elevation environments experience large temperature fluctuations, with frequent periods below 0 °C, but Grylloblatta (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) occupy climatically stable microhabitats within this region. Here we test critical thermal limits and supercooling points for five Grylloblatta populations from across a large geographic area, to examine whether the stable microhabitats of this group are associated with a narrow thermal niche and assess their capacity to tolerate cold conditions. Thermal limits are highly conserved in Grylloblatta, despite substantial genetic divergence among populations spanning 1500 m elevation and being separated by over 500 km. Further, Grylloblatta show exceptionally narrow thermal limits compared to other insect taxa with little capacity to improve cold tolerance via plasticity. In contrast, upper thermal limits were significantly depressed by cold acclimation. Grylloblatta maintain coordinated movement until they freeze, and they die upon freezing. Convergence of the critical thermal minima, supercooling point and lower lethal limits point to adaptation to a cold but, importantly, constant thermal environment. These physiological data provide an explanation for the high endemism and patchy distribution of Grylloblatta, which relies on subterranean retreats to accommodate narrow thermal limits. These retreats are currently buffered from temperature fluctuations by snow cover, and a declining snowpack thus places Grylloblatta at risk of exposure to temperatures beyond its tolerance capacity. PMID:25956197

  12. Broadband Ultrahigh-Resolution Spectroscopy of Particle-Induced X Rays: Extending the Limits of Nondestructive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, M. R. J.; Käyhkö, M.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Laitinen, M.; Julin, J.; Malm, J.; Sajavaara, T.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J.; Reintsema, C.; Swetz, D.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J. N.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2016-08-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) based on x-ray emission is widely used, for example, in the semiconductor and concrete industries. Here, we demonstrate significant quantitative and qualitative improvements in broadband x-ray NDA by combining particle-induced emission with detection based on superconducting microcalorimeter arrays. We show that the technique offers great promise in the elemental analysis of thin-film and bulk samples, especially in the difficult cases where tens of different elements with nearly overlapping emission lines have to be identified down to trace concentrations. We demonstrate the efficiency and resolving capabilities by spectroscopy of several complex multielement samples in the energy range 1-10 keV, some of which have a trace amount of impurities not detectable with standard silicon drift detectors. The ability to distinguish the chemical environment of an element is also demonstrated by measuring the intensity differences and chemical shifts of the characteristics x-ray peaks of titanium compounds. In particular, we report measurements of the K α /K β intensity ratio of thin films of TiN and measurements of Ti K α satellite peak intensities in various Ti thin-film compounds. We also assess the detection limits of the technique, comment on detection limits possible in the future, and discuss possible applications.

  13. Determination of char combustion kinetics parameters: Comparison of point detector and imaging-based particle-sizing pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, Martin; Geier, Manfred; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Vorobiev, Nikita; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the char burnout characteristics of two German coals (a lignite and a high-volatile bituminous coal) were investigated using two different experimental configurations and optical techniques in two distinct laboratories for measurement of temperature and size of burning particles. The optical diagnostic hardware is quite different in the two systems, but both perform two-color pyrometry and optical sizing measurements on individual particles burning in isolation from each other in high-temperature laminar flows to characterize the char consumption kinetics. The performance of the specialized systems is compared for two different combustion atmospheres (with 6.6 and 12 vol.% O2) and gas temperatures between 1700 and 1800 K. The measured particle temperatures and diameters are converted to char burning rate parameters for several residence times during the course of the particles' burnout. The results confirm that comparable results are obtained with the two configurations, although higher levels of variability in the measured data were observed in the imaging-based pyrometer setup. Corresponding uncertainties in kinetics parameters were larger, and appear to be more sensitive to systematic measurement errors when lower oxygen contents are used in the experiments. Consequently, burnout experiments in environments with sufficiently high O2 contents may be used to measure reliable char burning kinetics rates. Based on simulation results for the two coals, O2 concentrations in the range 10%-30% are recommended for kinetic rate measurements on 100 μm particles.

  14. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at TeV using a displaced interaction point. TOTEM Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M. V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Mäki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2015-03-01

    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles dN/d is measured by the TOTEM experiment in proton-proton collisions at TeV within the range and . Data were collected in a low intensity LHC run with collisions occurring at a distance of 11.25 m from the nominal interaction point. The data sample is expected to include 96-97 % of the inelastic proton-proton interactions. The measurement reported here considers charged particles with MeV/c, produced in inelastic interactions with at least one charged particle in or . The dN/d has been found to decrease with , from 5.11 0.73 at to 1.81 0.56 at 6.925. Several Monte Carlo generators are compared to the data and are found to be within the systematic uncertainty of the measurement.

  15. Artifact free reconstruction with the system matrix approach by overscanning the field-free-point trajectory in magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, A.; Werner, F.; Weizenecker, J.; Buzug, T. M.; Knopp, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging is a tracer-based imaging method that utilizes the non-linear magnetization response of iron-oxide for determining their spatial distribution. The method is based on a sampling scheme where a sensitive spot is moved along a trajectory that captured a predefined field-of-view (FOV). However, particles outside the FOV also contribute to the measurement signal due to their rotation and the non-sharpness of the sensitive spot. In the present work we investigate artifacts that are induced by particles not covered by the FOV and show that the artifacts can be mitigated by using a system matrix that covers not only the region of interest but also a certain area around the FOV. The findings are especially relevant when using a multi-patch acquisition scheme where the boundaries of neighboring patches have to be handled.

  16. Trapped fast particle destabilization of internal kink mode for the locally flattened q-profile with an inflection point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Qu; Zhang, Rui-Bin; Meng, Guo

    2016-07-01

    The destabilization of ideal internal kink modes by trapped fast particles in tokamak plasmas with a "shoulder"-like equilibrium current is investigated. It is found that energetic particle branch of the mode is unstable with the driving of fast-particle precession drifts and corresponds to a precessional fishbone. The mode with a low stability threshold is also more easily excited than the conventional precessional fishbone. This is different from earlier studies for the same equilibrium in which the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch of the mode is stable. Furthermore, the stability and characteristic frequency of the mode are analyzed by solving the dispersion relation and comparing with the conventional fishbone. The results suggest that an equilibrium with a locally flattened q-profile, may be modified by localized current drive (or bootstrap current, etc.), is prone to the onset of the precessional fishbone branch of the mode.

  17. Quantum motion of a point particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Edilberto O.; Ulhoa, Sérgio C.; Andrade, Fabiano M.; Filgueiras, Cleverson; Amorim, R. G. G.

    2015-11-01

    The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a spinless charged particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space is considered. We chose the surface as being a cone defined by a line element in polar coordinates. The geometry of this line element establishes that the motion of the particle can occur on the surface of a cone or an anti-cone. As a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the cone and also because of two-dimensional confinement, the geometric potential should be taken into account. At first, we establish the conditions for the particle describing a circular path in such a context. Because of the presence of the geometric potential, which contains a singular term, we use the self-adjoint extension method in order to describe the dynamics in all space including the singularity. Expressions are obtained for the bound state energies and wave functions.

  18. Searches for New Physics, involving Top Quarks, Dark Matter and the Higgs Bosons, at the ATLAS, CDF and Fermi-LAT Particle Experiments, and a description of a new limit re-interpretation tool, Basis-Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kanury Kanishka

    Searches for new physics are presented in the lepton + jets channel at the CDF and ATLAS experiments. At CDF, we search for exotic quarks that couple to dark matter, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, a Z' boson decaying quarks, and a two-Higgs doublet model. At ATLAS, we search for fourth generation down-type quarks, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, and a multi-Higgs boson cascade. A novel methodology, Basis-limits, which allows for re-interpretation of experimental limits is presented. Basis-limits is used to extend ATLAS limits on fourth generation quarks to set limits on a new vector-like quark for all its decay modes. Finally, a spatial analysis of the gamma-ray excess, seen by the Fermi-LAT experiment, is performed. We find the location of the excess to be consistent with a dark matter halo at the Galactic center as the source.

  19. Rheumatic heart disease screening by "point-of-care" echocardiography: an acceptable alternative in resource limited settings?

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is estimated to affect over 20 million people worldwide, the vast majority being in developing countries. Screening for RHD has been recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) since 2004. Conventionally, auscultation has been used for diagnosing RHD. Auscultation has its limitations and may not detect mild cases. With the evolution of portable echocardiographic systems, mass screening for subclinical RHD has become possible. Portable echo has the advantage of rapid access and hence screening in schools or communities is possible. Its cost is lower than that of standard echo equipment. A large number of studies have reported echocardiographic screening for RHD over the last decade or so. A 3-10 fold increase in prevalence of RHD has been detected by using portable echo when compared with conventional method of auscultation. More recently, a small, compact, easy to carry in a pocket, hand held system has been introduced which is much cheaper than the conventional portable system. A few previous reports have shown the feasibility of using hand held echo system for diagnosis of various cardiac diseases. A recently published article has shown that the hand held system can be used to screen for RHD. It is more sensitive than the conventional auscultation for RHD. Authors of this report have concluded that screening with the hand held device may be a more cost effective strategy for screening for RHD in resource limited settings, since it is much cheaper than the portable echocardiography equipment. PMID:26835377

  20. Assessment of a three-point restraint system with a pre-tensioned lap belt and an inflatable, force-limited shoulder belt.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate J; Lessley, David; Forman, Jason; Higuchi, Kazuo; Tanji, Hiromasa; Ato, Tadayuki; Kameyoshi, Hikaru; Arbogast, Kristy

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the performance of a 3-point restraint system incorporating an inflatable shoulder belt with a nominal 2.5-kN load limiter and a non-inflatable lap belt with a pretensioner (the "Airbelt"). Frontal impacts with PMHS in a rear seat environment are presented and the Airbelt system is contrasted with an earlier 3-point system with inflatable lap and shoulder belts but no load-limiter or pretensioners, which was evaluated with human volunteers in the 1970s but not fully reported in the open literature (the "Inflataband"). Key differences between the systems include downward pelvic motion and torso recline with the Inflataband, while the pelvis moved almost horizontally and the torso pitched forward with the Airbelt. One result of these kinematic differences was an overall more biomechanically favorable restraint loading but greater maximum forward head excursion with the Airbelt. The Airbelt is shown to generate generally lower head, neck, and thoracic injury metrics and PMHS trauma than other, non-inflatable rear-seat restraint concepts (viz., a standard 3-point belt and a pre-tensioned shoulder belt with a progressive load limiter). Further study is needed to evaluate the Airbelt system for different size occupants (e.g., children), non-frontal impact vectors, and for out-of-position occupants and to allow the results with this particular system to be generalized to a broader range of Airbelt designs. PMID:22869308

  1. Development document for effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the porcelain enameling. Point source category. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    EPA has subcategorized the porcelain enameling industry based on the basis material coated. The subcategories are defined as porcelain enameling on: steel, cast iron, aluminum and copper. No limitations are established for porcelain enameling on precious metals (gold, silver and platinum group metals) because they are believed to be very small sources and virtually all would be excluded from regulation by the small indirect discharger exemption. The study included the identification of raw waste and treated effluent characteristics, including: (1) the sources and volume of water used, the processes employed, and the sources of pollutants and wastewaters in the plant, and (2) the constituents of wastewaters. Such analysis enabled EPA to determine the presence and concentration of toxic pollutants in wastewater discharges.

  2. Rigorous Derivation of Nonlinear Scalar Conservation Laws from Follow-the-Leader Type Models via Many Particle Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, M.; Rosini, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the unique entropy solution to a scalar nonlinear conservation law with strictly monotone velocity and nonnegative initial condition can be rigorously obtained as the large particle limit of a microscopic follow-the-leader type model, which is interpreted as the discrete Lagrangian approximation of the nonlinear scalar conservation law. More precisely, we prove that the empirical measure (respectively the discretised density) obtained from the follow-the-leader system converges in the 1-Wasserstein topology (respectively in ) to the unique Kružkov entropy solution of the conservation law. The initial data are taken in , nonnegative, and with compact support, hence we are able to handle densities with a vacuum. Our result holds for a reasonably general class of velocity maps (including all the relevant examples in the applications, for example in the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards model for traffic flow) with a possible degenerate slope near the vacuum state. The proof of the result is based on discrete estimates and on a discrete version of the one-sided Oleinik-type condition. In particular, we prove that the regularizing effect for nonlinear scalar conservation laws is intrinsic to the discrete model.

  3. Model-independent analysis of dark matter points to a particle mass at the keV scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2010-05-01

    We present a model-independent analysis of dark matter (DM) decoupling both ultrarelativistically (UR) and non-relativistically (NR) based on the DM phase-space density . We derive explicit formulae for the DM particle mass m and for the number of ultrarelativistic degrees of freedom gd at decoupling. We find that for DM particles decoupling UR both at local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and out of LTE, m turns out to be in the keV scale. For example, for DM Majorana fermions decoupling at LTE the resulting mass is m ~= 0.85 keV. For DM particles decoupling NR, results in the keV scale (Td is the decoupling temperature) and the value of m is consistent with the keV scale. In all cases, DM turns out to be cold DM (CDM). In addition, lower and upper bounds on the DM annihilation cross-section for NR decoupling are derived. We evaluate the free-streaming (Jeans) wavelength and Jeans mass: they are independent of the type of DM except for the DM self-gravity dynamics. The free-streaming wavelength today turns to be in the kpc range. These results are based on our theoretical analysis, on astronomical observations of dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies in the Milky Way and on N-body numerical simulations. We analyse and discuss the results for from analytic approximate formulae for both linear fluctuations and the (non-linear) spherical model and from N-body simulations results. In this way we obtain upper bounds for the DM particle mass, which are all below the 100-keV range.

  4. Methane and CO2 fluxes of moving point sources - Beyond or within the limits of eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Münger, Andreas; Ammann, Christof

    2014-05-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used for CO2 and energy exchange measurements over different ecosystems. For some years, it has been also becoming widely used to investigate CH4 and N2O exchange over ecosystems including grazing systems. EC measurements represent a spatially integrated flux over an upwind area (footprint). Whereas for extended homogenous areas EC measurements work well, the animals in a grazing system are a challenge as they represent moving point sources that create inhomogeneous conditions in space and time. The main issues which have to be taken into account when applying EC flux measurements over a grazed system are: i) In the presence of animals the high time resolution concentration measurements show large spikes in the signal. These spikes may be filtered/reduced by standard quality control software in order to avoid wrong measurements. ii) Data on the position of the animals relative to the flux footprint is needed to quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the measured flux. For one grazing season we investigated the ability of EC flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the CH4 and CO2 exchange over pasture systems. For this purpose, a field experiment with a herd of twenty dairy cows in a full-day rotational grazing system was carried out on the Swiss central plateau. Net CH4 and CO2 exchange of the pasture system was measured continuously by the eddy covariance technique (Sonic Anemometer HS-50, Gill Instruments Ltd; FGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.). To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux, the position of the individual cows was recorded using GPS (5 s time resolution) on each animal. An existing footprint calculation tool (ART footprint tool) was adapted and CH4 emissions of the cows were calculated. CH4 emissions from cows could be used as a tracer to investigate the quality of the evaluation of the EC data, since the background exchange of

  5. Efficient gradient field generation providing a multi-dimensional arbitrary shifted field-free point for magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaethner, Christian; Ahlborg, Mandy; Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo F.; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality capable to visualize tracers using magnetic fields. A high magnetic gradient strength is mandatory, to achieve a reasonable image quality. Therefore, a power optimization of the coil configuration is essential. In order to realize a multi-dimensional efficient gradient field generator, the following improvements compared to conventionally used Maxwell coil configurations are proposed: (i) curved rectangular coils, (ii) interleaved coils, and (iii) multi-layered coils. Combining these adaptions results in total power reduction of three orders of magnitude, which is an essential step for the feasibility of building full-body human MPI scanners.

  6. Efficient gradient field generation providing a multi-dimensional arbitrary shifted field-free point for magnetic particle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kaethner, Christian Ahlborg, Mandy; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo F.

    2014-01-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality capable to visualize tracers using magnetic fields. A high magnetic gradient strength is mandatory, to achieve a reasonable image quality. Therefore, a power optimization of the coil configuration is essential. In order to realize a multi-dimensional efficient gradient field generator, the following improvements compared to conventionally used Maxwell coil configurations are proposed: (i) curved rectangular coils, (ii) interleaved coils, and (iii) multi-layered coils. Combining these adaptions results in total power reduction of three orders of magnitude, which is an essential step for the feasibility of building full-body human MPI scanners.

  7. Relation between absorbed dose, charged particle equilibrium and nuclear transformations: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics point of view.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Romero, J T

    2006-01-01

    We present a discussion to show that the absorbed dose D is a time-dependent function. This time dependence is demonstrated based on the concepts of charged particle equilibrium and on radiation equilibrium within the context of thermodynamic non-equilibrium. In the latter, the time dependence is due to changes of the rest mass energy of the nuclei and elementary particles involved in the terms summation operator Q and Q that appear in the definitions of energy imparted epsilon and energy deposit epsilon(i), respectively. In fact, nothing is said about the averaging operation of the non-stochastic quantity mean energy imparted epsilon, which is used in the definition of D according to ICRU 60. It is shown in this research that the averaging operation necessary to define the epsilon employed to get D cannot be performed with an equilibrium statistical operator rho(r) as could be expected. Rather, the operation has to be defined with a time-dependent non-equilibrium statistical operator rho(r, t); therefore, D is a time-dependent function D(r,t). PMID:16731692

  8. Quantitative determination of minerals and anthropogenic particles in some Polish peat occurrences using a novel SEM point-counting method.

    PubMed

    Smieja-Król, Beata; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    A method is proposed for determining the mineral composition of peat using scanning electron microscope. In an illustrative example, five groups of particles occurring in amounts of >0.05% are distinguished in peat from Puścizna Mała bog in the Carpathian foreland, Poland. These are spheroidal aluminosilicate particles (SAP), feldspars, nondescript aluminosilicates (mainly clays), silica (quartz and opaline silica), and Fe(hydro)oxides. Two more site-specific groups (barite and ZnS) are distinguished in highly polluted fens (Bagno Bruch and Bagno Mikołeska) near a zinc smelter in Upper Silesia. At Bagno Bruch, peat contents of predominantly authigenic ZnS microspheroids range up to 1.1%. SAP originating from coal-burning power stations account for maximum concentrations of <21-39% of the inorganic fraction in the studied mires. SAP concentrations vary with depth, and mean spheroid diameters with distance from emission sources. A distinct feature of SAP is their common enrichment in Ti what questions the use of Ti as a proxy for soil dust in fly ash polluted bogs. As amounts of anthropogenic magnetic spherules, less abundant than SAP in all mires, relate to water table level position, they are unsuitable as tracers of air pollution. The proposed method is recommended for application with peats having ash contents > ~4%. PMID:24442577

  9. Self-Organizing Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying Acceleration Coefficients for Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effects and Multifuel Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polprasert, Jirawadee; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Dieu, Vo Ngoc

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization (SPSO) with time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVAC) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth functions including multiple fuel options (MFO) and valve-point loading effects (VPLE). The proposed SPSO with TVAC is the new approach optimizer and good performance for solving ED problems. It can handle the premature convergence of the problem by re-initialization of velocity whenever particles are stagnated in the search space. To properly control both local and global explorations of the swarm during the optimization process, the performance of TVAC is included. The proposed method is tested in different ED problems with non-smooth cost functions and the obtained results are compared to those from many other methods in the literature. The results have revealed that the proposed SPSO with TVAC is effective in finding higher quality solutions for non-smooth ED problems than many other methods.

  10. Limits on Spin-independent Couplings of Light Dark Matter WIMPs with a p-type Point-contact Germanium Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. T.; Wong, H. T.

    New limits on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon coupling using 39.5 kg-days of data taken with a p-type point-contact germanium detector with fiducial mass of 840 g at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory (KSNL) is presented. Charactering and understanding the anomalous surface behaviour is of particular significance to this study. The slow rise-time of surface events is identified via software pulse shape analysis techniques. In addition, the signal-retaining and background-rejecting efficiencies are implied to clarify the actual bulk and surface events in the mixed regime at sub-keV range. Both efficiencies are evaluated with calibration sources and a novel n-type point-contact germanium detector. Efficiencies-corrected background spectra from the low-background facility at KSNL are derived. Part of the parameter space in cross-section versus WIMP-mass is probed and excluded.