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Sample records for polar intermetallic phase

  1. Exploratory Synthesis: The Fascinating and Diverse Chemistry of Polar Intermetallic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, John D.

    2009-12-07

    Exploratory synthetic adventures regarding the inorganic chemistry of polar intermetallic phases have proven to be especially productive of novel compositions, new and unprecedented structures, and unusual bonding regimes. Reactions of diverse elements with widely different electronegativities allow the definition of two opposed classes of products: polycationic or polyanionic clusters or networks of metals paired with the corresponding monatomic anions or cations. These can be usefully viewed as intermetallic 'salts', redox products of simpler neutral intermetallic systems but with widely different factors governing their stabilities. Thus, combinations of rare-earth metals alone or with late transition metals form a novel variety of polymetal network structures with relatively isolated telluride (or halide) spacer anions. Similarly, extensions of traditional Zintl phases of the alkali or alkaline-earth metals from the later p elements to the earlier triels, Ga-Tl especially, yield many new and elegant polyanionic structures. The substitution or addition of still earlier p or late d metal components produces still electron-poorer and more condensed polar intermetallic phases with increasingly delocalized bonding, higher coordination numbers, and more unusual structures and bonding. These discoveries have also led to new approaches: electronic tuning via band calculations to generate new families of quasicrystals and their crystalline approximants with their characteristic structural regimes and regularities. Gold as a substituent generates particularly novel bonding in arrays of mixed metals or polygold anionic networks.

  2. Synthesis, Structure and bonding Analysis of the Polar Intermetallic Phase Ca2Pt2Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, Saroj L.; Corbett, John D.

    2012-08-14

    The polar intermetallic phase Ca2Pt2Cd was discovered during explorations of the Ca-Pt-Cd system. The compound was synthesized by high temperature reactions, and its structure refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as orthorhombic, Immm, a = 4.4514(5), b = 5.8415(6), c = 8.5976(9) Å, Z = 2. The structure formally contains infinite, planar networks of [Pt2Cd]4– along the ab plane, which can be described as tessellation of six and four-member rings of the anions, with cations stuffed between the anion layers. The infinite condensed platinum chains show a substantial long–short distortion of 0.52 Å, an appreciable difference between Ca2Pt2Cd (26 valence electrons) and the isotypic but regular Ca2Cu2Ga (29 VE). The relatively large cation proportion diminishes the usual dominance of polar (Pt–Cd) and 5d–5d (Pt–Pt) contributions to the total Hamilton populations.

  3. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  4. Phase stability in processing of high temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Perepezko, J.H.; Nunes, C.A.; Yi, S.H.; Thoma, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    In the development of high temperature intermetallics involving various aluminides, silicides and Laves phases, it has become evident that it is essential to consider the strong influence of materials processing throughout all stages. The underlying basis for alloy synthesis, processing and the assessment of thermal stability is established by the relevant phase equilibria, the characteristic diffusivities and the possible solidification reaction pathways. In almost all cases the microstructures of the most useful metallic alloys are multiphase assemblies in which the relative phase fractions, compositions and morphologies play key roles in optimizing the performance under high temperature conditions. The microstructure designs are usually tailored for strength, toughness, creep resistance and environmental stability and involve a balance of features derived from mixtures of a ductile phase and intermetallic phases. There is a clear experience that the level of materials processing can only be as sophisticated as the level of knowledge of the phase equilibria and the underlying kinetics. In many of the contemporary intermetallic alloys the phase stability must be considered in terms of multicomponent equilibria and non-stoichiometric intermetallic compositions. Recent developments in several important intermetallic alloy classes illustrate the guidance into alloy design and processing options provided by systematic studies of phase stability. 58 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  6. Electrocatalytic activity of ordered intermetallic phases for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Casado-Rivera, Emerilis; Volpe, David J; Alden, Laif; Lind, Cora; Downie, Craig; Vázquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Angelo, Antonio C D; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2004-03-31

    The electrocatalytic activities of a wide range of ordered intermetallic phases toward a variety of potential fuels have been studied, and results have been compared to those of a pure polycrystalline platinum (Pt(pc)) electrode. A significant number of the ordered intermetallic phases exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity when compared to that of Pt, in terms of both oxidation onset potential and current density. The PtBi, PtIn, and PtPb ordered intermetallic phases appeared to be the most promising electrocatalysts tested thus far for fuel cell applications. PtPb, in particular, showed an onset potential that was 100 mV less positive and a peak current density approximately 40 times higher than those observed for Pt in the case of methanol oxidation. The ability to control the geometric and electronic structures of the electrocatalytic material by using ordered intermetallic phases has been shown to be a promising direction of inquiry in the search for superior electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:15038758

  7. BaHg2TI2. An Unusual Polar Intermetallic Phase with Strong Differentiation between the Neighboring elements Mercury and Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Gupta, Shalabh; Gourdon, Olivier; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Corbett, John D.

    2009-05-21

    High yields of the novel BaHg{sub 2}Tl{sub 2} are achieved from reactions of the appropriate cast alloys at 400 C. (Isotypic SrHg{sub 2}Tl{sub 2} also exists.) The tetragonal barium structure (P4{sub 2}/mnm, a = 10.606 {angstrom}, c = 5.159 {angstrom}) was refined from both single-crystal X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in order to ensure the atom site assignments although distances and calculated atom site population also support the results. The Hg and Tl network atoms are distinctive in their functions and bonding. Parallel chains of Hg hexagons and of Tl tetrahedra along c are constructed from polyhedra that share opposed like edges, and these are in turn interconnected by Hg?Tl bonds. Overall, the number of Tl?Tl bonds per cell exceeds the Hg?Hg type by 20:12, but these are {approx} 1:2 each in bonding according to their average -ICOHP values (related to overlap populations). Barium is bound within a close 15-atom polyhedron, 12 atoms of which are the more electronegative Hg. LMTO-ASA calculations show that scalar relativistic effects are particularly important for Hg 5d?6s mixing in Hg?Hg and Hg?Tl bonding, whereas relatively separate Tl 6s and 6p states are more important in Tl?Tl interactions. The 6p states of Hg and Tl and 5d of Ba define a dominant conduction band around E{sub F}, and the phase is metallic and Pauli-like paramagnetic. The thallium characteristics here are close to those in numerous alkali-metal?Tl cluster systems. Other active metal?mercury phases that have been studied theoretically are all distinctly electron-richer and more reduced, and without appreciable net 5d, 6s contributions to Hg?Hg bonding.

  8. BaHg2Tl2. An Unusual Polar Intermetallic Phase with Strong DifferentiationBetween the Neighboring Elements Mercury and Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jing-Chao; Gupta, Shalabh; Gourdon, Olivier; Proffen, Th.; Corbett, John D

    2009-01-01

    High yields of the novel BaHg2Tl2 are achieved from reactions of the appropriate cast alloys at ~ 400 C. (Isotypic SrHg2Tl2 also exists.) The tetragonal barium structure (P42/mnm, a = 10.417, c = 4.952 ) was refined from both single crystal X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in order to ensure the atom site assignments although distances and atom site potentials all also supportive of the results. The Hg and Tl network atoms are distinctive in their functions and bonding. Parallel chains of Hg hexagons and of Tl tetrahedra along c are constructed of like polyhedra that share opposed like edges, and these are in turn interconnected by Hg Tl bonds. Overall, Tl Tl bonds per cell exceed Hg Hg by 20:12 although these are ~1:2 in bonding according to the −ICOHP (≈ overlap population) values. Barium is bound within a close 15-atom polyhedron, 12 of which are the more electronegative Hg. LMTO-ASA calculations show that scalar relativistic effects are particularly important for Hg (5d-6s mixing in Hg Hg and Hg Tl bonding), whereas relatively separate (lower) 5d and 6s states of Tl are more important in Tl Tl interactions, appropriate to the 6s2 6p1 ground state for the atom. The highest occupied states define a dominantly 6p band, and the phase is metallic and Pauli-like paramagnetic. Binary active metal mercury systems that have been studied theoretically all have distinctly higher electron populations per mercury.

  9. Grain boundary intermetallic phases in alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M.G. . Science and Technology Center); Miller, M.K. )

    1990-01-01

    A nickel base superalloy which is widely used in power generation applications, Alloy 718, has been studied by analytical electron microscopy in order to elucidate the development of the complex microstructure which is produced during a typical multistage thermal treatment. The distribution of {delta}, {gamma}{double prime}, {gamma}{prime} and Laves phases was found to be strongly dependent on aging treatment. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Zintl and intermetallic phases grown from calcium/lithium flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, Trevor

    Metal flux synthes is a useful alternative method to high temperature solid state synthesis; it allows easy diffusion of reactants at lower temperatures, and presents favorable conditions for crystal growth. A mixed flux of calcium and lithium in a 1:1 ratio was explored in this work; this mixture melts at 300°C and is an excellent solvent for main group elements and CaH 2. Reactions of p-block elements in a 1:1 Ca/Li flux have produced several new intermetallic and Zintl phases. Electronegative elements from groups 14 and 15 are reduced to anions in this flux, yielding charge-balanced products. More electropositive metals from group 13 are not fully reduced; the resulting products are complex intermetallics. The reactions of tin or lead and carbon in Ca/Li flux produced the analogous phases Ca11Tt3C8 (Tt = Sn, Pb) in the monoclinic C21/c space group (a = 13.2117(8) A, b =10.7029(7) A, c = 14.2493(9) A, beta = 105.650(1)° for the Sn analog). These compounds are carbide Zintl phases that includes the rare combination of C3 4- and C22- units as well as Sn4- or Pb4- anions. Ca/Li flux reactions of CaH2 and arsenic have produced the Zintl phases LiCa3As 2H in orthorhombic Pnma (a = 11.4064(7), b = 4.2702(3), c = 11.8762(8) A), and Ca 13As6C0.46N1.155H6.045in tetragonal P4/mbm (a = 15.7493(15), c = 9.1062(9) A). The complex stoichiometry of the latter phase was caused by incorporation of light element contaminants and was studied by neutron diffraction, showing mixing of anionic sites to achieve charge balance. Ca/Li flux reactions with group 13 metals have resulted in several new intermetallic phases. Reactions of indium and CaH2 in the Ca/Li flux (with or without boron) formed Ca53In13B4-x H23+x(2.4 < x < 4.0) in cubic space group Im-3 (a = 16.3608(6) A) which features metallic indium atoms and ionic hydride sites. The electronic properties of this "subhydride" were confirmed by 1H and 115In NMR spectroscopy. Attempts to replace boron with carbon yielded Ca12InC13-x

  11. Griffiths phase behaviour in a frustrated antiferromagnetic intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    The rare coexistence of a Griffiths phase (GP) and a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetism in the non-stoichiometric intermetallic compound GdFe0.17Sn2 (the paramagnetic Weiss temperature θp ~ −59 K) is reported in this work. The compound forms in the Cmcm space group with large structural anisotropy (b/c ~ 4). Interestingly, all the atoms in the unit cell possess the same point group symmetry (Wycoff position 4c), which is rather rare. The frustration parameter, f = |θp|/TN has been established as 3.6, with the Néel temperature TN and Griffiths temperature TG being 16.5 and 32 K, respectively. The TG has been determined from the heat capacity measurement and also from the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It is also shown that substantial difference in GP region may exist between zero field and field cooled measurements - a fact hitherto not emphasized so far. PMID:26515256

  12. Thermal Stability of Intermetallic Phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to alloy design and application of Mo-containing austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, the thermal stability of intermetallic Chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys was investigated at 1273 K, 1123 K, and 973 K (1000 °C, 850 °C, and 700 °C) for different annealing times. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal structures of the precipitates of the intermetallic phases were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this study. First, the Chi phase is stable at high temperature, and with the decreasing temperature it transforms into the Laves phase that is stable at low temperature. Secondly, Cr, Mo, and Ni are soluble in both the Chi and Laves phases, with the solubility of Mo playing a major role in the relative stability of the intermetallic phases. The thermodynamic models that were developed were then applied to evaluating the effect of Mo on the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in type 316 and NF709 stainless steels.

  13. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods (i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  14. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods ( i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  15. The relationship between ordered intermetallic nanoparticle synthesis and the bulk phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSario, Douglas York

    In this thesis, a surfactant-free synthesis of binary and ternary metal nanoparticles via co-reduction of metal chloride precursors is used to investigate the relationship between the bulk phase diagram and the formation of ordered intermetallic structures. The majority of the synthesized phases are binary materials of the formula Pt-M (M = Sn, Sb, In, Bi), because of their propensity to form single-phase regions with very narrow phase widths, known as "line phases". These line phases are thermodynamically stable according to the bulk phase diagram; however, the relationship between bulk stability and stability in the nanoparticle regime - and the implications for nanoparticle growth and ordering behavior - have not been fully explored. The 1:1 Pt-Sn phase (PtSn) forms ordered intermetallic nanoparticles with small domain sizes (4.3 nm) at room temperature, without any thermal annealing required. Pt3Sn similarly orders at low temperature (200 oC), in contrast to the three Pt-rich line phases, all of which require higher annealing temperatures to form the intermetallic phase. Other Pt-M phases show varying degrees of ordering, but none are observed to have the same low-temperature ordering as the Pt-rich Pt-Sn phases. This behavior is extremely rare, with only one other phase to our knowledge (Pt-Bi) forming the intermetallic without annealing, and only under specific conditions. It is possible to make qualitative statements concerning which phases should easily order and form phase-pure products; however, in order to more quantitatively predict these patterns, a multivariate analysis utilizing many physical properties (e.g., melting point, whether a phase melts congruently or incongruently, crystal structure, etc) was conducted. Using principal components analysis, partial least squares regression, and logistic regression techniques, a model was constructed to determine which properties would be most predictive of phases that were able to be synthesized as pure

  16. Phase-Controlled Polarization Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Novak, G.; Moseley, S. H.; Pisano, G.; Krejny, M.; U-Yen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report technology development of millimeter/submillimeter polarization modulators that operate by introducing a a variable, controlled phase delay between two orthogonal polarization states. The variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) operates via the introduction of a variable phase delay between two linear orthogonal polarization states, resulting in a variable mapping of a single linear polarization into a combination of that Stokes parameter and circular (Stokes V) polarization. Characterization of a prototype VPM is presented at 350 and 3000 microns. We also describe a modulator in which a variable phase delay is introduced between right- and left- circular polarization states. In this architecture, linear polarization is fully modulated. Each of these devices consists of a polarization diplexer parallel to and in front of a movable mirror. Modulation involves sub-wavelength translations of the mirror that change the magnitude of the phase delay.

  17. The preparation of the Ti-Al alloys based on intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosova, N.; Sachkov, V.; Kurzina, I.; Pichugina, A.; Vladimirov, A.; Kazantseva, L.; Sachkova, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with a method of obtaining materials in the Ti-Al system. Research was carried out in accordance with the phase diagram of the system state. It was established, that both single-phase and multiphase systems, containing finely dispersed intermetallic compositions of phases Ti3Al, TiAl and TiAl3, are formed. Additionally, it was found that the pure finely dispersed (coherent-scattering region (CSR) up to 100 nm) intermetallic compound TiAl3 is formed at molar ratio of Ti:Al = 1:3. Experimentally proved the possibility of produce the complex composition of alloys and intermetallic compounds and products based on them.

  18. Phase stability of laves intermetallics in stainless steel-zirconium alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.

    1999-04-08

    Phase transformations occurring in a stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy were studied by in situ neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction patterns as a function of time were obtained on alloys that were held at various elevated temperatures (1084-1275 C). As-cast SS-15Zr alloys contain ferrite, austenite, ZrFe{sub 2}-type Laves polytypes C36 and C15, and small amounts of a Fe{sub 23}Zr{sub 6}-type intermetallic. Annealing at high temperatures resulted in an increase of the Fe{sub 23}Zr{sub 6}, intermetallic content. The C15 Laves polytype is the equilibrium phase for T {le} 1230 C; C36 is the stable polytype at higher temperatures ({approximately}1275 C). Phase changes were slow for temperatures <1100 C.These findings have important implications for use of the SS-15Zr alloy as a nuclear waste form.

  19. Evolution of Intermetallic Phases in Soldering of the Die Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Wang, Xiaoming; DenOuden, Tony; Han, Qingyou

    2016-06-01

    Most die failures are resulted from chemical reactions of dies and molten aluminum in the die casting of aluminum. The formation of intermetallic phases between a steel die and molten aluminum is investigated by stationary immersion tests and compared to a real die casting process. Three intermetallic phases are identified in the stationary immersion tests: a composite layer and two compact layers. The composite layer is a mixture of α bcc, Al, and Si phases. The α bcc phase changes in morphology from rod-like to spherical shape, while the growth rate of the layer changes from parabolic to linear pattern with immersion time. The first compact layer forms rapidly after immersion and maintains a relatively constant thickness. The second compact layer forms after 4 hours of immersion and exhibits parabolic growth with immersion time. In comparison, only a composite layer and the first compact layer are observed in a real die casting process. The fresh molten aluminum of high growth rate washes away the second intermetallic layer easily.

  20. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Hydrogen cycling-induced phase segregation in AB{sub 5}-type intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Mordkovich, V.Z.

    1998-12-31

    A study of hydrogen cycling-induced phase segregation in AB{sub 5}-type intermetallics is presented. Influence of temperature for the alloy compositions YNi{sub 4}Al, LaNi{sub 5}, Ce{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 5} and Ce{sub 0.7}La{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 5} is shown. Morphology of the nanostructured particles formed is studied and discussed.

  2. Preparation of nanocrystalline metal oxides and intermetallic phases by controlled thermolysis of organometallic coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, Marcus; Epple, Matthias; Fischer, R. Dieter

    2000-06-01

    Organometallic coordination polymers of the super-Prussian blue type [(Me 3Sn) nM(CN) 6] (Me=CH 3; n=3, 4; M=Fe, Co, Ru) were subjected to thermolysis in different atmospheres (air, argon, hydrogen/nitrogen). In air, oxides were found: Fe 2O 3/SnO 2 (crystalline and nanocrystalline), Co 2SnO 4 and RuO 2. In argon and in hydrogen, the intermetallic phases FeSn 2, CoSn 2, Ru 3Sn 7 and Fe 3SnC were obtained. A detailed mechanistic study was carried out using thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) at Fe, Co, Ru and Sn K-edges, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Below 250°C, Me 3SnCN and (CN) 2 are released, whereas above 250°C oxidation or pyrolysis leads to the corresponding oxides or intermetallic phases. Polymeric cyanides containing at least two metals have turned out to be suitable precursors to prepare well-defined oxides and intermetallic phases at comparatively low temperature.

  3. In situ XPS study of methanol reforming on PdGa near-surface intermetallic phases

    PubMed Central

    Rameshan, Christoph; Stadlmayr, Werner; Penner, Simon; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Hävecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Rocha, Tulio; Teschner, Detre; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Memmel, Norbert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering were used to study the preparation, (thermo)chemical and catalytic properties of 1:1 PdGa intermetallic near-surface phases. Deposition of several multilayers of Ga metal and subsequent annealing to 503–523 K led to the formation of a multi-layered 1:1 PdGa near-surface state without desorption of excess Ga to the gas phase. In general, the composition of the PdGa model system is much more variable than that of its PdZn counterpart, which results in gradual changes of the near-surface composition with increasing annealing or reaction temperature. In contrast to near-surface PdZn, in methanol steam reforming, no temperature region with pronounced CO2 selectivity was observed, which is due to the inability of purely intermetallic PdGa to efficiently activate water. This allows to pinpoint the water-activating role of the intermetallic/support interface and/or of the oxide support in the related supported PdxGa/Ga2O3 systems, which exhibit high CO2 selectivity in a broad temperature range. In contrast, corresponding experiments starting on the purely bimetallic model surface in oxidative methanol reforming yielded high CO2 selectivity already at low temperatures (∼460 K), which is due to efficient O2 activation on PdGa. In situ detected partial and reversible oxidative Ga segregation on intermetallic PdGa is associated with total oxidation of intermediate C1 oxygenates to CO2. PMID:22875996

  4. Irradiation induced structural change in Mo2Zr intermetallic phase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gan, J.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Eriksson, N.; Sohn, Y. H.; Kirk, M.

    2016-05-14

    The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. Transmission electron microscopy in-situ irradiation with Kr ions at 200 °C with doses up to 2.0E + 16 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate the radiation stability of the Mo2Zr. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24) to a small cubic (cI2), along with an estimated 11.2% volume contraction without changing its composition. The structural change begins at irradiation dose below 1.0E + 14 ions/cm2. Furthermore, the transformed Mo2Zr phase demonstrates exceptional radiation tolerance with the developmentmore » of dislocations without bubble formation.« less

  5. Technetium Incorporation into C14 and C15 Laves Intermetallic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Wierschke, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-23

    Laves-type intermetallics have been observed to be the dominant phases in a series of alloy compositions being designed for the immobilization technetium in a metallic waste form. The dominant metals in the alloy compositions were Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-Zr. Alloy composition, Fe-Mo-Zr, also contained Pd, Zr, Cr, and Ni. Both non-radioactive rhenium-containing and radioactive technetium-bearing alloy compositions were investigated. In the Fe-Mo series, phases were observed Fe2Mo (C14 Laves phase) and ferrite in agreement with predictions. Both Tc and Re resided predominantly in the Laves phase. In the Fe-Mo-Zr system, the phases included hexagonal C14 with the composition (Fe,Cr)2Mo, cubic C15 phase with a (Fe,Ni)2Zr composition, and the hcp phase Pd2Zr.

  6. Numerical simulations of interfacial debonding in ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Zywicz, E.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-08-10

    The fracture toughness of brittle intermetallic compounds can be improved by ductile-phase reinforcements. Effectiveness of the ductile phase in bridging cracks, and therefore increasing, the composite toughness, is known qualitatively to depend upon the extent of debonding, between the two phases. Numerical crack-growth simulations are used here to provide semi-quantitative predictions of the influence of interfacial debonding on the macroscopic stress-displacement behavior and, hence, the fracture toughness of an idealized Pb/glass composite. The interfacial toughness required to cause debonding, characterized by a constant critical energy release rate, is varied parametrically. As expected, higher interfacial toughness results in less interphase debonding, higher composite strength, and greater ductile-phase constraint. Consequently, the increase in ductile-phase triaxiality can potentially accelerate internal void formation and growth or facilitate cleavage fracture, either of which would likely decrease the toughness of the composite.

  7. Nonisothermal kinetics study of phase evolution of Zn-Fe intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Liu, Z.T.; Boisson, M.

    1996-12-31

    Through mechanical alloying of pure elemental powders of Fe and Zn, true homogeneous alloys of {Gamma} (Fe{sub 3}Zn{sub 10}), {Gamma}{sub 1} (Fe{sub 5}Zn{sub 21}), {delta} (FeZn{sub 7}) and {zeta} (FeZn{sub 13}) intermetallic phases are formed. Based on nonisothermal kinetics analyses, the highest activation energies associated with the metastable to stable transformations of these phases are determined as follows: 170 {+-} 1 kJ/mol, 251 {+-} 2 kJ/mol, 176 {+-} 1 kJ/mol and 737 {+-} 4 kJ/mol for the {Gamma}, {Gamma}{sub 1}, {delta} and {zeta}-phases, respectively. These values reflect different diffusion/thermally induced processes associated with the transition of each of these phases.

  8. Phase diagram of the Co-Al-W system. structure and phase transformations near the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Demakov, S. L.; Yurovskikh, A. S.; Stepanova, N. N.; Vinogradova, N. I.; Davydov, D. I.; Lepikhin, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Low-temperature portion of the polythermal section for the Co-Al-W system in the vicinity of the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition has been studied experimentally using electron microscopy and hightemperature X-ray diffraction analysis. Low-temperature structural phase transformations and temperature ranges of the existence of phases have been determined. The morphology of Co3(Al, W) intermetallic particles was studied as a function of the tungsten content in alloys.

  9. Crystal structures of three intermetallic phases in the Mo-Pt-Si system

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, J.-M.; Tokaychuk, Ya.; Cerny, R.

    2010-01-15

    The crystal structures of three ternary Mo-Pt-Si intermetallic compounds have been determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data. All three structures are representative of new structure types. Both the X (MoPt{sub 2}Si{sub 3}, Pmc2{sub 1}, oP12, a=3.48438(6), b=9.1511(2), c=5.48253(8) A) and Y (MoPt{sub 3}Si{sub 4}, Pnma, oP32, a=5.51210(9), b=3.49474(7), c=24.3090(4) A) phases derive from PtSi (FeAs type) structure while the Z phase (ideal composition Mo{sub 32}Pt{sub 20}Si{sub 16}, refined composition Mo{sub 29.9(2)}Pt{sub 21.0(3)}Si{sub 17.1(1)}, Cc, mC68, a=13.8868(3), b=8.0769(2), c=9.6110(2) A, beta=100.898(1){sup o}) present similarities with the group of Frank-Kasper phases. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of three ternary Mo-Pt-Si intermetallic compounds have been determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data. The three structures represent new structure types.

  10. Chemical route for formation of intermetallic Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} phase

    SciTech Connect

    Denoix, A.; Solaiappan, A.; Ayral, R.M.; Rouessac, F.; Tedenac, J.C.

    2010-05-15

    Synthesis of intermetallic zinc antimonide phases via low temperature solution route was investigated. Trial experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at 70 deg. C using metallic Zn, SbCl{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} as reactants and tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as organic media. Powder X-ray analysis confirmed the nucleation and growth of ZnSb phases in presence of excess Zn. SEM analysis revealed the existence of core-shell structure comprising of Zn core and Sb shell. Such particles get transformed into Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystalline phases upon thermal treatment at 300 deg. C/6 h in a silica tube closed under high secondary vacuum. - Graphical abstract: TEM observation of the Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} powder synthesized by soft chemistry.

  11. Structure and plasticity in hot deformed FeAl intermetallic phase base alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuc, Dariusz; Niewielski, Grzegorz; Bednarczyk, Iwona

    2009-10-15

    This paper constitutes part of research conducted on the possibility of forming alloys based on intermetallic phases from the Fe-Al system via thermoplastic processing. Insufficient plasticity, which is an inhibitor of further development of these intermetallics as construction materials, makes the range of their applications limited. In the paper, an analysis is conducted of the influence of deformation parameters on the structure of an alloy of Fe-Al with the B2 type structure. Axi-symmetric compression tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 deg. C to 1200 deg. C and at a deformation rate from 0.001 s{sup 1} to 10 s{sup -1}. Structural examination was carried out using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A quantitative evaluation of the structure was made with the use of 'Met-Ilo'. The results obtained will be used for the development of mathematical models determining the influence of deformation parameters on the alloy structure.

  12. Growth of new ternary intermetallic phases from Ca/Zn eutectic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanovic, Milorad Latturner, Susan E.

    2007-03-15

    The eutectic 7.3:2.7 molar ratio mixture of calcium and zinc metal melts at 394 deg. C and was explored as a solvent for the growth of new intermetallic phases for potential use as hydrogen storage materials. The reaction of nickel in this molten mixture produces two new phases-the CaCu{sub 5}-related structure CaNi{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} (P6/mmm, a=8.9814(5) A, c=4.0665(5) A) and a new cubic structure Ca{sub 21}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36} (Fd-3m, a=21.5051(4) A). Palladium-containing reactions produced CaPd{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 1.15} with the orthorhombic TiNiSi structure type (Pnma, a=7.1728(9) A, b=4.3949(5) A, c=7.7430(9) A). Reactions of platinum in the Ca/Zn mixture produce Ca{sub 6}Pt{sub 3}Zn{sub 5}, with an orthorhombic structure related to that of W{sub 3}CoB{sub 3} (Pmmn, a=13.7339(9) A, b=4.3907(3) A, c=10.7894(7) A). - Graphical abstract: The calcium/zinc eutectic is a useful synthesis medium for the growth of new intermetallic phases. Addition of group 10 transition metals to this flux produces ternary phases CaNi{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}, Ca{sub 21}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36}, CaPd{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 1.15}, and Ca{sub 6}Pt{sub 3}Zn{sub 5}. The nickel-centered zinc icosahedron surrounded by a pentagonal dodecahedron of calcium atoms is found in Ca{sub 21}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36}.

  13. Enhanced polarization by the coherent heterophase interface between polar and non-polar phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Yeop; Sung, Kil-Dong; Rhyim, Youngmok; Yoon, Seog-Young; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Ryu, Jungho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young

    2016-03-01

    A piezoelectric composite containing the ferroelectric polar (Bi(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3: f-BNKT) and the non-polar (0.94Bi(Na0.75K0.25)0.5TiO3-0.06BiAlO3: BNKT-BA) phases exhibits synergetic properties which combine the beneficial aspects of each phase, i.e., the high saturated polarization (Ps) of the polar phase and the low coercive field (Ec) of the non-polar phase. To understand the origin of such a fruitful outcome from this type of polar/non-polar heterophase structure, comprehensive studies are conducted, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element method (FEM) analyses. The TEM results show that the polar/non-polar composite has a core/shell structure in which the polar phase (core) is surrounded by a non-polar phase (shell). In situ electrical biasing TEM experiments visualize that the ferroelectric domains in the polar core are aligned even under an electric field of ~1 kV mm-1, which is much lower than its intrinsic coercive field (~3 kV mm-1). From the FEM analyses, we can find that the enhanced polarization of the polar phase is promoted by an additional internal field at the phase boundary which originates from the preferential polarization of the relaxor-like non-polar phase. From the present study, we conclude that the coherent interface between polar and non-polar phases is a key factor for understanding the enhanced piezoelectric properties of the composite.A piezoelectric composite containing the ferroelectric polar (Bi(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3: f-BNKT) and the non-polar (0.94Bi(Na0.75K0.25)0.5TiO3-0.06BiAlO3: BNKT-BA) phases exhibits synergetic properties which combine the beneficial aspects of each phase, i.e., the high saturated polarization (Ps) of the polar phase and the low coercive field (Ec) of the non-polar phase. To understand the origin of such a fruitful outcome from this type of polar/non-polar heterophase structure, comprehensive studies are conducted, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element

  14. SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 — two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-01

    SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn2Sn2 comprises (anti-)PbO-like {ZnSn4/4} and {SnZn4/4} layers. Ca2Zn3Sn6 shows similar {ZnSn4/4} layers and {Sn4Zn} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn2Sn2 adopts the SrPd2Bi2 structure type, and Ca2Zn3Sn6 is isotypic to the R2Zn3Ge6 compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {Sn4Zn} layers of Ca2Zn3Sn6.

  15. Polarized gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina

    2015-08-01

    We estimate the degree of circular polarization for the gravitational waves generated during the electroweak and QCD phase transitions from the kinetic and magnetic helicity generated by bubble collisions during those cosmological phase transitions.

  16. Enhanced polarization by the coherent heterophase interface between polar and non-polar phases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi-Yeop; Sung, Kil-Dong; Rhyim, Youngmok; Yoon, Seog-Young; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Ryu, Jungho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young

    2016-04-14

    A piezoelectric composite containing the ferroelectric polar (Bi(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3: f-BNKT) and the non-polar (0.94Bi(Na0.75K0.25)0.5TiO3-0.06BiAlO3: BNKT-BA) phases exhibits synergetic properties which combine the beneficial aspects of each phase, i.e., the high saturated polarization (Ps) of the polar phase and the low coercive field (Ec) of the non-polar phase. To understand the origin of such a fruitful outcome from this type of polar/non-polar heterophase structure, comprehensive studies are conducted, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element method (FEM) analyses. The TEM results show that the polar/non-polar composite has a core/shell structure in which the polar phase (core) is surrounded by a non-polar phase (shell). In situ electrical biasing TEM experiments visualize that the ferroelectric domains in the polar core are aligned even under an electric field of ∼1 kV mm(-1), which is much lower than its intrinsic coercive field (∼3 kV mm(-1)). From the FEM analyses, we can find that the enhanced polarization of the polar phase is promoted by an additional internal field at the phase boundary which originates from the preferential polarization of the relaxor-like non-polar phase. From the present study, we conclude that the coherent interface between polar and non-polar phases is a key factor for understanding the enhanced piezoelectric properties of the composite. PMID:26601654

  17. Structural properties, phase stability, elastic properties and electronic structures of Cu-Ti intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Duan, Yong-Hua; Huang, Bo; Hu, Wen-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    The structural properties, phase stabilities, anisotropic elastic properties and electronic structures of Cu-Ti intermetallics have been systematically investigated using first principles based on the density functional theory. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters agree well with available experimental data. The ground-state convex hull of formation enthalpies as a function of Cu content is slightly symmetrical at CuTi with a minimal formation enthalpy (-13.861 kJ/mol of atoms), which indicates that CuTi is the most stable phase. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, polycrystalline moduli and anisotropic indexes, were evaluated. G/B is more pertinent to hardness than to the shear modulus G due to the high power indexes of 1.137 for G/B. The mechanical anisotropy was also characterized by describing the three-dimensional (3D) surface constructions. The order of elastic anisotropy is Cu4Ti3 > Cu3Ti2 > α-Cu4Ti > Cu2Ti > CuTi > β-Cu4Ti > CuTi2. Finally, the electronic structures were discussed and Cu2Ti is a semiconductor.

  18. Role of Ag in the formation of interfacial intermetallic phases in Sn-Zn soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Liu, Pei-Chi; Shih, Chia-Ling; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2005-09-01

    This study explored the effect of Ag as the substrate or alloying element of solders on the interfacial reaction in Sn-Zn soldering. Results show that instead of Ag-Sn compounds, ζ-AgZn and γ-Ag5Zn8 form at the Sn-Zn/Ag interface. The addition of Ag in Sn-Zn solders leads to the precipitation of ɛ-AgZn3 from the liquid solder on preformed interfacial intermetallics. The morphology of this additional AgZn3 is closely related to the solidification process of Ag-Zn intermetallics and the under intermetallic layer.

  19. Kinetic Stabilization of Ordered Intermetallic Phases as Fuel Cell Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Lowe, Michael A.; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2010-08-16

    The influence of fuel molecules on the stability of the ordered intermetallic PtBi and PtPb phases has been extensively studied by synchrotron-based in situ X-ray grazing incidence diffraction under active electrochemical control. Cycling the potential to increasingly positive values resulted in little change to the surface composition and crystalline structure when specific fuel molecules (such as formic acid for PtBi and formic acid or methanol for PtPb) were oxidized at the intermetallic electrode surface. This was demonstrated by the absence of diffraction peaks due to Pt domains that would be generated by the leaching out of the less noble metal. This phenomenon has been rationalized as a competition process between the oxidation of fuel molecules at the electrode surface and corrosion and damage of the surface due to the electrochemical treatment. For example, PtBi electrodes, which exhibit excellent catalytic activity toward the oxidation of formic acid, could be kinetically stabilized to such a corrosion/degradation process in the presence of formic acid even at relatively positive potentials. An analogous effect was observed for PtPb in the presence of methanol as fuel. In the absence of fuel molecules (formic acid for PtBi and formic acid and/or methanol for PtPb), various surface layers were generated by different electrochemical pretreatments in the presence of only a supporting electrolyte. Crystalline oxidized bismuth species (such as Bi2O3) with an ~50 nm domain size were formed on the PtBi electrode surface by holding the potential at +1.00 V or beyond for at least 30 min. On the other hand, platinum nanopaticles with an ~5 nm crystalline domain size were formed when cycling the potential to higher values. In the case of PtPb, the only detected corrosion product was PbSO 4, whose diffraction peaks were utilized to qualitatively analyze the lead leaching-out and dissolution processes. No crystalline lead oxide species

  20. Discovery and characterization of magnetism in sigma-phase intermetallic Fe-Re compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cieślak, J. Dubiel, S. M.; Tobola, J.; Reissner, M.

    2014-11-14

    Systematic experimental studies (vibrating sample magnetometry) supported by theoretical calculations (electronic structure by spin self-consistent Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method) were performed on a series of intermetallic sigma-phase Fe{sub 100−x}Re{sub x} (x = 43–53) compounds. All investigated samples exhibit magnetism with an ordering temperature ranging between ∼65 K for x = 43 and ∼23 K for x = 53. The magnetism was revealed to be itinerant and identified as a spin-glass (SG) possibly having a re-entrant character. The SG was found to be heterogeneous, viz., two regimes could be distinguished as far as irreversibility in temperature dependence of magnetization is concerned: (1) of a weak irreversibility and (2) of a strong one. According to the theoretical calculations, the main contribution to the magnetism comes from Fe atoms occupying all five sub lattices, while Re atoms have rather small magnetic moments. However, the calculated average magnetic moments highly (ferromagnetic ordering model) or moderately (antiparallel ordering model) overestimate the experimental data.

  1. Crystal Structure, Chemical Bonding and Magnetism Studies for Three Quinary Polar Intermetallic Compounds in the (Eu1−xCax)9In8(Ge1−ySny)8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03) and the (Eu1−xCax)3In(Ge3−ySn1+y) (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27) Phases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyein; Jang, Eunyoung; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho; Kim, Jongsik; You, Tae-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Three quinary polar intermetallic compounds in the (Eu1−xCax)9In8(Ge1−ySny)8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03) and the (Eu1−xCax)3In(Ge3-ySn1+y) (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27) phases have been synthesized using the molten In-metal flux method, and the crystal structures are characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Two orthorhombic structural types can be viewed as an assembly of polyanionic frameworks consisting of the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedral chains, the bridging Ge2 dimers, either the annulene-like “12-membered rings” for the (Eu1−xCax)9In8(Ge1−ySny)8 series or the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chains for the (Eu1−xCax)3In(Ge3−ySn1+y) series, and several Eu/Ca-mixed cations. The most noticeable difference between two structural types is the amount and the location of the Sn-substitution for Ge: only a partial substitution (11%) occurs at the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedron in the (Eu1−xCax)9In8(Ge1−ySny)8 series, whereas both a complete and a partial substitution (up to 27%) are observed, respectively, at the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chain and at the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedron in the (Eu1−xCax)3In(Ge3−ySn1+y) series. A series of tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital calculations is conducted to understand overall electronic structures and chemical bonding among components. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates a ferromagnetic ordering of Eu atoms below 5 K for Eu1.02(1)Ca1.98InGe2.87(1)Sn1.13. PMID:25913380

  2. X-ray nano-diffraction study of Sr intermetallic phase during solidification of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Gorny, Anton; Shankar, Sumanth; Cai, Zhonghou

    2014-02-17

    The evolution of strontium (Sr) containing intermetallic phase in the eutectic reaction of Sr-modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy was studied with high energy synchrotron beam source for nano-diffraction experiments and x-ray fluorescence elemental mapping. Contrary to popular belief, Sr does not seem to interfere with the Twin Plane Re-entrant Edge (TPRE) growth mechanism of eutectic Si, but evolves as the Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr phase during the eutectic reaction at the boundary between the eutectic Si and Al grains.

  3. Exploring phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce-Pb intermetallic compounds using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaoma; Wang, Ziru; Lan, Chunxiang; Xu, Guanglong; Ouyang, Yifang; Du, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce-Pb intermetallics have been investigated by using first-principles calculations. Five stable and four metastable phases of Ce-Pb intermetallics were verified. Among them, CePb2 has been confirmed as HfGa2-type structure. For Ce5Pb3, the high pressure phase transformation from D8m to D88 with trivalent Ce has been predicted to occur at P=1.2 GPa and a high temperature phase transformation has been predicted from D8m to D88 with tetravalent Ce at 531.5 K. The calculated lattice constants of the five stable phases are in good agreement with experimental values. The electronic density of states, charge density and electron localization function of Ce3Pb have been calculated, which indicated that the Ce and Pb show ionic behavior. The polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are also estimated from the calculated single crystalline elastic constants. All of the calculated elastic constants satisfy mechanical stability criteria. The microhardness and mechanical anisotropy are predicted. The anisotropic nature of the Ce-Pb intermetallic compounds are demonstrated by the three-dimensional orientation dependent surfaces of Young's moduli and linear compressibility are also demonstrated. The longitudinal, transverse and average sound velocities and the Debye temperatures are also obtained in this work. The Ce3Pb has the largest Debye temperature of 192.6 K, which means the Ce3Pb has a highest melting point and high thermal conductivity than other compounds.

  4. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} - two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Faessler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-15

    SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} comprises (anti-)PbO-like {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} and {l_brace}SnZn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers. Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} shows similar {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers and {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} adopts the SrPd{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} structure type, and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} is isotypic to the R{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Ge{sub 6} compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} layers of Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structures of the new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal XRD structure determination and DFT electronic structure calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Closely related crystal and electronic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic conductivity coexisting with lone pairs and covalent bonding

  5. Studies of magnetostriction and spin polarized band structures of rare earth intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Anisotropic magnetostriction measurements of R6Fe23, R = (Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) were carried out from 77 K to room temperature. Magnetic fields up to 2.1 Tesla were applied. All the compounds exhibited large magnetostrictions at 77 K, the largest effect being obtained for Tb6Fe23. Saturation magnetostriction values for the compounds were also determined for 77 K and room temperature. Results of the temperature dependence of magnetostriction for Er6Fe23 are in good agreement with Callen and Callen's single ion theory. Therefore, the main sources of magnetostriction in this compound is the Er ion. The spin-up and spin-down electronic energy bands, the density of states and the magnetic moments of YCo5, SmCo5, and GdCo5 were calculated by the spin polarized augmented plane wave technique. The calculations obtained show the origin of the moment, provide good estimates of its magnitude and variation, and the reasons for those variations. They also show the important role of partial charge transfer and of d-d electronic coupling. Calculations for LaNi5 and GdNi5 systems are discussed.

  6. Precipitation of an intermetallic phase with Pt{sub 2}Mo-type structure in alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararaman, M.; Kumar, L.; Prasad, G.E.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S.

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure of Alloy 625, which has undergone prolonged ({approximately}70,000 hours) service at temperatures close to but less than 600 C, has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The precipitation of an intermetallic phase Ni{sub 2}(Cr, Mo) with Pt{sub 2}Mo-type structure has been observed in addition to that of the {gamma}{double_prime} phase. Six variants of Ni{sub 2} (Cr, Mo) precipitates have been found to occur in the austenite grains. These particles exhibit a snowflake-like morphology and are uniformly distributed in the matrix. They have been found to dissolve when the alloy is subjected to short heat treatments at 700 C. The occurrence of the Ni{sub 2}(Cr, Mo) phase has been discussed by taking the alloy chemistry into consideration. Apart from the intermetallic phases, the precipitation of a M{sub 6}C-type carbide phase within the matrix and the formation of near continuous films, comprising discrete M{sub 6}C/M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide particles, at the austenite grain boundaries have been noticed in the alloy after prolonged service.

  7. Europium substitution into intermetallic phases grown in Ca/Zn flux

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanovic, Milorad; Latturner, Susan E.

    2009-08-15

    Replacement of calcium with europium in the phases Ca{sub 21}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36} and CaNi{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} was attempted to explore the possibility of substitution in metal flux reactions and potential magnetic interactions between closely spaced Eu{sup 2+} ions. Limited substitution occurs when Eu is added to the reaction of nickel in a Ca/Zn flux mixture, up to stoichiometries of Eu{sub 5.8(3)}Ca{sub 15.2(3)}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36} and Eu{sub 0.42(8)}Ca{sub 0.58(8)}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}. Structural characterization and magnetic susceptibility studies on Eu{sub x}Ca{sub 21-x}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36} phases indicate that the Eu and Ca ions do not form an even solid solution on their sites, but instead segregate in separate regions of the crystals. The europium-rich regions of the samples order ferromagnetically, with T{sub C} dependent on the size of the clusters. If the concentration of Eu in the flux is raised above 20 mol%, a new compound Eu{sub 1.63(1)}Ca{sub 1.37(1)}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} (Cmcm, a=4.1150(5) A, b=16.948(2) A, c=10.302(1) A, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0396) is produced. - Graphical abstract: Exploration of europium substitution into intermetallic compounds grown in Ca/Zn flux has yielded analogs of Eu{sub x}Ca{sub 21-x}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 36} with unusual magnetic properties due to segregation of europium in the crystals; high concentrations of Eu in the flux trigger the growth of Eu{sub 1.63(1)}Ca{sub 1.37(1)}Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} with a new structure type.

  8. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

    1996-10-17

    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  9. Planar versus puckered nets in the polar intermetallic series EuGaTt (Tt = Si, Ge, Sn).

    PubMed

    You, Tae-Soo; Grin, Yuri; Miller, Gordon J

    2007-10-15

    The ternary polar intermetallic compounds EuGaTt (Tt = Si, Ge, Sn) have been synthesized and characterized experimentally, as well as theoretically. EuGaSi crystallizes in the hexagonal AlB(2)-type structure (space group P6/mmm, Z = 1, Pearson symbol hP3) with randomly distributed Ga and Si atoms on the graphite-type planes: a = 4.1687(6) A, c = 4.5543(9) A. On the other hand, EuGaGe and EuGaSn adopt the hexagonal YPtAs-type structure (space group P6(3)/mmc, Z = 4, Pearson symbol hP12): a = 4.2646(6) A and c = 18.041(5) A for EuGaGe; a = 4.5243(5) A and c = 18.067(3) A for EuGaSn. The three crystal structures contain formally [GaTt](2-) polyanionic 3-bonded, hexagonal networks, which change from planar to puckered and exhibit a significant decrease in interlayer Ga-Ga distances as the size of Tt increases. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of this series of compounds show Curie-Weiss behavior above 86(5), 95(5), and 116(5) K with magnetic moments of 7.93, 7.97, and 7.99 mu(B) for EuGaSi, EuGaGe, and EuGaSn, respectively, indicating a 4f(7) electronic configuration (Eu(2+)) for Eu atoms. X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) are also consistent with these magnetic properties. Electronic structure calculations supplemented by a crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis identifies the synergy between atomic sizes, from both Eu and Tt atoms, and the orbital contributions from Eu toward influencing the structural features of EuGaTt. A multicentered interaction between planes of Eu atoms and the [GaTt](2-) layers rather than through-space Ga-Ga bonding is seen in ELF distributions. PMID:17880208

  10. The Phase Composition of Triton's Polar Caps.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, N S; Brown, R H

    1993-08-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them. PMID:17757213

  11. The phase composition of Triton's polar caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  12. The phase composition of Triton's polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1993-08-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  13. X-ray diffraction study of the phase purity, order, and texture of ductile B2 intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Mulay, Rupalee; Wollmershauser, J.A. A.; Heisel, M A; Bei, Hongbin; Russell, A M; Agnew, S R

    2010-01-01

    Representatives (AgY, CuY, AgEr, CuDy, MgY and MgCe) of the newly discovered family of ductile stoichiometric B2 intermetallic (metal-rare-earth element, MR) compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, to determine if their anomalous ductility is related to an exceptional level of phase purity, lack of chemical ordering or a strong crystallographic texture. Brittle NiAl served as an anti-type in this study. We found that all of the rare-earth compounds, except MgY, have a significant volume fraction (-5-20vol.%) of second phases (M{sub 2}R intermetallics and R{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides), which has not been reported in previous studies of these materials. The most ductile of observed MR compounds, AgY, is highly ordered. A moderate texture was observed in AgY, which may explain its higher ductility (using polycrystal modeling) as compared to other MR compounds. However, the intrinsic polycrystalline ductility of these compounds in the randomly textured state (like that observed in CuY) still has no specific, definitive explanation.

  14. Selective aluminum dissolution as a means to observe the microstructure of nanocrystalline intermetallic phases from Al-Fe-Cr-Ti-Ce rapidly solidified alloy.

    PubMed

    Michalcová, Alena; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Novák, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Rapidly solidified aluminum alloys are promising materials with very fine microstructure. The microscopy observation of these materials is complicated due to overlay of fcc-Al matrix and different intermetallic phases. A possible way to solve this problem is to dissolve the Al matrix. By this process powder formed by single intermetallic phase particles is obtained. In this paper a new aqueous based dissolving agent for Al-based alloy is presented. The influence of oxidation agent (FeCl(3)) concentration on quality of extraction process was studied. PMID:23177792

  15. Heat treatment induced intermetallic phase transition of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of aluminum-cathode and steel-anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxiong; Liang, Xiubing; Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yan; Xu, Binshi

    2009-07-01

    A method to prepare intermetallic composite coatings employing the cost-efficient electric arc spraying twin wires assistant with suitable heat treatment was developed. In this study, a Fe-Al composite coating was produced by spraying twin wires, i.e. a carbon steel wire as the anode and an aluminum wire as the cathode. The inter-deposited Fe-Al coating was transformed in-situ to Fe-Al intermetallic composite coating after a post annealing treatment. The effect of annealing treatment conditions on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by using XRD, SEM, EDS and OM as well as microhardness tester. The results show that the desirable intermetallic phases such as Fe 2Al 5, FeAl and Fe 3Al are obtained under the annealing condition. The main oxide in the coating is FeO which can partially transform to Fe 3O 4 up to the annealing condition.

  16. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  17. Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al-Si-Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John; Lee, Peter D.

    2010-03-01

    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions.

  18. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2015-11-20

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  19. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  20. Effect of trace elements vanadium and nickel on iron intermetallic phases formation and distribution in DC cast 5xxx series aluminum ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaofeng

    AA5657 alloy is one of the important members of 5xxx-series alloys. It has application in many fields as packing, electricity, architectural, and printing. These applications require high quality surface finishing, and the alloy ingots require homogeneous microstructure. In the industry of DC (direct-chill) casting of 1xxx and 5xxx-series aluminium ingots, there exist different cooling rates from the casting surface to the ingot center. Thus, different Fe intermetallic phases such as AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and Al3Fe can form preferentially in different positions of the ingot. The Fe intermetallic phase transition in DC casting ingot may cause microstructure inhomogeneities, which in turn cause the so called fir-tree zones (FTZs) in the ingots as well as streaks and bands on the Al sheets. Nowadays, with the increase of impurity in aluminium smelting raw materials (coke, alumina, etc.), the levels of trace elements present in the primary metal is gradually increasing. The impact of this increase on the aluminium transformation process and the final products is uncertain. Thus, there is a clear need to better understand these impacts, which will allow identifying ways to mitigate the negative impacts. The study presented in this thesis was performed on AA5657 alloys to study the effect of trace elements V and Ni on Fe intermetallic phases formation and distribution. A slice of AA1050 alloy ingot with visible FTZs was also studied to characterize the Fe intermetallic phases transition across the FTZs. A DC simulator was built in the lab, which can reproduce the solidification conditions in the sub-surface regions of industry ingots. The methods for the characterization of Fe intermetallic particles were developed in this research. AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and alpha-Al3Fe intermetallic phases were successfully identified by using Deep-etching method, EDS and EBSD technique in combination. Quantitative analysis of the Fe intermetallic particles was carried out by

  1. Polarization phase shifting dispersed fringe sensor.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Gene

    2012-02-13

    The dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) has been demonstrated as an effective means of measuring mirror segment piston error for telescopes with primary mirror apertures below 10 meters. With larger proposed telescopes such as The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and The European Large Telescope (ELT) including ever more segments, there is a need for improvement in the co-phasing capability for segmented primary mirrors. In this paper a novel DFS that employs polarization phase shifting technology is introduced. This novel technology provides system designers and engineers with a new tool to extend the dynamic range of a DFS. PMID:22418128

  2. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu2 (RE=Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Deepika; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-01

    We have performed the first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu2 (RE = Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation potential. The optimized lattices constant are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The electronic properties are analyzed in terms of band structures, total and partial density of states, which confirm their metallic character. The calculated elastic constants infer that these compounds are mechanically stable in C15 (MgCu2 type) structure and found to be ductile in nature.

  3. Crystal structure and chemical bonding of novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yaho; Nam, Gnu; Jeon, Jieun; Kim, Youngjo; You, Tae-Soo

    2012-12-15

    A novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16} has been synthesized using the high-temperature reaction method and characterized by both powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. The title compound crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system (space group Immm, Z=2, Pearson symbol oI78) with fifteen crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit, and the lattice parameters are refined as a=4.5244(4) A, b=6.9932(6) A, and c=53.043(5) A. The complex crystal structure of the title compound can be described as a 2:1 intergrowth of two closely related compounds: La{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Ce{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}-type) and La{sub 3}Li{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} (Zr{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}Si{sub 4}-type) acting like 'building-blocks' along the c-axis. Six La sites are categorized into three distinct types based on the local coordination environment showing the coordination numbers of 12-14. Three unique Li sites are placed in the centers of local tetrahedra formed by four Ge atoms which eventually construct Ge{sub 2} dimers or 1-dimensional cis-/trans-Ge chains. Theoretical investigations using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method provide rationales for an improved structural stability and for unique local coordination geometries established by anionic elements including [LiGe{sub 4}] tetrahedra, cis-/trans-Ge chain and Ge{sub 2} dimers. - Graphical abstract: Reported is a novel ternary Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16}. The complex crystal structure can be viewed as a simple combination of two closely related known compounds acting as 'building-blocks', La{sub 2}Li{sub 2}G{sub 3} and La{sub 3}Li{sub 4}Ge{sub 4}, in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16} was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex crystal structure was easily explained as

  4. Section 2: Phase transformation studies in mechanically alloyed Fe-Nz and Fe-Zn-Si intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, A.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    The initial stage of this study, which was completed in FY 1995, entailed an extensive analysis characterizing the structural evolution of the Fe-Zn intermetallic system. The primary interest in these Fe-Zn phases stems from the fact that they form an excellent coating for the corrosion protection of steel (i.e., automobile body panels). The Fe-Zn coating generally forms up to four intermetallic phases depending on the particular industrial application used, (i.e., galvanization, galvannealing, etc.). Since the different coating applications are non-equilibrium in nature, it becomes necessary to employ a non-equilibrium method for producing homogeneous alloys in the solid-state to reflect the structural changes occurring in a true coating. This was accomplished through the use of a high energy/non-equilibrium technique known as ball-milling which allowed the authors to monitor the evolution process of the alloys as they transformed from a metastable to stable equilibrium state. In FY 1996, this study was expanded to evaluate the presence of Si in the Fe-Zn system and its influence in the overall coating. The addition of silicon in steel gives rise to an increased coating. However, the mechanisms leading to the coating anomaly are still not fully understood. For this reason, mechanical alloying through ball-milling of pure elemental powders was used to study the structural changes occurring in the sandelin region (i.e., 0.12 wt % Si). Through the identification of invariant reactions (i.e., eutectic, etc.) the authors were able to explore the sandelin phenomenon and also determine the various fields or boundaries associated with the Fe-Zn-Si ternary system.

  5. Phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy of polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ryan

    In this thesis we use phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy to study polars. Polars are a subset of cataclysmic variables where the primary WD is highly magnetic. In this case, the accretion flow is constrained along the magnetic field lines and eventually deposited on the WD, where the accreting material interacts with the atmosphere, forming a standing hydrodynamic shock at a location termed the accretion region, and emitting cyclotron radiation. Due to its field strength, cyclotron radiation from polars falls at either UV, optical or NIR wavelengths. While a substantial amount of optical cyclotron spectra have been published on polars, the NIR remains relatively unstudied. In this thesis, we present NIR spectroscopy for fifteen polars. Additionally, while a single cyclotron spectrum is needed to constrain the shock parameters, phase- resolved spectroscopy allows for a more in-depth analysis of the shock structure and the geometry of the accretion region. Of the fifteen polars observed, eight yielded spectra of adequate quality to be modeled in this manner: EF Eri, EQ Cet, AN UMa, VV Pup, AM Her, ST LMi, MR Ser, and MQ Dra. Initially, we used the industry standard "Constant Lambda (CL)" code to model each object. The code is fast, but produces only globally averaged values of the salient shock parameters: B - the magnetic field strength, kT - the plasma temperature, logL - the "size parameter" of the accretion column, and TH- the viewing angle between the observer and the magnetic field. For each object we present CL models for our NIR phase-resolved cyclotron spectra. Subsequently, we use a more advanced "Structured-Shock" code built by Fischer & Beuermann (2001)("F&B") to remodel three objects: EQ Cet, MQ Dra, and EF Eri. The F&B code allows for input of more physical parameters and most importantly does ray tracing through a simulated one-dimensional accretion column. To determine the outgoing spectrum, temperature and velocity profiles are needed to

  6. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Phase 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogurt, Alan; Bennett, Charles

    This is the Lead Proposal for the proposed investigation "Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Phase 2)" We propose to fly the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravitational waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. Such a signal is expected to exist: the simplest inflation models predict tensor-to-scalar ratio 0.01 < r < 0.16 corresponding to detectable amplitudes in the range 30--100 nK. Detection of the inflationary signal would have profound consequences for both cosmology and high-energy physics. Not only would it establish inflation as a physical reality, it would provide a direct, model- independent determination of the relevant energy scale, shedding light on physics at energies twelve orders of magnitude beyond those accessible to direct experimentation in particle accelerators. PIPER is a balloon-borne instrument optimized to detect the inflationary signal on large angular scales. It consists of two co-aligned telescopes cooled to 1.5 K within a large liquid helium bucket dewar. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) on each telescope chops between linear and circular polarization to isolate the polarized signal while rejecting the much brighter unpolarized emission. PIPER's innovative architecture combines cryogenic optics with kilo-pixel detector arrays to provide unprecedented sensitivity to CMB polarization. The fast modulation between linear and circular polarization takes advantage of the lack of astrophysical circular polarization to eliminate common sources of systematic error. The sensitivity and control of systematic errors in turn enable measurements over most of the sky from mid-latitude launch sites; long-duration Antarctic flights are not required. With sensitivity r < 0.007 at 95% CL, PIPER will either detect the inflationary signal or rule out nearly all large-field inflation models

  7. Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.

  8. Innovative processing to produce advanced intermetallic materials. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfy, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of synthesizing submicron titanium aluminide in a thermal rf plasma. Micron and submicron spherical titanium aluminide particles are produced in argon, hydrogen, and argon/hydrogen plasmas from the reaction of TiCl4(g), and Al(g). The ratio of Ti and Al is varied to produce the compounds Ti3Al, TiAl, and TiAl3. Microalloying with boron and macroalloying with niobium is demonstrated. Ti3Al whiskers can be produced, as well as other intermetallics of niobium aluminide, nickel aluminide, and molybdenum disilicide in the plasma synthesis process. Since submicron particles are produced, they have a high surface area and are sensitive to oxidation if not treated with a fugitive protective coating or utilized in a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Ti3Al particles are consolidated and utilized as a matrix for TiC and AlN composites. The submicron AlTi3 has significantly higher strength at room temperature than reported for commercial Ti3Al-11Nb alloy and useable strength is maintained up to 1000 C. The elongation is about the same as for commercial material because of possible oxide contamination in powder handling. However, dimpling and nacking is evident in the fracture surface, which suggests true room temperature ductility. Titanium aluminides have the potential to replace superalloys and become the dominant material for aerospace engines, air frames and skins for hypersonic vehicles.

  9. Optimized Cu-Sn Wafer-Level Bonding Using Intermetallic Phase Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thi-Thuy; Duan, Ani; Aasmundtveit, Knut E.; Hoivik, Nils

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the Cu/Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion process for wafer-level bonding applications. To optimize the temperature profile of the bonding process, the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) which takes place during the bonding process needs to be well understood and characterized. In this study, a simulation model for the development of IMCs and the unreacted remaining Sn thickness as a function of the bonding temperature profile was developed. With this accurate simulation model, we are able to predict the parameters which are critical for bonding process optimization. The initial characterization focuses on a kinetics model of the Cu3Sn thickness growth and the amount of Sn thickness that reacts with Cu to form IMCs. As-plated Cu/Sn samples were annealed using different temperatures (150°C to 300°C) and durations (0 min to 320 min). The kinetics model is then extracted from the measured thickness of IMCs of the annealed samples.

  10. Nanospheres of a New Intermetallic FeSn5 Phase: Synthesis, Magnetic Properties and Anode Performance in Li-ion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.L.; Feygenson, M.; Chen, H.; Lin, C.-H.; Ku, W.; Bai, J.; Aronson, M.C.; Tyson, T.A.; Han, W.-Q.

    2011-07-27

    We synthesized monodisperse nanospheres of an intermetallic FeSn{sub 5} phase via a nanocrystal-conversion protocol using preformed Sn nanospheres as templates. This tetragonal phase in P4/mcc space group, along with the defect structure Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} of our nanospheres, has been resolved by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. Importantly, FeSn{sub 5}, which is not yet established in the Fe-Sn phase diagram, exhibits a quasi-one dimensional crystal structure along the c-axis, thus leading to interesting anisotropic thermal expansion and magnetic properties. Magnetization measurements indicate that nanospheres are superparamagnetic above the blocking temperature T{sub B} = 300 K, which is associated with the higher magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K = 3.33 kJ m{sup -3}. The combination of the magnetization measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations reveals the canted antiferromagnetic nature with significant spin fluctuation in lattice a-b plane. The low Fe concentration also leads Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} to enhanced capacity as an anode in Li ion batteries.

  11. High-current vacuum-arc ion and plasma source ``Raduga-5'' application to intermetallic phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Kozlov, Eduard V.; Sharkeev, Yurii P.; Shulepov, Ivan A.; Kurzina, Irina A.; Sivin, Denis O.

    2006-03-01

    Phase composition, structural state, and mechanical properties of the ion-doped surface layers of Ni, Ti, and Fe targets with Al and Ti ions implanted into using the metal ion beam and plasma source Raduga 5 have been investigated. The high-intensity mode of implantation allowed us to obtain the ion-doped layers with the thickness exceeding the ion projected range by several orders of magnitude. By the transmission electron microscopy, it has been found that the fine-dispersed equilibrium intermetallic phases (Me3Al, MeAl) and the solid solution of aluminum were formed in the doped Ni, Ti, and Fe surface layers at the depth of up to 2600nm. The maximum dopant concentration reached 75%. It has been shown that the average size of the formed phases was of 70nm. The microhardness of the different target surface layers increased by 1.5-3 times. The wear resistance of the samples did not change within the temperature range of 300-700K.

  12. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium.

  13. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium. PMID:27098547

  14. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content.

    PubMed

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium. PMID:27098547

  15. Study of fatigue and fracture behavior of NbCr{sub 2}-based alloys and intermetallic materials: Phase stability in NbCr{sub 2} Laves phase alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K.; Liu, C.T.

    1996-08-01

    Phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases is studied in this paper, using data from binary X-Cr, Nb-X, and ternary Nb-Cr-X phase diagrams. It was shown that when the atomic size ratios are kept identical, the average electron concentration factor (e/a = the average number of electrons per atom outside the closed shells of the component atoms) is the determinate factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases. The e/a ratios for different Laves phase structures were determined as follows: with e/a < 5.76, the C15 structure is stabilized; at an e/a range of 5.88-7.53, the C14 structure is stabilized; with e/a > 7.65, the C15 structure was stabilized again. A further increase in the electron concentration factor (e/a > 8) leads to the disordering of the alloy. The electron concentration effect on the phase stability of transition-metal A{sub 3}B intermetallic compounds and Mg-based Laves phases is also reviewed and compared with the present observations in transition-metal Laves phases.

  16. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed intomore » the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  17. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed into the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.

  18. Broken ergodicity, memory effect, and rejuvenation in Taylor-phase and decagonal Al3(Mn,Pd,Fe) complex intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinšek, J.; Slanovec, J.; Jagličić, Z.; Heggen, M.; Balanetskyy, S.; Feuerbacher, M.; Urban, K.

    2008-02-01

    The Taylor-phase complex intermetallic compound T-Al3Mn , its solid solutions with Pd and Fe, T-Al3(Mn,Pd) and T-Al3(Mn,Fe) , and the related decagonal d-Al-Mn-Fe quasicrystal belong to the class of magnetically frustrated spin systems that exhibit rich out-of-equilibrium spin dynamics in the nonergodic phase below the spin-freezing temperature Tf . Performing large variety of magnetic experiments as a function of temperature, magnetic field, aging time tw , and different thermal histories, we investigated broken-ergodicity phenomena of (i) a difference in the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled susceptibilities, (ii) the frequency-dependent freezing temperature, Tf(ν) , (iii) hysteresis and remanence, (iv) ultraslow decay of the thermoremanent magnetization, (v) the memory effect (a state of the spin system reached upon isothermal aging can be retrieved after a negative temperature cycle), and (vi) “rejuvenation” (small positive temperature cycle within the nonergodic phase erases the effect of previous aging). We show that the phenomena involving isothermal aging periods (the memory effect, rejuvenation, and the ultraslow decay of the thermoremanent magnetization) get simple explanation by considering that during aging under steady external conditions, localized spin regions quasiequilibrate into more stable configurations, so that higher thermal energy is needed to destroy these regions by spin flipping, as compared to the thermal energy required to reverse a frustrated spin in a disordered spin-glass configuration that forms in the case of no aging. Common to all the investigated broken-ergodicity phenomena is the slow approach of a magnetically frustrated spin system toward a global equilibrium, which can never be reached on accessible experimental time scales due to macroscopic equilibration times.

  19. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  20. New method for computer analysis of complex intermetallic compounds and nanocluster model of the samson phase Cd{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Blatov, V. A.; Ilyushin, G. D.

    2010-12-15

    A new method is proposed for the computer analysis of crystal structures of complex intermetallic compounds (with more than 1000 atoms per unit cell) using a developed algorithm of the complete decomposition of the 3D graph of the structure into nanocluster substructures. This method has been implemented in the TOPOS software package and approved successfully in an analysis of the complex Cu{sub 3}Cd{sub 4} structure (Samson phase). Cu{sub 3}Cd{sub 4} structure models were used to establish a structural relationship between nanoclusters in this intermetallic compound and nanoclusters in other complex crystal structures: ZrZn{sub 22}, Ru{sub 7}Mg{sub 44}, NaCd{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 3}.

  1. Correction of Errors in Polarization Based Dynamic Phase Shifting Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, Brad

    2014-10-01

    Polarization based interferometers for single snap-shot measurements allow single frame, quantitative phase acquisition for vibration insensitive measurements of optical surfaces. Application of these polarization based phase sensors requires the test and reference beams of the interferometer to be orthogonally polarized. As with all polarization based interferometers, these systems can suffer from phase dependent errors resulting from systematic polarization aberrations. This type of measurement error presents a particular challenge because it varies in magnitude both spatially and temporally between each measurement. In this article, a general discussion of phase calculation error is presented. We then present an algorithm that is capable of mitigating phase-dependent measurement errors on-the-fly. The algorithm implementation is non-iterative providing sensor frame rate limited phase calculations. Finally, results are presented for both a high numerical aperture system, where the residual error is reduced to the shot noise limit, and a system with significant birefringence in the test arm.

  2. Strength, fracture, and fatigue behavior of advanced high-temperature intermetallics reinforced with ductile phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboyejo, W. O.; Rao, K. T. Venkateswara; Sastry, S. M. L.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1993-03-01

    The results of recent studies on the fatigue and fracture behavior of extruded Ti-48A1 + 20 vol pct TiNb and hot-isostatically pressed (“hipped”) MoSi2 + 20 vol pct Nb are presented (compositions in atomic percent unless stated otherwise). The effects of ductile phase reinforcement of Ti-48A1 and MoSi2 on the micromechanisms of fracture under monotonie and cyclic loading are elucidated. Micromechanics models are applied to the prediction of crack-tip shielding components, and the effects of temperature on tensile/compressive/flexure strengths are discussed. Ductile phase toughening under monotonie loading conditions is shown to be associated with lower fatigue crack growth resistance. The lower fatigue resistance is attributed to the absence of crack-tip shielding, higher crack opening displacements, and the effects of inelastic strains that are developed in ductile phase-reinforced composites under cyclic loading conditions.

  3. Single crystal growth of Al-based intermetallic phases being approximants to quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, Peter; Bauer, Birgitta; Hahne, Michael; Smontara, Ana; Dolinšek, Janez

    2011-03-01

    Decagonal (d) quasicrystals are formed in a number of Al-based ternary systems with d-AlCoNi being the best studied decagonal phase. They are highly anisotropic showing unusual properties of e.g. electric and thermal transport when measured along the periodic or quasiperiodic directions. For a long time, this has been attributed to the lack of periodicity in certain crystallographic orientations. Some neighbouring phases in the Al-Co-Ni system as well as in related ternaries consist of the same type of large icosahedral clusters, but are periodic in all three directions, sometimes with very large unit cells. Therefore, they are called approximants to the decagonal quasicrystals. They allow comparative studies of these phases as to judge whether some unusual properties of quasicrystals arise from the lack of periodicity or from the common atomic arrangements. Additional to decagonal AlCoNi quasicrystals, various approximants (monoclinic Al13(Co,Ni)4, orthorhombic Al13Co4, orthorhombic Al4(Cr,Fe), monoclinic Al13Fe4 and its ternary extensions Al13(Fe,Cr)4 and Al13(Fe,Ni)4) were grown by the Czochralski method as large single crystals as to carry out transport orientation-dependent measurements. It could be found that transport properties show remarkably similar anisotropic features when comparing corresponding crystallographic directions in these phases that can be related to the periodic stacking of layers.

  4. Digital polarization holography advancing geometrical phase optics.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E; Liao, Zhi; Nersisyan, Sarik; Uskova, Olena; Wickboldt, Lloyd; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Geometrical phase or the fourth generation (4G) optics enables realization of optical components (lenses, prisms, gratings, spiral phase plates, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of thin anisotropic films. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency over a broadband of wavelengths. The films are obtained by coating liquid crystalline (LC) materials over substrates with patterned alignment conditions. Photo-anisotropic materials are used for producing desired alignment conditions at the substrate surface. We present and discuss here an opportunity of producing the widest variety of "free-form" 4G optical components with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical anisotropy axis orientation with the aid of a digital spatial light polarization converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment of nanometer thin photo-anisotropic coatings is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated LC or LC polymer (LCP) components can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis with high spatial resolution. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to an optimum for each application. With a simple "click" it is possible to record different optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible labels and other transparent labels that reveal different images depending on the side from which they are viewed. PMID:27505793

  5. X-ray Fluorescence Investigation of Ordered Intermetallic Phases as Electrocatalysts towards the Oxidation of Small Organic Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Lowe, Michael A.; Finkelstein, Ken D.; Dale, Darren S.; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2010-10-13

    The composition of ordered intermetallic nanoparticles (PtBi and PtPb) has been quantitatively studied by in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) during active electrochemical control in solutions of supporting electrolyte and small organic molecules (SOMs). Because the Pt Lβ1,2 lines and the Bi Lα1,2 lines are only separated by 200 eV, an energy-dispersive detector and a multiple-channel analyzer (MCA) were used to record the major fluorescent emission lines from these two elements. The molar ratios of platinum to the less-noble elements (Bi, Pb) in the nanoparticles dramatically changed as a function of the applied upper limit potentials (Eulp) in cyclic voltammetric (CV) characterization. Similar to previous investigations for bulk intermetallic surfaces, the less-noble elements leached out from the surfaces of the intermetallic nanoparticles. For PtBi nanoparticles, the ratios of fluorescence intensities of Pt/Bi in the samples were 0.42, 0.96, and 1.36 for Eulp=+0.40, +0.80, and 1.20 V, respectively, while cycling the potential from -0.20 V to the Eulp value for 10 cycles. The leaching-out process of the less-noble elements occurred at more negative Eulp values than expected. After cycling to relatively positive Eulp values, nonuniform PtM (M=Bi of Pb) nanoparticles formed with a Pt-rich shell and intermetallic PtM core. When the supporting solutions contained active fuel molecules in addition to the intermetallic nanoparticles (formic acid for PtBi, formic acid and methanol for PtPb), kinetic stabilization effects were observed for Eulp=+0.80 V, in a way similar to the response of the bulk materials. It was of great importance to quantitatively explore the change in composition and structure of the intermetallic nanoparticles under active electrochemical control. More importantly, this approach represents a simple, universal, and multifunctional method for the study of multi

  6. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  7. Insight into structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic phases in Zr-Sn system from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhan, Yongzhong; Wu, Junyan; Wei, Xuanchen

    2015-11-01

    The structural, phase stabilities, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic phases in Zr-Sn system are investigated by using first-principles method. The equilibrium lattice constants, enthalpy of formation (ΔHform) and elastic constants are obtained and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The configuration of Zr4Sn is measured with reasonable precision. The ΔHform of five hypothetical structures are obtained in order to find possible metastable phase for Zr-Sn system. The mechanical properties, including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are calculated by Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation and the Zr5Sn4 and Zr5Sn3 show excellent mechanical properties. The electronic density of states for Zr5Sn4, Zr5Sn3 and cP8-Zr3Sn are calculated to further investigate the stability of intermetallic compounds. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient under temperature of 0-300 K and pressure of 0-50 GPa for Zr5Sn3 and Zr5Sn4 are deeply investigated.

  8. Polarity-adjustable reversed phase ultrathin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Z; Taschuk, M T; Brett, M J

    2012-11-30

    Reversed phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) or high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates modified with C18, C8 or C2 to provide the silica-gel stationary phase with different polarities are available on the market, however, reversed phase plates with tunable polarity have not been reported. Given the limited variety of reversed phase plates, mobile phase composition optimization is necessary to obtain better separation of analytes with similar characteristics, which is often a time consuming step. We present polarity-adjustable reversed phase ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) plates, which simplifies the mobile phase screening process and greatly expands the selection of reversed phase plates. The plates were fabricated on glass substrates with SiO(2) nanopillars deposited using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. SiO(2) nanopillars were functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane to generate a super hydrophobic stationary phase. Unlike commercial silica-gel based stationary phases, the isolated nanopillar architecture presented here exposes a high surface area to post-fabrication surface treatments. In our work, an O(2) plasma treatment at different powers, pressures and exposure times was used to shorten the silane carbon chain and introduce COOH groups to the surface, producing plates with finely tunable polarities. Separation of a model dye mixture of Sudan blue and Sudan IV confirmed the tuning of surface polarities by measurement of retention behavior changes. The dye elution order reversed as a result of the change in surface polarity. When the same plasma treatment process was tested on commercial reversed phase plates, separation behavior did not change because the disordered and tortuous silica gel restricts the accessible surface area. Plasma treatment of GLAD structures with highly accessible surfaces improved control over interfacial properties, producing better reverse phase separations. PMID:23116804

  9. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  10. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  11. Ab Initio Study of Binary and Ternary Nb3(X,Y) A15 Intermetallic Phases (X,Y = Al, Ge, Si, Sn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Utton, Claire; Scott, Andrew; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    Elastic and thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary A15 phases containing Al, Ge, Si, and Sn were studied using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The temperature dependence of the enthalpy of formation for the A15 intermetallics is reported using the quasiharmonic approximation. Elastic properties of the studied compounds were calculated at T = 0 K and were in agreement with the measured values reported in the literature. The elastic properties and thermodynamic data for the metastable A15-Nb3Si are reported for the first time. The Nb3Si has the highest bulk, shear, and Young's modulus values and is predicted to be less ductile than the other three binary A15 intermetallics. The calculations suggest (i) that Al and Sn have a positive effect on the ductility of the A15 compounds of this study, (ii) that Ge as a ternary addition has a ductilizing effect only in the A15-Nb3Si, and (iii) that Si as a ternary addition has a negative effect on the ductility of all the A15 compounds of the present study. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of the Nb, Al, the A15 Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and Nb3Si (A15) phases are reported. The Sn and Al additions in the Nb3Si stabilize the A15 structure, while the Ge addition has the opposite effect, stabilizing the tP32 Nb3Si.

  12. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase in polarization singular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2013-04-01

    Space-variant inhomogeneously polarized field formed due to superposition of orthogonally polarized Gaussian (LG00) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) beams results in polarization singular beams with different morphology structures such as lemon, star and dipole patterns around the C-point in the beam cross-section. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase plays a critical role in the formation and characteristics of these spatially inhomogeneous fields. We present our experimental results wherein we measure the variable geometric phase by tracking the trajectory of the component vortices in the beam cross-section, by interfering with selective polarization states and by tracking different latitudes on the Poincaré sphere without the effect of a dynamic phase.

  13. Polyclusters and Substitution Effects in the Na–Au–Ga System: Remarkable Sodium Bonding Characteristics in Polar Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Miller, Gordon J.; Corbett, John D.

    2013-10-18

    A systematic exploration of Na- and Au-poor parts of the Na–Au–Ga system (less than 15 at. % Na or Au) uncovered several compounds with novel structural features that are unusual for the rest of the system. Four ternary compounds Na1.00(3)Au0.18Ga1.82(1) (I), NaAu2Ga4 (II), Na5Au10Ga16 (III), and NaAu4Ga2 (IV) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: Na1.00(3)Au0.18Ga1.82(1)(I, P6/mmm, a = 15.181(2), c =9.129(2)Å, Z = 30); NaAu2Ga4 (II, Pnma, a = 16.733(3), b = 4.3330(9), c =7.358(3) Å, Z = 4); Na5Au10Ga16 (III, P63/m, a = 10.754(2), c =11.457(2) Å, Z = 2); and NaAu4Ga2 (IV, P21/c, a = 8.292(2), b = 7.361(1), c =9.220(2)Å, β = 116.15(3), Z = 4). Compound I lies between the large family of Bergman-related compounds and Na-poor Zintl-type compounds and exhibits a clathrate-like structure containing icosahedral clusters similar to those in cubic 1/1 approximants, as well as tunnels with highly disordered cation positions and fused Na-centered clusters. Structures II, III, and IV are built of polyanionic networks and clusters that generate novel tunnels in each that contain isolated, ordered Na atoms. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on II, III, IV and an idealized model of I show that all are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the Fermi levels. The integrated crystal orbital Hamilton populations for II–IV are typically dominated by Au–Ga, Ga–Ga, and Au–Au bonding, although Na–Au and Na–Ga contributions are also significant. Sodium’s involvement into such covalency is consistent with that recently reported in Na–Au–M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn, Zn, and Cd) phases.

  14. Polyclusters and substitution effects in the Na-Au-Ga system: remarkable sodium bonding characteristics in polar intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Miller, Gordon J; Corbett, John D

    2013-11-01

    A systematic exploration of Na- and Au-poor parts of the Na-Au-Ga system (less than 15 at. % Na or Au) uncovered several compounds with novel structural features that are unusual for the rest of the system. Four ternary compounds Na1.00(3)Au0.18Ga1.82(1) (I), NaAu2Ga4 (II), Na5Au10Ga16 (III), and NaAu4Ga2 (IV) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: Na1.00(3)Au0.18Ga1.82(1)(I, P6/mmm, a = 15.181(2), c =9.129(2)Å, Z = 30); NaAu2Ga4 (II, Pnma, a = 16.733(3), b = 4.3330(9), c =7.358(3) Å, Z = 4); Na5Au10Ga16 (III, P6(3)/m, a = 10.754(2), c =11.457(2) Å, Z = 2); and NaAu4Ga2 (IV, P2(1)/c, a = 8.292(2), b = 7.361(1), c =9.220(2)Å, β = 116.15(3), Z = 4). Compound I lies between the large family of Bergman-related compounds and Na-poor Zintl-type compounds and exhibits a clathrate-like structure containing icosahedral clusters similar to those in cubic 1/1 approximants, as well as tunnels with highly disordered cation positions and fused Na-centered clusters. Structures II, III, and IV are built of polyanionic networks and clusters that generate novel tunnels in each that contain isolated, ordered Na atoms. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on II, III, IV and an idealized model of I show that all are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the Fermi levels. The integrated crystal orbital Hamilton populations for II-IV are typically dominated by Au-Ga, Ga-Ga, and Au-Au bonding, although Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions are also significant. Sodium's involvement into such covalency is consistent with that recently reported in Na-Au-M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn, Zn, and Cd) phases. PMID:24138102

  15. Nonlinearity of Pancharatnam's geometric phase in polarizing interferometers.

    PubMed

    Hils, B; Dultz, W; Martienssen, W

    1999-08-01

    Earlier investigations show a time-variable nonlinear shift of the fringe pattern in a polarizing interferometer while rotating a polarizer at the exit. This effect was identified as Pancharatnam's geometrical phase and proposed for applications in interferometry and fast optical switching devices. A heterodyne analysis attributes moving fringes to a frequency difference between the interfering beams; thus changing fringe velocities point to a dynamic frequency development within the period of the uniformly rotating analyzer. This explanation offends the intuition and we undertake an experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect to solve the paradox. We determine, e.g., the complete frequency and mode spectrum of an arbitrary state of polarization P0 behind a rotating linear analyzer and behind a rotating arbitrary linear birefringent plate. We find that, in spite of a fast changing phase in the interferometer, no other (higher) frequency components appear in the spectral distribution of the intensity at the exit than the double of the rotary frequency of the analyzer: phase nonlinearities are compensated for by intensity changes. Only a phase-sensitive detector like an array of photodetectors is able to observe the nonlinearity of Pancharatnam's geometrical phase. A single detector only finds a sinusoidal intensity variation. Our insight into these relations leads us to two new applications of Pancharatnam's phase: supersensitivity of a polarizing double beam interferometer with a video camera acting as a phase detector and external tuning of a Fizeau interferometer. PMID:11970029

  16. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Haglund Jr., Richard F.

    2014-10-27

    Manipulating optical signals below the diffraction limit is crucial for next-generation data-storage and telecommunication technologies. Although controlling the flow of light around nanoscale waveguides was achieved over a decade ago, modulating optical signals at terahertz frequencies within nanoscale volumes remains a challenge. Since the physics underlying any modulator relies on changes in dielectric properties, the incorporation of strongly electron-correlated materials (SECMs) has been proposed because they can exhibit orders of magnitude changes in electrical and optical properties with modest thermal, electrical or optical trigger signals. Here we demonstrate a hybrid nanomodulator of deep sub-wavelength dimensions with an active volume ofmore » only 0.002 µm3 by spatially confining light on the nanometre length scale using a plasmonic nanostructure while simultaneously controlling the reactive near-field environment at its optical focus with a single, precisely positioned SECM nanostructure. Since the nanomodulator functionality hinges on this near-field electromagnetic interaction, the modulation is also selectively responsive to polarization. Lastly, this architecture suggests one path for designing reconfigurable optoelectronic building blocks with responses that can be tailored with exquisite precision by varying size, geometry, and the intrinsic materials properties of the hybrid elements.« less

  17. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator

    SciTech Connect

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Haglund Jr., Richard F.

    2014-10-27

    Manipulating optical signals below the diffraction limit is crucial for next-generation data-storage and telecommunication technologies. Although controlling the flow of light around nanoscale waveguides was achieved over a decade ago, modulating optical signals at terahertz frequencies within nanoscale volumes remains a challenge. Since the physics underlying any modulator relies on changes in dielectric properties, the incorporation of strongly electron-correlated materials (SECMs) has been proposed because they can exhibit orders of magnitude changes in electrical and optical properties with modest thermal, electrical or optical trigger signals. Here we demonstrate a hybrid nanomodulator of deep sub-wavelength dimensions with an active volume of only 0.002 µm3 by spatially confining light on the nanometre length scale using a plasmonic nanostructure while simultaneously controlling the reactive near-field environment at its optical focus with a single, precisely positioned SECM nanostructure. Since the nanomodulator functionality hinges on this near-field electromagnetic interaction, the modulation is also selectively responsive to polarization. Lastly, this architecture suggests one path for designing reconfigurable optoelectronic building blocks with responses that can be tailored with exquisite precision by varying size, geometry, and the intrinsic materials properties of the hybrid elements.

  18. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator

    PubMed Central

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Haglund Jr., Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating optical signals below the diffraction limit is crucial for next-generation data-storage and telecommunication technologies. Although controlling the flow of light around nanoscale waveguides was achieved over a decade ago, modulating optical signals at terahertz frequencies within nanoscale volumes remains a challenge. Since the physics underlying any modulator relies on changes in dielectric properties, the incorporation of strongly electron-correlated materials (SECMs) has been proposed because they can exhibit orders of magnitude changes in electrical and optical properties with modest thermal, electrical or optical trigger signals. Here we demonstrate a hybrid nanomodulator of deep sub-wavelength dimensions with an active volume of only 0.002 µm3 by spatially confining light on the nanometre length scale using a plasmonic nanostructure while simultaneously controlling the reactive near-field environment at its optical focus with a single, precisely positioned SECM nanostructure. Since the nanomodulator functionality hinges on this near-field electromagnetic interaction, the modulation is also selectively responsive to polarization. This architecture suggests one path for designing reconfigurable optoelectronic building blocks with responses that can be tailored with exquisite precision by varying size, geometry, and the intrinsic materials properties of the hybrid elements. PMID:25346427

  19. Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersey, Alan D.; Marrone, Michael J.; Dandridge, Anthony

    1990-06-01

    The dependence of the phase shift of an interferometric fiber sensor on the input state of polarization is analyzed, and it is shown that fluctuations in the input polarization to a fiber interferometer can lead to the generation of excess phase noise. The relationship between this effect and the variation in visibility with input polarization is described and theoretically confirmed. The use of depolarized source light to eliminate input-polarization-induced excess phase noise is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.

  20. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using continuous polarization modulation with arbitrary phase modulation amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation (CPM-PS-OCT). We also demonstrate that the sample Jones matrix can be calculated at any values of the phase modulation amplitude in a reasonable range depending on the system effective signal-to-noise ratio. This has fundamental importance for the development of clinical systems by simplifying the polarization modulator drive instrumentation and eliminating its calibration procedure. This was validated on measurements of a three-quarter waveplate and an equine tendon sample by a fiber-based swept-source CPM-PS-OCT system.

  1. Polarization Phase-Compensating Coats for Metallic Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2006-01-01

    A method of compensating for or minimizing phase differences between orthogonal polarizations of light reflected from metallic mirrors at oblique incidence, as, for example, from weakly curved mirrors, is undergoing development. The method is intended to satisfy a need to maintain precise polarization phase relationships or minimum polarization differences needed for proper operation of telescopes and other scientific instruments that include single or multiple mirrors. The basic idea of the method is to optimally coat mirrors with thin engineered layers of materials that introduce phase differences that, as nearly precisely as possible, are opposite of the undesired phase differences arising in reflection with non-optimum coatings. Depending on the specific optical system, the method could involve any or all of the following elements: a) Optimization of a single coat on all the mirrors in the system. b) Optimization of a unique coat for each mirror such that the polarization phase effects of the coat on one mirror compensate, to an acceptably high degree over an acceptably wide wavelength range, for those of the coat on another mirror. c) Tapering the coat on each mirror. Optimization could involve the choice of a single dielectric coating material and its thickness, or design of a more complex coat consisting of multiple layers of different dielectric materials and possibly some metallic materials. Such designs and coatings are particularly significant and needed for obtaining very high quality of wavefront required in high-contrast imaging instruments such as the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  2. Polar Phase of Superfluid (3)He in Anisotropic Aerogel.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, V V; Senin, A A; Soldatov, A A; Yudin, A N

    2015-10-16

    We report the first observation of the polar phase of superfluid (3)He. This phase appears in (3)He confined in a new type of aerogel with a nearly parallel arrangement of strands which play the role of ordered impurities. Our experiments qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions and suggest that in other systems with unconventional Cooper pairing (e.g., in unconventional superconductors) similar phenomena may be found in the presence of anisotropic impurities. PMID:26550884

  3. Intensity, polarization, and phase information in optical disk systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongguang; Carriere, James; Mansuripur, Masud

    2002-03-10

    Digital information in optical data storage systems can be encoded in the intensity, in the polarization state, or in the phase of a carrier laser beam. Intensity modulation is achieved at the surface of the storage medium either through destructive interference from surface-relief features (e.g., CD or DVD pits) or through reflectivity variations (e.g., alteration of optical constants of phase-change media). Magneto-optical materials make use of the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect to produce polarization modulations of the focused beam reflected from the storage medium. Both surface-relief structures and material-property variations can create, at the exit pupil of the objective lens of the optical pickup, a phase modulation (this, in addition to any intensity or polarization modulation or both). Current optical data storage systems do not make use of this phase information, whose recovery could potentially increase the strength of the readout signal. We show how all three mechanisms can be exploited in a scanning optical microscope to reconstruct the recorded (or embedded) data patterns on various types of optical disk. PMID:11928756

  4. Relating polarization phase difference of SAR signals to scene properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, Myron C.; Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Senior, Thomas B. A.; Held, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the statistical behavior of the phase difference Delta-phi between the HH-polarized and VV-polarized backscattered signals recorded by an L-band SAR over an agricultural test site in Illinois. Polarization-phase difference distributions were generated for about 200 agricultural fields for which ground information had been acquired in conjunction with the SAR mission. For the overwhelming majority of cases, the Delta-phi distribution is symmetric and has a single major lobe centered at the mean value of the distribution Delta-phi. Whereas the mean Delta-phi was found to be close to zero degrees for bare soil, cut vegetation, alfalfa, soybeans, and clover, a different pattern was observed for the corn fields; the mean Delta-phi increased with increasing incidence angle Theta = 35 deg. The explanation proposed for this variation is that the corn canopy, most of whose mass is contained in its vertical stalks, acts like a uniaxial crystal characterized by different velocities of propagation for waves with horizontal and vertical polarization. Thus, it is hypothesized that the observed backscatter is contributed by a combination of propagation delay, forward scatter by the soil surface, and specular bistatic reflection by the stalks. Model calculations based on this assumption were found to be in general agreement with the phase observations.

  5. Nanospheres of a New Intermetalic FeSn5 Phase: Synthesis Magnetic Properties and Anode Performance in Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    X Wang; M Feygenson; H Chen; C Lin; W Ku; J Bai; M Aronson; T Tyson; W Han

    2011-12-31

    We synthesized monodisperse nanospheres of an intermetallic FeSn{sub 5} phase via a nanocrystal-conversion protocol using preformed Sn nanospheres as templates. This tetragonal phase in P4/mcc space group, along with the defect structure Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} of our nanospheres, has been resolved by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. Importantly, FeSn{sub 5}, which is not yet established in the Fe-Sn phase diagram, exhibits a quasi-one dimensional crystal structure along the c-axis, thus leading to interesting anisotropic thermal expansion and magnetic properties. Magnetization measurements indicate that nanospheres are superparamagnetic above the blocking temperature T{sub B} = 300 K, which is associated with the higher magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K = 3.33 kJ m{sup -3}. The combination of the magnetization measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations reveals the canted antiferromagnetic nature with significant spin fluctuation in lattice a-b plane. The low Fe concentration also leads Fe{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 5} to enhanced capacity as an anode in Li ion batteries.

  6. Numerical generation of a polarization singularity array with modulated amplitude and phase.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong; Peng, Xinyu; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yanru

    2016-09-01

    A point having no defined polarized ellipse azimuthal angle (circularly polarized) in a space-variant vector field is called a polarization singularity, and it has three types: Lemon, Monstar, and Star. Recently, the connection of polarization singularities has been performed. Inspired by this, we conduct a numerical generation of a polarization singularity array. Our method is based on two orthogonal linearly polarized light beams with modulated amplitude and phase. With appropriate distribution functions of amplitudes and phases we can control the polarized states of polarization singularities, which offer a possibility to simulate a polarization singularity array. PMID:27607491

  7. Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1- x In x )2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Maria Barbara; Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The full phase diagram of (Ga1- x In x )2O3 is obtained theoretically. The phases competing for the ground state are monoclinic β (low x), hexagonal (x ˜ 0.5), and bixbyite (large x). Three disconnected mixing regions interlace with two distinct phase-separation regions, and at x ˜ 0.5, the coexistence of hexagonal and β alloys with phase-separated binary components is expected. We also explore the permanent polarization of the phases, but none of them are polar. On the other hand, we find that ɛ-Ga2O3, which was stabilized in recent experiments, is pyroelectric with a large polarization and piezoelectric coupling, and could be used to produce high-density electron gases at interfaces.

  8. Phase-diversity phase-sensitive amplification in fiber loop with polarization beam splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a parametric amplification scheme based on phase-sensitive amplification in an optical fiber. The proposed system consists of a nonlinear fiber and a dispersive medium in a loop configuration with a polarization beam splitter, where phase-sensitive amplification occurs bi-directionally. The dispersive medium shifts the relative phase between signal and pump lights, due to which the amplified signal light is always obtained regardless of the signal input phase, i.e., a phase-diversity operation is achieved, while the output phase is digitized as in conventional phase-sensitive amplifiers.

  9. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Korkin, Sergey; Ota, Yoshifumi; Labonnote, Laurent C.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    The polarization state of electromagnetic radiation scattered by atmospheric particles such as aerosols, cloud droplets, or ice crystals contains much more information about the optical and microphysical properties than the total intensity alone. For this reason an increasing number of polarimetric observations are performed from space, from the ground and from aircraft. Polarized radiative transfer models are required to interpret and analyse these measurements and to develop retrieval algorithms exploiting polarimetric observations. In the last years a large number of new codes have been developed, mostly for specific applications. Benchmark results are available for specific cases, but not for more sophisticated scenarios including polarized surface reflection and multi-layer atmospheres. The International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to fill this gap. This paper presents the results of the first phase A of the IPRT project which includes ten test cases, from simple setups with only one layer and Rayleigh scattering to rather sophisticated setups with a cloud embedded in a standard atmosphere above an ocean surface. All scenarios in the first phase A of the intercomparison project are for a one-dimensional plane-parallel model geometry. The commonly established benchmark results are available at the IPRT website.

  10. Reaction synthesis of intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

  11. Suppression of the antiferroelectric phase during polarization cycling of an induced ferroelectric phase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Xiaoli

    2015-08-17

    The ceramic Pb{sub 0.99}Nb{sub 0.02}[(Zr{sub 0.57}Sn{sub 0.43}){sub 0.92}Ti{sub 0.08}]{sub 0.98}O{sub 3} can exist in either an antiferroelectric or a ferroelectric phase at room temperature, depending on the thermal and electrical history. The antiferroelectric phase can be partially recovered from the induced ferroelectric phase when the applied field reverses polarity. Therefore, polarization cycling of the ferroelectric phase in the ceramic under bipolar fields at room temperature is accompanied with repeated phase transitions. In this letter, the stability of the recovered antiferroelectric phase upon electrical cycling of the ceramic is investigated. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction reveals that bipolar cycling suppresses the antiferroelectric phase; this is indirectly supported by piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} measurements. It is speculated that the accumulated charged point defects during polarization cycling stabilize the polar ferroelectric phase. The findings presented are important to the fundamental studies of electric fatigue and field-induced phase transitions in ferroelectrics.

  12. Investigation of Polarization Phase Difference Related to Forest Fields Characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.), poplar (Populus L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  13. Solid-State Transformation of Iron-Rich Intermetallic Phases in Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys During Solution Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2013-08-01

    The solid-state transformation of the iron-rich intermetallic phases in Al-Cu 206 cast alloys during the solution heat treatment was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). At a normal solution treatment temperature of 793 K (520 °C), no visible variation is observed for the β-Fe phase solidified from the Al alloy melt. With increasing soaking time, however, the Chinese script α-Fe becomes unstable and progressively transforms into platelet β-Fe, termed as solid-state-transformed (STed) β-Fe to distinguish it from the β-Fe directly solidified from the Al alloy melt. The STed β-Fe preferentially nucleates on the α-Fe and then grows from the α-Fe/Al interface into α-Fe and/or Al matrix with a much higher growth rate in the α-Fe. The incomplete solid-state transformation from α-Fe into STed β-Fe leads to the fragmentation of the α-Fe. The formation of the STed β-Fe with increasing size and volume fraction after longer soaking time can deteriorate the tensile properties.

  14. New roles for icosahedral clusters in intermetallic phases: micelle-like segregation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions in Ca10Cd27Cu2.

    PubMed

    Hadler, Amelia B; Harris, Nicholas A; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2013-11-20

    Despite significant progress in the structural characterization of the quasicrystalline state, the chemical origins of long- and short-range icosahedral order remain mysterious and a subject of debate. In this Article, we present the crystal structure of a new complex intermetallic phase, Ca10Cd27Cu2 (mC234.24), whose geometrical features offer clues to the driving forces underlying the icosahedral clusters that occur in Bergman-type quasicrystals. Ca10Cd27Cu2 adopts a C-centered monoclinic superstructure of the 1/1 Bergman approximant structure, in which [110] layers of Bergman clusters in the 1/1 structure are separated through the insertion of additional atoms (accompanied by substantial positional disorder). An examination of the coordination environments of Ca and Cu (in the ordered regions) reveals that the structure can be viewed as a combination of coordination polyhedra present in the nearest binary phases in the Ca-Cd-Cu compositional space. A notable feature is the separation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions, with Bergman clusters emerging as Ca-Cd Friauf polyhedra (derived from the MgZn2-type CaCd2 phase) encapsulate a Cu-Cd icosahedron similar to those appearing in Cu2Cd5. DFT chemical pressure calculations on nearby binary phases point to the importance of this segregation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions. The mismatch in atomic size between Cu and Cd leads to an inability to satisfy Ca-Cu and Ca-Cd interactions simultaneously in the Friauf polyhedra of the nearby Laves phase CaCd2. The relegation of the Cu atoms to icosahedra prevents this frustration while nucleating the formation of Bergman clusters. PMID:24147875

  15. Mars Polar Cap During Transition Phase Instrument Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last week of September and the first week or so of October 2006, scientific instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter were turned on to acquire test information during the transition phase leading up to full science operations. The mission's primary science phase will begin the first week of November 2006, following superior conjunction. (Superior conjunction is where a planet goes behind the sun as viewed from Earth.) Since it is very difficult to communicate with a spacecraft when it is close to the sun as seen from Earth, this checkout of the instruments was crucial to being ready for the primary science phase of the mission.

    Throughout the transition-phase testing, the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) acquired terminator (transition between nighttime and daytime) to terminator swaths of color images on every dayside orbit, as the spacecraft moved northward in its orbit. The south polar region was deep in winter shadow, but the north polar region was illuminated the entire Martian day. During the primary mission, such swaths will be assembled into global maps that portray the state of the Martian atmosphere -- its weather -- as seen every day and at every place at about 3 p.m. local solar time. After the transition phase completed, most of the instruments were turned off, but the Mars Climate Sounder and MARCI have been left on. Their data will be recorded and played back to Earth following the communications blackout associated with conjunction.

    Combined with wide-angle image mosaics taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor at 2 p.m. local solar time, the MARCI maps will be used to track motions of clouds.

    This image is a composite mosaic of four polar views of Mars, taken at midnight, 6 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m. local Martian time. This is possible because during summer the sun is always shining in the polar region. It shows the mostly water-ice perennial cap (white area), sitting atop the north polar layered

  16. Stabilizing blue phase liquid crystals with linearly polarized UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daming; Yuan, Jiamin; Schadt, Martin; Yan, Jing; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, relatively low transmittance, and noticeable hysteresis and prolonged response time at high field region for IPS mode, still remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization a photopolymer-embedded blue phase liquid crystal precursor using a linearly polarized UV light for first time. When the UV polarization axis is perpendicular to the stripe electrodes of an IPS cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process and the electrostriction effect is suppressed. As a result, the measured hysteresis is dramatically reduced from 6.95% to 0.36% and the response time shortened by ~2X compared to unpolarized UV exposure. To induce larger anisotropy in polymer networks for mitigating the electrostriction effect, high-intensity linearly polarized UV exposure is preferred. It is foreseeable this method will guide future BPLC device and material development as well as manufacturing process. The dawn of BPLCD is near.

  17. Condensation phase of the Martian south polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capuano, J.; Reed, M.; James, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    One type of database that can be useful in limiting models of the Mars surface-atmosphere system is the time dependent boundary of CO2 frost for the polar caps. Data acquired by the thermal infrared sensors on spacecraft are not limited by the lighting problems that hamper visual observations. The surface temperature of solid CO2 is limited by Clapeyron's equation as a function of the local partial pressure of CO2 gas. The growth was studied of the Martian south polar cap using the Viking IRTM dataset. These data are available in five bands, four of which should correspond to surface radiation in clear conditions; the 20 micron data was examined in the first phase.

  18. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, the number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.

  19. Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, G.; Benedetti, E.; Caumes, J. P.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C.; Nisoli, M.; Poletto, L.; Villoresi, P.; Strelkov, V.; Sola, I.; Elouga, L. B.; Zaïr, A.; Mével, E.; Constant, E.

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate that the characteristics of the high-order harmonic spectra generated by few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stabilized pulses can be finely adjusted by controlling the time-dependent ellipticity. The experimental measurements show evidence for the generation of single, pairs, and trains of attosecond pulses by controlling the time window of linear polarization of the driving pulses. The influence of the carrier-envelope phase on the generation process in different confinement configurations is interpreted and analyzed using a nonadiabatic stationary phase model. We show that the xuv emission depends critically on particular aspects of the fundamental electric field that allows us to steer the electron trajectories on the time scale of tens of attoseconds.

  20. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yi -Xiang; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-03-22

    In this paper, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, themore » number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.« less

  1. Progress report on DOE research project [Thermodynamic and kinetic behavior of systems with intermetallic and intermediate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakalakos, T.; Semenovskaya-Khachaturyan, S.; Khachaturyan, A.G.

    2000-12-13

    A theoretical investigation was made of the coherent displacive phase transformation between two equilibrium single-phase states producing several orientation variants of the product phase. The research was focused on a behavior of coherent systems (martensitic systems, metal and ceramic, and ferroelectric systems) with defects. The computer simulation demonstrated that randomly distributed static defects may drastically affect the thermodynamics, kinetics, and morphology of the transformation. In particular, the interaction of the transformation mode with the defects may be responsible for appearance of two new fields in the phase diagram: (i) the two-phase field describing the tweed microstructure, which consists of the retain parent phase and the variants of the product phase and (ii) the single-phase field describing the tweed microstructure, which consists of the variants of the product phase. These new fields can be attributed to the pre-transitional states observed in some of th e displacive transformations. The microstructure evolution resulting in formation of the thermoelastic equilibrium is path dependent. This unusual behavior is expected in systems with a sharp dependence of the transition temperature on the defect concentration.

  2. Polarization-phase tomography of biological fluids polycrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubolazov, A. V.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.; Garazdiuk, M.; Sidor, M. I.; Motrich, A. V.; Kostiuk, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Our research is aimed at designing an experimental method of Fourier's laser polarization phasometry of the layers of human effusion for an express diagnostics during surgery and a differentiation of the degree of severity (acute - gangrenous) appendectomy by means of statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of the coherent scattered field. A model of generalized optical anisotropy of polycrystal networks of albumin and globulin of the effusion of appendicitis has been suggested and the method of Fourier's phasometry of linear (a phase shift between the orthogonal components of the laser wave amplitude) and circular (the angle of rotation of the polarization plane) birefringence with a spatial-frequency selection of the coordinate distributions for the differentiation of acute and gangrenous conditions have been analytically substantiated. Comparative studies of the efficacy of the methods of direct mapping of phase distributions and Fourier's phasometry of a laser radiation field transformed by the dendritic and spherolitic networks of albumin and globulin of the layers of effusion of appendicitis on the basis of complex statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of the structure of phase maps.

  3. Phase relation and microstructure of NbCr{sub 2} Laves intermetallics in ternary Nb-Cr-X alloy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.; Takasugi, T.

    1997-12-31

    The isothermal phase diagrams of ternary alloy systems Nb-Cr-V and Nb-Cr-Mo are determined by metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). In two alloy systems, the C15 NbCr{sub 2} Laves phases are equilibrated directly with bcc solid solution without forming any intermediate phases. Relatively large amount of ternary elements V and Mo are soluble in the C15 NbCr{sub 2} Laves phases. It is shown that the C15 Laves phases extend along directions so that V occupies Cr site while Mo occupies Nb site. Also, characteristic structure containing micro twins and stacking faults is observed in the C15 Laves phase alloyed with Mo. Bcc phase has a wider solid solution range in the X(=V and Mo)-rich side than the Nb-rich and Cr-rich sides. A variety of duplex microstructures are observed depending on alloy system and alloy composition.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-Ti-Sb intermetallic compounds: Discovery of a new Slater-Pauling phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolashrafi, N.; Keshavarz, S.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Gupta, A.; Butler, W. H.; Romero, J.; Munira, K.; LeClair, P.; Mazumdar, D.; Ma, J.; Ghosh, A. W.; Wolverton, C.

    2016-03-01

    Compounds of Fe, Ti, and Sb were prepared using arc melting and vacuum annealing. Fe2TiSb , expected to be a full Heusler compound crystallizing in the L 21 structure, was shown by XRD and SEM analyses to be composed of weakly magnetic grains of nominal composition Fe1.5TiSb with iron-rich precipitates in the grain boundaries. FeTiSb, a composition consistent with the formation of a half-Heusler compound, also decomposed into Fe1.5TiSb grains with Ti-Sb rich precipitates and was weakly magnetic. The dominant Fe1.5TiSb phase appears to crystallize in a defective L 21 -like structure with iron vacancies. Based on this finding, a first-principles DFT-based binary cluster expansion of Fe and vacancies on the Fe sublattice of the L 21 structure was performed. Using the cluster expansion, we computationally scanned >103 configurations and predict a novel, stable, nonmagnetic semiconductor phase to be the zero-temperature ground state. This new structure is an ordered arrangement of Fe and vacancies, belonging to the space group R 3 m , with composition Fe1.5TiSb , i.e., between the full- and half-Heusler compositions. This phase can be visualized as alternate layers of L 21 phase Fe2TiSb and C 1b phase FeTiSb, with layering along the [111] direction of the original cubic phases. Our experimental results on annealed samples support this predicted ground-state composition, but further work is required to confirm that the R 3 m structure is the ground state.

  5. Polarization-phase dynamics in a four-frequency gas ring laser with elliptical polarization of counter-propagating waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirina, L. P.

    2006-09-01

    Based on a developed and experimentally tested model, self-oscillatory lasing regimes have been studied for a Class A four-frequency gas ring laser with linear coupling of elliptically polarized counter-propagating waves. In the self-oscillatory regime, switching of the intensities, polarization states, and phase differences of the counter-propagating waves is observed, and also a polarization-phase dynamics effect involving displacement of the intensity switching point (with respect to detuning), due to the phase shift as a result of an ellipticity different from zero.

  6. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  7. Silicon waveguide polarization rotation Bragg grating with phase shift section and sampled grating scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayama, Hideaki; Onawa, Yosuke; Shimura, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sasaki, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    We describe a Bragg grating with a phase shift section and a sampled grating scheme that converts input polarization to orthogonal polarization. A very narrow polarization-independent wavelength peak can be generated by phase shift structures and polarization-independent multiple diffraction peaks by sampled gratings. The characteristics of the device were examined by transfer matrix and finite-difference time-domain methods.

  8. A wideband photonic microwave phase shifter using polarization-dependent intensity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyu; Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Zheng, Jianyu; Yuan, Haiqing; Wang, Xin; Bai, Jinhua; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2015-12-01

    We present a tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on polarization-dependence of the LiNbO3 Mach-Zehender modulator (MZM). In the proposed device, an orthogonal single sideband modulation is implemented by using a MZM and an optical band-pass filter. With the polarizer to synthesize the polarization orthogonal optical carrier and sideband, the phase of the optical microwave signal output from the polarizer can be tuned from 0 to 360° by simply adjusting the polarization direction of the lights whereas the amplitude keeps constant. A full range tunable phase shifting in the frequency range of 10-35 GHz is achieved.

  9. Propagation of polarized light in opals: Amplitude and phase anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, A. V. Dokukin, M. E.; Merzlikin, A. M.; Inoue, M.

    2011-03-15

    The interaction of linearly polarized light with photonic crystals based on bulk and thin-film synthetic opals is studied. Experimental transmission spectra and spectra showing the polarization state of light transmitted through opals are discussed. A change in polarization is found for waves experiencing Bragg diffraction from systems of crystallographic planes of the opal lattice. It is shown that the polarization plane of the incident linearly polarized wave at the exit from photonic crystals can be considerably rotated. In addition, incident linearly polarized light can be transformed to elliptically polarized light with the turned major axis of the polarization ellipse. Analysis of polarization states of transmitted light by using the transfer-matrix theory and homogenization theory revealed good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra.

  10. Mixed-phased particles in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.; Loerting, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone depletion, differential scanning calorimeter. The rate of chlorine activation reactions, which lead to ozone depletion in the winter/spring polar stratosphere (Molina, 1994), depends on the phase state of the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice crystals (McNeil et al., 2006). PSCs are thought to consist of solid ice and NAT (nitric acid trihydrate, HNO3× 3H2O) particles and supercooled HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. The corresponding PSCs are called Type II, Ia, and Ib PSCs, respectively (Zondlo et al., 1998). Type II PSCs are formed in the Antarctic region below the ice frost point of 189 K by homogeneous freezing of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets (Chang et al., 1999) with the excess of HNO3. The PSC ice crystals are thought to be solid. However, the fate of H+, NO3-, SO42- ions during freezing was not investigated. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of freezing emulsified HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets of sizes and compositions representative of the polar stratosphere demonstrate that during the freezing of the droplets, H+, NO3-, SO42- are expelled from the ice lattice. The expelled ions form a residual solution around the formed ice crystals. The residual solution does not freeze but transforms to glassy state at ~150 K (Bogdan et al., 2010). By contrast to glass-formation in these nitric-acid rich ternary mixtures the residual solution freezes in the case of sulphuric-acid rich ternary mixtures (Bogdan and Molina, 2009). For example, we can consider the phase separation into ice and a residual solution during the freezing of 23/3 wt% HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. On cooling, ice is formed at ~189 K. This is inferred from the fact that the corresponding melting peak at ~248 K exactly matches the melting point of ice in the phase diagram of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O containing 3 wt % H2SO4. After the ice has formed, the glass transition occurs at Tg ≈ 150 K. The appearance of the glass transition indicates that the

  11. Spatiotemporal polarization gradients in phase-bearing light

    SciTech Connect

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.

    2010-03-15

    It is shown how the interference of two circularly polarized laser beams endowed with orbital angular momentum can give rise to spatial and temporal polarization gradients, displaying axial as well as angular symmetry properties. Illustrations are given with reference to circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams as typical light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  12. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Compressive Properties of Two-Phase Nb-Fe Alloys Containing the C14 Laves Phase NbFe2 Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. W.; Wang, X. B.; Wang, W. X.; Li, S. M.; Gong, D. Q.; Fu, H. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and compressive properties of two-phase Nb-Fe binary alloys based on the C14 Laves phase NbFe2 were characterized at both the hypo- and hypereutectic compositions. The experimental results indicated that the microstructures of the two alloys consisted of fully eutectics containing Fe and NbFe2 phases at the bottom of the ingots corresponding to the largest solidification rates. With the decrease of solidification rate, the microstructures developed into primary Fe (NbFe2) dendrites plus eutectics in the middle and top parts of the ingots. The microstructural evolutions along the axis of the ingots were analyzed by considering the competitive growth between the primary phase and eutectic as well as using microstructure selection models based on the maximum interface temperature criterion. Furthermore, the compressive properties of the two alloys were measured and the enhancements were explained in terms of the second Fe phase and halo toughening mechanisms.

  14. Antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase boundary enhances polarization extension in rhombohedral Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2011-12-01

    The main mechanism of properties enhancement in the morphotropic phase boundary region separating tetragonal and rhombohedral phases of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) is related to polarization rotation. It is shown here that in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary separating antiferroelectric and rhombohedral phases (near x = 0.1) and at elevated temperatures the properties are dominated by polarization extension. These results may provide a guideline for developing alternative piezoelectric materials to PZT.

  15. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography measurements with different phase modulation amplitude when using continuous polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation (CPM-PS-OCT). We also demonstrate that the sample Jones matrix can be calculated at any values of the phase modulation amplitude in a reasonable range depending on the system effective signal-to-noise ratio. This has fundamental importance for the development of clinical systems by simplifying the polarization modulator drive instrumentation and eliminating its calibration procedure. This was validated on measurements of a three-quarter waveplate and an equine tendon sample by a fiber-based swept-source CPM-PS-OCT system.

  16. Thermal phase evolution of Pt-Si intermetallic thin films prepared by the activated adsorption of SiH{sub 4} on Pt(100) and comparison to known structural models

    SciTech Connect

    Bondos, J.C.; Drummer, N.E.; Gewirth, A.A.; Nuzzo, R.G.

    1999-03-24

    The authors have investigated the growth, morphology, and phase evolution of Pt-Si intermetallic thin films using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). These materials were formed through an inverted CVD deposition process that involves the exposure of a Pt(100) crystal to silane (SiH{sup 4}) followed by flash annealing treatments. Structural studies performed as a function of the annealing temperature reveal a complicated phase behavior that involves the sequential formation of four atomically ordered phases with multilevel character. The nature of this process is analyzed to obtain information about the primary structure-determining interactions responsible for the phase transformations seen in this system. This report describes the structure-determining influences seen on the Pt(100) surface and provide a comparison with earlier results obtained on Pt(111) and Ni surfaces. The substrate effects are marked and the differences between the results obtained on Pt(100) and Pt(111) are discussed in detail. A model is presented that relates the structure of the phases obtained on the Pt(100) surface to known bulk Pt silicide phases. Of particular interest is the finding that inverted CVD via the thermolytic decomposition of SiH{sub 4} on the Pt(100) substrate yields, upon suitable thermal treatment, a ({radical} 17 x {radical} 17)R14.0{degree} overlayer structure exhibiting two chiral surface domains. This multilayer structure is well described by a termination of the bulk Pt-Si intermetallic phase that is isomorphic with the well-known Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5} structure.

  17. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform. PMID:26322944

  18. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-12-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation.

  19. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-01-01

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first full-polarization DOPC system which records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase conjugation fidelity. PMID:26977651

  20. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V

    2016-03-15

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single-polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first, to the best of our knowledge, full-polarization DOPC system that records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm-thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase-conjugation fidelity. PMID:26977651

  1. Arbitrary polarized beams generated and detected by one phase-only LC-SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Qi, Junli; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Yu; Gu, Guohua; Chu, Delin; Zhang, Qianghua; Deng, Haifei; Zhao, Sugui; Han, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfei

    2014-09-01

    Arbitrary polarized beams, including homogeneously polarized beams and cylindrical vector beams, have been generated by an experimental setup with one phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator, and a four-path method was demonstrated to measure the polarization degree of detected beams. Besides, another method was proposed to measure the polarization directions of cylindrical vector beams. The polarized states can be calculated by controlling the spatial light modulator and optical intensity obtained from a CCD. The generation setup and detection methods have simple structure and low cost, and they are available for multi wavelength input beams, and the detection methods can realize real-time and on-line measurement.

  2. A polar-embedded C30 stationary phase: preparation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Mai, Wenpeng; Zhao, Liang; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2015-04-01

    A novel polar-embedded C30 stationary phase has been synthesized and characterized. The polar carbamate group was generated homogeneously in situ by the catalytic reaction between isocyanate and primary alcohol. The simple one-pot synthetic strategy provided an efficient and effective strategy for modification of silica spheres. Efficiency, selectivity and silanol activity of the resulting column were characterized in detail with different classes of analytes that included Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 870, SRM 869b and SRM 1647e, alkylbenzene congeners, as well as polar-substituted aromatics. The polar-embedded C30 stationary phase was found to exhibit excellent shape selectivity. PMID:25725953

  3. SrAu4In4 and Sr4Au9In13: Polar Intermetallic Structures with Cations in Augmented Hexagonal Prismatic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Palasyuk, A.; Dai, J.C.; Corbett, J.

    2008-03-11

    The title compounds were synthesized via high-temperature reactions of the elements in welded Ta tubes and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and band structure calculations. SrAu{sub 3.76(2)}In{sub 4.24} crystallizes in the YCo{sub 5}In{sub 3} structure type with two of eight network sites occupied by mixtures of Au and In: Pnma, Z = 4, a = 13.946(7), b = 4.458(2), c = 12.921(6) {angstrom}. Its phase breadth appears to be small. Sr{sub 4}Au{sub 9}In{sub 13} exhibits a new structure type, P{sub 6}m2, Z = 1, a = 12.701(2), c = 4.4350(9) {angstrom}. The Sr atoms in both compounds center hexagonal prisms of nominally alternating In and Au atoms and also have nine augmenting (outer) Au + In atoms around their waists so as to define 21-vertex Sr{at}Au{sub 9}M{sub 4}In{sub 8} (M = Au/In) and Sr{at}Au{sub 9}In{sub 12} polyhedra, respectively. The relatively larger Sr content in the second phase also leads to condensation of some of the ideal building units into trefoil-like cages with edge-shared six-member rings. One overall driving force for the formation of these structures can be viewed as the need for each Sr cation to have as many close neighbors as possible in the more anionic Au-In network. The results also depend on the cation size as well as on the flexibility of the anionic network and an efficient intercluster condensation mode as all clusters are shared. Band structure calculations (LMTO-ASA) emphasize the greater strengths (overlap populations) of the Au-In bonds and confirm expectations that both compounds are metallic.

  4. Elementary diffusion jump of iron atoms in intermetallic phases studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy; 1: Fe-Al close to equiatomic stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, G.; Sepiol, B. . Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik)

    1994-09-01

    The authors have studied the quasielastic broadening of the [sup 57]Fe Moessbauer resonance in the intermetallic compound FeAl in order to determine the diffusion jump mechanism of the Fe atoms. From the angular dependence of the line broadening relative to an oriented single crystal they deduce that the Fe atoms jump effectively to different neighbor sites on the Fe sublattice. The jump is, however, not a direct one, but rather a combination of a jump into a nearest neighbor vacancy--leading to short-time occupation of an antistructure site on the Al sublattice--and a jump into a vacancy back on the Fe sublattice.

  5. Generation of nondiffracting quasi-circular polarization beams using an amplitude modulated phase hologram.

    PubMed

    Yuan, G H; Wei, S B; Yuan, X-C

    2011-08-01

    We propose an approach to the generation of nondiffracting quasi-circularly polarized beams by a highly focusing azimuthally polarized beam using an amplitude modulated spiral phase hologram. Numerical verifications are implemented in the calculation of the electromagnetic fields and Poynting vector field near the focus based on the vector diffraction theory, and the polarization of the wavefront near the focal plane is analyzed in detail by calculating the Stokes polarization parameters. It is found that the electric field, magnetic field, and Poynting vector field can simultaneously be uniform and nondiverging over a relatively long axial range of ~7.23λ. In the transverse plane, the ellipticity and azimuthal angle of the local polarization ellipse varies from point to point. No polarization singularity and phase singularity are found at the beam center, which makes the bright spot possible. PMID:21811334

  6. Labyrinthine instability in freely suspended films of a polarization-modulated smectic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Alexey; Kornek, Ulrike; Stannarius, Ralf; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Nádasi, Hajnalka; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    We report on fingering and labyrinthine instabilities of the layer dislocation lines in freely suspended polar liquid-crystalline films. These polar fingerlike and labyrinth structures reversibly form upon a transition into a modulated phase. External electric fields of several kV/m applied in the film plane can reversibly influence the formation of the finger textures. We show that the labyrinthine pattern is intrinsically related to regular splay deformations of the polarization.

  7. Synthesis, structure, and bonding in K12Au21Sn4. A polar intermetallic compound with dense Au20 and open AuSn4 layers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Miller, Gordon J.; and Corbett, John D.

    2009-10-29

    The new phase K{sub 12}Au{sub 21}Sn{sub 4} has been synthesized by direct reaction of the elements at elevated temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction established its orthorhombic structure, space group Pmmn (No. 59), a = 12.162(2); b = 18.058(4); c = 8.657(2) {angstrom}, V = 1901.3(7) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 2. The structure consists of infinite puckered sheets of vertex-sharing gold tetrahedra (Au{sub 20}) that are tied together by thin layers of alternating four-bonded-Sn and -Au atoms (AuSn{sub 4}). Remarkably, the dense but electron-poorer blocks of Au tetrahedra coexist with more open and saturated Au-Sn layers, which are fragments of a zinc blende type structure that maximize tetrahedral heteroatomic bonding outside of the network of gold tetrahedra. LMTO band structure calculations reveal metallic properties and a pseudogap at 256 valence electrons per formula unit, only three electrons fewer than in the title compound and at a point at which strong Au-Sn bonding is optimized. Additionally, the tight coordination of the Au framework atoms by K plays an important bonding role: each Au tetrahedra has 10 K neighbors and each K atom has 8-12 Au contacts. The appreciably different role of the p element Sn in this structure from that in the triel members in K{sub 3}Au{sub 5}In and Rb{sub 2}Au{sub 3}Tl appears to arise from its higher electron count which leads to better p-bonding (valence electron concentrations = 1.32 versus 1.22).

  8. Creating circularly polarized light with a phase-shifting mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurand, Bastian; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Heyer, Martin; Wunderlich, Frank; Jäckel, Oliver; Kaluza, Malte C.; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Kühl, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We report on the performance of a system employing a multi-layer coated mirror creating circularly polarized light in a fully reflective setup. With one specially designed mirror we are able to create laser pulses with an ellipticity of more than ɛ = 98% over the entire spectral bandwidth from initially linearly polarized Titanium:Sapphire femtosecond laser pulses. We tested the homogeneity of the polarization with beam sizes of the order of approximately 10 cm. The damage threshold was determined to be nearly 400 times higher than for a transmissive quartz-wave plate which suggests applications in high intensity laser experiments. Another advantage of the reflective scheme is the absence of nonlinear effects changing the spectrum or the pulse-form and the scalability of coating fabrication to large aperture mirrors.

  9. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  10. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  11. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  12. Anisotropic pure-phase plates for quality improvement of partially coherent, partially polarized beams.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Mejías, Pedro M; Piquero, Gemma

    2003-03-01

    From a theoretical point of view, the use of anisotropic pure-phase plates (APP) is considered in order to improve the quality parameter of certain partially coherent, partially polarized beams. It is shown that, to optimize the beam-quality parameter, the phases of the two Cartesian components of the field at the output of the APP plate should be identical and should exhibit a quadratic dependence on the radial polar coordinate. PMID:12630845

  13. Anisotropic pure-phase plates for quality improvement of partially coherent, partially polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez-Herrero, Rosario; MejíAs, Pedro M.; Piquero, Gemma

    2003-03-01

    From a theoretical point of view, the use of anisotropic pure-phase plates (APP) is considered in order to improve the quality parameter of certain partially coherent, partially polarized beams. It is shown that, to optimize the beam-quality parameter, the phases of the two Cartesian components of the field at the output of the APP plate should be identical and should exhibit a quadratic dependence on the radial polar coordinate.

  14. Polarization-phase images of liquor polycrystalline films in determining time of death.

    PubMed

    Garazdyuk, M S; Bachinskyi, V T; Vanchulyak, O Ya; Ushenko, A G; Dubolazov, O V; Gorsky, M P

    2016-04-20

    An optical model for generalized optical anisotropy of polycrystalline networks of albumin and globulin liquor of the human brain has been suggested. The polarization-phase method for spatial and frequency differentiation of linear and circular birefringence coordinate distributions has been analytically substantiated. A set of criteria documenting the dynamics of polarization-phase images of liquor polycrystalline films has been identified in determining time of death. PMID:27140134

  15. Effects of polarization and phase modulation on the focal spot in 4Pi microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaocong; You, Shangting; Fang, Yue; Wang, Yifan; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2016-07-01

    In 4Pi microscopy, the intensity and polarization distributions of the focal spot directly determine the system resolution, influencing its extended applications. This paper illustrates how the focal spot is affected by the polarization and phase modulation of the incident beams. Various combinations of polarization states and phase modulations are considered and their effects on the focal spot are investigated. The optimal configurations for generating a solid spot and a doughnut-shaped spot are proposed. This paper provides the theoretical basis and reference for extended applications, such as super-resolution confocal microscopy, 4Pi microscopy or 4Pi-STED microscopy.

  16. Spin pump for boosting spin polarization of superfluid He3 A1 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Aoki, Y.; Murakawa, S.; Ishimoto, H.; Kojima, H.

    2009-08-01

    Mechanical pumping and filtering of spin-polarized condensate were realized in the superfluid He3 A1 phase by the pneumatic pumping action of an electrostatically actuated diaphragm. Spin pumping increased the net spin polarization by 20-50% as measured by the induced pressure change during spin pumping. The observed spin relaxation time was consistent with the increased spin polarization. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of using spin pumping to substantially increase the effective magnetic field to which the A1 phase is exposed.

  17. Phase-space representation and polarization domains of random electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Roman; Betancur, Rafael; Herrera, Jorge; Carrasquilla, Juan

    2008-08-01

    The phase-space representation of stationary random electromagnetic fields is developed by using electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets. The propagation of the field's power and states of spatial coherence and polarization results from correlations between the components of the field vectors at pairs of points in space. Polarization domains are theoretically predicted as the structure of the field polarization at the observation plane. In addition, the phase-space representation provides a generalization of the Poynting theorem. Theoretical predictions are examined by numerically simulating the Young experiment with electromagnetic waves. The experimental implementation of these results is a current subject of research. PMID:18670539

  18. A polarization independent liquid crystal phase modulation adopting surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih

    2011-12-01

    A polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulation using the surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (SP-PDLC) is demonstrated. In the bulk region of the SP-PDLC, the orientations of LC directors are randomly dispersed; thus, any polarization of incident light experiences the same averaged refractive index. In the regions near glass substrates, the LC droplets are pinned. The orientations of top and bottom droplets are orthogonal. Two eigen-polarizations of an incident light experience the same phase shift. As a result, the SP-PDLC is polarization independent. Polarizer-free microlens arrays of SP-PDLC are also demonstrated. The SP-PDLC has potential for application in spatial light modulators, laser beam steering, and electrically tunable microprisms.

  19. Polarization conversion system with liquid-crystal geometric-phase-based cylindrical lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Nose, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a polarization conversion system by utilizing the polarization-splitting function of a liquid-crystal (LC) geometric-phase-based cylindrical lens. The system was constructed by combining the LC lens with a partially rubbed cell. The operation principle includes the following two steps. (i) The incident light is first decomposed into right- and left-handed circularly polarized light (RCP and LCP, respectively) as an attribute of geometric-phase-based optical elements. (ii) Then, only the RCP light is transformed into LCP light by passing it through the partially rubbed cell; as a result, the incident unpolarized light is converted into LCP light. We experimentally reveal the feasibility of the system by evaluating the effects, on the polarization conversion capability, of the diffraction efficiency, focal length, and partially rubbed cell’s retardation. The polarization conversion efficiency was obtained to be 65% on average for 400-700 nm and a maximum of 79% at 610 nm.

  20. Laser polarization and phase control of up-conversion fluorescence in rare-earth ions

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yunhua; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the up-conversion fluorescence control via resonance-mediated two-photon absorption in rare-earth ions by varying both the laser polarization and phase. We show that both the laser polarization and phase can control the up-conversion fluorescence, and the up-conversion fluorescence intensity is decreased when the laser polarization changes from linear through elliptical to circular. We also show that the laser polarization will affect the control efficiency of the up-conversion fluorescence by varying the laser phase, and the circular polarization will reduce the control efficiency. Furthermore, we suggest that the control efficiency by varying the laser polarization and the effect of the laser polarization on the control efficiency by varying the laser phase can be artificially manipulated by controlling the laser spectral bandwidth. This optical control method opens a new opportunity to control the up-conversion fluorescence of rare-earth ions, which may have significant impact on the related applications of rare-earth ions. PMID:25465401

  1. Surfaces of complex intermetallic compounds: insights from density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürgen; Krajčí, Marian

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Complex intermetallic compounds are a class of ordered alloys consisting of quasicrystals and other ordered compounds with large unit cells; many of them are approximant phases to quasicrystals. Quasicrystals are the limiting case where the unit cell becomes infinitely large; approximants are series of periodic structures converging to the quasicrystal. While the unique properties of quasicrystals have inspired many investigations of their surfaces, relatively little attention has been devoted to the surface properties of the approximants. In general, complex intermetallic compounds display rather irregular, often strongly corrugated surfaces, making the determination of their atomic structure a very complex and challenging task. During recent years, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to study the surfaces of several complex intermetallic compounds. If atomic resolution can be achieved, STM permits visualization of the local atomistic surface structure. However, the interpretation of the STM images is often ambiguous and sometimes even impossible without a realistic model of the structure of the surface and the distribution of the electronic density above the surface. Here we demonstrate that ab initio density functional theory (DFT) can be used to determine the energetics and the geometric and electronic structures of the stable surfaces of complex intermetallic compounds. Calculations for surfaces with different chemical compositions can be performed in the grand canonical ensemble. Simulated cleavage experiments permit us to determine the formation of the cleavage planes requiring the lowest energy. The investigation of the adsorption of molecular species permits a comparison with temperature-programmed thermal desorption experiments. Calculated surface electronic densities of state can be compared with the results of photoelectron spectroscopy. Simulations of detailed STM images can be directly confronted with the experimental results

  2. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  3. Multi-frequency phase-coded microwave signal generation based on polarization modulation and balanced detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Xu, Weiyuan; Wei, Zhengwu; Pan, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Photonic multi-frequency phase-coded microwave signal generation is proposed and demonstrated based on polarization modulation and balanced detection. Consisting of only a polarization modulator (PolM) driven by an electrical coding data, a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and a balanced photodetector (BPD), the proposed microwave phase coder has no requirement on the wavelength, intensity modulation format, or modulation index of the input optical microwave signal, and allows phase coding of arbitrary-format RF signals, which enables multi-frequency phase coding with compact structure, simple operation, and high flexibility. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, achieving simultaneous phase coding of 15 and 30 GHz, or 10 and 20 GHz RF signals with a coding rate of 5  Gb/s. PMID:26696170

  4. Nonequilibrium phase transitions, fluctuations and correlations in an active contractile polar fluid.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-21

    We study the patterning, fluctuations and correlations of an active polar fluid consisting of contractile polar filaments on a two-dimensional substrate, using a hydrodynamic description. The steady states generically consist of arrays of inward pointing asters and show a continuous transition from a moving lamellar phase, a moving aster street, to a stationary aster lattice with no net polar order. We next study the effect of spatio-temporal athermal noise, parametrized by an active temperature TA, on the stability of the ordered phases. In contrast to its equilibrium counterpart, we find that the active crystal shows true long range order at low TA. On increasing TA, the asters dynamically remodel, concomitantly we find novel phase transitions characterized by bond-orientational and polar order upon "heating". PMID:26742682

  5. First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun

    2012-03-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.

  6. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  7. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Lixin Wang Huaming

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH){sub 2} as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties.

  8. Polarization-phase filtering of laser images of biological liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sidor, M.

    2013-06-01

    Our work is aimed at searching the possibilities to perform diagnostics and differentiation of structures inherent to liquid-crystal networks of blood plasma with various pathologies (health - breast cancer) by using the method to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts (phase maps) between orthogonal components of laser radiation amplitudes with the following statistical, fractal and singular analyses of these distributions.

  9. Direct observation of the recovery of an antiferroelectric phase during polarization reversal of an induced ferroelectric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Tan, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields are generally known to favor the ferroelectric polar state over the antiferroelectric nonpolar state for their Coulomb interactions with dipoles in the crystal. In this paper, we directly image an electric-field-assisted ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric phase transition during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase in polycrystalline P b0.99{N b0.02[(Zr0.57Sn0.43) 0.92T i0.08] 0.98}O3 . With the electric-field in situ transmission electron microscopy technique, such an unlikely phenomenon is verified to occur by both domain morphology change and electron-diffraction analysis. The slower kinetics of the phase transition, compared with ferroelectric polarization reversal, is suggested to contribute to this unusual behavior.

  10. Testing Models for the Shallow Decay Phase of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows with Polarization Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mi-Xiang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2016-08-01

    The X-ray afterglows of almost one-half of gamma-ray bursts have been discovered by the Swift satellite to have a shallow decay phase of which the origin remains mysterious. Two main models have been proposed to explain this phase: relativistic wind bubbles (RWBs) and structured ejecta, which could originate from millisecond magnetars and rapidly rotating black holes, respectively. Based on these models, we investigate polarization evolution in the shallow decay phase of X-ray and optical afterglows. We find that in the RWB model, a significant bump of the polarization degree evolution curve appears during the shallow decay phase of both optical and X-ray afterglows, while the polarization position angle abruptly changes its direction by 90°. In the structured ejecta model, however, the polarization degree does not evolve significantly during the shallow decay phase of afterglows whether the magnetic field configuration in the ejecta is random or globally large-scale. Therefore, we conclude that these two models for the shallow decay phase and relevant central engines would be testable with future polarization observations.

  11. Supersolid Phase with Cold Polar Molecules on a Triangular Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, L.; Picon, J. D.; Buechler, H. P.; Troyer, M.

    2010-03-26

    We study a system of heteronuclear molecules on a triangular lattice and analyze the potential of this system for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase. The ground state phase diagram contains superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases. At finite temperatures and strong interactions there is an additional emulsion region, in contrast with similar models with short-range interactions. We derive the maximal critical temperature T{sub c} and the corresponding entropy S/N=0.04(1) for supersolidity and find feasible experimental conditions for its realization.

  12. Phases of a polar spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis-Szabó, Krisztián; Szépfalusy, Péter; Szirmai, Gergely

    2007-05-01

    The two Bose Einstein condensed phases of a polar spin-1 gas at nonzero magnetizations and temperatures are investigated. The Hugenholtz Pines theorem is generalized to this system. Crossover to a quantum phase transition is also studied. Results are discussed in a mean field approximation.

  13. Twist phase-induced polarization changes in electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Korotkova, O.

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam with twist phase (i.e., twisted EGSM beam) is introduced as an extension of its scalar version based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization. We show how analytical paraxial propagation formulae of isotropic and anisotropic EGSM beams passing through a general astigmatic ABCD optical system can be modified in the presence of the twist phase. Numerical examples demonstrate that the twist phase affects the spectral density, the state of coherence, and the degree of polarization of EGSM beams on propagation.

  14. Phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state of electrons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ma, Yinfeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using a four-band Hamiltonian, we study the phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state (SPCS) of interacting electrons in bilayer graphene. The model of spin-polarized-current state has previously been shown to resolve a number of experimental puzzles in bilayer graphene. The phase boundaries of the SPCS with and without the external voltage between the two layers are obtained in this work. An unusual phase boundary where there are two transition temperatures for a given carrier concentration is found at finite external voltage. The physics of this phenomenon is explained.

  15. Intermetallic Layers in Soldered Joints

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-12-10

    ILAG solves the one-dimensional partial differential equations describing the multiphase, multicomponent, solid-state diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic layers in soldered joints. This software provides an analysis capability for materials researchers to examine intermetallic growth mechanisms in a wide variety of defense and commercial applications involving both traditional and advanced materials. ILAG calculates the interface positions of the layers, as well as the spatial distribution of constituent mass fractions, and outputs the results at user-prescribed simulation times.

  16. Polarization-independent submillisecond phase modulation utilizing polymer/short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal composite.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Junji; Kim, Hoekyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-11-15

    A broadband, polarization-independent phase modulation spanning the visible range is demonstrated using a polymer/cholesteric liquid crystal composite with optical pitch in the ultraviolet. Polarization insensitivity is achieved as a result of two effects: (1) optical anisotropy of the rod-like molecules is canceled out by the short helical pitch, and (2) stabilization of the Grandjean texture by the polymer network suppresses depolarization. Polarization-independent modulation of the refractive index by approximately 0.045, corresponding to a phase modulation of π at 500 nm, is achieved with submillisecond response times. Our material system opens new avenues for polarization-independent, tunable optical devices, such as narrow bandpass filters, gratings, and adaptive lenses. PMID:26565875

  17. Simultaneous analysis method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng by reversed-phase HPLC-PAD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sa-Im; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2012-02-23

    The paper describes the development of a simultaneous determination method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection method. This method could be applied directly without any pretreatment steps and enabled the performance of highly sensitive analysis within 1h. The detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) limits for the ginsenosides ranged 0.02-0.10 ng and 0.1-0.3 ng, respectively. The linear regression coefficients ranged 0.9975-0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.91%. The mean recoveries ranged 98.08-103.06%. The total amount of ginsenosides in the hairy root of red ginseng was higher than that in the main root. PMID:22119615

  18. Phase regeneration for polarization-division multiplexed signals based on vector dual-pump nondegenerate phase sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Chen, Guanyu; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-01

    The polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) technology is a practical method to double the transmission capacity, and the corresponding phase regeneration (PR) for PDM signals is meaningful and necessary to extend the transmission distance and increase the transparency for the phase-encoded PDM system. Those reported PDM PR schemes either utilized polarization-diversity technique or required special PDM format. In order to overcome these issues, the PR for the PDM phase-modulated signals is proposed and theoretically demonstrated in this paper, based on the vector dual-pump nondegenerate phase sensitive amplification (PSA). The theoretical model is established and the detailed characteristics are investigated to optimize the PR performance. Results show an obvious phase squeezing for the degraded 80 Gbit/s PDM differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals, and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the regenerated signals on dual polarization states can be improved from 22.58% and 21.39% to 4.57% and 4.63%, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed scheme for PDM quaternary-phase shift keying (QPSK) signals is investigated. The proposed scheme can be useful and promising in current PDM based coherent fiber-optic communication. PMID:25836072

  19. Microwave assisted combustion synthesis of non-equilibrium intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Paolo; Rosa, Roberto; Colombini, Elena; Leonelli, Cristina; Poli, Giorgio; Casagrande, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified model of the microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of Ni and Al metal powders to form the NiAl intermetallic on titanium and steel substrates is presented. The simulation couples an electro-thermal model with a chemical model, accounting for local heat generation due to the highly exothermic nature of the reactions between the powders. Numerical results, validated by experimental values, show that the capability of microwaves to convey energy, and not heat, can be used to alter the temperature profiles during and after the combustion synthesis, leading to unique intermetallic microstructures. This phenomenon is ascribed to the extended existence of high temperature liquid intermetallic phases, which react with the metallic substrates at the interface. Moreover, microwave heating selectivity allows to maintain the bulk of the substrate metallic materials to a much lower temperature, compared to combustion synthesis in conventionally heated furnaces, thus reducing possible unwanted transformations like phase change or oxidation. PMID:21721328

  20. Shaping the focal field of radially/azimuthally polarized phase vortex with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lei; Urbach, H. Paul

    2016-06-01

    The focal field properties of radially/azimuthally polarized Zernike polynomials are studied. A method to design the pupil field in order to shape the focal field of radially or azimuthally polarized phase vortex is introduced. With this method, we are able to obtain a pupil field to achieve a longitudinally polarized hollow spot with a depth of focus up to 12λ and 0.28λ lateral resolution (FWHM) for an optical system with numerical aperture 0.99; a pupil field to generate eight focal spots along the optical axis is also obtained with this method.

  1. Polar Phase of One-dimensional Bosons with Large Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvelik, A.M.; Shlyapnikov, G.

    2011-06-20

    Spinor ultracold gases in one dimension (1D) represent an interesting example of strongly correlated quantum fluids. They have a rich phase diagram and exhibit a variety of quantum phase transitions. We consider a 1D spinor gas of bosons with a large spin S. A particular example is the gas of chromium atoms (S = 3), where the dipolar collisions efficiently change the magnetization and make the system sensitive to the linear Zeeman effect. We argue that in 1D the most interesting effects come from the pairing interaction. If this interaction is negative, it gives rise to a (quasi)condensate of singlet bosonic pairs with an algebraic order at zero temperature, and for (2S+1) >> 1 the saddle point approximation leads to physically transparent results. Since in 1D one needs a finite energy to destroy a pair, the spectrum of spin excitations has a gap. Hence, in the absence of a magnetic field, there is only one gapless mode corresponding to phase fluctuations of the pair quasicondensate. Once the magnetic field exceeds the gap, another condensate emerges, namely the quasicondensate of unpaired bosons with spins aligned along the magnetic field. The spectrum then contains two gapless modes corresponding to the singlet-paired and spin-aligned unpaired Bose condensed particles, respectively. At T = 0, the corresponding phase transition is of the commensurate-incommensurate type.

  2. B phase with polar distortion in superfluid {sup 3}He in “ordered” aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, V. V. Senin, A. A.; Soldatov, A. A.; Surovtsev, E. V.; Yudin, A. N.

    2014-12-15

    The properties of the low-temperature superfluid phase of {sup 3}He in “nematically ordered” aerogel in which strands are almost parallel to one another are investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Such a strong anisotropy of the aerogel affects the phase diagram of {sup 3}He and the structure of superfluid phases. A theoretical model of the B phase with polar distortion is developed. It is shown that this model successfully describes the observed properties of the low-temperature phase.

  3. Phase control of six-wave mixing from circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunzhe; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Hang; Li, Shuoke; Zhang, Weitao; Yi, Wenhui; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the phase control of six-wave mixing (SWM) in atomic system with multi-Zeeman levels theoretically and experimentally. With the relative phase varying, the switch between bright and dark state can appear in probe transmission signal. Then we demonstrate the evolution of six-wave mixing generated in bright and dark states by scanning the frequency detuning of the dressing field at different polarized probe field. Meanwhile, by utilizing the strong dressing effect of circular polarized light, we observe pure dark state switched to pure bright state in terms of energy level splitting, and compare different phases under different detuning of circularly polarized light. Theoretical calculations are in well agreement with the experimental observations.

  4. A Tunable Dispersion-Free Terahertz Metadevice with Pancharatnam-Berry-Phase-Enabled Modulation and Polarization Control.

    PubMed

    Cong, Longqing; Xu, Ningning; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-11-01

    It is extremely challenging to control the phase of light at will in free space. Here, Pancharatnam-Berry-phase-enabled, tunable phase control of free-space light is experimentally demonstrated in an ultrathin flexible dispersion-free metadevice. This metadevice enables the broadband conversion of linearly polarized light into any desired output polarization. PMID:26421902

  5. Pseudo-polar tilted smectic phases exhibited by bent-core hockey stick shaped molecules.

    PubMed

    Malkar, Deepshika; Sadashiva, B K; Roy, Arun

    2016-06-14

    We report experimental and theoretical studies on two new achiral fluid lamellar phases exhibited by bent-core hockey stick shaped molecules. The packing of these bent-core hockey stick shaped molecules in the layers leads to a pseudo-polar order in these tilted smectic phases. An anticlinic SmCA type stacking of the pseudo-polar layers is observed in the higher temperature smectic phase, while in the lower temperature phase the difference in the azimuthal angles of the tilt directions in successive layers is between zero and π with a randomized tilt organization between the successive layers. The randomness arises due to the sign degeneracy of the azimuthal angle difference of the tilt directions in successive layers. Both of these smectic phases show a strong electro-optic response which can be exploited for potential applications. PMID:27157895

  6. Intermetallics for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Intermetallics are introduced as possible structural materials. The attributes and useful temperature limits of eight of the most likely candidates have been described. In addition, detailed descriptions are given for chemical compositions, corrosion properties, mechanical properties, melting and processing, and applications of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys. Mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys are compared with commercially used HU alloys in the cast condition and Haynes 214 in the wrought condition. The mechanical properties of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys are compared with an oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Inco alloy MA-956. Comparisons have shown that Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys offer the best combination of oxidation and carburization resistance and are significantly stronger than the commercially used HU alloy for many of the furnace-fixture applications. However, the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys, which offer the best sulfidation resistance of the commercially available alloys, are significantly weaker in creep than the ODS MA-956 alloy. Even with the current strength level, Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys are superior as porous, sintered metal filters for hot-gas cleanup in coal gasification systems. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is currently under way to improve their creep strength.

  7. Anomalous temperature dependence of gas chromatographic retention indices of polar compounds on non-polar stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Pavlovskii, Alexander A; Héberger, Károly; Zenkevich, Igor G

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the reliability of both GC and GC-MS identification requires appropriate interlaboratory reproducibility of gas chromatographic retention indices (I). Known temperature dependence, I(T), is the main source of non-reproducibility of these parameters. It can be approximated with a simple linear function I(T). However, since mid-1990s-beginning of 2000s some examples of anomalous temperature dependence, I(T), preferably for polar analytes on non-polar stationary phases were revealed independently by different authors. The effect implies the variations in the sign of the temperature coefficients β=dI/dT for selected compounds and, hence, the appearance of the I-extrema (usually, minima). The current work provides evidence that the character of the anomalous I(Т) dependences (ascending, descending, or with extrema) is strongly influenced by the amounts of analytes injected into the chromatographic column, but these anomalies appeared not to be connected directly with the mass overloading of separation systems. The physicochemical model is proposed to describe the observed anomalies of I(T) dependence. This model is based on three previously known principles of chromatography, namely: The superposition of these objectives allows understanding both the unusual temperature dependence of retention indices, and the influence of the amounts of polar analytes injected into GC column on the parameters of this dependence. PMID:27062719

  8. Oligonuclear molecular models of intermetallic phases: a case study on [Pd2Zn6Ga2(Cp*)5(CH3)3].

    PubMed

    Bollermann, Timo; Molon, Mariusz; Gemel, Christian; Freitag, Kerstin; Seidel, Rüdiger W; von Hopffgarten, Moritz; Jerabek, Paul; Frenking, Gernot; Fischer, Roland A

    2012-04-16

    The synthesis, characterization, and theoretical investigation by means of quantum-chemical calculations of an oligonuclear metal-rich compound are presented. The reaction of homoleptic dinuclear palladium compound [Pd(2)(μ-GaCp*)(3)(GaCp*)(2)] with ZnMe(2) resulted in the formation of unprecedented ternary Pd/Ga/Zn compound [Pd(2)Zn(6)Ga(2)(Cp*)(5)(CH(3))(3)] (1), which was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consisted of two C(s)-symmetric molecular isomers, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy, at which distinct site-preferences related to the Ga and Zn positions were observed by quantum-chemical calculations. Structural characterization of compound 1 showed significantly different coordination environments for both palladium centers. Whilst one Pd atom sat in the central of a bi-capped trigonal prism, thereby resulting in a formal 18-valence electron fragment, {Pd(ZnMe)(2)(ZnCp*)(4)(GaMe)}, the other Pd atom occupied one capping unit, thereby resulting in a highly unsaturated 12-valence electron fragment, {Pd(GaCp*)}. The bonding situation, as determined by atoms-in-molecules analysis (AIM), NBO partial charges, and molecular orbital (MO) analysis, pointed out that significant Pd-Pd interactions had a large stake in the stabilization of this unusual molecule. The characterization and quantum-chemical calculations of compound 1 revealed distinct similarities to related M/Zn/Ga Hume-Rothery intermetallic solid-state compounds, such as Ga/Zn-exchange reactions, the site-preferences of the Zn/Ga positions, and direct M-M bonding, which contributes to the overall stability of the metal-rich compound. PMID:22416016

  9. Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichman, Leonid; Fuchs, Claudia; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Florian Höppel, Niko; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Bjerring Kristensen, Thomas; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-03-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are presented. We report observations of significant liquid-viscous SOA particle polarization transitions under dry conditions using CASPOL. Cluster analysis techniques were subsequently used to classify different types of particles according to their polarization ratios during phase transition. A classification map is presented for water droplets, organic aerosol (e.g., SOA and oxalic acid), crystalline substances such as ammonium sulfate, and volcanic ash. Finally, we discuss the benefits and limitations of this classification approach for atmospherically relevant concentrations and mixtures with respect to the CLOUD 8-9 campaigns and its potential contribution to tropical troposphere layer analysis.

  10. Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    A scheme for the generation of phase-coded microwave signals using an electrically tunable photonic microwave phase shifter is proposed and demonstrated. The photonic phase shifter is based on a single-sideband polarization modulator (PolM), and the tuning of the phase shifter is implemented by a second PolM. By introducing an RF signal to the first PolM and an electrical coding signal to the second PolM, a phase-coded microwave signal with binary phase codes or polyphase codes is achieved. An experiment is performed. The simple and flexible operation, high coding rate, large frequency range, excellent transmission performance, and high stability of the system is confirmed. PMID:23455292

  11. Polarization effects and phase equilibria in high-energy-density polyvinylidene-fluoride-based polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, V.; Yu, L.; Nakhmanson, S.; Bernholc, J.; Nardelli, M. B.; Materials Science Division; North Carolina State Univ.; ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, the phase diagrams of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers under an applied electric field are studied and phase transitions between their nonpolar {alpha} and polar {beta} phases are discussed. The results show that the degree of copolymerization is a crucial parameter controlling the structural phase transition. In particular, for tetrafluoroethylene (TeFE) concentration above 12%, PVDF-TeFE is stabilized in the {beta} phase, whereas the {alpha} phase is stable for lower concentrations. As larger electric fields are applied, domains with smaller concentrations ({le} 12%) undergo a transition from the {alpha} to the {beta} phase until a breakdown field of {approx}600 MV m{sup -1} is reached. These structural phase transitions can be exploited for efficient storage of electrical energy.

  12. Reverse-phase HPLC method for measuring polarity distributions of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Namjesnik-Dejanovic, Ksenija; Cabaniss, Stephen E

    2004-02-15

    A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to measure the polarity distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) samples. The polarity distribution is obtained by calibrating an octadecyl bonded silica phase column and polar eluent with compounds of known octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and using this calibration curve to transform NOM retention times into an equivalent Kow. Polarity distributions treat the NOM samples as a complex mixture rather than summarizing the polarity in a single number. The method is sensitive, with UV detection allowing quantitation of samples with <5 mg of C/L. Individual chromatograms are acquired in <20 min, allowing much faster analysis on smaller samples than XAD resin separation or 13C NMR. Polarity distributions of 10 representative NOM isolates and 2 whole water samples indicate that NOM is generally hydrophilic in nature (log Kow < 2), although XAD-8 isolates are more hydrophobic than RO isolates from the same source. Hydrophilicity, as indicated by recovery from the HPLC column, is correlated to the elemental oxygen/carbon ratio but does not correlate strongly with molecular weight or 13C NMR aromaticity. PMID:14998025

  13. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Monica Sorescu

    2003-05-07

    This six-month work is focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}2, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T=Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe(80-20 wt%) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x=0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co(80-20 wt%) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which are currently being considered for publication in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Journal of Materials Science. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  14. Ferroelectric order in liquid crystal phases of polar disk-shaped ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2014-05-01

    The demonstration of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in liquid phases in the absence of any long range positional order is considered an outstanding problem of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we reported that a system of polar achiral disklike ellipsoids can spontaneously exhibit a long searched ferroelectric nematic phase and a ferroelectric columnar phase with strong axial polarization. The major role is played by the dipolar interactions. The model system of interest consists of attractive-repulsive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids embedded with two parallel point dipoles positioned symmetrically on the equatorial plane of the ellipsoids. In the present work, we investigate in detail the profound effects of changing the separation between the two symmetrically placed dipoles and the strength of the dipoles upon the existence of different ferroelectric discotic liquid crystal phases via extensive off-lattice N-P-T Monte Carlo simulations. Ferroelectric biaxial phases are exhibited in addition to the uniaxial ferroelectric fluids where the phase biaxiality results from the dipolar interactions. The structures of all the ferroelectric configurations of interest are presented in detail. Simple phase diagrams are determined which include different polar and apolar discotic fluids generated by the system.

  15. Ferroelectric order in liquid crystal phases of polar disk-shaped ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2014-05-01

    The demonstration of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in liquid phases in the absence of any long range positional order is considered an outstanding problem of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we reported that a system of polar achiral disklike ellipsoids can spontaneously exhibit a long searched ferroelectric nematic phase and a ferroelectric columnar phase with strong axial polarization. The major role is played by the dipolar interactions. The model system of interest consists of attractive-repulsive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids embedded with two parallel point dipoles positioned symmetrically on the equatorial plane of the ellipsoids. In the present work, we investigate in detail the profound effects of changing the separation between the two symmetrically placed dipoles and the strength of the dipoles upon the existence of different ferroelectric discotic liquid crystal phases via extensive off-lattice N-P-T Monte Carlo simulations. Ferroelectric biaxial phases are exhibited in addition to the uniaxial ferroelectric fluids where the phase biaxiality results from the dipolar interactions. The structures of all the ferroelectric configurations of interest are presented in detail. Simple phase diagrams are determined which include different polar and apolar discotic fluids generated by the system. PMID:25353817

  16. Measurement of displacement and distance with a polarization phase shifting folded Twyman Green interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y Pavan

    2015-11-20

    A Sagnac interferometer (SI), consisting of a polarization beam splitter (PBS), along with two equally spaced plane mirrors that are inclined at 45° to each other, is transformed into a folded Twyman Green interferometer (TGI) by placing a mirrored parallel plate (MPP) into the hypotenuse arm of the SI. The converging input beam produced by a telescope objective (TO) is split into reflected (s-polarized) and transmitted (p-polarized) components by the PBS. The p- and s-polarized focal spots are made to fall on the mirrored end surfaces of the parallel plate (PP). The retroreflected p- and s-polarized beams become collimated after passing through the TO. A linear shift of the PP in either (longitudinal) direction alters the positions of the p- and s-polarized focal spots and results in a set of converging and diverging spherical wavefronts that interfere to form concentric circular fringes. We applied polarization phase-shifting interferometry to obtain the optical path difference (OPD) variation of the interference field. The displacement is calculated from the OPD variation. A validation experiment has been carried out by introducing known shifts to the PP. The setup can be used for displacement as well as distance measurement. PMID:26836546

  17. Fiber looped phase conjugation of polarization multiplexed signals for pre-compensation of fiber nonlinearity effect.

    PubMed

    Pelusi, Mark D

    2013-09-01

    Compensation of nonlinear distortion of polarization-multiplexed (PolMux) signals in optical fiber is evaluated experimentally using all-optical signal pre-distortion and fiber loop phase-conjugation at the transmitter. An improved bit error rate is shown for high baud rate, 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK PolMux signals before transmission in a 728 km long dispersion-managed fiber link employing a direct detection receiver. The partial compensation of nonlinear distortion for both single channel and 3 × 80 Gb/s WDM PolMux signals is observed, despite the impact from the inter-polarization nonlinearity and the associated polarization scattering. Evidence of the limited compensation of inter-polarization nonlinearity is shown. PMID:24104017

  18. Polarization lidar operation for measuring backscatter phase matrices of oriented scatterers.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott; Morley, Bruce; VanAndel, Joseph

    2012-12-31

    We describe implementation and demonstration of a polarization technique adapted for lidar to measure all unique elements of the volume backscatter phase matrix. This capability allows for detection of preferential orientation within a scattering volume, and may improve scattering inversions on oriented ice crystals. The technique is enabled using a Mueller formalism commonly employed in polarimetry, which does not require the lidar instrument be polarization preserving. Instead, the accuracy of the polarization measurements are limited by the accuracy of the instrument characterization. A high spectral resolution lidar at the National Center for Atmospheric Research was modified to demonstrate this polarization technique. Two observations where the instrument is tilted off zenith are presented. In the first case, the lidar detects flattened large raindrops oriented along the same direction due to drag forces from falling. The second case is an ice cloud approximately 5 km above lidar base that contains preferentially oriented ice crystals in a narrow altitude band. PMID:23388782

  19. Phase-space structures and ionization dynamics of the hydrogen atom in elliptically polarized microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekinova, E.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2006-10-01

    The multiphoton ionization of hydrogen atoms in a strong elliptically polarized microwave field exhibits complex features that are not observed for ionization in circular and linear polarized fields. Experimental data reveal high sensitivity of ionization dynamics to the small changes of the field polarization. The multidimensional nature of the problem makes widely used diagnostics of dynamics, such as Poincaré surfaces of section, impractical. We analyze the phase-space dynamics using the finite time stability analysis rendered by the fast Lyapunov indicators technique. The concept of zero-velocity surface is used to initialize the calculations and visualize the dynamics. Our analysis provides stability maps calculated for the initial energy at the maximum and below the saddle of the zero-velocity surface. We estimate qualitatively the dependence of ionization thresholds on the parameters of the applied field, such as polarization and scaled amplitude.

  20. Security authentication using phase-encoded nanoparticle structures and polarized light.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Hassanfiroozi, Amir; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Huang, Yi-Pai; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-01-15

    Phase-encoded nanostructures such as quick response (QR) codes made of metallic nanoparticles are suggested to be used in security and authentication applications. We present a polarimetric optical method able to authenticate random phase-encoded QR codes. The system is illuminated using polarized light, and the QR code is encoded using a phase-only random mask. Using classification algorithms, it is possible to validate the QR code from the examination of the polarimetric signature of the speckle pattern. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test and Support Vector Machine algorithms to authenticate the phase-encoded QR codes using polarimetric signatures. PMID:25679827

  1. A method to calibrate phase fluctuation in polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2011-06-01

    A phase fluctuation calibration method is presented for polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) using continuous polarization modulation. The method consists of the generation of a continuous triggered tone-burst waveform rather than an asynchronous waveform by use of a function generator and the removal of the global phases of the measured Jones matrices by use of matrix normalization. This could remove the use of auxiliary optical components for the phase fluctuation compensation in the system, which reduces the system complexity. Phase fluctuation calibration is necessary to obtain the reference Jones matrix by averaging the measured Jones matrices at sample surfaces. Measurements on an equine tendon sample were made by the PS-SS-OCT system to validate the proposed method.

  2. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  3. Method to calibrate phase fluctuation in polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a phase fluctuation calibration method for polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) using continuous polarization modulation. The method uses a low-voltage broadband polarization modulator driven by a synchronized sinusoidal burst waveform rather than an asynchronous waveform, together with the removal of the global phases of the measured Jones matrices by the use of matrix normalization. This makes it possible to average the measured Jones matrices to remove the artifact due to the speckle noise of the signal in the sample without introducing auxiliary optical components into the sample arm. This method was validated on measurements of an equine tendon sample by the PS-SS-OCT system.

  4. Germanium x-ray phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Yahnke, C.J.; Srajer, G.; Haeffner, D.R.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1993-10-01

    The authors have constructed an x-ray phase plate to produce both linearly and circularly polarized x-rays at discrete energies between 20 keV and 88 keV. The plate is a monolithic two-crystal design, constructed from germanium, which increases the resultant degree of circular polarization of the output beam. They have measured the degree of circular polarization at 65 keV to be 90% {+-} 4%, significantly better than that produced by silicon phase plates. This radiation was used to measure the magnetic Compton profile for Fe, which was found to be in good agreement with theory and previous work. The underlying x-ray optics and the characterization of the device between 62 keV and 93 keV at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source are presented.

  5. Enhanced ferroelectric polarization and possible morphotrophic phase boundary in PZT-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David S.; Herklotz, Andreas; Ward, T. Z.; McGuire, Michael A.; Singh, David J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of alloys of the high performance piezoelectric PZT (PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 ) with BZnT (BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3 ) and BZnZr (BiZn0.5Zr0.5O3 ), focusing on atomic displacements, ferroelectric polarization, and elastic stability. From theory we find that the 75-25 PZT-BZnT alloy has substantially larger cation displacements, and hence ferroelectric polarization than the PZT base material, on the tetragonal side of the phase diagram. We also find a possible morphotrophic phase boundary in this system by comparing displacement patterns and optimized c /a ratios. Elastic stability calculations find the structures to be essentially stable. Experiments indicate the feasibility of sample synthesis within this alloy system, although measurements do not find significant polarization, probably due to a large coercive field.

  6. Ground-state phases of polarized deuterium species

    SciTech Connect

    Panoff, R.M.; Clark, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    Microscopic prediction of the ground-state phase of electron-spin-aligned bulk atomic deuterium (Darrow-down) is attempted, based on the variational Monte Carlo method. The accurate pair potential of Kolos and Wolniewicz is assumed, and three versions of Darrow-down are considered, which, respectively, involve one, two, and three equally occupied nuclear spin states. The most definitive results on the zero-temperature equations of state of these systems are obtained with optimized ground-state trial wave functions incorporating Jastrow pair correlations, triplet correlations, and momentum-dependent backflow effects. The species Darrow-down/sub 3/ is bound already at the pure Jastrow level, while the energy expectation value of Darrow-down/sub 2/ dips below zero upon supplementing the Jastrow description by triplets and momentum-dependent backflow. The variational energy of Darrow-down/sub 1/ remains positive under all current refinements of the ground-state trial function. We conclude that the systems Darrow-down/sub 3/ and Darrow-down/sub 2/, if they could be manufactured and stabilized at relevant densities, would be Fermi liquids at sufficiently low temperature; on the other hand, it is likely that Darrow-down/sub 1/ would remain gaseous down to absolute zero.

  7. Anomalous temperature dependence of gas chromatographic retention indices of polar compounds on nonpolar phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, I. G.; Pavlovskii, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The character of the temperature dependences of the retention indices RI( T) of polar sorbates on nonpolar stationary phases was found to depend on the dosed amounts of sorbates, but not on column overloading. A physicochemical model was suggested to explain the observed anomalies in RI( T).

  8. ANALYTIC MODELS FOR ALBEDOS, PHASE CURVES, AND POLARIZATION OF REFLECTED LIGHT FROM EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2012-03-01

    New observational facilities are becoming increasingly capable of observing reflected light from transiting and directly imaged extrasolar planets. In this study, we provide an analytic framework to interpret observed phase curves, geometric albedos, and polarization of giant planet atmospheres. We compute the observables for non-conservative Rayleigh scattering in homogeneous semi-infinite atmospheres using both scalar and vector formalisms. In addition, we compute phase curves and albedos for Lambertian, isotropic, and anisotropic scattering phase functions. We provide analytic expressions for geometric albedos and spherical albedos as a function of the scattering albedo for Rayleigh scattering in semi-infinite atmospheres. Given an observed geometric albedo our prescriptions can be used to estimate the underlying scattering albedo of the atmosphere, which in turn is indicative of the scattering and absorptive properties of the atmosphere. We also study the dependence of polarization in Rayleigh scattering atmospheres on the orbital parameters of the planet-star system, particularly on the orbital inclination. We show how the orbital inclination of non-transiting exoplanets can be constrained from their observed polarization parameters. We consolidate the formalism, solution techniques, and results from analytic models available in the literature, often scattered in various sources, and present a systematic procedure to compute albedos, phase curves, and polarization of reflected light.

  9. Diagnostic efficiency of Mueller-matrix polarization reconstruction system of the phase structure of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Stasenko, Vladyslav A.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Kussambayeva, Nazym

    2015-12-01

    The application field of using the Mueller-matrix polarizing reconstruction system of phase structure of biological layer for optical-anisotropic parameters differentiation of histological sections of healthy and rat's liver with hepatitis were investigated. Comparison of system informativity with known systems on indexes of sensitivity, specificity and balanced accuracy were performed.

  10. Characteristics of block-periodic phased-array antennas with circular polarization of the radiated field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhoded, Iu. V.; Mironnikov, A. S.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents results of a numerical investigation of the directivity characteristics of a block-periodic waveguide phased-array antenna with circular polarization of the radiated field. The advantages of this array from the viewpoint of maximining the ellipticity coefficent of the radiated field in the scanning sector are pointed out.

  11. Laws of formation of polar smectic phases under a frustrated interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dolganov, P. V.; Zhilin, V. M.; Kats, E. I.

    2012-12-15

    The Landau theory of phase transitions with a two-component order parameter is used to systematically calculate the structures and phase diagrams of polar liquid crystals. Commensurate and incommensurate structures with a layer-type period form as a result of a frustration interaction. Phase diagrams are calculated when various short- and long-range interlayer interactions are sequentially introduced. As a result, the nature of formation of various structures is revealed. The calculated phase diagrams explain the formation of various phases, their temperature sequence (including so-called 'unusual' sequence of phases), and the nature of forces responsible for the formation of a certain structure and the shape of a phase diagram.

  12. On Helium 1083 nm Line Polarization during the Impulsive Phase of an X1 Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.; Kleint, Lucia; Sainz Dalda, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of the He i 1083 nm multiplet (1s2s{}3{S}1-1s2p{}3{P}2,1,0o) during the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48, obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. While scanning active region NOAA 12017, the FIRS slit crossed a flare ribbon during the impulsive phase, when the helium line intensities turned into emission at ≲twice the continuum intensity. Their linear polarization profiles are of the same sign across the multiplet including 1082.9 nm, intensity-like, at ≲5% of the continuum intensity. Weaker Zeeman-induced linear polarization is also observed. Only the strongest linear polarization coincides with hard X-ray (HXR) emission at 30-70 keV observed by RHESSI. The polarization is generally more extended and lasts longer than the HXR emission. The upper J = 0 level of the 1082.9 nm component is unpolarizable thus, lower-level polarization is the culprit. We make non-LTE radiative transfer calculations in thermal slabs optimized to fit only intensities. The linear polarizations are naturally reproduced, through a systematic change of sign with wavelength of the radiation anisotropy when slab optical depths of the 1082.9 component are ≲1. Neither are collisions with beams of particles needed, nor can they produce the same sign of polarization of the 1082.9 and 1083.0 nm components. The He i line polarization merely requires heating sufficient to produce slabs of the required thickness. Widely different polarizations of Hα, reported previously, are explained by different radiative anisotropies arising from slabs of different optical depths.

  13. Formation of intermetallics at the interface of explosively welded Ni-Al multilayered composites during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, T. S.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Bataev, I. A.; Mali, V. I.; Esikov, M. A.; Bataev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ni-Al multilayer composite was fabricated using explosive welding. The zones of mixing of Ni and Al are observed at the composite interfaces after the welding. The composition of these zones is inhomogeneous. Continuous homogeneous intermetallic layers are formed at the interface after heat treatment at 620 °C during 5 h These intermetallic layers consist of NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 phases. The presence of mixed zones significantly accelerates the growth rate of intermetallic phases at the initial stages of heating.

  14. Plasticity and grain boundary structure of {delta}{sub 1k} and {delta}{sub 1p} intermetallic phases in the Fe-Zn system

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, M.H.; Saka, H.

    1997-10-01

    Two polycrystalline specimens of single phase with composition of 87.6 at.% Zn({delta}{sub 1k}) and 90.6 at.% Zn({delta}{sub 1p} phase) in the Fe-Zn system have been prepared and deformed in compression between 200 C and 650 C. Below 350 C the {delta}{sub 1k} phase is brittle, but above 400 C it is ductile. By contrast, the {delta}{sub 1p} phase never showed plasticity at any deformation temperature and strain rate. The microstructures of {delta}{sub 1k} and {delta}{sub 1p} phases were studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique and correlated with the difference in plasticity. The difference in grain boundary structure between {delta}{sub 1k} and {delta}{sub 1p} phases was found to be the primary reason for the observed difference in plasticity.

  15. Absolute polarity determination of teeth cementum by phase sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aboulfadl, Hanane; Hulliger, Jürg

    2015-10-01

    The absolute sign of local polarity in relation to the biological growth direction has been investigated for teeth cementum using phase sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy (PS-SHGM) and a crystal of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP) as a nonlinear optic (NLO) reference material. A second harmonic generation (SHG) response was found in two directions of cementum: radial (acellular extrinsic fibers that are oriented more or less perpendicular to the root surface) and circumferential (cellular intrinsic fibers that are oriented more or less parallel to the surface). A mono-polar state was demonstrated for acellular extrinsic cementum. However, along the different parts of cementum in circumferential direction, two corresponding domains were observed featuring an opposite sign of polarity indicative for a bi-polar microscopic state of cellular intrinsic cementum. The phase information showed that the orientation of radial collagen fibrils of cementum is regularly organized with the donor (D) groups pointing to the surface. Circumferential collagen molecules feature orientational disorder and are oriented up and down in random manner showing acceptor or donor groups at the surface of cementum. Considering that the cementum continues to grow in thickness throughout life, we can conclude that the cementum is growing circumferentially in two opposite directions and radially in one direction. A Markov chain type model for polarity formation in the direction of growth predicts D-groups preferably appearing at the fiber front. PMID:26297858

  16. Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kfir, Ofer; Grychtol, Patrik; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M.; Fleischer, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2015-02-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is useful for analysing the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such radiation has only been available at large-scale X-ray facilities such as synchrotrons. Here, we demonstrate the first bright, phase-matched, extreme ultraviolet circularly-polarized high harmonics source. The harmonics are emitted when bi-chromatic counter-rotating circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of Co. We show that phase-matching of circularly-polarized harmonics is unique and robust, producing a photon flux comparable to linearly polarized high harmonic sources. This work represents a critical advance towards the development of table-top systems for element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution.

  17. Kilohertz generation of high contrast polarization states for visible femtosecond pulses via phase-locked acousto-optic pulse shapers

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, Hélène; Walsh, Brenna; Palato, Samuel; Kambhampati, Patanjali; Thai, Alexandre; Forget, Nicolas; Crozatier, Vincent

    2015-09-14

    We present a detailed analysis of a setup capable of arbitrary amplitude, phase, and polarization shaping of broadband visible femtosecond pulses at 1 kHz via a pair of actively phase stabilized acousto-optic programmable dispersive filters arranged in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer geometry. The setup features phase stability values around λ/225 at 580 nm as well as degrees of polarization of at least 0.9 for any polarization state. Both numbers are important metrics to evaluate a setup's potential for applications based on polarization-shaped femtosecond pulses, such as fully coherent multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

  18. Phase-controllable spin wave generation in iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimine, Isao; Iida, Ryugo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Satoh, Takuya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2014-07-28

    A phase-controlled spin wave was non-thermally generated in bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses. We controlled the initial phase of the spin wave continuously within a range of 180° by changing the polarization azimuth of the excitation light. The azimuth dependences of the initial phase and amplitude of the spin wave were attributed to a combination of the inverse Cotton-Mouton effect and photoinduced magnetic anisotropy. Temporally and spatially resolved spin wave propagation was observed with a CCD camera, and the waveform was in good agreement with calculations. A nonlinear effect of the spin excitation was observed for excitation fluences higher than 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  19. A high-power microwave circular polarizer and its application on phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hao; Hu, Yongmei; Chang, Chao; Guo, Letian

    2016-04-01

    A high-power waveguide dual circular polarizer was theoretically designed and proof-of-principle was experimentally tested. It consists of two incident rectangular waveguides with a perpendicular H-plane junction, one circular waveguide with a pair of trapezoidal grooves coupled in E-plane at the top, a spherical crown located at the bottom, and an iris at the perpendicular junction of two rectangular waveguides. When wave incidents at one of the two separated rectangular waveguides, it, respectively, generates a left-hand circular polarized wave or a right-hand circular polarized wave in the circular waveguide. By adding a dumbbell-like metal plug driven with a high speed servomotor, a movable short circuit is formed along the circular waveguide to adjust the output RF phase of the rectangular port, realizing a high-speed high-power phase shifter. The C-band high power microwave (HPM) experiments were carried out, and the power capacity of the HPM polarizer and phase shifter was demonstrated to reach gigawatt level.

  20. 1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M F C; Tan, M; Phillips, I D; Sygletos, S; Harper, P; Doran, N J

    2014-05-19

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) of a polarization-multiplexed comb of 10x114Gb/s DP-QPSK signals has been demonstrated for the first time, occupying a spectral bandwidth of >1 THz (~9 nm). The nonlinear element employed for the OPC was highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) optimized for the suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and configured in a bi-directional loop offering polarization diversity. Pump power (each way about the loop) and input signal power to the OPC subsystem were optimized at 29.7 dBm and + 3 dBm respectively producing a Q(2) penalty of ≤ 0.9 dB over all conjugate wavelengths, polarizations and output OSNR (up to 20 dB). PMID:24921305

  1. Phase-resolved Spectroscopy of the Intermediate Polars -- TV Col and V1223 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    The cataclysmic variables called intermediate polars are characterized by magnetic fields that rip material from an accretion disk and funnel it to a WD that is not phase-locked to the binary period of the system. This is a proposal to use FUSE to conduct a time-resolved spectroscopic study to dissect the emission of two long-period intermediate polars, V1223 Sgr and TV Col, with very different inclination angles. These, along with the short-period high-inclination IP EX Hya (already observed with FUSE), comprise the only IPs with accurate distances derived from HST astrometry. We will isolate emission from the photosphere of the WD, the magnetically dominated accretion curtain, and the accretion stream. Having characterized the emission sources, we will explore the physical conditions in these same regions, and develop an integrated picture of these two intermediate polars.

  2. Polarity, selectivity and performance of hydrophilic organic/salt-containing aqueous two-phase system on counter-current chromatography for polar compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Hong, Zhilai; Gao, Mingzhe; Wang, Zhixin; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-05-27

    The essential attributes of a solvent system for separation polar compounds on CCC are polarity, selectively and performance. Here, hydrophilic organic/salt-containing aqueous two-phase system (HO/S TPS) was evaluated as an alternative solvent system for CCC separation of polar compounds. Polarity measurements based on Rohrschneider-Snyder parameter was developed as quantitative assessing the polarity of HO/S TPS and comparing with an organic/aqueous system. All investigated 1-butanol/ethanol/saturated ammonium sulfate solution/water (BEAsWat) and 1-butanol/ethanol/saturated dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solution/water (BEDhpWat) systems with polarity values of organic phase from 4.5 to 6.8, were more polar than chloroform/methanol/water (1/1/1). The considerable water content of BEAsWat and BEDhpWat (0/1/1/1/) was 45.4 and 42.6% (w%) of hydrophilic organic phase, and 66.4 and 51.2% (w%) of salt-containing aqueous phase, respectively, closed to conventional aqueous two-phase system. Therefore, the polarity of HO/S TPS is in the middle of organic/aqueous and aqueous two-phase system. The LogKC values of twenty four polar compounds as model mixture confirmed that the polarities of HO/S TPSs were matched to that of the polar compounds and shown to be a very selective technique capable of separating positional isomers. Moreover, BEAsWat and BEDhpWat systems can be easily retained in CCC column with suitable elution mode. The hydrodynamic behavior reversion of HO/S TPS on hydrodynamic CCC was observed and was tentatively explained based on the density difference. Finally, caffeoylquinic acid isomers and dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers were successfully separated with HO/S TPS on CCC, respectively. Those results demonstrate that HO/S TPS on CCC is a performant and stable way to separate polar compounds from natural products. PMID:27131958

  3. A Low-Noise Delta-Sigma Phase Modulator for Polar Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A low-noise phase modulator, using finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering embedded delta-sigma (ΔΣ) fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL), is fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS for GSM/EDGE polar transmitters. A simplified digital compensation filter with inverse-FIR and -PLL features is proposed to trade off the transmitter noise and linearity. Experimental results show that the presented architecture performs RF phase modulation well with 20 mW power dissipation from 1.6 V supply and achieves the root-mean-square (rms) and peak phase errors of 4° and 8.5°, respectively. The measured and simulated phase noises of −104 dBc/Hz and −120 dBc/Hz at 400-kHz offset from 1.8-GHz carrier frequency are observed, respectively. PMID:24719578

  4. A low-noise delta-sigma phase modulator for polar transmitters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A low-noise phase modulator, using finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering embedded delta-sigma (ΔΣ) fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL), is fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS for GSM/EDGE polar transmitters. A simplified digital compensation filter with inverse-FIR and -PLL features is proposed to trade off the transmitter noise and linearity. Experimental results show that the presented architecture performs RF phase modulation well with 20 mW power dissipation from 1.6 V supply and achieves the root-mean-square (rms) and peak phase errors of 4° and 8.5°, respectively. The measured and simulated phase noises of -104 dBc/Hz and -120 dBc/Hz at 400-kHz offset from 1.8-GHz carrier frequency are observed, respectively. PMID:24719578

  5. Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marcelo A; Lu, Xin; Martins, Hugo F; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Thévenaz, Luc

    2015-09-21

    In this paper a technique to measure the distributed birefringence profile along optical fibers is proposed and experimentally validated. The method is based on the spectral correlation between two sets of orthogonally-polarized measurements acquired using a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕOTDR). The correlation between the two measured spectra gives a resonance (correlation) peak at a frequency detuning that is proportional to the local refractive index difference between the two orthogonal polarization axes of the fiber. In this way the method enables local phase birefringence measurements at any position along optical fibers, so that any longitudinal fluctuation can be precisely evaluated with metric spatial resolution. The method has been experimentally validated by measuring fibers with low and high birefringence, such as standard single-mode fibers as well as conventional polarization-maintaining fibers. The technique has potential applications in the characterization of optical fibers for telecommunications as well as in distributed optical fiber sensing. PMID:26406692

  6. Interaction types and their like-polarization phase-angle difference signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Jack F.

    1992-01-01

    The JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) measures the full polarimetric properties of scene objects. AIRSAR data contain a complete set of magnitudes (for all linearly-polarized combinations (viz., VV, HH, and CS (cross Polarization))) and phase-angle differences (for all pairs of linearly-polarized components) for each image pixel. Radar images users have been greatly interested in the like-polarization (LK) phase-angle difference parameter, delta phi(sub LK). Usually, it is associated with the type of interaction between microwaves and scene-object scattering-elements. One value of delta phi(sub LK) is said to be produced by a dominant single scattering (or reflection) event, and another value is said to be the result of a dominant double-scattering (or double reflection) event. these are often called 'single bounce' and 'double bounce' interaction signatures, respectively. There appears to be a significant amount of confusion about how the interaction processes produce the characteristic values of delta phi(sub LK) and about what value of delta phi(sub LK) should be associated with each specific type. This issue is addressed.

  7. NMR Properties of the Polar Phase of Superfluid ^3He in Anisotropic Aerogel Under Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    The polar phase of superfluid ^3He is stable in "nematically ordered" densed aerogel. A rotating vessel with the polar superfluid can be filled either by an array of the single quantum vortices or by an array of the half-quantum vortices. It is shown that the inhomogeneous distribution of the spin part of the order parameter arising in an array of half-quantum vortices in strong enough magnetic field tilted to the average direction of aerogel strands leads to the appearance of a satellite in the NMR signal shifted in the negative direction with respect to the Larmor frequency. The satellite is absent in the case of an array of single quantum vortices which allows to distinguish these two configurations. The polar state in the anisotropic aerogel with lower density transforms at lower temperatures to the axipolar state. The array of half-quantum vortices created in the polar phase keeps its structure under transition to the axipolar state. The temperature dependence of the vortex-satellite NMR frequency is found to be slower below the transition temperature to the axipolar state.

  8. Phase interpretation for polarization-dependent near-field images of high-density gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiangjun; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Bo

    2008-06-01

    It has been described that the near-field images of a high-density grating at the half self-imaging distance could be different for TE and TM polarization states. We propose that the phases of the diffraction orders play an important role in such polarization dependence. The view is verified through the coincidence of the numerical result of finite-difference time-domain method and the reconstructed results from the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. Field distributions of TE and TM polarizations are given numerically for a grating with period d = 2.3 λ, which are verified through experiments with the scanning near-field optical microscopy technique. The concept of phase interpretation not only explains the polarization dependence at the half self-imaging distance of gratings with a physical view, but also, it could be widely used to describe the near-field diffraction of a variety of periodic diffractive optical elements whose feature size comparable to the wavelength.

  9. NMR Properties of the Polar Phase of Superfluid ^3 He in Anisotropic Aerogel Under Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    The polar phase of superfluid ^3 He is stable in "nematically ordered" densed aerogel. A rotating vessel with the polar superfluid can be filled either by an array of the single quantum vortices or by an array of the half-quantum vortices. It is shown that the inhomogeneous distribution of the spin part of the order parameter arising in an array of half-quantum vortices in strong enough magnetic field tilted to the average direction of aerogel strands leads to the appearance of a satellite in the NMR signal shifted in the negative direction with respect to the Larmor frequency. The satellite is absent in the case of an array of single quantum vortices which allows to distinguish these two configurations. The polar state in the anisotropic aerogel with lower density transforms at lower temperatures to the axipolar state. The array of half-quantum vortices created in the polar phase keeps its structure under transition to the axipolar state. The temperature dependence of the vortex-satellite NMR frequency is found to be slower below the transition temperature to the axipolar state.

  10. Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-01

    This Letter reports an optically controlled microwave phase shifter with an ultra-wideband working bandwidth and a full 360° phase shifting range based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). A continuous wave probe light is modulated by a polarization modulator (PolM) that is driven by a microwave signal to be phase shifted. The optical carrier and the first-order sidebands of the probe light experience different phase shifts due to the NPR induced by the control light in the HNLF. An optical bandpass filter is used to realize single-sideband modulation of the probe light by removing one of the first-order sidebands, as well as to reject the control light. After detecting by a photodetector, the phase of the recovered microwave signal is continuously tunable by adjusting the power of the control light. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. A full 360° tunable phase shift is realized over an ultra-wideband frequency range from 8 to 38 GHz when the power of the control light is tuned from 0 to 570 mW. PMID:24876035

  11. Enhanced ferroelectric polarization and potential morphotrophic phase boundary in PZT-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David; McGuire, Michael; Singh, David

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of alloys of the high performance piezoelectric PZT (PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3) with BZnT (BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3) and BZnZr (BiZn0.5Zr0.5O3), focussing on lattice instabilities, atomic displacements and ferroelectric polarization. From theory we find that the 75 - 25 PZT - BZnT alloy has substantially larger cation displacements, and hence ferroelectric polarization than the PZT base material, on the tetragonal side of the phase diagram. We also find a possible morphotrophic phase boundary in this system by comparing displacement patterns and optimized c/a ratios. Experiments indicate the feasibility of sample synthesis within this alloy system.

  12. Polarization maintaining fiber magnetic sensor based on the digital phase generated carrier technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Meng, Zhou; Hu, Zhengliang; Yang, Huayong; Song, Zhangqi; Hu, Yongming

    2008-12-01

    A polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) magnetic field sensor based on a digital phase generated carrier (PGC) technology is presented. A magnetic sensor constructed with two magnetostrictive strips attached on the sensing fiber is joined in the sensing arm of a fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber optic interferometric system is made of all PMF, which inhibits the polarization-induced signal fading. The light source is a fiber laser which can be modulated directly. The PGC metnod is used to demodulate magnetic field signal avoiding phase induced interferometric signal fading, and ensure the sensing partto be all fiber structure. A fiber optic magnetic field sensor with appreciate size for the fiber optic hydrophone towed array is obtained, which can be used to sense the enviromental magnetic field along the sensing direction.This sensor is a good choice for the directional angle measurement through sensing the Earth magnetic field in the array shape measurement of a fiber optic hydrophone towed array.

  13. Visualizing the phenomena of wave interference, phase-shifting and polarization by interactive computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.

  14. Effect of ferroelastic twin walls on local polarizations switching - phase field modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Quanzi; Choudhury, S; Zhang, J X; Li, Y L; Chen, Q; Kalinin, S V

    2008-01-01

    Local polarization switching in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls was studied using phase-field approach. The nucleation bias profile across a twin wall was analyzed, and the localization of preferential nucleation sites was established. This analysis was further extended to a realistic domain structure with multiple twin boundaries. It was observed that the local nucleation voltage required for a 180{sup o} domain switching is closely related to the number of such local defects.

  15. Phase of the quantum harmonic oscillator with applications to optical polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    The phase of the quantum harmonic oscillator, the temporal distribution of a particle in a square-well potential, and a quantum theory of angles are derived from a general theory of complementarity. Schwinger's harmonic oscillator model of angular momenta is modified for the case of photons. Angular distributions for systems of identical and distinguishable particles are discussed. Unitary and antiunitary time reversal operators are then presented and applied to optical polarization states in birefringent media.

  16. Beam quality changes of radially and azimuthally polarized fields propagating through quartic phase plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Herrero, R.; Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.

    2008-02-01

    In terms of the so-called irradiance moments of a light field, the beam quality change, Δ Q, of radially and azimuthally polarized beams caused by propagation through a quartic phase plate (as occurs, for example, in strongly pumped laser rods used in high-power solid-state lasers) is studied. Analytical expressions for Δ Q are given, and a comparison between the scalar and vectorial regimes is also shown. The results are applied to several cases of interest.

  17. Effect of ferroelastic twin walls on local polarization switching: Phase-field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Zhang, J. X.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, L. Q.; Jia, Q. X.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2008-10-01

    Local polarization switching in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls was studied using phase-field approach. The nucleation bias profile across a twin wall was analyzed, and the localization of preferential nucleation sites was established. This analysis was further extended to a realistic domain structure with multiple twin boundaries. It was observed that the local nucleation voltage required for a 180° domain switching is closely related to the number of such local defects.

  18. Polarization dependence of the phase of interference between single- and two-photon ionization.

    PubMed

    Baranova, N B; Chudinov, A N; Shulginov, A A; Zel'dovich, B Y

    1991-09-01

    The interference between single-photon and two-photon ionization has been observed for electrons ejected in the direction n from the photomultiplier cathode exposed simultaneously to the picosecond pulse of a Nd laser E(omega) and its second harmonic E(2omega). The change of the phase difference of such interference was measured for the switch of the polarizations from E(omega) ||n, E(2omega) ||n to E(omega) ? n, E(2omega) || n. PMID:19776966

  19. Limonene in Arizona liquid systems used in countercurrent chromatography. II Polarity and stationary-phase retention.

    PubMed

    Faure, K; Bouju, E; Doby, J; Berthod, A

    2014-09-01

    The previous article in this series described the physico-chemical properties and chemical compositions of the two phases of the limonene-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water biphasic liquid system. This system was designed to be a "green" version of the so-called Arizona (AZ) scale of heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol compositions in which the heptane-ethyl acetate volume ratio is exactly the same as the methanol-water ratio. The first major difference between the standard and "green" AZ systems is the difference in upper and lower phase densities. The higher density of limonene compared with heptane greatly reduces the density difference of the "green" system: half the compositions have a density difference lower than 0.06 g mL(-1), precluding their use in hydrodynamic CCC columns. The other major difference is the phase polarity. The better distribution of ethanol between the upper organic and lower aqueous phases of the "green" AZ scale renders them more polar than their counterparts in standard heptane-based compositions. The test solutes aspirin and coumarin have higher distribution constants in the "green" AZ compositions. It is revealed that a hydrostatic column is suitable for use with all "green" compositions, with very good phase retention and limited driving pressure at high flow rates. A hydrodynamic column only functioned at limited flow rates with polar compositions of sufficient phase-density difference. The CCC chromatograms obtained with different compositions and columns are shown, and their peak position and sharpness discussed. PMID:25084735

  20. Characterizing polarized illumination in high numerical aperture optical lithography with phase shifting masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Gregory Russell

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to develop the phase shifting mask (PSM) as a precision instrument to characterize effects in optical lithography related to the use of polarized partially coherent illumination. The intent is to provide an in-situ characterization technique to add to the lithographer's tool-kit to help enable the stable and repeatable mass production of integrated circuits with feature sizes approaching 1/6th the wavelength of light being used. A series of complex-valued mathematical functions have been derived from basic principles and recent advances in photomask fabrication technology have enabled their implementation with four-phase mask making. When located in the object plane of an imaging system, these test functions serve to engineer a wavefiront that interacts with one particular optical effect, creating a measurable signal in the image plane. In most cases, these test patterns leverage proximity effects to create a central image intensity and are theoretically the most sensitive to the desired effect. Five novel classes of test patterns have been developed for in-situ characterization. The first two classes, The Linear Phase Grating (LPG) and Linear Phase Ring (LPR), both serve to characterize illumination angular distribution and uniformity by creating signals dependent on illumination angular frequency. The third class consists of the Radial Phase Grating (RPG) and Proximity Effect Polarization Analyzers (PEPA), which each create a polarization-dependent signal by taking advantage of the image reversal of one polarization component at high numerical aperture (NA). PSM Polarimetry employs a series of these patterns to form a complete polarization characterization of any arbitrary illumination scheme. The fourth and fifth classes employ sub-resolution interferometric reference probes to coherently interact with proximity effect spillover from a surrounding pattern. They measure the effective phase and transmission of the

  1. Electronic structure, phase stability, and vibrational properties of Ir-based intermetallic compound IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıkan, N.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Ünver, H.; Uğur, G.

    2015-02-01

    The phase stability and mechanical properties of B2 type IrX (X=Al, Sc and Ga) compounds are investigated. Self-consistenttotal-energy calculations in the framework of density functional theory using the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) to determine the equations of state and the elastic constants of IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga) in the B2 phase have been performed. The calculations predicted the equilibrium lattice constants, which are about 1% greater than experiments for IrAl, 1.81% for IrGa, and 0.71% for IrSc compound. IrAl is shown to be the least compressible, and it is followed by IrGa and the IrSc compound. The phase stability of the studied compounds is checked. The brittleness and ductility properties of IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga) are determined by Poisson's ratio σ criterion and Pugh's criterion. IrGa compound is a ductile material; however, IrAl and IrSc show brittleness. The band structure and density of states (DOS), and phonon dispersion curves have been obtained and analyzed. The position of the Fermi level and the contribution of d electrons to the density of states near EF is studied and discussed in detail. We also used the phonon density of states and quasiharmonic approximation to calculate and predict some thermodynamic properties such as constant-volume specific heat capacity of the B2 phase of IrX (X=Al, Sc and Ga) compounds.

  2. Phase Diagram of Two-Dimensional Polar Condensates in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    James, A. J. A.; Lamacraft, A.

    2011-04-08

    Spin-1 condensates in the polar (antiferromagnetic) phase in two dimensions are shown to undergo a transition of the Ising type, in addition to the expected Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition of half-vortices, due to the quadratic Zeeman effect. We establish the phase diagram in terms of temperature and the strength of the Zeeman effect using Monte Carlo simulations. When the Zeeman effect is sufficiently strong, the Ising and KT transitions meet. For very strong Zeeman field the remaining transition is of the familiar integer KT type.

  3. Polarization induced Z2 and Chern topological phases in a periodically driving field

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Shu-Ting; Savrasov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Z2 and Chern topological phases such as newly discovered quantum spin Hall and original quantum Hall states hardly both co–exist in a single material due to their contradictory requirement on the time–reversal symmetry (TRS). We show that although the TRS is broken in systems with a periodically driving field, an effective TRS can still be defined provided the ac–field is linearly polarized or certain other conditions are satisfied. The controllable TRS provides us a route to manipulate contradictory phases by tuning the polarization. To demonstrate the idea, we consider a tight-binding model that is relevant to several monolayered materials as a benchmark system. Our calculation shows not only topological Z2 to Chern phase transition occurs but rich Chern phases are also observed. In addition, we also discussed the realization of our proposal in real materials, such as spin-orbit coupled graphene and crystal Bismuth. This opens the possibility of manipulating various topological phases in a single material and can be a promising approach to engineer new electronic states of matter. PMID:26965181

  4. Polarization induced Z2 and Chern topological phases in a periodically driving field.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shu-Ting; Savrasov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Z2 and Chern topological phases such as newly discovered quantum spin Hall and original quantum Hall states hardly both co-exist in a single material due to their contradictory requirement on the time-reversal symmetry (TRS). We show that although the TRS is broken in systems with a periodically driving field, an effective TRS can still be defined provided the ac-field is linearly polarized or certain other conditions are satisfied. The controllable TRS provides us a route to manipulate contradictory phases by tuning the polarization. To demonstrate the idea, we consider a tight-binding model that is relevant to several monolayered materials as a benchmark system. Our calculation shows not only topological Z2 to Chern phase transition occurs but rich Chern phases are also observed. In addition, we also discussed the realization of our proposal in real materials, such as spin-orbit coupled graphene and crystal Bismuth. This opens the possibility of manipulating various topological phases in a single material and can be a promising approach to engineer new electronic states of matter. PMID:26965181

  5. Polarization induced Z2 and Chern topological phases in a periodically driving field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shu-Ting; Savrasov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Z2 and Chern topological phases such as newly discovered quantum spin Hall and original quantum Hall states hardly both co–exist in a single material due to their contradictory requirement on the time–reversal symmetry (TRS). We show that although the TRS is broken in systems with a periodically driving field, an effective TRS can still be defined provided the ac–field is linearly polarized or certain other conditions are satisfied. The controllable TRS provides us a route to manipulate contradictory phases by tuning the polarization. To demonstrate the idea, we consider a tight-binding model that is relevant to several monolayered materials as a benchmark system. Our calculation shows not only topological Z2 to Chern phase transition occurs but rich Chern phases are also observed. In addition, we also discussed the realization of our proposal in real materials, such as spin-orbit coupled graphene and crystal Bismuth. This opens the possibility of manipulating various topological phases in a single material and can be a promising approach to engineer new electronic states of matter.

  6. Phase Shift of Polarized Light after Transmission through a Biaxial Anisotropic Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xu; He, Kai; Qi, Hong-Ji; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jian-Da

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis of biaxial birefringent thin films with characteristic matrix method, we investigate the phase shift on transmission of a tilted columnar biaxial film at normal and oblique incidence over 300-1200 nm for s- and p-polarized waves. Compared with the simplified calculation method, the interference effects of the birefringent thin film are considered to yield more accurate results. The quarter wavelength phase shift calculated with the characteristic matrix method is consistent with that monitored with in situ measurement by two-angle ellipsometry, which validates our complied program for the calculation of the phase shift of the biaxial anisotropic thin film. Furthermore, the characteristic matrix method can be easily used to obtain continuous adjustable phase retardation at oblique incidence, whereas the simplified calculation method is valid for the case of normal incidence. A greater generality and superiority of the characteristic matrix method is presented.

  7. Cu-Au, Ag-Au, Cu-Ag, and Ni-Au intermetallics: First-principles study of temperature-composition phase diagrams and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozoliņš, V.; Wolverton, C.; Zunger, Alex

    1998-03-01

    The classic metallurgical systems-noble-metal alloys-that have formed the benchmark for various alloy theories are revisited. First-principles fully relaxed general-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (LAPW) total energies of a few ordered structures are used as input to a mixed-space cluster expansion calculation to study the phase stability, thermodynamic properties, and bond lengths in Cu-Au, Ag-Au, Cu-Ag, and Ni-Au alloys. (i) Our theoretical calculations correctly reproduce the tendencies of Ag-Au and Cu-Au to form compounds and Ni-Au and Cu-Ag to phase separate at T=0 K. (ii) Of all possible structures, Cu3Au (L12) and CuAu (L10) are found to be the most stable low-temperature phases of Cu1-xAux with transition temperatures of 530 K and 660 K, respectively, compared to the experimental values 663 K and ~670 K. The significant improvement over previous first-principles studies is attributed to the more accurate treatment of atomic relaxations in the present work. (iii) LAPW formation enthalpies demonstrate that L12, the commonly assumed stable phase of CuAu3, is not the ground state for Au-rich alloys, but rather that ordered (100) superlattices are stabilized. (iv) We extract the nonconfigurational (e.g., vibrational) entropies of formation and obtain large values for the size-mismatched systems: 0.48 kB/atom in Ni0.5Au0.5 (T=1100 K), 0.37 kB/atom in Cu0.141Ag0.859 (T=1052 K), and 0.16 kB/atom in Cu0.5Au0.5 (T=800 K). (v) Using 8 atom/cell special quasirandom structures we study the bond lengths in disordered Cu-Au and Ni-Au alloys and obtain good qualitative agreement with recent extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements.

  8. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells.

    PubMed

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-11-01

    Polarization and positive phase contrast microscope were concomitantly used in the study of the internal structure of microbial cells. Positive phase contrast allowed us to view even the fine cell structure with a refractive index approaching that of the surrounding environment, e.g., the cytoplasm, and transferred the invisible phase image to a visible amplitude image. With polarization microscopy, crossed polarizing filters together with compensators and a rotary stage showed the birefringence of different cell structures. Material containing algae was collected in ponds in Sýkořice and Zbečno villages (Křivoklát region). The objects were studied in laboratory microscopes LOMO MIN-8 Sankt Petersburg and Polmi A Carl Zeiss Jena fitted with special optics for positive phase contrast, polarizers, analyzers, compensators, rotary stages, and digital SLR camera Nikon D 70 for image capture. Anisotropic granules were found in the cells of flagellates of the order Euglenales, in green algae of the orders Chlorococcales and Chlorellales, and in desmid algae of the order Desmidiales. The cell walls of filamentous algae of the orders Zygnematales and Ulotrichales were found to exhibit significant birefringence; in addition, relatively small amounts of small granules were found in the cytoplasm. A typical shape-related birefringence of the cylindrical walls and the septa between the cells differed in intensity, which was especially apparent when using a Zeiss compensator RI-c during its successive double setting. In conclusion, the anisotropic granules found in the investigated algae mostly showed strong birefringence and varied in number, size, and location of the cells. Representatives of the order Chlorococcales contained the highest number of granules per cell, and the size of these granules was almost double than that of the other monitored microorganisms. Very strong birefringence was exhibited by cell walls of filamentous algae; it differed in the intensity

  9. Low-Temperature Synthesis Routes to Intermetallic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-01-08

    Over the past few years, our group has gained expertise at developing low-temperature solution-based synthetic pathways to complex nanoscale solids, with particular emphasis on nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds. Our synthetic capabilities are providing tools to reproducibly generate intermetallic nanostructures with simultaneous control over crystal structure, composition, and morphology. This DOE-funded project aims to expand these capabilities to intermetallic superconductors. This could represent an important addition to the tools that are available for the synthesis and processing of intermetallic superconductors, which traditionally utilize high-temperature, high-pressure, thin film, or gas-phase vacuum deposition methods. Our current knowledge of intermetallic superconductors suggests that significant enhancements could result from the inherent benefits of low-temperature solution synthesis, e.g. metastable phase formation, control over nanoscale morphology to facilitate size-dependent property studies, robust and inexpensive processability, low-temperature annealing and consolidation, and impurity incorporation (for doping, stoichiometry control, flux pinning, and improving the critical fields). Our focus is on understanding the superconducting properties as a function of synthetic route, crystal structure, crystallite size, and morphology, and developing the synthetic tools necessary to accomplish this. This research program can currently be divided into two classes of superconducting materials: intermetallics (transition metal/post transition metal) and metal carbides/borides. Both involve the development and exploitation of low-temperature synthesis routes followed by detailed characterization of structures and properties, with the goal of understanding how the synthetic pathways influence key superconducting properties of selected target materials. Because of the low-temperature methods used to synthesize them and the nanocrystalline morphologies

  10. Zn13(CrxAl1-x)27 (x = 0.34-0.37): a new intermetallic phase containing icosahedra as building units

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Han, Mi-Kyung; Miller, Gordon J.

    2011-03-13

    The title compounds Zn{sub 13}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 27} (x = 0.34-0.37) were obtained by melting the pure elements at 923 K, and followed by a heat treatment at 723 K in a tantalum container. According to single crystal structural analysis, the title compounds crystallize in the rhombohedral system, adopting a new structure type (R-3m, a = 7.5971(8), c = 36.816(6), for crystal I). Single crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals a statistical mixing of Cr/Al in their crystallographic positions. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction as well as energy dispersive X-ray analyses suggested the title phase to have a narrow homogeneity range. The substructure of Zn{sub 13}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 27} shows close resemblance with the Mn{sub 3}Al{sub 10} structure type. A bonding analysis, through crystal orbital Hamiltonian populations (COHPs), of 'Cr{sub 9}Al{sub 18}Zn{sub 13}' as a representative composition indicated that both homo- and heteronuclear interactions are important for the stability of this new phase.