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Sample records for polarized bhabha scattering

  1. Polarized Bhabha scattering and a precision measurement of the electron neutral current couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D`Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell`Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; (SLD Collaborat...

    1995-04-10

    Bhabha scattering with polarized electrons at the {ital Z}{sup 0} resonance has been measured with the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. The first measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Bhabha scattering is presented, yielding the effective weak mixing angle of sin{theta}{sup eff}{sub {ital W}}=0.2245{plus_minus}0.0049{plus_minus}0.0010. The effective electron couplings to the {ital Z}{sup 0} are extracted from a combined analysis of polarized Bhabha scattering and the left-right asymmetry previously published: {upsilon}{sub {ital e}}={minus}0.0414{plus_minus}0.0020 and {ital a}{sub {ital e}}={minus}0.4977{plus_minus}0.0045.

  2. Electroweak coupling measurements from polarized Bhabha scattering at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, K.T.; SLD Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    The cross section for Bhabah scattering (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) with polarized electrons at the center of mass energy of the Z{sup 0} resonance has been measured with the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the 1992--1993 runs. The first measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Bhabah scattering (A{sub LR}{sup e+}e{sup {minus}} ({theta})) is presented. From A{sub LR}{sup e+}{sup {minus}} ({Theta}) the effective weak mixing angle is measured to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2245{plus_minus}0.0010. When combined with the measurement of A{sub LR}, the effective electron couplings are measured to be v{sub e} = {minus}0.0414{plus_minus}0.0020 and a{sub e} = {minus}0.4977{plus_minus}0.0045.

  3. Electroweak coupling measurements from polarized Bhabha scattering at the Z{sup 0} resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, K.T.

    1994-03-01

    The cross section for Bhabha scattering (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) with polarized electrons at the center of mass energy of the Z{sup 0} resonance has been measured with the SLD experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center during the 1992 and 1993 runs. The electroweak couplings of the electron are extracted. At small angles the measurement is done in the SLD Silicon/Tungsten Luminosity Monitor (LMSAT). A detailed description of the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the LMSAT is provided. The integrated luminosity for 1992 is measured to be L = 420.86{plus_minus}2.56 (stat){plus_minus}4.23 (sys) nb{sup {minus}1}. The luminosity asymmetry for polarized beams is measured to be A{sub LR}(LUM) = (1.7 {plus_minus} 6.4) {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. The large angle polarized Bhabha scattering reveals the effective electron vector and axial vector couplings to the Z{sup 0} through the measurement of the Z{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} partial width, {Gamma}{sub ee}, and the parity violation parameter, A{sub e}. From the combined 1992 and 1993 data the effective electron vector and axial vector couplings are measured to be {bar g}{sub v}{sup e} = {minus}0.0495{plus_minus}0.0096{plus_minus}0.0030, and {bar g}{sub {alpha}}{sup e} = {minus}0.4977{plus_minus}0.0035{plus_minus}0.0064 respectively. The effective weak mixing angle is measured to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2251{plus_minus}0.0049{plus_minus}0.0015. These results are compared with other experiments.

  4. Large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero

    1998-04-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed. © 1998

  5. QED radiative corrections to low-energy Møller and Bhabha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles S.; Milner, Richard G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a treatment of the next-to-leading-order radiative corrections to unpolarized Møller and Bhabha scattering without resorting to ultrarelativistic approximations. We extend existing soft-photon radiative corrections with new hard-photon bremsstrahlung calculations so that the effect of photon emission is taken into account for any photon energy. This formulation is intended for application in the OLYMPUS experiment and the upcoming DarkLight experiment but is applicable to a broad range of experiments at energies where QED is a sufficient description.

  6. Homi Bhabha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Homi K. Bhabha is not only a major postcolonial theorist, but he has also become an important thinker for education. This article reviews the major themes of Bhabha's work as it applies to education. The article also cautions us that the pressures in scholarship are to "reify" thinkers and their concepts and then "spend" those concepts like…

  7. Homi Bhabha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumar, Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Homi K. Bhabha is not only a major postcolonial theorist, but he has also become an important thinker for education. This article reviews the major themes of Bhabha's work as it applies to education. The article also cautions us that the pressures in scholarship are to "reify" thinkers and their concepts and then "spend" those concepts like currency in the academic marketplace. This form of commodification is antithetical to progressive scholarly work. The article encourages a resistance to this form of commodification through a more complex engagement with the theories developed by Bhabha and an appreciation of the contradictions in the process of that engagement.

  8. Two-loop Bhabha scattering at high energy beyond leading power approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penin, Alexander A.; Zerf, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the two-loop O (me2/ s) contribution to the wide-angle high-energy electron-positron scattering in the double-logarithmic approximation. The origin and the general structure of the power-suppressed double logarithmic corrections are discussed in detail.

  9. Two-loop Bhabha scattering at high energy beyond leading power approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penin, Alexander A.; Zerf, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the two-loop O (me2/s) contribution to the wide-angle high-energy electron-positron scattering in the double-logarithmic approximation. The origin and the general structure of the power-suppressed double logarithmic corrections are discussed in detail.

  10. A study of low Q/sup 2/ radiative Bhabha scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Karlen, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis presents a study of electron-positron scattering, via nearly real photon exchange, where in the process one or more high energy photons are produced. The motivations behind the work are twofold. Firstly, the study is a sensitive test of the theory of electron-photon interactions, quantum electrodynamics. A deviation from the theory could indicate that the electron is a composite particle. Secondly, a thorough understanding of this process is necessary for experiments to be done in the near future at the Stanford Linear Collider and the LEP facility at CERN. Calculations for the process to third and fourth order in pertubation theory are described. Methods for simulating the process by a Monte Carlo event generator are given. Results from the calculations are compared to data from the Mark II experiment at the PEP storage ring. The ratio of measured to calculated cross sections are 0.993 /+-/ 0.017 /+-/ 0.015 and 0.99 /+-/ 0.16 /+-/ 0.08 for final states with one and two observed photons respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. The excellent agreement verifies the calculations of the fourth order radiative correction. No evidence for electron substructure is observed.

  11. New calculations of cross-sections and charge asymmetries for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering in e+e- collisions near the Z-peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. H.

    1994-03-01

    A new event generator for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering, BHAGENE3, is presented. Both electroweak and higher order (beyond O(α) QED corrections are included. Comparisons are made with results from the programs, based on the structure function formalism, ALIBABA, TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. For the case of the final states l+l-γγ ( l = e, μ, τ) BHAGENE3 results are compared with those of Monte Carlo generators that use the exact O( α2) amplitudes.

  12. Scattering Polarization in the Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. U.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering polarization from the photosphere observed close to the solar limb has recently become of interest to study turbulent magnetic fields, abundances, and radiative transfer effects. We extend these studies by measuring the scattering polarization off the limb, i.e. in the chromosphere. However, instrumental effects are much more pronounced and more complicated than those affecting on-disk measurements. In particular, scattered light from the telescope mirrors leads to a new type of instrumental polarization that we describe in detail. The differences between the linearly polarized spectra on the disk and off the limb are often very substantial. Here we show the profiles of HeI D(sub 3), the OI triplet at 777 nm, and the Nal D lines. The change in the latter is in reasonable agreement with the recent modeling efforts of atomic polarization in the lower level by Landi Degl'Innocenti (1998).

  13. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, E.

    1994-02-01

    Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.

  14. SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Štěpán, Jiří; Heinzel, Petr

    2013-11-20

    There is ongoing debate about the origin and even the very existence of a high degree of linear polarization of some chromospheric spectral lines observed in solar flares. The standard explanation of these measurements is in terms of the impact polarization caused by non-thermal proton and/or electron beams. In this work, we study the possible role of resonance line polarization due to radiation anisotropy in the inhomogeneous medium of the flare ribbons. We consider a simple two-dimensional model of the flaring chromosphere and we self-consistently solve the non-LTE problem taking into account the role of resonant scattering polarization and of the Hanle effect. Our calculations show that the horizontal plasma inhomogeneities at the boundary of the flare ribbons can lead to a significant radiation anisotropy in the line formation region and, consequently, to a fractional linear polarization of the emergent radiation of the order of several percent. Neglecting the effects of impact polarization, our model can provide a clue for resolving some of the common observational findings, namely: (1) why a high degree of polarization appears mainly at the edges of the flare ribbons; (2) why polarization can also be observed during the gradual phase of a flare; and (3) why polarization is mostly radial or tangential. We conclude that radiation transfer in realistic multi-dimensional models of solar flares needs to be considered as an essential ingredient for understanding the observed spectral line polarization.

  15. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  16. Chromospheric diagnosis with forward scattering polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, E. S.

    2015-10-01

    Is it physically feasible to perform the chromospheric diagnosis using spatial maps of scattering polarization at the solar disk center? To investigate it we synthesized polarization maps (in 8542 Å) resulting from MHD solar models and NLTE radiative transfer calculations that consider Hanle effect and vertical macroscopic motions. After explaining the physical context of forward scattering and presenting our results, we arrive at the definition of Hanle polarity inversion lines. We show how such features can give support for a clearer chromospheric diagnosis in which the magnetic and dynamic effects in the scattering polarization could be disentangled.

  17. Polarization scattering by soliton-soliton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenauer, L. F.; Gordon, J. P.; Heismann, F.

    1995-10-01

    We have discovered experimentally that soliton-soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing significantly alter the polarization states of the colliding solitons. Analysis shows that the change in polarization is according to the cross product of the Stokes vectors of the colliding solitons. Birefringence of the fiber spans can turn this polarization scattering into a significant source of timing jitter.

  18. Polarization of light scattered by clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Paul; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. This phenomenon is not well understood but is potentially of interest for remote sensing of the earth. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of vegetation were measured. The Umov effect, or inverse relation between polarization and reflectance noted by many earlier workers, was observed here and is shown to be a very general property of diffusely scattering surfaces. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The polarization of light scattered from aggregations of leaves is affected by this negatively polarized, transmitted light. The light scattered from the upper leaf surfaces was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for quantitatively by specular Fresnel reflection from small, randomly oriented facets on the surfaces of the leaves.

  19. Quantization of polarization states through scattering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, Glafkos

    This dissertation investigates, in a comprehensive and unified effort, three major areas: (a) The quantization of polarization states through various scattering mechanisms and frequencies. (b) Scattering multispectra mechanisms, mainly diffraction and reflection combined with the split of polarization states, introduce polarization dynamics, creates new opportunities and applications in communication systems, detection algorithms and various other applications. (c) Combine the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Geometrical Optics (GO) resulting in realistic monostatic-bistatic UWB (Ultra Wide Band) polarimetric capabilities for both high frequency and low frequency applications under a single computation engine, where current methods Physical Optics (PO) and GO are only capable for high frequency Radar Cross Section (RCS) applications; these methods are based on separate computational engines. The quantization of polarization states is a result of various scattering mechanisms, when Electromagnetic waves of various frequencies, are incident on various scatterers. We generate and introduce for the first time the concept of quantization matrix revealing the unique characteristics of scatterers. This is a similar and very close concept related to the quantization of energy states in quantum mechanics. The split of polarization states causes the coherency/incoherency of depolarization through the various scattering mechanisms and frequencies. It is shown (in chapter 3) that by increasing the number of frequencies, the quantization matrix size increases as well, allowing better and higher resolution. The edge diffraction was chosen as one of the scattering mechanisms showing strong polarization filtering effects. Furthermore the filtering of polarization through edges combined with reflections, links with polarization dynamics in NLOS (non line of sight) applications. In addition, the fact that wedge scattering is more sensitive to polarization versus reflections

  20. Positivity restrictions in polarized coincidence electronuclear scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrasinovic, V. )

    1995-03-01

    We make a systematic examination of the role played by the restriction that the cross section in polarized coincidence electronuclear processes must be positive. The necessary formalism for unpolarized scattering structure functions is developed within two frameworks: (i) the response tensor method, and (ii) the Jacob-Wick method. Equivalence of the two methods is demonstrated for unpolarized scattering, and then the simpler Jacob-Wick method is applied to the polarized pseudoscalar electroproduction off a nucleon. We derive three known and eight new inequalities among the polarized target structure functions, as well as 11 new polarized ejectile structure function inequalitites. We also provide rules for this method to be used in the deuteron two-body electrodisintegration in conjunction with the results published in Phys. Rev. C 40, 2479 (1989).

  1. Proton spin polarizabilities from polarized Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pasquini; D. Drechsel; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2007-07-01

    Polarized Compton scattering off the proton is studied within the framework of subtracted dispersion relations for photon energies up to 300 MeV. As a guideline for forthcoming experiments, we focus the attention on the role of the proton's spin polarizabilities and investigate the most favorable conditions to extract them with a minimum of model dependence. We conclude that a complete separation of the four spin polarizabilities is possible, at photon energies between threshold and the $\\Delta(1232)$ region, provided one can achieve polarization measurements with an accuracy of a few percent.

  2. Polarization modulation for imaging behind the scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Soni, Niraj Kumar; Vinu, R V; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a technique, based on polarization modulation, for imaging of the polarization discriminating object hidden behind a scattering medium. This is realized by making use of the relation between the complex correlation function of the randomly scattered orthogonal polarization components in the far field and polarized source structure at the scattering plane. Full use of a polarimetric parameter at the scattering plane is realized in the object plane reconstruction behind the scattering medium using a backpropagation approach. To demonstrate application of the technique, imaging of two different objects lying behind the scattering media is presented. PMID:26974077

  3. The theoretical polarization of pure scattering axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Sobolev approach to the scattering of starlight through a pure scattering circumstellar envelope is developed. The theoretical polarization due to electron scattering in Be star envelopes is calculated for two geometries (an equatorially enhanced envelope and a spheroidal envelope). Only the disk-type envelope is found to yield a maximum polarization consistent with the observed range for Be stars. A lower limit, analytical approximation to the theoretical polarization from a pure scattering envelope is obtained.

  4. Scattering of polarized photons at LEGS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; Blanpied, G.; Blecher, M.; Giordano, G.; Kistner, O.C.; Matone, G.; Preedom, B.M.; Schaerf, C.; Sealock, R.M.; Thorn, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laser-Electron-Gamma-Source (LEGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory is now coming into operation. This facility delivers intense, monochromatic beams of medium-energy gamma rays that are almost completely polarized (linear or circular), and this degree of freedom has altered the status of a number of important experiments from being impossible to now being merely difficult. In this lecture we will describe the key features of the LEGS facility, and discuss two elastic scattering experiments on the nucleon, one in the region of the first resonance which is sensitive to the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the delta, and the other below pion threshold which is sensitive to the nucleon polarizabilities. These will illustrate the unique potential of the polarization degree of freedom. 36 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  6. GNSS-Reflectometry: Forest canopies polarization scattering properties and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuerui; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) can be a new promising remote sensing tool in the ocean, snow/ice and land surfaces, e.g., vegetation biomass monitoring. Although GNSS-R provides a potentially special L-band multi-angular and multi-polarization measurement, the theoretical vegetation scattering properties and mechanisms for GNSS-R are not understood clearly. In this paper, the GNSS-R vegetation polarization scattering properties are studied and modeled at different incidence angles (specular direction). The bistatic scattering model Bi-mimics is employed, which is the first-order radiative transfer equation. As a kind of forest stand, the Aspen’s crown layer is composed of entire leaves, and its parameters in Mimics handbook are used as model input. The specular circular polarizations (co-polarization RR and cross-polarization LR) are simulated. For cross-polarization, the received polarization is assumed as a linear (horizontal and vertical) polarizations and ±45° linear polarizations. Therefore, the HR VR, +45R and -45R polarizations are simulated here. Contributions from different scattering components at RR, LR and VR polarization are also presented. For co-polarization, it is large in the whole specular angles (10-80°). The scattering trends of the other cross polarization (HR, LR, +45R and -45R) are a little similar when compared to the RR and RV. Therefore, the RHCP and V polarizations are more favorable to collect the reflected signals. The trunk heights and crown depths do not affect the scattering trends of RR, RV and RL, while the trunk height has some effect on the scattering amplitude of different polarizations. The azimuth angle has more effects on RR, RL and RV scattering, especially in lower than 50°. The observation angles and polarization combinations are extremely important for GNSS-R remote sensing.

  7. Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Vasilkov, A P; Goldin, Y A; Gureev, B A; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Wright, C W

    2001-08-20

    A polarized lidar technique based on measurements of waveforms of the two orthogonal-polarized components of the backscattered light pulse is proposed to retrieve vertical profiles of the seawater scattering coefficient. The physical rationale for the polarized technique is that depolarization of backscattered light originating from a linearly polarized laser beam is caused largely by multiple small-angle scattering from particulate matter in seawater. The magnitude of the small-angle scattering is determined by the scattering coefficient. Therefore information on the vertical distribution of the scattering coefficient can be derived potentially from measurements of the time-depth dependence of depolarization in the backscattered laser pulse. The polarized technique was verified by field measurements conducted in the Middle Atlantic Bight of the western North Atlantic Ocean that were supported by in situ measurements of the beam attenuation coefficient. The airborne polarized lidar measured the time-depth dependence of the backscattered laser pulse in two orthogonal-polarized components. Vertical profiles of the scattering coefficient retrieved from the time-depth depolarization of the backscattered laser pulse were compared with measured profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient. The comparison showed that retrieved profiles of the scattering coefficient clearly reproduce the main features of the measured profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient. Underwater scattering layers were detected at depths of 20-25 m in turbid coastal waters. The improvement in dynamic range afforded by the polarized lidar technique offers a strong potential benefit for airborne lidar bathymetric applications. PMID:18360476

  8. NICMOS POLARIMETRY OF 'POLAR-SCATTERED' SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheldor, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Young, S.; Quinn, S.; Smith, J. E.; Hough, J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2011-09-01

    The nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxies exhibit a range of optical polarization characteristics that can be understood in terms of two scattering regions producing orthogonal polarizations: an extended polar scattering region (PSR) and a compact equatorial scattering region (ESR), located within the circum-nuclear torus. Here we present NICMOS 2.0 {mu}m imaging polarimetry of six 'polar-scattered' Seyfert 1 (S1) galaxies, in which the PSR dominates the optical polarization. The unresolved nucleus (<0.''58) is significantly polarized in only three objects, but five of the six exhibit polarization in a 0.''58-1.''5 circum-nuclear annulus. In Fairall 51 and ESO 323-G077, the polarization position angle at 2 {mu}m ({theta}{sub 2}{sub {mu}m}) is consistent with the average for the optical spectrum ({theta}{sub v}), implying that the nuclear polarization is dominated by polar scattering at both wavelengths. The same is probably true for NGC 3227. In both NGC 4593 and Mrk 766, there is a large difference between {theta}{sub 2}{sub {mu}m} and {theta}{sub v} off-nucleus, where polar scattering is expected to dominate. This may be due to contamination by interstellar polarization in NGC 4593, but there is no clear explanation in the case of the strongly polarized Mrk 766. Lastly, in Mrk 1239, a large change ({approx}60{sup 0}) in {theta}{sub 2}{sub {mu}m} between the nucleus and the annulus indicates that the unresolved nucleus and its immediate surroundings have different polarization states at 2 {mu}m, which we attribute to the ESR and PSR, respectively. A further implication is that the source of the scattered 2 {mu}m emission in the unresolved nucleus is the accretion disk, rather than torus hot dust emission.

  9. Polarized electron scattering, new physics and dark parity violation

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, William J.

    2013-11-07

    'New Physics' sensitivities of polarized electron scattering asymmetries, atomic parity violation, m{sub W} and sin{sup 2} θ{sub W} (Z pole measurements) are compared. The utility of low Q{sup 2} polarized electron scattering for probing parity violating 'dark boson' effects is discussed. A possible determination of the weak charge Q{sub w}({sup 12}C) to about ±0.3% via elastic e-Carbon scattering is advocated.

  10. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  11. The effect of electron scattering redistribution on atomic line polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, H. D.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M.; Ravindra, B.

    2012-09-01

    The polarization of spectral lines is generated by the scattering of angularly anisotropic incident radiation field on the atoms in the stellar atmosphere. This atomic scattering polarization is modified by frequency non-coherent scattering of line photons on free electrons. With modern spectropolarimeters of high sensitivity, it is possible to detect such changes in the spectral line polarization caused by scattering on electrons. We present new and efficient numerical techniques to solve the problem of line radiative transfer with atomic and electron scattering frequency redistribution in planar media. The evaluation and use of angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution functions (both atomic and electron scattering type) in the transfer equation require a lot of computing effort. In this paper, we apply a decomposition technique to handle this numerically difficult problem. This recently developed technique is applied for the first time to the electron scattering partial redistribution. This decomposition technique allows us to devise fast iterative methods of solving the polarized line transfer equation. An approximate lambda iteration (ALI) method and a method based on Neumann series expansion of the polarized source vector are proposed. We show that these numerical methods can be used to obtain a solution of the problem, when both atomic and electron scattering partial frequency redistribution are considered together. This is in contrast with the classical numerical methods which require a great amount of computing time. We show the importance of electron scattering redistribution in the far wing line polarization, which has practical implications in the analysis of polarized stellar or solar spectra, where non-coherent electron scattering controls the line wing transfer.

  12. Scattering robust 3D reconstruction via polarized transient imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rihui; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Yongdong; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing 3D structure of scenes in the scattering medium is a challenging task with great research value. Existing techniques often impose strong assumptions on the scattering behaviors and are of limited performance. Recently, a low-cost transient imaging system has provided a feasible way to resolve the scene depth, by detecting the reflection instant on the time profile of a surface point. However, in cases with scattering medium, the rays are both reflected and scattered during transmission, and the depth calculated from the time profile largely deviates from the true value. To handle this problem, we used the different polarization behaviors of the reflection and scattering components, and introduced active polarization to separate the reflection component to estimate the scattering robust depth. Our experiments have demonstrated that our approach can accurately reconstruct the 3D structure underlying the scattering medium. PMID:27607944

  13. Thomson scattering of polarized photons in an intense laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Byung Yunn

    2006-02-21

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Thomson scattering of linearly and circularly polarized photons from a pulsed laser by electrons. The analytical expression for the photon distribution functions presented in this paper should be useful to designers of Thomson scattering experiments.

  14. Mott scattering in an elliptically polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Taj, S.

    2004-08-01

    We study Mott scattering in the presence of a strong elliptically polarized field. Using the first Born approximation and the Dirac-Volkov states for the electron, we obtain an analytic formula for the unpolarized differential cross section. This generalizes the results found for the linearly polarized field by Li et al. [ 67, 063409 (2003)] and for the circularly polarized field by Attaourti and Manaut [ 68, 067401 (2003)].

  15. Mott scattering of polarized electrons in a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Manaut, B.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.

    2005-04-01

    We present analytical and numerical results of the relativistic calculation of the transition matrix element S{sub fi} and differential cross sections for Mott scattering of initially polarized Dirac particles (electrons) in the presence of a strong laser field with linear polarization. We use exact Dirac-Volkov wave functions to describe the dressed electrons and the collision process is treated in the first Born approximation. The influence of the laser field on the degree of polarization of the scattered electron is reported.

  16. Circular polarization of light scattered by randomly built aggregates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, D.; Moreno, F.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2007-06-01

    We present calculations of the scattering angle dependence of the degree of linear polarization of light singly scattered at 500 nm by randomly oriented randomly built aggregates of optically inactive homogenous identical spheres. Using the T-matrix method we analyzed the effect of changing the size of the monomers for two different geometries. The values of the computed degreee of circular polarization are comparable to the observed ones for light scattered by dust particles in comets P/Halley, C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1999 S4 (LINEAR).

  17. Method for using polarization gating to measure a scattering sample

    DOEpatents

    Baba, Justin S.

    2015-08-04

    Described herein are systems, devices, and methods facilitating optical characterization of scattering samples. A polarized optical beam can be directed to pass through a sample to be tested. The optical beam exiting the sample can then be analyzed to determine its degree of polarization, from which other properties of the sample can be determined. In some cases, an apparatus can include a source of an optical beam, an input polarizer, a sample, an output polarizer, and a photodetector. In some cases, a signal from a photodetector can be processed through attenuation, variable offset, and variable gain.

  18. Long-Lifetime Low-Scatter Neutron Polarization Target

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jonathan M. Richardson

    2004-07-09

    Polarized neutrons scattering is an important technology for characterizing magnetic and other materials. Polarized helium three (P-3He) is a novel technology for creating polarized beams and, perhaps more importantly, for the analysis of polarization in highly divergent scattered beams. Analysis of scattered beams requires specialized targets with complex geometries to ensure accurate results. Special materials and handling procedures are required to give the targets a long useful lifetime. In most cases, the targets must be shielded from stray magnetic fields from nearby equipment. SRL has developed and demonstrated hybrid targets made from glass and aluminum. We have also developed and calibrated a low-field NMR system for measuring polarization lifetimes. We have demonstrated that our low-field system is able to measure NMR signals in the presence of conducting (metallic) cell elements. We have also demonstrated a non-magnetic valve that can be used to seal the cells. We feel that these accomplishments in Phase I are sufficient to ensure a successful Phase II program. The commercial market for this technology is solid. There are over nine neutron scattering centers in the US and Canada and over 22 abroad. Currently, the US plans to build a new $1.4B scattering facility called the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The technology developed in this project will allow SRL to supply targets to both existing and future facilities. SRL is also involved with the application of P-3He to medical imaging.

  19. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ∼10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  20. Gamma-Ray Burst Polarization via Compton Scattering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ~10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  1. H. J. Bhabha and the birth of the second family of elementary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowsik, Ramanath

    2007-04-01

    Homi Jehangir Bhabha was one of the great pioneers of theoretical high energy physics, known to present day physicists through extensive eponymous citations to Bhabha scattering. Perhaps because of this, much of his other superlative contributions have been well nigh forgotten. In this presentation, we provide an overview of a sequence of papers written by Bhabha during an 11-month period between December 1936 and October 1937 that argue in a compelling way for the presence of a massive charged particle very similar to the electron in every way, except for its mass, which he estimated to be in excess of 100 me. This particle is called a muon and today it is classified as a member of the second family of elementary constituents of matter, along with the muon-neutrino, charmed and strange quarks. These three new members of the family were discovered after a gap of nearly 25 years; in the decade of the 1960's.

  2. Circular polarization of light scattered by asymmetrical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, D.; Hovenier, J. W.; Moreno, F.

    2007-07-01

    We present calculations of the degree of circular polarization of light singly scattered by some kinds of asymmetrical particles in random orientation as a function of the scattering angle, using the T-matrix method. To clarify the possible contribution of asymmetry of particles to circular polarization we considered aggregates of optically inactive homogeneous identical spheres. We analysed the effect of changing the size of the monomers and the refractive index. We also performed calculations for two different geometries. The values of the computed degree of circular polarization are generally in the range of the observed ones for light scattered by dust particles in comets P/Halley, C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), in the interplanetary medium and in the interstellar medium of our galaxy.

  3. Micro-Facet Scattering Model for Pulse Polarization Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryjewski, J.; Roggemann, M.; Tyler, D.; Hand, D.

    Determining the shape, material and orientation of nano-sats (satellites too small to image from the ground) requires new sensing approaches. Pulse Polarization Ranging (PPR) is one such approach that uses the polarization and shape characteristics of laser pulses reflected from satellites to determine satellite shape, orientation and material. We use an innovative approach to relate PPR measurements to actual satellite characteristics (shape, material and orientation), requiring that we have an accurate physical and dynamical model of the satellite. In particular, to determine the polarization characteristics (depolarization, birefringence, diattenuation) of the reflected pulses we need an accurate model of light scattering from real (complex) surfaces. To do this, we have extended the micro-facet model of Ashikhmin et al. to include retro-reflection and multiple scattering effects. In this presentation, we describe the scattering model and its efficient implementation using graphical processing units (GPUs).

  4. Target scattering estimation in clutter with polarization optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu; Shi, Longfei; Chang, Yuliang; Li, Yongzhen; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive waveform polarization method for the estimation of target scattering matrix in the presence of clutter. The proposed sequential algorithm, based on the concept of sequential minimum mean square error (MSE) estimation, to determine the coefficients of the scattering matrix, guarantees the convergence and the resulting computational complexity is linear with the number of iterations. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through numerical results, underlining the performance improvement given by joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) polarization optimization for the scalar system. Also, the results show that the vector system with transmission polarization optimization provides a comparative performance as the scalar measurement system employing joint Tx/Rx polarization optimization. Less computation burden highlights the advantage of the former mode.

  5. New approach to polarized deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques

    1993-12-01

    We show, in a simple way, that the flavor asymmetry in the light-quark sea of the proton discovered by the New Muon Collaboration suggests also a large flavor asymmetry for the corresponding polarized distributions. This accounts for the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe proton sum rule reported by the European Muon Collaboration, but it implies no violation of the Ellis-Jaffe neutron sum rule, which seems confirmed from the very recent SLAC data.

  6. Polarized light transport in refractive weak scattering media.

    PubMed

    Soloviev, Vadim Y

    2016-07-01

    This paper is devoted to modeling of the light transport in refractive and weak scattering media by means of the vector radiative transfer equation. In refractive media polarization of light depends not only on the law of scattering but also on the refractive index distribution and can change along curved light trajectories according to the Rytov law of the polarization ellipse rotation. Results of numerical simulations are presented in the form of CCD camera images, which is how data are acquired in tomographic imaging experiments. PMID:27409689

  7. Exact relativistic expressions for polarization of incoherent Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Parke, E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a derivation of the degree of polarization for incoherent Thomson scattering (TS) using Mueller matrix formalism. An exact analytic solution is obtained for spectrum-integrated matrix elements. The solution is valid for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. It is based on a newly developed theoretical model, a finite transit time (FTT) correction to previous theoretical work on TS polarization. The Mueller matrix elements are substantially different from previous calculations without the FTT correction, even to the lowest linear order in Te/mec2≪1 . Mathematically, the derivation is a unique example of fully analytical integration of the 3D scattering operator over a relativistic Maxwellian distribution function; experimentally, the results have application to the use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of electron temperature measurement. The results can also be used as a reliable tool for benchmarking and verification of numerical codes for frequency resolved properties of TS polarization.

  8. Radiative effects in scattering of polarized leptons by polarized nucleons and light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Akushevich; A. Ilyichev; N. Shumeiko

    2001-07-01

    Recent developments in the field of radiative effects in polarized lepton-nuclear scattering are reviewed. The processes of inclusive, semi-inclusive, diffractive and elastic scattering are considered. The explicit formulae obtained within the covariant approach are discussed. FORTRAN codes POLRAD, RADGEN, HAPRAD, DIFFRAD and MASCARAD created on the basis of the formulae are briefly described. Applications for data analysis of the current experiments on lepton-nuclear scattering at CERN, DESY, SLAC and TJNAF are illustrated by numerical results.

  9. Quadratic electroweak corrections for polarized Moller scattering

    SciTech Connect

    A. Aleksejevs, S. Barkanova, Y. Kolomensky, E. Kuraev, V. Zykunov

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the two-loop (NNLO) electroweak radiative corrections to the parity violating electron-electron scattering asymmetry induced by squaring one-loop diagrams. The calculations are relevant for the ultra-precise 11 GeV MOLLER experiment planned at Jefferson Laboratory and experiments at high-energy future electron colliders. The imaginary parts of the amplitudes are taken into consideration consistently in both the infrared-finite and divergent terms. The size of the obtained partial correction is significant, which indicates a need for a complete study of the two-loop electroweak radiative corrections in order to meet the precision goals of future experiments.

  10. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  11. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Hamilton; Vahe Mamyan

    2004-10-01

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s = 6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t = -4.0 TeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton and in disagreement with a prediction of pQCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism.

  12. Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power-law spectrum, and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles; the degree of polarization caused by thermal electrons is about half of that caused by power-law electrons. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft γ-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around π/4. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV; this is valid for both the thermal and power-law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.

  13. Wigner-Thomas spin precession in polarized coincidence electronuclear scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrasinovic, V. )

    1993-05-01

    The role of the Wigner-Thomas precession in nucleon recoil polarization measurements in coincidence electron scattering processes is examined. The necessary formalism is developed within the framework of the Jacob-Wick method, and then applied to two processes: the pseudoscalar electroproduction off a nucleon and the deuteron two-body electrodisintegration.

  14. Polarized line formation by resonance scattering. II. Conservative case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Grachev, S. I.; Loskutov, V. M.

    1997-05-01

    We consider multiple resonance scattering with complete frequency redistribution (CFR) in a semi-infinite conservative atmosphere (photon destruction probability ɛ_I_=0) with the sources at infinite depth. The polarization arising in resonance scattering is completely accounted for. The problem we consider is the resonance-scattering counterpart of the Chandrasekhar-Sobolev problem of Rayleigh scattering in the conservative atmosphere. The numerical data on the matrix source function S(τ) in the atmosphere with conservative dipole resonance scattering (the depolarization parameter W=1) are presented; we assume Doppler profile. The source matrix is found by a non-iterative numerical solution of the matrix Wiener-Hopf integral equation with the matrix {LAMBDA}-operator. Depth dependence of the elements of the source matrix S(τ) is discussed. Some unexpected peculiarities are revealed in the behavior of its polarization terms. The matrix I(z) which is the generalization of the Chandrasekhar H-function to the case of polarized resonance scattering is found by the iterative solution of the Chandrasekhar-type nonlinear matrix integral equation. We present high-accuracy (5 s.f.) numerical data on I(z) for dipole conservative scattering with the Doppler profile. The center-to-limb variation of the degree of polarization in the core of a Doppler broadened resonance line is found. In conservative case, the limiting limb polarization δ_0_ in the core of such a line is 9.4430% (for W=1). The dependence of δ_0_ on the depolarization parameter W is found. Simple interpolation formula, δ_0_=(9.443-38.05sqrt(ɛ)_I_)%, is suggested for the limb polarization of the radiation emerging from an isothermal nearly conservative atmosphere (ɛ_I_<<1, W=1). The data on I(z) are used to find the polarization line profiles and to trace their center-to-limb variation. The asymptotic expansions of S(τ) for τ-{infinity} (deep layers) and of I(z) for z-{infinity} (line wings) are found

  15. Precise polarization measurements via detection of compton scattered electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tvaskis, Vladas; Dutta, Dipangkar; Gaskell, David J.; Narayan, Amrendra

    2014-01-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam off a proton target. One of the dominant experimental systematic uncertainties in Qweak will result from determining the beam polarization. A new Compton polarimeter was installed in the fall of 2010 to provide a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the electron beam polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Compton-scattered electrons are detected in four planes of diamond micro-strip detectors. We have achieved the design goals of <1% statistical uncertainty per hour and expect to achieve <1% systematic uncertainty.

  16. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, William B.; Hough, James; Germer, Thomas A.; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T.; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Because of the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches. PMID:19416893

  17. Scattering to different vortex polarity in coupled long Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wustmann, Waltraut; Osborn, Kevin D.

    We theoretically study the motion of flux vortices (fluxons) in structures made from discrete long Josephson junctions (DLJJs) which may have applications in the fields of reversible and low-power computing. We investigate the scattering of fluxons at specially designed interfaces where multiple DLJJs meet. Once fluxons approach the interface, flux oscillations at the interface can be temporarily excited before the fluxons continue along to another DLJJ. Under some conditions the fluxons will change their polarity (to antifluxons) and in other cases the fluxon continues without a change in polarity. We explain the dynamics through the resonant interaction of the soliton with bound states at the interface. We also study a controlled polarity gate, where the polarity of the target fluxon depends on a control fluxon which enters and exits the interface through separate DLJJs.

  18. Laser assisted free-free scattering with variable laser polarization within the scattering plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. L. S.; Weaver, C. M.; Deharak, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    In previous work we reported one-photon emission experiments that examine electron-helium scattering in the presence of an Nd:YAG laser field of 1.17 eV photons, where the laser polarization direction was varied within a plane perpendicular to the scattering plane, and intersecting it along the momentum-transfer direction. The results were perfectly consistent with the Kroll-Watson approximation. In particular there was no evidence of free-free transitions when the polarization was perpendicular to the momentum-transfer direction, in contrast to the experiments of Wallbank and Holmes. We are in the process of reconfiguring our apparatus to more closely mimic their experiments where the laser polarization was varied within the scattering plane for one-, two-, and three-photon absorption. Our preliminary results will be presented. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM) and PHY-1402899 (BAdH).

  19. Discovery of polarized light scattered by dust around Alpha Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, R. S.; Tapia, S.

    1978-01-01

    Following the suggestion by Jura and Jacoby (1976), linearly polarized blue continuum starlight scattered by the dust shell around the M2 Iab star Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) has been discovered. The polarization has been traced in the NE, NW, SE, and SW directions and has positive (tangential) orientation. Some asymmetry of the optical depth in the shell exists 15 and 30 arcsec from the star. In the NE direction the polarization was measured as far as 90 arcsec (17,000 AU) from the star. The dependence of the average intensity of the scattered light from the nebula on angular distance from the star is more consistent with an inverse-square density law than with inverse 1.5 or inverse-cube laws. Assuming that the density is proportional to the inverse square of distance from the star, the scattering optical depth in blue light along a radius of 0.03 arcsec is no more than 0.15 + or - 0.05. Future observations of the wavelength dependence of polarization will allow a determination of grain size.

  20. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  1. Polarization of circumstellar bow shocks due to electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, J. L.; Neilson, H.; Ignace, R.

    2014-01-01

    Circumstellar material (CSM) provides a link between interacting supernovae and their massive progenitor stars. This CSM arises from stellar winds, outflows, or eruptions from a massive star before it explodes and can be detected around stars or supernovae with polarimetric observations. We use a Monte Carlo based radiative transfer code (SLIP) to investigate the polarization created by different models for the CSM surrounding a central source such as supernovae or massive stars. We vary parameters such as the shape, optical depth, temperature, and brightness of the CSM and compare the simulated flux and polarization behavior with observational data. We present results from new simulations that assume a bow shock shape for the CSM. Bow shocks are commonly observed around massive stars; this shape forms when a star moving more quickly than the speed of sound in the local interstellar medium emits a stellar wind that drives a shock wave into the ISM. Since a bow shock projects an aspherical shape onto the sky, light from the central source that scatters in the shock region becomes polarized. We present electron-scattering polarization maps for this geometry and discuss the behavior of observed polarization with viewing angle in the unresolved case.

  2. Polarization from Scattering in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.

    2009-01-01

    A paradox of X-ray binaries is that their strong X-ray flux ionizes much nearby low density gas, making it difficult to observe. Polarization can reveal gas which is fully ionized and can provide new insight into X-ray binary environments. In this talk I will present models for the scattering and polarization in X-ray binaries, adopting gas parameters which are chosen according to current ideas about these systems. These include stellar winds from a massive companion, X-ray induced disk winds, and the photospheres of a disk or binary companion.

  3. Design of the polarization multi-pass Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Funaba, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Morimoto, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Minami, T.

    2012-10-15

    A novel configuration of the multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) system is proposed to improve the time resolution and accuracy of electron temperature measurements by use of a polarization control technique. This configuration can realize a perfect coaxial multi-passing at each pass, and the number of round trips is not limited by the optical configuration. To confirm the feasibility of the new method, we installed this system in the GAMMA 10 plasma system. As a result, the integrated scattering signal of the double-pass configuration is about two times larger than that of the single-pass configuration. These results are in good agreement with the design.

  4. Radiative Møller scattering involving polarized particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zykunov, V. A.

    2015-06-15

    A method for taking into account radiative events in experiments aimed at studying Møller scattering with polarized particles was developed for an arbitrary implementation of such experiments. A computer code used to perform a numerical analysis with allowance for the kinematical conditions of the MOLLER experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab or JLab) was constructed. The respective results were compared with their counterparts obtained in the soft-photon approximation.

  5. Radiative Møller scattering involving polarized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykunov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    A method for taking into account radiative events in experiments aimed at studying Møller scattering with polarized particles was developed for an arbitrary implementation of such experiments. A computer code used to perform a numerical analysis with allowance for the kinematical conditions of the MOLLER experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab or JLab) was constructed. The respective results were compared with their counterparts obtained in the soft-photon approximation.

  6. POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

    2014-10-20

    An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements

  7. Possibility to achieve an antiproton polarizer by scattering off polarized positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, K.; Arenhoevel, H.; Barday, R.; Jankowiak, A.; Walcher, Th.

    2008-02-06

    The theoretical prediction for the polarizing cross section when scattering antiprotons off polarized e-vector{sup +} amounts to 2.10{sup 13} barn at 1.7 keV hadron energy in the e-vector{sup +} rest frame. Under this conditions polarizing stored antiprotons in a cooler-like arrangement becomes feasible. Compact e-vector{sup +} sources of sufficient intensity can be provided with present day technology in order to achieve a polarization of P{sub p} = 0.17 for 10{sup 10} stored antiprotons within one hour. Positron storage ring based designs offer an enormous increase in intensity, making an efficient polarizer feasible, even if the cross sections are many orders of magnitude smaller than presently predicted.

  8. Polar nephelometer for light-scattering measurements of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Barkey, B; Liou, K N

    2001-02-15

    We report on a small, lightweight polar nephelometer for the measurement of the light-scattering properties of cloud particles, specifically designed for use on a balloonborne platform in cirrus cloud conditions. The instrument consists of 33 fiber-optic light guides positioned in a two-dimensional plane from 5 degrees to 175 degrees that direct the scattered light to photodiode detectors-amplifier units. The system uses an onboard computer and data acquisition card to collect and store the measured signals. The instrument's calibration is tested by measurement of light scattered into a two-dimensional plane from small water droplets generated by an ultrasonic humidifier. Excellent comparisons between the measured water-droplet scattering properties and expectations generated by Mie calculation are shown. The measured scattering properties of ice crystals generated in a cold chamber also compare reasonably well with the theoretical results based on calculations from a unified theory of light scattering by ice crystals that use the particle size distribution measured in the chamber. PMID:18033557

  9. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J. L. Lai, Y. F. Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2014-01-21

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup high} in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 1}(TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E{sub 2}{sup high} phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer.

  10. Radar scattering from the summer polar mesosphere: Theory and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.Y.N.

    1993-01-01

    The anomalously large radar reflectivities observed in the summer polar mesosphere have eluded satisfactory explanation until now. The author proposes that the following chain of causality is responsible for the so-called polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE): The uniquely low temperature in the summer mesopause produce ice aerosols. Because the aerosols exist in a plasma, they become electrically charged. The ambient electrons become coupled to the aerosols through electric fields and their effective diffusivity is retarded due to the large size of the aerosols. The reduction in diffusivity allows electron density inhomogeneities to be maintained at the radar Bragg scales. The radar waves are then scattered by the inhomogeneities. The above concept is supported by developing a quantitative theory of ambipolar diffusion in the mesosphere. The results to isotropic turbulence and Fresnel radar scatter are applied to show that the observed radar reflectivities can be explained by the theory. It is shown that the presence of realistic charged aerosols are sufficient to explain PMSE. The author also shows that dressed aerosol radar scatter can only apply to echoes detected by UHF radars. The data is taken with the Sondrestrom 1.29-GHz radar and attribute it to dressed aerosol scatter. The author used the Cornell University portable radar interferometer (CUPRI) to observe the mesosphere while rockets carrying in situ sensors were flown through two PMSE occurrences and a noctilucent cloud/PMSE event. The first simultaneous height comparison between noctilucent clouds and PMSE show that the radar scattering region was near or slightly above the visible cloud layer. The author also infers from aspect sensitivity measurements and Doppler spectrograms that there were two distinct types of PMSE: Enhanced turbulent scatter and partial (Fresnel) reflection from steep edges in the electron density. Both mechanisms require an anomalously low electron diffusion coefficient.

  11. Linear polarization of light scattered by cometary analogs: New samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.; Buch, A.; Carrasco, N.; Johnson, N.; Nuth, J.

    2014-07-01

    Mixtures of silicates (Mg and Fe) with carbonaceous compounds (carbon and/or organics) are currently proposed as cometary analogs. The particles are fluffy aggregates of submicron-sized constituent grains and compact grains (tens of micrometers), similar to those captured in the Earth's stratosphere (interplanetary dust particles or IDPs) and deduced from the Stardust results. They are lifted or in microgravity or levitated by an air-draught. The light source is unpolarized. The linear polarization of the scattered light floating in the beam is studied as a function of the phase angle. In previous experiments with the PROGRA2 instrument (Hadamcik et al., 2011), the general shape of the cometary polarimetric phase curves is reproduced with a shallow negative branch and a more developed positive branch (maximum polarization around 20--30 %) depending on the size distributions of the particles (compact and/or aggregates) and their constituent grains. To observe the increase of polarization with wavelength, the organic materials were necessary. When fluffy aggregates (silicates and carbon black mixtures) and compact silicate grains of tens of micrometers are present, the whole cometary coma polarization phase curve is well fitted by the phase curves obtained. The maximum polarization value decreases when the ratio of compact silicates to fluffy aggregates increases. The observed differences in polarization between different coma regions may be also simulated. When only fluffy aggregates are used, the maximum polarization corresponds to the polarization in jets of 'high polarization' active comets (Hadamcik and Levasseur-Regourd, 2003). A high polarization region may exist in some 'low polarization' comets, with large slowly moving particles; using the experimental results, we suggest the presence of dark relatively compact particles larger than 20 micrometers (Hadamcik et al., 2007; 2011). When not hidden by jets, a polarimetric halo is sometimes observed in the inner

  12. The recoil proton polarization in. pi. p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P/sup 3/ East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup -/'s/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup +/'s/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. np Elastic-scattering experiments with polarized neutron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, J.S.; Ditzler, W.R.; Hill, D.; Hoftiezer, J.; Johnson, K.; Shima, T.; Shimizu, H.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.; Underwood, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, at 500, 650, and 800 MeV are presented for the reaction p-vector d ..-->.. n-vector pp at 0/sup 0/. The data are useful input to the NN data base and indicate that the quasi-free charge exchange (CEX) reaction is a useful mechanism for producing neutrons with at least 40% polarization at energies as low as 500 MeV. Measurements of np elastic scattering observables C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ covering 35/sup 0/ to 172/sup 0/ are performed using a polarized neutron beam at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Preliminary results are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Radiative corrections to polarization observables in electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyuk, Dmitry; Kobushkin, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We consider radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic electron-proton scattering, in particular, for the polarization transfer measurements of the proton form factor ratio μGE/GM. The corrections are of two types: two-photon exchange (TPE) and bremsstrahlung (BS); in the present work we pay special attention to the latter. Assuming small missing energy or missing mass cutoff, the correction can be represented in a model-independent form, with both electron and proton radiation taken into account. Numerical calculations show that the contribution of the proton radiation is not negligible. Overall, at high Q2 and energies, the total correction to μGE/GM grows, but is dominated by TPE. At low energies both TPE and BS may be significant; the latter amounts to ˜0.01 for some reasonable cut-off choices.

  15. Proton Spin Polarizabilities with Polarized Compton Scattering at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Dilli; A2 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The nucleon polarizabilities are fundamental structure observables, which describe its response to an applied electric or magnetic field. While the electric and magnetic scalar polarizabilities of the nucleon have been measured, little effort has been made to extract the spin dependent polarizabilities. These leading order spin dependent terms of the nucleon polarizabilities, γE1E1 ,γM1M1 ,γM1E2 and γE1M2 describe the spin response of a proton to electric and magnetic dipole and quadrupole interactions. We plan to extract these spin polarizabilities of the proton using real polarised Compton scattering off the proton at the MAMI tagged photon facility in Mainz, Germany. This requires precise measurement of the single and double polarization observables which are sensitive to these polarizabilities. The double polarization observables ∑2 x, ∑2 z are measured via a circulary polarized photon beam and a transversely and a linearly polarized butanol target in the resonance region (E = 250 - 310 MeV). This presentation will be focused on the status and analyis of an experiment completed at MAMI in 2014 and 2015 for the measurement of ∑2 z at different energies and angles. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  16. Lowest order QED radiative corrections to longitudinally polarized Moeller scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyichev, A.; Zykunov, V.

    2005-08-01

    The total lowest-order electromagnetic radiative corrections to the observables in Moeller scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons have been calculated. The final expressions obtained by the covariant method for the infrared divergency cancellation are free from any unphysical cut-off parameters. Since the calculation is carried out within the ultrarelativistic approximation our result has a compact form that is convenient for computing. Basing on these expressions the FORTRAN code MERA has been developed. Using this code the detailed numerical analysis performed under SLAC (E-158) and JLab kinematic conditions has shown that the radiative corrections are significant and rather sensitive to the value of the missing mass (inelasticity) cuts.

  17. Polarized light scattering technique for morphological characterization of waterborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Venkat V.; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar

    2009-05-01

    We have recently developed an elliptically polarized light scattering (EPLS) technique to characterize the morphology of fine particles suspended in an optically non-absorbing medium such as water. This technique provides the size distribution, shape and agglomeration characteristics of suspended particles. This technique can be used to detect various types of biological pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses in potable water systems. Here we report results obtained from EPLS measurements on two strains of Bacillus spores suspended in water along with comparison with electron microscopy.

  18. POLARIZED LIGHT REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED BY THICK RAYLEIGH SCATTERING ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Natraj, Vijay; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-03-20

    Accurate values for the intensity and polarization of light reflected and transmitted by optically thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres with a Lambert surface underneath are presented. A recently reported new method for solving integral equations describing Chandrasekhar's X- and Y-functions is used. The results have been validated using various tests and techniques, including the doubling-adding method, and are accurate to within one unit in the eighth decimal place. Tables are stored electronically and expected to be useful as benchmark results for the (exo)planetary science and astrophysics communities. Asymptotic expressions to obtain Stokes parameters for a thick layer from those of a semi-infinite atmosphere are also provided.

  19. Light enpolarization by disordered media under partial polarized illumination: the role of cross-scattering coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zerrad, M; Soriano, G; Ghabbach, A; Amra, C

    2013-02-11

    We show how disordered media allow to increase the local degree of polarization (DOP) of an arbitrary (partial) polarized incident beam. The role of cross-scattering coefficients is emphasized, together with the probability density functions (PDF) of the scattering DOP. The average DOP of scattering is calculated versus the incident illumination DOP. PMID:23481735

  20. Polarized line formation by resonance scattering. I. Basic formalism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Grachev, S. I.; Loskutov, V. M.

    1997-02-01

    The model two-level problem of non-LTE line formation in homogeneous plane atmospheres is reconsidered with the complete account of polarization arising in resonance scattering. We use the approximation of complete frequency redistribution (CFR) and restrict our discussion to the most important case of axially symmetric radiation fields in semi-infinite atmospheres. The primary sources are assumed to be partially polarized. The problem is reduced to the 2x2 matrix Wiener-Hopf integral equation for the matrix source function S(τ). The matrix kernel K_1_(τ) of the {LAMBDA}-operator appearing in this equation is represented as a continuous superposition of exponentials. As we show in Paper II of the series, this enables one to develop a matrix version of the analytical theory which, on the one hand, is a generalization of the scalar CFR theory and, on the other, is the CFR version of the theory of multiple monochromatic Rayleigh scattering. As a preparatory step for this, we discuss in detail the properties of the kernel matrix K_1_(τ) and the dispersion matrix T(z). The latter is essentially the two-sided Laplace transform of K_1_(τ). We consider the asymptotic behavior of K_1_(τ) and T(z) for large τ and z, respectively. For the particular case of the Doppler profile the complete asymptotic expansions of these matrices are presented. These results are at the base of the theory presented in Paper II of the series.

  1. Effects of a rough boundary surface on polarization of the scattered field from an inhomogeneous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Eom, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combination of the standard Kirchhoff method for rough surface scattering with the Rayleigh phase function radiative transfer method for volume scattering is employed in the present study of the effect of surface roughness on the polarization of the scattered field. It is found that for pure surface scattering, the polarization ratio between zero and 20 deg incidence angles is sensitive to surface roughness change. When both surface and volume scattering are present, however, copolarization nulls by colatitude or degree of polarization at zero to 15 deg incidence angle, and copolarization or crosspolarization nulls by longitude at large incidence angles, are better indicators of surface roughness changes. It is noted that degree of polarization and copolarization nulls by colatitude vary monotonously with incidence angle, while in combined surface and volume scattering these have, respectively, a minimum and a maximum. This characteristic allows the separation of combined surface and volume scattering from pure surface or volume scattering.

  2. Mesosphere light scattering depolarization during the Perseids activity epoch by wide-angle polarization camera measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Maslov, Igor A.

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the study of scattered radiation field in the mesosphere basing on wide-angle polarization camera (WAPC) measurements of the twilight sky background and single scattering separation procedure. Mid-August observations in 2012 and 2013 show the decrease of single scattering polarization value probably related with Perseids meteor dust moderation in the upper mesosphere. Effect correlates with activity of tiny fraction of Perseids shower. Polarization and temperature analysis allows estimating the altitude of dust layer and character polarization of dust scattering.

  3. Effect of dust particle polarization on scattering processes in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodanova, S. K.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bastykova, N. Kh.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.

    2015-06-15

    Screened interaction potentials in dusty plasmas taking into account the polarization of dust particles have been obtained. On the basis of screened potentials scattering processes for ion-dust particle and dust particle-dust particle pairs have been studied. In particular, the scattering cross section is considered. The scattering processes for which the dust grain polarization is unimportant have been found. The effect of zero angle dust particle-dust particle scattering is predicted.

  4. Polarization-difference imaging: a biologically inspired technique for observation through scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. P.; Pugh, E. N., Jr.; Tyo, J. S.; Engheta, N.

    1995-03-01

    Many animals have visual systems that exploit the polarization of light, and some of these systems are thought to compute difference signals in parallel from arrays of photoreceptors optimally tuned to orthogonal polarizations. We hypothesize that such polarization-difference systems can improve the visibility of objects in scattering media by serving as common-mode rejection amplifiers that reduce the effects of background scattering and amplify the signal from targets whose polarization-difference magnitude is distinct from the background. We present experimental results obtained with a target in a highly scattering medium, demonstrating that a manmade polarization-difference system can render readily visible surface features invisible to conventional imaging.

  5. Vectorized polarization-sensitive model of non-line-of-sight multiple-scatter propagation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongwei; Jia, Honghui; Zhang, Hailiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Juncai

    2011-10-01

    The existing Monte-Carlo-based non-line-of-sight (NLOS) multiple-scatter propagation model is extended to include polarization and also vectorized to improve the simulation speed by about 500 times. This model is validated by the noncoplanar single-scatter model; the results show a perfect match. Numerical examples for various polarization setups are obtained, and results show that the single-scatter and multiple-scatter signals are all polarization dependent. Therefore, NLOS polarized UV communication with a high data rate is achievable--the polarizing information is coded by a time-dependent polarizer, influenced by the atmospheric channel, and decoded according to the distribution characteristics of the scattered signals after the time-independent analyzers. PMID:21979512

  6. Polarized Electron - Polarized Deuteron Deep-Inelastic Scattering in Electron-Ion Collider with Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsian, Misak; Cosyn, Wim; Weiss, Christian

    2015-10-01

    For the past several years there have been an intensive research and development for the possible electron-ion collider that will be able to probe deep inelastic processes at unprecedentedly high energies in eA channel. One of the important advantages of the collider kinematics in DIS processes is the possibility for an unambiguous separation of hadrons emerging from DIS and hadrons fragmenting from the target nucleus. This creates a unique possibility for tagging the interacting nucleon with the recoil slow fragments in the DIS process. The situation is most clean for the deuteron target in which case the recoil particle is a nucleon. In addition, the possibility of having polarized deuteron beams will create unprecedented opportunities in probing polarization degrees of freedom for parton distributions in the interacting bound nucleon. In this work we develop a theoretical framework for the polarized electron-polarized deuteron deep inelastic scattering in which the recoil nucleon is detected in the target fragmentation region. Two main contributions for which theoretical models are developed are the plane-wave impulse approximation, in which no reinteractions are taking place between the final state products of DIS and the recoil nucleon.

  7. Polarized neutron reflectivity and scattering studies of magnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, H.; Theis-Bröhl, K.

    2003-02-01

    The current interest in the magnetism of ultrathin films and multilayers is driven by their manifold applications in the magneto-and spin-electronic areas, for instance as magnetic field sensors or as information storage devices. In this regard, there is a large interest in exploring spin structures and spin disorder at the interface of magnetic heterostructures, to investigate magnetic domains in thin films and superlattices, and to understand remagnetization processes of various laterally shaped magnetic nanostructures. Traditionally neutron scattering has played a dominant role in the determination of spin structures, phase transitions and magnetic excitations in bulk materials. Today, its potential for the investigation of thin magnetic films has to be redefined. Polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR) at small wavevectors can provide precise information on the magnetic field distribution parallel to the film plane and on layer resolved magnetization vectors. In addition, PNR is not only sensitive to structural interface roughness but also to the magnetic roughness. Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis measurements from polarized small angle Bragg reflections allows us to filter out correlation effects during magnetization reversals of magnetic stripes and islands. An overview is provided on most recent PNR investigations of magnetic heterostructures.

  8. Study of deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons off polarized deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriki, M.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis describes a 29GeV electron - nucleon scattering experiment carried out at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Highly polarized electrons are scattered off a polarized ND{sub 3} target. Scattered electrons are detected by two spectrometers located in End Station A (ESA) at angles of 4.5{degrees} and 7{degrees} with respect to the beam axis. We have measured the spin structure function g{sub 1} of deuteron over the range of 0.029 < x < 0.8 and 1. 0 < Q{sup 2} < 12.0(GeV/c){sup 2}. This integral indicates a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations from the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, 0.068{+-}0.005 at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} while our result of g{sub 1}{sup d} in good agreement with SMC results. Combined with g{sub 1} of the proton, the measurement of {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}(g{sub 1}{sup d}-g{sub 1}{sup n}) is 0.169{+-}0.008. We also obtained the strong coupling constant at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} to be 0.417{sub -0.110}{sup +0.086}, using the power correction for the sum rule up to third order of {alpha}{sub s}. This result is in agreement with the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) = 3.0(GeV/c{sup 2}) obtained from various experiments. Using our deuteron results and the axial vector couplings of hyperon decays, the total quark polarization along the nucleon spin is found to be 0.286{+-}.055, implying that quarks carry only 30% of the nucleon spin. The strange sea quark polarization is also determined to be -0.101 {+-} .023. These measurements are in agreement with other experiments and provide the world`s most precise measurement of these quark polarizations. 80 refs., 151 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Features of polarization decay in the transition between the low-step and multiple scattering of laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Taskina, L. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Isaeva, A. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of increase in the uncertainty of local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by random media was studied in the experiments with phantom scatterers. At macroscopic level this effect is related to decay in the degree of polarization of scattered light in the course of transition from single to multiple scattering. Gelatin layers with embedded titania particles were used as the phantom scatterers. Features of distributions of local polarization states in various polarization coordinates were considered.

  10. Determination of Atmospheric Aerosol Characteristics from the Polarization of Scattered Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Aerosols affect the polarization of radiation in scattering, hence measured polarization can be used to infer the nature of the particles. Size distribution, particle shape, real and absorption parts of the complex refractive index affect the scattering. From Lorenz-Mie calculations of the 4-Stokes parameters as a function of scattering angle for various wavelengths the following polarization parameters were plotted: total intensity, intensity of polarization in plane of observation, intensity perpendicular to the plane of observation, polarization ratio, polarization (using all 4-Stokes parameters), plane of the polarization ellipse and its ellipticity. A six-component log-Gaussian size distribution model was used to study the effects of the nature of the polarization due to variations in the size distribution and complex refractive index. Though a rigorous inversion from measurements of scattering to detailed specification of aerosol characteristics is not possible, considerable information about the nature of the aerosols can be obtained. Only single scattering from aerosols was used in this paper. Also, the background due to Rayleigh gas scattering, the reduction of effects as a result of multiple scattering and polarization effects of possible ground background (airborne platforms) were not included.

  11. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-01-01

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first full-polarization DOPC system which records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase conjugation fidelity. PMID:26977651

  12. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V

    2016-03-15

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single-polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first, to the best of our knowledge, full-polarization DOPC system that records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm-thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase-conjugation fidelity. PMID:26977651

  13. Timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering with a linearly polarized real (or quasi-real) photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goritschnig, A.; Pire, B.; Wagner, J.

    We calculate timelike virtual Compton scattering amplitudes in the generalized Bjorken scaling regime and focus on a new polarization asymmetry in the scattering process with a linearly polarized photon beam in the medium energy range, which will be studied intensely at JLab12 experiments. We demonstrate that new observables help us to access the polarized quark and gluon generalized parton distributions $\\tilde H(x, \\xi, t)$ and $ \\tilde E(x, \\xi, t)$.

  14. Longitudinal Polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar Hyperons in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, M. G.

    2007-06-13

    The longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar hyperons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c polarized positive muons is studied in the COMPASS (CERN NA58) experiment. Preliminary results on the longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar from data collected during the 2003 run are presented.

  15. THE X-RAY POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF QUIESCENT MAGNETARS: EFFECT OF MAGNETOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND VACUUM POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at {approx}100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  16. The polarization of continuum radiation in sunspots. I - Rayleigh and Thomson scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are derived for the Stokes parameters of light scattered by a layer of free electrons and hydrogen atoms in a sunspot. A physically reasonable sunspot model was found so that the direction of the calculated linear polarization agrees reasonably with observations. The magnitude of the calculated values of the linear polarization agrees generally with values observed in the continuum at 5830 A. Circular polarization in the continuum also accompanies electron scattering in spot regions; however for commonly accepted values of the longitudinal magnetic field, the predicted circular polarization is much smaller than observed.

  17. Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov Bohm potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilov, V. R.; Ho, Choon-Lin

    2008-05-01

    The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov-Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3 + 1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.

  18. Broadband active tuning of unidirectional scattering from nanoantenna using combined radially and azimuthally polarized beams.

    PubMed

    Xi, Z; Wei, L; Adam, A J L; Urbach, H P

    2016-01-01

    We propose an approach to actively tune the scattering pattern of a Mie-type spherical antenna. The scheme is based on separate control over the induced electric dipole and induced magnetic dipole using two coherent focused beams of radial polarization and azimuthal polarization, respectively. By carefully tuning the amplitude and phase relation of the two beams, a broadband unidirectional scattering can be achieved, even at the antenna's resonant wavelength where the antenna scatters efficiently. By moving the focus of one beam, a drastic switch of the unidirectional scattering can be observed. Such a scheme enables the design of ultra-compact optical switches and directional couplers based on nanoantennas. PMID:26696151

  19. A study of the polarization of light scattered by vegetation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover and grass in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of leaves were measured. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The light scattered from the upper leaf surface was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for qualitatively but not quantitatively by the Fresnel reflection coefficients modified by a shadowing function of the form cos sup2 (g/2), where g is the phase angle. Findings indicate that the polarization of light scattered by vegetation is a more complex process than previously thought, and that besides the surface-scattered component of light, the volume-scattered and multiply-scattered components also contribute significantly to the polarization.

  20. Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by Jupiter. [caused by aerosol scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Y.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Circular-polarization observations of Jupiter are described, and the circular polarization of other planets is discussed to the extent that it aids interpretation of the Jupiter data. The evidence strongly supports the interpretation that the circular polarization arises from scattering by aerosols in a gaseous atmosphere. Accurate calculations of the circular polarization are made for multiple scattering by an atmosphere with spherical aerosols, as a function of particle size and refractive index as well as the mixing ratio of aerosols and gas. The calculations for spheres and the few available circular-polarization observations of Jupiter permit only very limited constraints to be placed on the haze and cloud properties of the atmosphere of Jupiter. However, multispectral circular-polarization observations, combined with measurements of linear polarization and intensity, would permit detailed analysis of atmospheric aerosol properties.

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  2. LINE-INTERLOCKING EFFECTS ON POLARIZATION IN SPECTRAL LINES BY RAYLEIGH AND RAMAN SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-20

    The polarized spectrum of the Sun and stars is formed from the scattering of anisotropic radiation on atoms. Interpretation of this spectrum requires the solution of polarized line transfer in multilevel atomic systems. While sophisticated quantum theories of polarized line formation in multilevel atomic systems exist, they are limited by the approximation of complete frequency redistribution in scattering. The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering is a necessary component in modeling the polarized spectra of strong lines. The polarized PRD line scattering theories developed so far confine themselves to a two-level or a two-term atom model. In this paper, we present a heuristic approach to the problem of polarized line formation in multilevel atoms taking into account the effects of PRD and a weak magnetic field. Starting from the unpolarized PRD multilevel atom approach of Hubeny et al., we incorporate the polarization state of the radiation field. However, the lower level polarization is neglected. Two iterative methods of solving the polarized PRD line transfer in multilevel atoms are also presented. Taking the example of a five-level Ca II atom model, we present illustrative results for an isothermal one-dimensional model atmosphere.

  3. Development of a graphite polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xuan; Burns, Clement; Li Chengyang; Casa, Diego; Upton, Mary; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho

    2011-11-15

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a powerful technique for studying electronic excitations in correlated electron systems. Current RIXS spectrometers measure the changes in energy and momentum of the photons scattered by the sample. A powerful extension of the RIXS technique is the measurement of the polarization state of the scattered photons which contains information about the symmetry of the excitations. This long-desired addition has been elusive because of significant technical challenges. This paper reports the development of a new diffraction-based polarization analyzer which discriminates between linear polarization components of the scattered photons. The double concave surface of the polarization analyzer was designed as a good compromise between energy resolution and throughput. Such a device was fabricated using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite for measurements at the Cu K-edge incident energy. Preliminary measurements on a CuGeO{sub 3} sample are presented.

  4. A probabilistic theory of electromagnetic wave scattering from a slightly random surface 2. Vertical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, J.; Sakata, M.; Ogura, H.

    1981-09-01

    The scattering of an electromagnetic wave from an infinite random surface is studied by the probabilistic method developed in a previous paper. For a vertical polarized plane wave incident on a slightly random and perfectly conductive surface a new stochastic wave solution involving multiple scattering is obtained. The stochastic solution is free from the divergence difficulty as in the small perturbation method but gives an anomaly such that for a grazing angle of incidence the coherent scattering almost disappears and instead the incoherent scattering becomes dominant. In terms of the stochastic solution, a number of statistical properties of the scattering are calculated concretely for a perfectly conductive surface, such as the complex amplitude of the coherent scattering, the variance of the electric field, the optical theorem describing the power relation between the coherent and the incoherent scattering, the angular distribution of the incoherent scattering, the scattering cross section per unit area, and the surface wave flow, which are all illustrated in the figures.

  5. Multiple scattered radiation emerging from continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Hitzfelder, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    The complete radiation field is calculated for scattering layers of various optical thicknesses. Results obtained for Rayleigh and haze scattering are compared. Calculated radiances show differences as large as 23% compared to the approximate scalar theory of radiative transfer, while the same differences are approximately 0.1% for a continental haze phase function. The polarization of reflected and transmitted radiation is given for various optical thicknesses, solar zenith angles, and surface albedos. Two types of neutral points occur for aerosol phase functions. Rayleigh-like neutral points arise from zero polarization that occurs at scattering angles of 0 deg and 180 deg. For Rayleigh phase functions, the position of these points varies with the optical thickness of the scattering layer. Non-Rayleigh neutral points are associated with the zeros of polarization which occur between the end points of the single scattering curve, and are found over a wide range of azimuthal angles.

  6. Calculation of polarization and anisotropy of resonant and fluorescent scattering. [in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the swift calculation of the angular intensity distribution and the degree of polarization associated with the resonant and fluorescent scattering of radiation by atoms which occurs in the rarefied upper atmospheres of planets during sunlit airglow phenomena. Attention is given to spectral lines with hyperfine structure, which are indicative of nuclear spin processes. The method employed involves summations over Zeeman components, allowing an evaluation of polarization through the addition of underlying simple resonant and fluorescent scattering channels.

  7. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  8. Model independent radiative corrections in processes of polarized electron-nucleon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Akushevich; Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov

    2001-12-01

    The explicit formulae for radiative correction (RC) calculation for elastic ep-scattering is presented. Two typical measurements of polarization observables such as beam-target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization, are considered. Possibilities to take into account realistic experimental acceptances are discussed. The Fortran code MASCARAD for providing the RC procedure is presented. Numerical analysis is done for kinematical conditions of TJNAF.

  9. Model independent radiative corrections in processes of polarized electron-nucleon elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, A.; Akushevich, I.; Merenkov, N.

    2001-12-01

    Explicit formulas for radiative correction (RC) calculations for elastic ep scattering are presented. Two typical measurements of polarization observables, such as beam-target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization, are considered. The possibilities of taking into account realistic experimental acceptances are discussed. The FORTRAN code MASCARAD for providing the RC procedure is presented. A numerical analysis is done for the kinematical conditions of CEBAF.

  10. On the effect of cloud microstructure on the polarization characteristics of double scattering lidar return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, Anton A.; Bryukhanova, Valentina V.

    2015-11-01

    The work is devoted to remote sensing droplet clouds by coaxial lidar. The results of numerical modeling of the distribution of polarization ellipse parameters of lidar returns in the double-scattering approximation are discussed. It is shown that the polarization state of sounding radiation transforms from a linear (or circular) to the elliptical at the study droplet clouds.

  11. Study of the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. G.; Hovanlou, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method was used to determine the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a backscattered beam of laser light. The relationship between the polarization and the type and amount of suspended particulates in the water was investigated.

  12. Polarization transfer in n-p scattering at 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolverton, H. L.; Nath, S.; Hiebert, J. C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Woodward, And W.

    1985-05-01

    The polarization transfer parameter Dt(180°) for n-p scattering has been measured at 50 MeV for the first time. Polarized neutrons produced in the 2H(darrow,narrow) 3He reaction were scattered from the hydrogen in a polyethylene target and the polarization of the recoil protons emitted at 0° was measured in a carbon polarimeter. The result of this measurement tests the prediction of Dt from a phase shift analysis of the N-N data and that of a theoretical proposal concerning n-p charge exchange.

  13. Polarization from Thomson scattering of the light of a spherical, limb-darkened star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The polarized flux produced by the Thomson scattering of the light of a spherical, limb-darkened star by optically thin, extrastellar regions of electrons is calculated and contrasted to previous models which treated the star as a point source. The point-source approximation is found to be valid for scattering by particles more than a stellar radius from the surface of the star but is inappropriate for those lying closer. The specific effect of limb darkening on the fractional polarization of the total light of a system is explored. If the principal source of light is the unpolarized flux of the star, the polarization is nearly independent of limb darkening.

  14. The complex polarization angles of radio pulsars: orthogonal jumps and interstellar scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastergiou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite some success in explaining the observed polarization angle swing of radio pulsars within the geometric rotating vector model, many deviations from the expected S-like swing are observed. In this Letter, we provide a simple and credible explanation of these variations based on a combination of the rotating vector model, intrinsic orthogonally polarized propagation modes within the pulsar magnetosphere and the effects of interstellar scattering. We use simulations to explore the range of phenomena that may arise from this combination, and briefly discuss the possibilities of determining the parameters of scattering in an effort to understand the intrinsic pulsar polarization.

  15. Complete calculation of electroweak corrections for polarized Møller scattering at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykunov, V. A.

    2009-09-01

    A complete calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables of polarized Møller scattering at high energies was performed. This calculation took explicitly into account contributions caused by hard bremsstrahlung. A FORTRAN code that permitted including radiative corrections to high-energy Møller scattering under arbitrary electron-detection conditions was written. It was shown that the electroweak corrections caused by hard bremsstrahlung were rather strongly dependent on the choice of experimental cuts and changed substantially the polarization asymmetry in the region of high energies and over a broad interval of scattering angles.

  16. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement

    2016-08-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals. PMID:27587100

  17. Specular, diffuse, and polarized light scattered by two wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Grant, L.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using polarization measurements, the reflectance factor of two wheat canopies is divided into components due to specularly and diffusely reflected light. The data show that two key angles may be predicted, the angle of the polarizer for minimum flux and the angle of incidence of sunlight specularly reflected by a leaf to a sensor. The results show that specular reflection is a key aspect to radiation transfer by two canopies. Results suggest that the advent of heading in wheat may be remotely sensed from polarization measurements of the canopy reflectance.

  18. On the importance of partial frequency redistribution in modeling the scattering polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K. N.

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that partial frequency redistribution (PRD) is the basic physical mechanism to correctly describe radiative transfer in spectral lines. In the case of polarized line scattering, the PRD becomes particularly important to describe the line-wing polarization, instead of the well-known mechanism of complete redistribution (CRD). Historically, the two-level atom PRD scattering matrices for polarized line scattering were first derived in the 1970's, and later generalized to the case of arbitrary fields in 1997. The latter formulation of the PRD matrices have subsequently been used in the solution of the line transfer equation to successfully model the non-magnetic (resonance scattering) and the magnetic (Hanle scattering) polarization observations. In recent years, using the Kramers-Heisenberg approach, we formulated PRD matrices for various physical mechanisms like quantum interference involving fine- and hyperfine-structure states in a two-term atom. The effect of collisions is included in an approximate way. We have used these PRD matrices to model the observed linear polarization in several interesting lines of the Second Solar Spectrum. In this paper I present a few results which highlight the importance of PRD in the interpretation of the polarized Stokes profiles.

  19. Polarized light scattering by aerosols in the marine atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.; Erskine, Lael L.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1997-07-01

    The intensity and polarization of light scattered from marine aerosols affect visibility and contrast in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). The polarization properties of scattered light in the MABL vary with size, refractive index, number distributions, and environmental conditions. Laboratory measurements were used to determine the characteristics and variability of the polarization of light scattered by aerosols similar to those in the MABL. Scattering from laboratory-generated sea-salt-containing (SSC) NaCl, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and seawater components of marine aerosols was measured with a scanning polarization-modulated nephelometer. Mie theory with Gaussian and log normal size distributions of spheres was used to calculate the polarized light scattering from various aerosol composition models and from experimentally determined distributions of aerosols in the marine boundary layer. The modeling was verified by comparison with scattering from distilled water aerosols. The study suggests that polarimetric techniques can be used to enhance techniques for improving visibility and remote imaging for various aerosol types, Sun angles, and viewing conditions.

  20. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, C; Cisbani, E; Hamilton, D J; Salmé, G; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ahmidouch, A; Annand, J R M; Baghdasaryan, H; Beaufait, J; Bosted, P; Brash, E J; Butuceanu, C; Carter, P; Christy, E; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Degtyarenko, P; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Fowler, M; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Horn, T; Huber, G M; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Khandaker, M; Kohl, M; Kumbartzki, G; Lassiter, S; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Lovelace, H; Luo, W; Mack, D; Mamyan, V; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Maxwell, J; Mbianda, G; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Miller, J; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Mulholland, J; Nelyubin, V; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Prok, Y; Puckett, A J R; Punjabi, V; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Slifer, K; Smith, G; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Ye, Z; Zheng, X

    2015-10-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θ_{cm}^{p}=70°. The longitudinal transfer K_{LL}, measured to be 0.645±0.059±0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude. PMID:26550716

  1. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D. J.; Salmé, G.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ahmidouch, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Beaufait, J.; Bosted, P.; Brash, E. J.; Butuceanu, C.; Carter, P.; Christy, E.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fowler, M.; Frlez, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Horn, T.; Huber, G. M.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Kohl, M.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lassiter, S.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Lovelace, H.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Mamyan, V.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Maxwell, J.; Mbianda, G.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Miller, J.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mulholland, J.; Nelyubin, V.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Punjabi, V.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, G.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S.; Ye, Z.; Zheng, X.

    2015-10-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θcmp=70 ° . The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ±0.059 ±0.048 , where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ˜3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  2. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Harris

    2001-08-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  3. SCATTERING POLARIZATION AND HANLE EFFECT IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES WITH HORIZONTAL INHOMOGENEITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Manso Sainz, Rafael; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es

    2011-12-10

    Scattering of light from an anisotropic source produces linear polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. In the outer layers of a stellar atmosphere the anisotropy of the radiation field is typically dominated by the radiation escaping away, but local horizontal fluctuations of the physical conditions may also contribute, distorting the illumination and, hence, the polarization pattern. Additionally, a magnetic field may perturb and modify the line scattering polarization signals through the Hanle effect. Here, we study such symmetry-breaking effects. We develop a method to solve the transfer of polarized radiation in a scattering atmosphere with weak horizontal fluctuations of the opacity and source functions. It comprises linearization (small opacity and Planck function fluctuations are assumed), reduction to a quasi-plane-parallel problem through harmonic analysis, and the problem's numerical solution by generalized standard techniques. We apply this method to study scattering polarization in atmospheres with horizontal fluctuations in the Planck function and opacity. We derive several very general results and constraints from considerations on the symmetries and dimensionality of the problem, and we give explicit solutions of a few illustrative problems of special interest. For example, we show (1) how the amplitudes of the fractional linear polarization signals change when considering increasingly smaller horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities, (2) that in the presence of such inhomogeneities even a vertical magnetic field may modify the scattering line polarization, and (3) that forward scattering polarization may be produced without the need for an inclined magnetic field. These results are important for understanding the physics of the problem and as benchmarks for multidimensional radiative transfer codes.

  4. The polarization of light scattered by small particles: A personal review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    A personal review of the author's field of research is presented at the occasion of his receipt of the first Van de Hulst Light-Scattering Award. Special attention is given to the relation between the author's work and the contributions of Professor H.C. van de Hulst to the field of light scattering by small particles. History, people and research are intertwined in this paper. The polarization of light scattered by particles is brought into focus. First, the interpretation of the polarization of Venus in terms of properties of its cloud particles is recorded, followed by a discussion of symmetry principles and their interrelationships. The structure of a variety of Mueller matrices is exposed. Experimental work on light scattering is also considered. Finally, the fast growth of knowledge over the past few decades pertaining to light scattering by non-spherical particles is indicated.

  5. Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Hyo Ju; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Changgu; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2015-11-28

    We investigated polarization dependence of the Raman modes in black phosphorus (BP) using five different excitation wavelengths. The crystallographic orientation was determined by comparing polarized optical microscopy with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. In polarized Raman spectroscopy, the B2g mode shows the same polarization dependence regardless of the excitation wavelength or the sample thickness. On the other hand, the Ag(1) and Ag(2) modes show a peculiar polarization behavior that depends on the excitation wavelength and the sample thickness. The thickness dependence can be explained by considering the anisotropic interference effect due to the birefringence and dichroism of the BP crystal, but the wavelength dependence cannot be explained. We propose a simple and fail-proof procedure to determine the orientation of a BP crystal by combining polarized Raman scattering with polarized optical microscopy. PMID:26503032

  6. Electron elastic scattering off A @C60 : The role of atomic polarization under confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. K.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2015-10-01

    The present paper explores possible features of electron elastic scattering off endohedral fullerenes A @C60 . It focuses on how dynamical polarization of the encapsulated atom A by an incident electron might alter scattering off A @C60 compared to the static-atom-A case, as well as how the C60 confinement modifies the impact of atomic polarization on electron scattering compared to the free-atom case. The aim is to provide researchers with a "relative frame of reference" for understanding which part of the scattering processes could be due to electron scattering off the encapsulated atom and which could be due to scattering off the C60 cage. To meet the goal, the C60 cage is modeled by an attractive spherical potential of a certain inner radius, thickness, and depth which is a model used frequently in a great variety of fullerene studies to date. Then, the Dyson equation for the self-energy part of the Green's function of an incident electron moving in the combined field of an encapsulated atom A and C60 is solved in order to account for the impact of dynamical polarization of the encaged atom upon e +A @C60 scattering. The Ba@C60 endohedral is chosen as the case study. The impact is found to be significant, and its utterly different role compared to that in e +Ba scattering is unraveled.

  7. Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. I - Radiance, polarization, and neutral points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Hitzfelder, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix operator method was used to calculate the polarization of radiation scattered on layers of various optical thicknesses, with results compared for Rayleigh scattering and for scattering from a continental haze. In both cases, there are neutral points arising from the zeros of the polarization of single scattered photons at scattering angles of zero and 180 degrees. The angular position of these Rayleigh-like neutral points (RNP) in the sky shows appreciable variation with the optical thickness of the scattering layer for a Rayleigh phase matrix, but only a small variation for haze L phase matrix. Another type of neutral point exists for non-Rayleigh phase functions that is associated with the zeros of the polarization for single scattering which occurs between the end points of the curve. A comparison of radiances calculated from the complete theory of radiative transfer using Stokes vectors with those obtained from the scalar theory shows that differences of the order of 23% may be obtained for Rayleigh scattering, while the largest difference found for a haze L phase function was of the order of 0.1%.

  8. Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    de Grooth, B.G.; Terstappen, L.W.; Puppels, G.J.; Greve, J.

    1987-11-01

    Polarization measurement of orthogonal light scattering is introduced as a new optical parameter in flow cytometry. In the experimental setup, the electrical field of the incident laser beam is polarized in the direction of the sample flow. The intensity of the orthogonal light scattering polarized along the direction of the incoming laser beam is called depolarized orthogonal light scattering. Theoretical analysis shows that for small values of the detection aperture, the measured depolarization is caused by anisotropic cell structures and multiple scattering processes inside the cell. Measurements of the orthogonal depolarized light scattering in combination with the normal orthogonal light scattering of human leucocytes revealed two populations of granulocytes. By means of cell sorting it was shown that the granulocytes with a relatively high depolarization are eosinophilic granulocytes. Similar experiments with human lymphocytes revealed a minor subpopulation of yet-unidentified lymphocytes with a relative large orthogonal light-scattering depolarization. The results were obtained with an argon ion laser tuned at different wavelengths as well as with a 630-nm helium neon laser. These results show that measurement of depolarized orthogonal light scattering is a useful new parameter for flow-cytometric cell differentiation.

  9. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. Methods: HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung emission are calculated from various electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere to study the observed (primary and albedo) sources. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. Results: We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the extent of the HXR source at a given disk location. In the radial direction, the polarization magnitude and direction at specific positions along the HXR source will either increase or decrease with increased photon distribution directivity towards the photosphere. We also show how high electron cutoff energies influence the direction of polarization at above ~100 keV. Conclusions: Spatially resolved HXR polarization measurements can provide important information about the directivity and energetics of the electron distribution. Our results indicate the preferred angular resolution of polarization measurements required to distinguish between the scattered and primary components. We also show how spatially resolved polarization measurements could be used to probe the emission pattern of an HXR source, using both the magnitude and the direction of the polarization.

  10. Numerical simulations on polarized photon scattering for classification of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Zeng, Nan; Zeng, Maomao; Ma, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a key factor restricting the development of social economy. Identification of major pollutants has important scientific significance. The polarization evolution during polarized light interacting with particulate matters can provide important information sensitive to properties of particles. We propose a method to recognize the specific component in air dust, for example, the sand. Based on our polarization simulation, we show theoretically that some Stokes parameters at specific scattering angle can classify water soluble particles, water droplet and sand etc. The preliminary research implies some potential of polarization detection applied in source apportionment for air pollution monitoring.

  11. Quasiparticle scattering rate in a strongly polarized Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Bruun, Georg M.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the scattering rate of an impurity atom in a Fermi sea as a function of momentum and temperature in the BCS-BEC crossover. The cross section is calculated using a microscopic multichannel theory for the Feshbach resonance scattering, including finite range and medium effects. We show that pair correlations significantly increase the cross section for strong interactions close to the unitarity regime. They give rise to a molecule pole of the cross section at negative energy on the BEC side of the resonance, which smoothly evolves into a resonance at positive scattering energy with a nonzero imaginary part on the BCS side. The resonance is the analog of superfluid pairing for the corresponding population balanced system. Using Fermi liquid theory, we show that the low temperature scattering rate of the impurity atom is significantly increased due to these pair correlations for low momenta. We demonstrate that finite range and mass imbalance effects are significant for the experimentally relevant 6Li-40K mixture, and we finally discuss how the scattering rate can be measured using radio-frequency spectroscopy and Bose-Fermi mixtures.

  12. On the influence of resonant scattering on cosmic microwave background polarization anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2007-10-01

    We implement the theory of resonant scattering in the context of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. We compute the changes in the E-mode polarization (EE) and temperature E-mode (TE) CMB power spectra introduced by the scattering on a resonant transition with a given optical depth τX and polarization coefficient E1. The latter parameter, accounting for how anisotropic the scattering is, depends on the exchange of angular momentum in the transition, enabling observational discrimination between different resonances. We use this formalism in two different scenarios: cosmological recombination and cosmological re-ionization. In the context of cosmological recombination, we compute predictions in frequency and multipole space for the change in the TE and EE power spectra introduced by scattering on the Hα and Pα lines of hydrogen. This constitutes a fundamental test of the standard model of recombination, and the sensitivity it requires is comparable to that needed in measuring the primordial CMB B-mode polarization component. In the context of re-ionization, we study the scattering off metals and ions produced by the first stars, and find that polarization anisotropies, apart from providing a consistency test for intensity measurements, give some insight on how re-ionization evolved. Since polarization anisotropies have memory of how anisotropic the line scattering is, they should be able to discern the OI 63.2-μm transition from other possible transitions associated to OIII, NII, NIII, etc. The amplitude of these signals are, however, between 10 and 100 times below the (already challenging) level of CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies.

  13. Neutron densities in 120Sn observed by polarized proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Taki, T.; Yosoi, M.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tsukahara, N.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Fujimura, H.; Yoshida, H.; Obayashi, E.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.

    2001-06-01

    Cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation parameters of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni and 120Sn have been measured at intermediate energies. By elastic scattering off N~=Z nuclei like 58Ni at intermediate energies we can study medium modification of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction inside the nucleus, because proton distributions in target nuclei are constrained by charge distributions measured by electron scattering and neutron distributions can be assumed to be the same as proton's. In order to explain our experimental data of 58Ni at large scattering angles, it was found to be necessary to use experimental densities deduced from charge densities measured by electron scattering and to modify the coupling constants and the masses of exchanged σ and ω mesons in the RIA, assuming linear dependencies of meson properties to nuclear densities. Parameters of the medium effect have been searched to reproduce the data. For N≠Z nuclei, neutron density distribution can be extracted from the elastic scattering, assuming the same medium modifications fixed by the 58Ni data and using proton distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distribution so as to reproduce 120Sn data at the proton incident energy of 300 MeV. Deduced neutron distribution has an increase at the nuclear center, which is consistent with the 3s1/2 orbit wave function as expected in 120Sn. At energies other than 300 MeV, experimental data of 120Sn have been also well reproduced by the neutron distribution obtained at 300 MeV. .

  14. [Polarization Modeling and Analysis of Light Scattering Properties of Multilayer Films on Slightly Rough Substrate].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Wang, Ling-mei; Wang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    To satisfy the demand of multilayer films on polarization detection, polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function of multilayer films on slightly rough substrate is established on the basis of first-order vector perturbation theory and polarization transfer matrix. Due to the function, light scattering polarization properties are studied under multi-factor impacts of two typical targets-monolayer anti-reflection film and multilayer high-reflection films. The result shows that for monolayer anti-reflection film, observing positions have a great influence on the degree of polarization, for the left of the peak increased and right decreased compared with the substrate target. Film target and bare substrate can be distinguished by the degree of polarization in different observation angles. For multilayer high-reflection films, the degree of polarization is significantly associated with the number and optical thickness of layers at different wavelengths of incident light and scattering angles. With the increase of the layer number, the degree of polarization near the mirror reflection area decreases. It reveals that the calculated results coincide with the experimental data, which validates the correctness and rationality of the model. This paper provides a theoretical method for polarization detection of multilayer films target and reflection stealth technology. PMID:27400497

  15. COMPUTING THE CONTINUUM POLARIZATION FROM THOMSON SCATTERING IN GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Halonen, R. J.; Mackay, F. E.; Jones, C. E.

    2013-01-15

    We investigate the computation of the intrinsic continuum linear polarization from electron scattering in optically thin and thick circumstellar disks of gas. We present the use of a non-LTE radiative transfer code, along with two different computational methods for obtaining the Stokes parameters, to reproduce the polarization levels that arise from disks of classical Be stars. Since the pioneering work of Poeckert and Marlborough, numerous improvements and refinements have been incorporated into computational radiative transfer models of classical Be stars. We present an assessment of the effect of several improvements on Poeckert and Marlborough's technique for calculating the polarization levels of the classical Be star {gamma} Cas. We find that improvements to the sampling of the disk density and the inclusion of a non-isothermal structure for the gas in the disk yield polarization levels that differ from the levels expected by Poeckert and Marlborough. Principally, the inclusion of the self-consistent calculation of the thermal structure of the disk has a significant impact on the resulting polarization. In addition, we assess the importance of the inclusion of multiple scattering calculations in predicting the continuum polarization in classical Be stars. We confirm that multiple scattering calculations are necessary for studying the linear polarization levels from optically thick gaseous disks around classical Be stars.

  16. Inclination-induced polarization of scattered millimetre radiation from protoplanetary discs: the case of HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie; Stephens, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Spatially resolved polarized millimetre/submillimetre emission has been observed in the disc of HL Tau and two other young stellar objects. It is usually interpreted as coming from magnetically aligned grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering, as demonstrated explicitly by Kataoka et al. for face-on discs. We extend their work by including the polarization induced by disc inclination with respect to the line of sight. Using a physically motivated, semi-analytic model, we show that the polarization fraction of the scattered light increases with the inclination angle i, reaching 1/3 for edge-on discs. The inclination-induced polarization can easily dominate that intrinsic to the disc in the face-on view. It provides a natural explanation for the two main features of the polarization pattern observed in the tilted disc of HL Tau (i ˜ 45°): the polarized intensity concentrating in a region elongated more or less along the major axis, and polarization in this region roughly parallel to the minor axis. This broad agreement provides support to dust scattering as a viable mechanism for producing, at least in part, polarized millimetre radiation. In order to produce polarization at the observed level (˜1 per cent), the scattering grains must have grown to a maximum size of tens of microns. However, such grains may be too small to produce the opacity spectral index of β ≲ 1 observed in HL Tau and other sources; another population of larger, millimetre/centimetre-sized, grains may be needed to explain the bulk of the unpolarized continuum emission.

  17. Intensity and polarization of light scattered by size distributions of randomly oriented nonspherical particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, M. I.; Travis, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of light scattering by small particles are important in many diverse fields of science and engineering. In many cases of practical interest, scattering particles are nonspherical and are distributed over sizes and orientations. However, accurate light scattering computations for ensembles of nonspherical particles are difficult and time-consuming, and the literature in which such calculations are reported is rather scarce. In this paper, the T-matrix approach, as extended recently to randomly oriented particles, is used to calculate rigorously light scattering by size distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles. To model the variation of particle sizes in real ensembles, we use a power law distribution typical of some terrestrial aerosols. Contour plots of intensity and degree of linear polarization for polydisperse prolate and oblate spheroids of different aspect ratios and effective equivalent-sphere size parameters from 0 to 10 are calculated and compared with calculations for equivalent spheres. The angular scattering behavior of nonspherical polydispersions is found to be greatly different from that of spheres, while the scattering properties of oblate and prolate spheroids of the same aspect ratio are similar. With increasing particle size, both intensity and polarization become more shape-dependent. In general, nonspherical particles are stronger side scatterers and weaker backscatterers than equivalent spheres. With increasing aspect ratio of nonspherical particles polarization tends to be predominantly positive. Possible effects of particle nonsphericity on optical remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols are discussed.

  18. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchi, M.; Hague, C.F.; Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J.

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  19. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  20. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.more » However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.« less

  1. Degree and plane of polarization of multiple scattered light. 2: Earth's atmosphere with aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plass, G. N.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The degree of polarization, as well as the direction of the plane of polarization, were calculated by a Monte Carlo method for the reflected and transmitted photons from the earth's atmosphere. The solar photons were observed during multiple collisions with aerosols and the Rayleigh scattering centers in the atmosphere. The aerosol number density, as well as the ratio of aerosol to Rayleigh scattering, varies with height. The proportion of aerosol to Rayleigh scattering was appropriately chosen at each wavelength 0.4 microns and 0.7 microns; ozone absorption was included where appropriate. Three different aerosol number densities were used to study the effects of aerosol variations. Results are given for a solar zenith angle of 81.37 deg and a surface albedo of zero. The polarization of the reflected and transmitted photons was found to be sensitive to the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere at certain angles of observation.

  2. Effect of scattering albedo on attenuation and polarization of light underwater.

    PubMed

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2010-06-15

    Recent work on underwater laser communication links uses polarization discrimination to improve system performance [Appl. Opt.48, 328 (2009)] [in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1-4]. In the laboratory, Maalox antacid is commonly used as a scattering agent. While its scattering function closely mimics that of natural seawaters, its scattering albedo can be much higher, as Maalox particles tend to be less absorbing. We present a series of experiments where Nigrosin dye is added to Maalox in order to more accurately recreate real-world absorption and scattering properties. We consider the effect that scattering albedo has on received power and the degree of depolarization of forward-scattered light in the context of underwater laser communication links. PMID:20548395

  3. The nonlinear effect in relativistic Compton scattering for an intense circularly polarized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Fan, G. T.; Xu, W.; Song, Y. M.

    2014-07-01

    Compton scattering between an intense laser pulse and a relativistic electron beam offers a promising development path toward high-energy, high-brightness x- and gamma-ray sources. Increasing laser peak power to obtain intense x- and gamma rays causes nonlinear Compton scattering to occur. To predict high-order harmonic radiation properties, we upgrade a Monte Carlo laser-Compton scattering simulation code (MCLCSS) by taking into account the nonlinear effect for the relativistic Compton scattering process. The energy spectra and angular and harmonic intensity distributions of the scattered photons are investigated using nonlinear Compton scattering of an intense circularly polarized laser. It is found that the laser parameter {{a}_{0}}\\equiv e{\\rm{A}}\\;{{m}_{e}}{{c}^{-2}} plays an important role in the generation of high-order harmonic radiation. Our study also suggests that the high-energy tails of the second and higher harmonics will stray from the backscattering region.

  4. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  5. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, Jacob James; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2013-11-04

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  6. Polarization lidar operation for measuring backscatter phase matrices of oriented scatterers.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott; Morley, Bruce; VanAndel, Joseph

    2012-12-31

    We describe implementation and demonstration of a polarization technique adapted for lidar to measure all unique elements of the volume backscatter phase matrix. This capability allows for detection of preferential orientation within a scattering volume, and may improve scattering inversions on oriented ice crystals. The technique is enabled using a Mueller formalism commonly employed in polarimetry, which does not require the lidar instrument be polarization preserving. Instead, the accuracy of the polarization measurements are limited by the accuracy of the instrument characterization. A high spectral resolution lidar at the National Center for Atmospheric Research was modified to demonstrate this polarization technique. Two observations where the instrument is tilted off zenith are presented. In the first case, the lidar detects flattened large raindrops oriented along the same direction due to drag forces from falling. The second case is an ice cloud approximately 5 km above lidar base that contains preferentially oriented ice crystals in a narrow altitude band. PMID:23388782

  7. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Smet, J. H.; Arima, T.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  8. An electron beam polarimeter based on scattering from a windowless, polarized hydrogen gas target

    SciTech Connect

    Bernauer, Jan; Milner, Richard

    2013-11-07

    Here we present the idea to develop a precision polarimeter for low energy, intense polarized electron beams using a windowless polarized hydrogen gas cell fed by an atomic beam source. This technique would use proven technology used successfully in both the electron scattering experiments: HERMES with 27 GeV electron and positron beams at DESY, and BLAST with 850 MeV electron beams at MIT-Bates. At 100 MeV beam energy, both spin-dependent Mo/ller and elastic electron-proton scattering processes have a high cross section and sizable spin asymmetries. The concept is described and estimates for realistic rates for elastic electron-proton scattering and Mo/ller scattering are presented. A number of important issues which affect the ultimate systematic uncertainty are identified.

  9. Effects of wavelength-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine Chlorella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    1990-09-01

    This paper investigates the wavelength dependence of the polarization characteristics of light scattered from laboratory cultures of marine Clzlorella. Scattering measurements were obtained using a scanning polarization-modulation nephelometer at wavelengths of 457 and 514 nm. The experimental data are corrected for non-spherical contributions and the resulting curves compared to Mie calculations of coated spheres with a Gaussian size distribution. Although the absorption of Chiorella has been reported to be strongly wavelength-dependent in the blue to green region of the spectrum, the scattering behavior changes very little. To verify the sensitivity of the scattering technique to changes in the imaginary refractive index, measurements were performed on absorbing and non-absorbing suspensions of wellcharacterized, coated copolymer particles. In all cases, the angle-dependent measurements and calculations were compared for four elements of the 16 element Mueller scattering matrix at two wavelengths. In the past, comparison of scattering models and measurements were generally performed for only the total intensity (one element of the scattering matrix). The use of four elements provides a much more stringent test of scattering calculations than those based on a single element. Using this method we are able to infer information about the internal structure and refractive indices of microscopic single cell organisms in vivo.

  10. Polarization videoreflectometry of multiple scattering anisotropic media in application to fibrous tissue diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, O. V.; Kuznetsova, L. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    Diffuse reflectance of polarized light is studied in application to characterization of multiple scattering anisotropic media (such as, e.g., the fibrous tissues) with the use of focused probe laser beam. The theoretical model for description of the transport properties (the values of transport scattering coefficients and effective refractive index for different polarization states of probe light) of closely packed systems of partially disordered dielectric cylinders is considered on the base of coherent potential approximation. The influence of structural and optical characteristics of fibrous systems (such as the volume fraction of cylindrical scatters, their average diameter, the degree of disorder, refractive indices of scatters and surrounding medium) on diagnostical parameters determined with the polarization videoreflectometry can be analyzed in the framework of the considered theoretical model. The obtained theoretical results satisfactorily agree with the experimental data on polarization videoreflectometry and spectral-polarization measurements in the transmittance mode of in-vitro samples of demineralized bone, muscular tissue and phantom samples (partially oriented polymer films).

  11. Internal spin structure of the proton from high energy polarized e-p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.W.; Baum, G.; Bergstroem, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    A review is given of experimental knowledge of the spin dependent structure functions of the proton, which is based on inclusive high energy scattering of longitudinal polarized electrons by longitudinally polarized protons in both the deep inelastic and resonance regions, and includes preliminary results from our most recent SLAC experiment. Implications for scaling, sum rules, models of proton structure, and the hyperfine structure interval in hydrogen are given. Possible future directions of research are indicated.

  12. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.

  13. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p-/sup 3/He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm/sup -1/. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since /sup 3/He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p-/sup 3/He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for /sup 3/He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Scattering of linearly polarized microwave radiation from a dielectric helix.

    PubMed

    Haracz, R D; Cohen, L D; Cohen, A; Wang, R T

    1987-11-01

    A method for calculating the electric field scattered from a helical dielectric target is compared to an equivalent experiment. The wavelength of the incident light is 3.18 cm, and the right-handed helix has a radius of 1.83 cm and wire radius of 0.24 cm, a pitch of 0.553 cm, and seven turns. The index of refraction of, the target is 1.626-i 0.012. A brief description of the Shifrin theory generalized to this application is given along with a discussion of the experiment, and the experimental intensities are compared to the first-order theory. PMID:20523417

  15. Polarized Nuclei: From Fundamental Nuclear Physics To Applications In Neutron Scattering and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Kurdzesau, F.; Piegsa, F. M.; Urrego-Blanco, J.-P.

    2008-02-06

    The methods of dynamically polarizing nuclei (DNP) have not only lead to the development of increasingly sophisticated polarized targets with which the role of spin in nuclear and particle interactions is investigated, but have also opened new possibilities in neutron science by exploiting the strong spin dependence of the neutron scattering. Very recently NMR and MRI have been a driving force behind a surge of interest in DNP methods, considering its tremendous potential for sensitivity enhancement. An overview of our current projects with dynamically polarized nuclei is given.

  16. Polarization State of Light Scattered from Quantum Plasmonic Dimer Antennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longkun; Wang, Hancong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-01-26

    Plasmonic antennas are able to concentrate and re-emit light in a controllable manner through strong coupling between metallic nanostructures. Only recently has it found that quantum mechanical effects can drastically change the coupling strength as the feature size approaches atomic scales. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the evolution of the resonance peak and its polarization state as the dimer-antenna gap narrows to subnanometer scale. We clearly can identify the classical plasmonic regime, a crossover regime where nonlocal screening plays an important role, and the quantum regime where a charge transfer plasmon appears due to interparticle electron tunneling. Moreover, as the gap decreases from tens of to a few nanometers, the bonding dipole mode tends to emit photons with increasing polarizability. When the gap narrows to quantum regime, a significant depolarization of the mode emission is observed due to the reduction of the charge density of coupled quantum plasmons. These results would be beneficial for the understanding of quantum effects on emitting-polarization of nanoantennas and the development of quantum-based photonic nanodevices. PMID:26700823

  17. Radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in leptonic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, G. I.; Konchatnij, M. I. Merenkov, N. P.

    2012-08-15

    The model-independent QED radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic scattering of unpolarized and longitudinally polarized electron beams by a deuteron target are calculated in leptonic variables. The experimental setup when the deuteron target is arbitrarily polarized is considered and the procedure for applying the derived results to the vector or tensor polarization of the recoil deuteron is discussed. The calculation is based on taking all essential Feynman diagrams into account, which results in the form of the Drell-Yan representation for the cross section, and the use of the covariant parameterization of the deuteron polarization state. Numerical estimates of the radiative corrections are given in the case where event selection allows undetected particles (photons and electron-positron pairs) and the restriction on the lost invariant mass is used.

  18. Ray Scattering by an Arbitrarily Oriented Spheroid: 2. Transmission and Cross-polarization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission of an arbitrarily polarized plane wave by an arbitrarily oriented spheroid in the short-wavelength limit is considered in the context of ray theory. The transmitted electric field is added to the diffracted plus reflected ray-theory electric field that was previously derived to obtain an approximation to the far-zone scattered intensity in the forward hemisphere. Two different types of cross-polarization effects are found. These are: (a) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays from when they are referenced with respect to their entrance into the spheroid to when they are referenced with respect to their exit from it and (b) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays when they are referenced with respect to the polarization state of the diffracted plus reflected rays.

  19. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved. PMID:27095171

  20. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved.

  1. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved. PMID:27095171

  2. Polarization properties of light scattered off solutions of chiral molecules in non-forward direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Xavier; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Barbara, Alex F.; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Measuring the optical activity from an ensemble of chiral molecules is a common tool to know their stereo-structure. These measurements are done in the same propagation direction of the probe beam of light, because that is the direction where most signal is emitted. We provide experimental and theoretical evidence that, even though other interesting information may be gathered when collecting light emitted in other directions, for most molecules, the phenomenon of optical activity is only present in the forward scattering direction. The fundamental reason behind this is that forward scattered light preserves the circular polarization states due to the cylindrical symmetry of the system, an essential requirement for optical activity. An important exemption happens in dual molecules, i.e., molecules which present the same response to electric and magnetic fields. We present a series of experiments measuring the optical activity and the scattering of chiral solutions in the forward and perpendicular directions. We experimentally show that these molecules present optical activity and preservation of circular polarization in the forward direction, while the polarization pattern in non-forward directions is much more complex and, in particular, does not preserve the circular polarization. Finally, we show that when probing the particle with different wavelengths, the scattering in non-forward directions presents some interesting structural features which are hidden in the forward measurements.

  3. Coherent Detector for Near-Angle Scattering and Polarization Characterization of Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chipman, Russell A.; Daugherty, Brian J.; McClain, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses the difficulty of measuring scattering properties of coated mirrors extremely close to the specular reflection peak. A prototype Optical Hetero dyne Near-angle Scatterometer (OHNS) was developed. Light from a long-coherence-length (>150 m) 532-nm laser is split into two arms. Acousto-optic modulators frequency shift the sample and reference beams, establishing a fixed beat frequency between the beams. The sample beam is directed at very high f/# onto a mirror sample, and the point spread function (PSF) formed after the mirror sample is scanned with a pinhole. This light is recombined by a non-polarizing beam splitter and measured through heterodyne detection with a spectrum analyzer. Polarizers control the illuminated and analyzed polarization states, allowing the polarization dependent scatter to be measured. The bidirectional reflective or scattering distribution function is normally measured through use of a scattering goniometer instrument. The instrumental beam width (collection angle span) over which the scatterometer responds is typically many degrees. The OHNS enables measurement at angles as small as the first Airy disk diameter.

  4. Polarization properties of light scattered off solutions of chiral molecules in non-forward direction

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Xavier Barbara, Alex F.; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-11-23

    Measuring the optical activity from an ensemble of chiral molecules is a common tool to know their stereo-structure. These measurements are done in the same propagation direction of the probe beam of light, because that is the direction where most signal is emitted. We provide experimental and theoretical evidence that, even though other interesting information may be gathered when collecting light emitted in other directions, for most molecules, the phenomenon of optical activity is only present in the forward scattering direction. The fundamental reason behind this is that forward scattered light preserves the circular polarization states due to the cylindrical symmetry of the system, an essential requirement for optical activity. An important exemption happens in dual molecules, i.e., molecules which present the same response to electric and magnetic fields. We present a series of experiments measuring the optical activity and the scattering of chiral solutions in the forward and perpendicular directions. We experimentally show that these molecules present optical activity and preservation of circular polarization in the forward direction, while the polarization pattern in non-forward directions is much more complex and, in particular, does not preserve the circular polarization. Finally, we show that when probing the particle with different wavelengths, the scattering in non-forward directions presents some interesting structural features which are hidden in the forward measurements.

  5. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    DOEpatents

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  6. Polarized Resonant Critical Dimension Small Angle X-Ray Scattering for the Characterization of Polymer Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liman, Christopher; Sunday, Daniel; Ro, Hyun Wook; Richter, Lee; Hannon, Adam; Kline, R. Joseph

    Critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CDSAXS) is a recently developed technique that enables the characterization of the three-dimensional shape of periodic patterns, such as directed self-assembled (DSA) block copolymer (BCP) lamellae thin films. Information about the polymer patterns is extracted by fitting simulated scattering patterns to the experimental ones using an inverse iterative algorithm. Conducting CDSAXS at resonant energies near the carbon or nitrogen edge can enhance the strength of the scattering, but also causes the scattering to be influenced by any anisotropic orientation of the polymer chains. In this work, to assess the degree to which the scattering may be influenced by orientation, we simulate polarized resonant CDSAXS patterns for BCP lamellae with varying degrees of orientation, as well as orientation as a function of location within the lamellae, for different polarizations of the incident X-rays. Also, to assess the influence of a higher degree of orientation, we use capillary force lithography to pattern nanogratings of two semiconducting homopolymers which are known to orient strongly. We characterize these nanogratings, which have similar length scales to DSA BCP lamellae, with polarized resonant CDSAXS and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally, we fit simulated CDSAXS and ellipsometric data to the experimental data to obtain information about the shape and the orientation of the nanogratings.

  7. Spin effects in Kapitza-Dirac scattering at light with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Rico; Bauke, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    The Kapitza-Dirac effect, which refers to electron scattering at standing light waves, is studied in the Bragg regime with counterpropagating elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves with the same intensity, wavelength, and degree of polarization for two different setups. In the first setup, where the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have the same sense of rotation, we find distinct spin effects. The spins of the scattered electrons and of the nonscattered electrons, respectively, precess with a frequency that is of the order of the Bragg-reflection Rabi frequency. When the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have an opposite sense of rotation, which is the second considered setup, the standing wave has linear polarization, and no spin effects can be observed. Our results are based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Dirac equation and the analytical solution of a relativistic Pauli equation, which accounts for the leading relativistic effects.

  8. Double-Polarized pd Scattering and Test of Time-reversal Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzikov, Yuriy

    2016-02-01

    The integrated proton-deuteron cross section σ˜ for the case of transversal polarization ppy of the proton and tensor polarization Pxz of the deuteron provides a null test signal for time-reversal invariance violating but P-parity conserving effects. The corresponding experiment is planned at COSY to measure the observable σ˜. Here we consider in general case the status of the null-test observable in pd scattering, calculate σ˜ within the Glauber theory of the double-polarized pd scattering at 100 - 1000 MeV and study the contribution of the deuteron S- and D-waves for several type of the T-odd NN interactions.

  9. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  10. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, L; Minola, M; Dellea, G; Le Tacon, M; Moretti Sala, M; Morawe, C; Peffen, J-Ch; Supruangnet, R; Yakhou, F; Ghiringhelli, G; Brookes, N B

    2014-11-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B4C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L3 edge on a high-Tc superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%. PMID:25430146

  11. Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, M. I.; Lacis, A. A.; Travis, L. D.

    1994-01-01

    Although neglecting polarization and replacing the rigorous vector radiative transfer equation by its approximate scalar counterpart has no physical background, it is a widely used simplification when the incident light is unpolarized and only the intensity of the reflected light is to be computed. We employ accurate vector and scalar multiple-scattering calculations to perform a systematic study of the errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for a homogeneous, plane-parallel Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere (with and without depolarization) above a Lambertian surface. Specifically, we calculate percent errors in the reflected intensity for various directions of light incidence and reflection, optical thicknesses of the atmosphere, single-scattering albedos, depolarization factors, and surface albedos. The numerical data displayed can be used to decide whether or not the scalar approximation may be employed depending on the parameters of the problem. We show that the errors decrease with increasing depolarization factor and/or increasing surface albedo. For conservative or nearly conservative scattering and small surface albedos, the errors are maximum at optical thicknesses of about 1. The calculated errors may be too large for some practical applications, and, therefore, rigorous vector calculations should be employed whenever possible. However, if approximate scalar calculations are used, we recommend to avoid geometries involving phase angles equal or close to 0 deg and 90 deg, where the errors are especially significant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the large vector/scalar differences in the case of Rayleigh scattering. According to this explanation, the differences are caused by the particular structure of the Rayleigh scattering matrix and come from lower-order (except first-order) light scattering paths involving right scattering angles and right-angle rotations of the scattering plane.

  12. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products. PMID:27400522

  13. Elastic scattering polarimeter for a polarized antiproton beam at U-70 accelerator of IHEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Chetvertkov, M. A.; Chetvertkova, V. A.; Garkusha, V. I.; Meschanin, A. P.; Mochalov, V. V.; Nurusheva, M. B.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ridiger, A. V.; Rykov, V. L.; Semenov, P. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zapolsky, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The absolute polarimeter based on the elastic p¯p-scattering in the diffraction kinematic regions with the total momentum transfer squared coverage of 0.1 < - t < 0.3 (GeV/c)2 is proposed for the polarized antiproton beam at the U-70 proton synchrotron of IHEP. It is shown that it would take ˜200-400 hours for measuring the beam polarization at the statistical errors of ΔPB/PB ≃10-15%. These time estimates include also the time which is necessary for the measurements of an analyzing power AN, using a polarized target. Besides the measurements of beam polarizations, the proposed polarimeter provides an opportunity for carrying out the experimental studies of the small momentum transfers physics which would be a valuable enrichment of the SPASCHARM experiment capabilities and its physics program.

  14. On the Accuracy of Double Scattering Approximation for Atmospheric Polarization Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Marshak, Alexander L.

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of multi-angle spectro-polarimetric data in remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols require fast and accurate methods of solving the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The single and double scattering approximations could provide an analytical framework for the inversion algorithms and are relatively fast, however accuracy assessments of these approximations for the aerosol atmospheres in the atmospheric window channels have been missing. This paper provides such analysis for a vertically homogeneous aerosol atmosphere with weak and strong asymmetry of scattering. In both cases, the double scattering approximation gives a high accuracy result (relative error approximately 0.2%) only for the low optical path - 10(sup -2) As the error rapidly grows with optical thickness, a full VRTE solution is required for the practical remote sensing analysis. It is shown that the scattering anisotropy is not important at low optical thicknesses neither for reflected nor for transmitted polarization components of radiation.

  15. Reduced polarization decay due to carrier in-scattering in a semiconductor active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.; Knorr, A.; Koch, S.W.; Chow, W.W.

    1996-07-01

    The in-scattering processes, which reduce the decay of the active medium polarization, should be included in a consistent treatment of semiconductor laser gain. The in-scattering processes affect the laser gain by decreasing the influence of the high k-states, which contribute absorption to the spectrum. A theory, based on the semiconductor-Bloch equations with the effects of carrier-carrier scattering treated at the level of the quantum kinetic equations in the Markov limit, predicts gain spectra that do not exhibit absorption below the renormalized band gap, in agreement with experiment. When compared to gain calculations where the in-scattering contribution is neglected, the theory predicts markedly different properties for intrinsic laser parameters, such as peak gain, gain bandwidth, differential gain and carrier density at transparency, especially at low carrier densities.

  16. Polarization-based complex index of refraction estimation with diffuse scattering consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Hanyu; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Optical polarimetry is an approach that shows promise for refractive index estimation from scattering off a target's surface, which is task of pivotal importance for remote sensing and computer graphics applications. However, the estimation often relies on a microfacet polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) that is limited to specular targets involving single surface scattering. In this paper, we develop an analytic model for the degree of polarization (DOP) reflected from a rough surface that includes a multiplicative factor for the effect of diffuse scattering. Evaluation of the model indicates that diffuse scattering can significantly affect the DOP values, and the biased DOP values can further lead to inaccurate estimation of the surface refractive index.

  17. A Multiple Scattering Polarized Radiative Transfer Model: Application to HD 189733b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Zhang, Xi; Swain, Mark R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model that produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet’s atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partially covered by clouds or hazes, exhibit larger contrasts in polarized light when compared to clear atmospheres. This effect can potentially be used to identify patchy clouds in exoplanets. Given a set of full phase polarimetric measurements, this model can constrain the geometric albedo, properties of scattering particles in the atmosphere, and the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit. The model is used to interpret new polarimetric observations of HD 189733b in a companion paper.

  18. Multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid birefringent media: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-07-20

    Multiple scattering of polarized light in a birefringent turbid plane medium was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix obtained in the simulation was factorized in two dimensions using the Lu-Chipman decomposition, yielding polarization parameters that exhibited dependences on the azimuth and the radial distance around the illumination point. We propose a double-scattering model for the propagation of polarized photons in turbid infinite plane media. When the birefringence slow axis is along the azimuth of 90° on the plane surface, the retardance becomes the largest negative along the azimuth of 0° and the largest positive along the azimuth of 90° and increases with increasing the azimuth from 0° to 90°. This azimuthal dependence may result from the overlap of the contributions from the light propagations vertical to, and lateral along, the plane surface. Thus, the dependences on the azimuth and the radial distance of the polarization parameters, such as the retardance, its orientation, optical rotation, and the depolarization coefficients, are correctly predicted. PMID:27463921

  19. Effects of polarization direction on laser-assisted free–free scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deHarak, B. A.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Martin, N. L. S.; Siavashpouri, Mahsa; Nosarzewski, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    This work will detail the effects of laser polarization direction (relative to the momentum transfer direction) on laser-assisted free–free scattering. Such processes play a role in the gas breakdown that occurs in electric discharges as well as providing a method for the laser heating of a plasma (Musa et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 175201, Mason 1993 Rep. Prog. Phys. 56 1275). Experimental results will be presented for electron-helium scattering in the presence of an Nd:YAG laser field (hν =1.17 eV) where the polarization direction was varied in a plane that is perpendicular to the scattering plane. To date, all of our experimental results are well described by the Kroll–Watson approximation (KWA) (Kroll and Watson 1973 Phys. Rev. A 8 804). The good agreement between our experiments and calculations using the KWA includes the case where the polarization is perpendicular to the momentum transfer direction, for which the KWA predicts vanishing cross section; other workers have found that the KWA tends to be inaccurate for cases where it predicts small cross sections (e.g. Musa et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 175201). We also present simulations of the effects that multiple scattering might have on experimental measurements. In particular, we examine conditions that are expected to be similar to those of the experiments reported by Wallbank and Holmes (Wallbank and Holmes 1993 Phys. Rev. A 48 R2515).

  20. Stochastic modeling of polarized light scattering using a Monte Carlo based stencil method.

    PubMed

    Sormaz, Milos; Stamm, Tobias; Jenny, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    This paper deals with an efficient and accurate simulation algorithm to solve the vector Boltzmann equation for polarized light transport in scattering media. The approach is based on a stencil method, which was previously developed for unpolarized light scattering and proved to be much more efficient (speedup factors of up to 10 were reported) than the classical Monte Carlo while being equally accurate. To validate what we believe to be the new stencil method, a substrate composed of spherical non-absorbing particles embedded in a non-absorbing medium was considered. The corresponding single scattering Mueller matrix, which is required to model scattering of polarized light, was determined based on the Lorenz-Mie theory. From simulations of a reflected polarized laser beam, the Mueller matrix of the substrate was computed and compared with an established reference. The agreement is excellent, and it could be demonstrated that a significant speedup of the simulations is achieved due to the stencil approach compared with the classical Monte Carlo. PMID:20448777

  1. Polarized light scattering by inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals: Validation with ADEOS-POLDER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonnote, Laurent C.; Brogniez, Gérard; Buriez, Jean-Claude; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Gayet, Jean-François; Macke, Andreas

    2001-06-01

    Various in situ measurements of the light-scattering diagram in ice clouds were performed with a new nephelometer during several airborne campaigns. These measurements were favorably compared with a theoretical scattering model called Inhomogeneous Hexagonal Monocrystal (IHM) model. This model consists in computing the scattering of light by an ensemble of randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals containing spherical impurities of soot and air bubbles. It is achieved by using a combination of ray tracing, Mie theory, and Monte Carlo techniques and enables to retrieve the six independent elements of the scattering matrix. This good agreement between nephelometer measurements and IHM model provides an opportunity to use this model in order to analyze ADEOS-POLDER total and polarized reflectance measurements over ice clouds. POLDER uses an original concept to observe ice cloud properties, enabling to measure reflectances and polarized reflectances, for a given scene, under several (up to 14) viewing directions. A first analysis of ice cloud spherical albedoes over the terrestrial globe for November 10, 1996 and April 23, 1997, shows a rather good agreement between measurements and modeling. Moreover, polarized reflectances are also calculated and show a satisfactory agreement with measurements.

  2. Results on Double-polarization Asymmetries in Quasielastic Scattering from Polarized 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulkosky, Vincent A.

    2016-03-01

    The 3He nucleus has become extremely important in the investigation of the neutron's spin structure. When polarized, 3He acts as an effective polarized neutron target and hence facilitates our understanding of the neutron's internal structure. However, to be used in this manner, our understanding of the internal structure of 3He is of extreme importance. As the precision of experiments has improved, the extraction of polarized neutron information from 3He leads to an ever larger share of the systematic uncertainty for these experiments. In these proceedings, I present a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries in the {}^3overrightarrow {He} (e,e'd) and {}^3overrightarrow {He} (e,e'p) reactions. The former process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in 3He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed around the quasi-elastic peak at Q2 = 0.25 (GeV/c)2 and 0.35 (GeV/c)2 for recoil momenta up to 270 MeV/c. The experimental apparatus, analysis and results were presented together with a comparison to state-of-the art Faddeev calculations.

  3. Object reconstruction in scattering medium using multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections and optical clearing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshe, Tomer; Firer, Michael A.; Abookasis, David

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid method for improving the imaging quality of objects obscured within a scattering environment by combining multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections with the use of optical clearing agents (OCAs). Elliptically polarized light enables the probing of subsurface volumes, where OCAs decrease light scattering while increasing photons' penetration depth through the medium. Experiments were conducted on object sample and prostate cancer cells embedded within ex vivo biological samples (chicken breasts) in reflection configuration. After immersion with OCAs, the medium was irradiated with an elliptically polarized laser beam and multiple polarized speckled images obtained from a lens array were first converted to speckled contrast images and then processed using a self-deconvolution shift-and-add algorithm. The conversion to contrast images and multiple perspectives acquisition was found to emphasize contrast. Analysis of image quality indicated improvement in object visualization by the combination of elliptical polarization and OCAs. This enhanced imaging strategy may advance the development of improved methods in biomedicine field, specifically biomedical tomography.

  4. Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Enigmatic Scattering Polarization in the Solar Na I D1 Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D1 line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D1 line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  5. Measurements of Double-Polarized Compton Scattering Asymmetries and Extraction of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, P. P.; Miskimen, R.; Aguar-Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Akondi, C. S.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Barnes, W.; Beck, R.; Bernstein, A.; Borisov, N.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cherepnya, S.; Collicott, C.; Costanza, S.; Denig, A.; Dieterle, M.; Downie, E. J.; Fil'kov, L. V.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Gradl, W.; Gurevich, G.; Hall Barrientos, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hornidge, D.; Howdle, D.; Huber, G. M.; Jude, T. C.; Kaeser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mancell, J.; Manley, D. M.; Meyer, W.; Middleton, D. G.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Nefkens, B. M. K.; Neganov, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Oberle, M.; Ortega Spina, H.; Ostrick, M.; Ott, P.; Otte, P. B.; Oussena, B.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Polyansky, V.; Prakhov, S.; Rajabi, A.; Reicherz, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Schrauf, S.; Schumann, S.; Sikora, M. H.; Starostin, A.; Steffen, O.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strub, T.; Supek, I.; Thiel, M.; Tiator, L.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Y.; Watts, D. P.; Witthauer, L.; Werthmüller, D.; Wolfes, M.; A2 Collaboration at MAMI

    2015-03-01

    The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to extract the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the Δ (1232 ) region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields γE 1 E 1=-3.5 ±1.2 , γM 1 M 1=3.16 ±0.85 , γE 1 M 2=-0.7 ±1.2 , and γM 1 E 2=1.99 ±0.29 , in units of 1 0-4 fm4 .

  6. Polarized micro Raman scattering spectroscopy for curved edges of epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Sherajul Makino, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Bhuiyan, A. G.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-12-15

    This letter performed polarized microscopic laser Raman scattering spectroscopy on the curved edges of transferred epitaxial graphene on SiO{sub 2}/Si. The intensity ratio between the parallel and perpendicular polarized D band is evolved, providing a spectroscopy-based technique to probe the atomic-scale edge structures in graphene. A detailed analysis procedure for non-ideal disordered curved edges of graphene is developed combining the atomic-scale zigzag and armchair edge structures along with some point defects. These results could provide valuable information of the realistic edges of graphene at the atomic-scale that can strongly influence the performance of graphene-based nanodevices.

  7. Last scattering, relic gravitons, and the circular polarization of the CMB

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-06-15

    The tensor contribution to the V-mode polarization induced by a magnetized plasma at last scattering vanishes exactly when the magnetic field is parallel to the direction of propagation of the gravitational wave. For propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field orientation the effect depends on the ratio between the Larmor frequency of the electrons and the observational frequency. If the source term of the V-mode equation is averaged over the directions of the magnetic field, the circular polarization evolves independently from all the other Stokes parameters.

  8. Deeply virtual Compton scattering on longitudinally polarized protons and neutrons at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Silvia Niccolai

    2012-04-01

    This paper focuses on a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly-6-GeV polarized electron beam, two longitudinally polarized (via DNP) solid targets of protons (NH{sub 3}) and deuterons (ND{sub 3}) and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Here, preliminary results for target-spin asymmetries and double (beam-target) asymmetries for proton DVCS, as well as a very preliminary extraction of beam-spin asymmetry for neutron DVCS, are presented and linked to Generalized Parton Distributions.

  9. Small angle scattering polarization biopsy: a comparative analysis of various skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Ivashko, P. V.; Reshetnikova, E. M.; Galkina, E. M.; Utz, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to differentiation of the morphological features of normal and pathological human epidermis on the base of statistical analysis of the local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by in-vitro tissue samples is discussed. The eccentricity and the azimuth angle of local polarization ellipses retrieved for various positions of the focused laser beam on the tissue surface, and the coefficient of collimated transmittance are considered as the diagnostic parameters for differentiation. The experimental data obtained with the psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, lichen planus, scabies, demodex, and normal skin samples are presented.

  10. Controlling spin polarization in graphene by cloaking magnetic and spin-orbit scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Diego; Rappoport, Tatiana G.

    2016-07-01

    We consider spin-dependent scatterers with large scattering cross sections in graphene—a Zeeman-like and an intrinsic spin-orbit coupling impurity—and show that a gated ring around them can be engineered to produce an efficient control of the spin-dependent transport, like current spin polarization and spin Hall angle. Our analysis is based on a spin-dependent partial-waves expansion of the electronic wave functions in the continuum approximation, described by the Dirac equation.

  11. Surface polar optical phonon scattering of carriers in graphene on various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Tan; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2013-08-01

    The surface polar optical phonon scattering of carriers in graphene on various substrates is thoroughly studied using Rode's iteration method. The dependence of the scattering rate on carrier energy, temperature, and Fermi energy is investigated. The experimental data in the literature on the temperature dependence of the resistivity can be fitted using only one free fitting parameter. The fitting results show that the coupling strengths of surface optical phonons are much stronger, by at least a factor of 3.5, than the theoretical prediction. The strong coupling also suggests that the deformation potential of acoustic phonons might have been overestimated in the literature.

  12. Rod-like cholesterol micelles in aqueous solution studied using polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Castanho, M A; Brown, W; Prieto, M J

    1992-01-01

    Micelles of cholesterol in aqueous solution have been investigated using polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering. They are shown to be highly extended and characterized by a narrow size distribution. It is shown that a rod-like model is applicable with length, L = 580 nm. Determination of the rotational diffusion coefficient by analysis of the autocorrelation function gave a value of theta = 150 s-1, which is close to the calculated value for the rod with this dimension. Depolarized dynamic light scattering measurements as a function of angle gave a value of 110 s-1. PMID:1489905

  13. Scanning differential polarization microscope: Its use to image linear and circular differential scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mickols, W.; Maestre, M.F.

    1988-06-01

    A differential polarization microscope that couples the sensitivity of single-beam measurement of circular dichroism and circular differential scattering with the simultaneous measurement of linear dichroism and linear differential scattering has been developed. The microscope uses a scanning microscope stage and single-point illumination to give the very shallow depth of field found in confocal microscopy. This microscope can operate in the confocal mode as well as in the near confocal condition that can allow one to program the coherence and spatial resolution of the microscope. This microscope has been used to study the change in the structure of chromatin during the development of sperm in Drosophila.

  14. Symmetry relationships for multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid spherical samples: theory and a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a theory describing totally incoherent multiple scattering of turbid spherical samples. It is proved that if reciprocity and mirror symmetry hold for single scattering by a particle, they also hold for multiple scattering in spherical samples. Monte Carlo simulations generate a reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix, which virtually satisfies reciprocity and mirror symmetry. The scattering matrix was factorized by using the symmetric decomposition in a predefined form, as well as the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition, approximately into a product of a pure depolarizer and vertically oriented linear retarding diattenuators. The parameters of these components were calculated as a function of the polar angle. While the turbid spherical sample is a pure depolarizer at low polar angles, it obtains more functions of the retarding diattenuator with increasing polar angle. PMID:26831777

  15. A new type of Doppler velocity fluctuations in HF ground scatter from the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoular, G.; Ponomarenko, P. V.; St.-Maurice, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    We report a new type of variations in Doppler velocity of HF ground scatter echoes from the polar cap at f˜10 mHz. Similar fluctuations from lower latitudes are usually associated with large-scale dayside Pc3-4 ULF waves. However, the polar cap oscillations exhibit a puzzling anisotropy in spatial coherence along and across the radar's line of sight. Furthermore, in contrast to Pc3-4 waves, these fluctuations show no ground magnetic signatures and display a pronounced gap in power/occurrence around local noon. We hypothesize that localized, ≤100 km, auroral particle precipitations near the radar site can modulate Doppler shift of the radio waves entering the ionosphere. In the ground scatter returns, due to the geometrical spread of the rays propagating through the ionosphere to the ground, these variations would appear to have a much larger line-of-sight scale.

  16. Polarization properties of lidar scattering from clouds at 347 nm and 694 nm.

    PubMed

    Pal, S R; Carswell, A I

    1978-08-01

    The polarization characteristics of lidar scattering from cumulus and low-lying shower clouds have been measured with a system operating at 694 nm (red) and 347 nm (blue). The backscatter profiles of the polarization components as well as of the total intensity of the return are presented and discussed for the two wavelengths. The linear depolarization ratio delta, which can be used as a measure of the unpolarized multiple scattering, has been obtained at both wavelengths. This quantity has a very low value at cloud base for both wavelengths and increases with pulse penetration. The blue registers generally higher values of a within the cloud. The measured total intensity backscatter functions for both wavelengths are presented and discussed in relation to theoretical calculations of cloud models. PMID:20203781

  17. A combination of dynamic light scattering and polarized resonance Raman scattering applied in the study of Arenicola Marina extracellular hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernshøj, K. D.; Hassing, S.; Olsen, L. F.

    2013-08-01

    Arenicola Marina extracellular hemoglobin (Hbl Hb) is considered to be a promising candidate as a blood substitute. To entangle some of the properties of extracellular giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (Hbl Hb) of Arenicola Marina, we combined polarized resonance Raman scattering (532 nm excitation) with dynamic light scattering (DLS) (632.8 nm). An analysis of the depolarization ratio of selected a2g skeletal modes of the heme in native Hbl Hb and porcine Hb, shows that the distortion of the heme group away from its ideal fourfold symmetry is much smaller for heme groups bound in the Hbl Hb than for heme groups bound in porcine Hb. Using DLS, the average hydrodynamic diameter (⟨dh⟩) of Hbl Hb was measured at pH = 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10. At pH = 5 to 7, the Hbl Hb was found in its native form with ⟨dh⟩ equal to 24.2 nm, while at pH = 8 and 9, a dissociation process starts to take place resulting in ⟨dh⟩ = 9 nm. At pH = 10, only large aggregates of fragmented Hbl Hb with ⟨dh⟩ larger than 1000 nm was detected, however, a comparison of the DLS results with the polarized resonance Raman scattering (RRS) revealed that the coupling between the fragments did not involve direct interaction between the heme groups, but also that the local heme environment seems to be comparable in the aggregates and in the native Hbl Hb. By comparing the unpolarized RRS results obtained for erythrocytes (RBC) with those for Hbl Hb, led us to the important conclusion that Hbl Hb is much easier photolyzed than porcine RBC.

  18. Applying a microfacet model to polarized light scattering measurements of the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine; Diner, David; Xu, Feng; Chipman, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Representative examples from three-years of measurements from JPL's Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (Ground-MSPI)[1] are compared to a model for the surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution matrix (BRDM). Ground-MSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire push-broom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to measure linear Stokes parameters in three wavebands (470, 660, and 865 nm) with a +/-0.005 uncertainty in degree of linear polarization (DoLP). Comparisons between MSPI measurements, BRDM models, and common modifications to the model are made over a range of scattering angles determined from a fixed viewing geometry and varying sun positions over time. The BRDM model is comprised of a volumetric reflection term plus a specular reflection term of Fresnel-reflecting micro-facets. We consider modifications to this model using a shadowing function and two different micro-facet scattering density functions. We report the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the Ground-MSPI measurements and BRDM model. The BRDM model predicts an angle of the linear polarization (AoLP) that is perpendicular to the scattering plane. This is usually, but not always, observed in Ground-MSPI measurements and in this work we offer explanations for some of the deviations from the model.

  19. Martian dust aerosols in the North Polar summer: scattering properties and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Martian atmospheric dust appears to be largely homogenized, yet many sources are present through seasonally distinct processes: Southern summer dust storms, polar cap edge storms, and dust devils. The Phoenix landing site fell within a region of a northern seasonal ice cap with the receding cap edge to its north. The Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager performed several cross-sky brightness surveys to characterize atmospheric dust in the Martian north polar environment. These surveys, comparable to those by the Viking and Pathfinder landers and the Mars Exploration Rovers, constrain the size distribution and scattering and absorption properties of the airborne dust. We analyze a set taken in early summer in order to compare the results to those of previous missions and constrain the size of dust in a near-cap-edge environment. The spectrophotometric data from 440-1000 nm were taken shortly after a period of local dust storms and during a period of active dust devil lifting, and thus approximate a measurement of the lifted dust. We will present a discussion of constraints on the size distribution, spectral single scattering albedo and imaginary index of refraction of the dust. We also present the first polarimetric observations from inside the Martian atmosphere. These observations show the dust is weakly polarizing in a way that is, as expected, inconsistent with Mie scattering.

  20. Polarized radiative transfer in two-dimensional scattering medium with complex geometries by natural element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kim, Yong-Jun; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve the polarized radiative transfer problem in a two-dimensional scattering medium with complex geometries, in which the angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by the Galerkin weighted residuals approach. The Laplace interpolation scheme is adopted to obtain the shape functions used in the Galerkin weighted residuals approach. The NEM solution to the vector radiative transfer in a square enclosure filled with a Mie scattering medium is first examined to validate our program. We then study the polarized radiative transfer in two kinds of geometries filled with scattering medium which is equivalent to a suspension of latex spheres in water. Three sizes of spheres are considered. The results for non-dimensional polarized radiative flux along the boundaries and the angular distributions of the Stokes vector at specific positions are presented and discussed. For the complex geometry bounded by the square and circular object, numerical solutions are presented for the cases both with Lambertian (diffuse) reflection and with Fresnel reflection. Some interesting phenomenon are found and analyzed.

  1. Backscattering of linearly polarized light from turbid tissue-like scattering medium with rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, Alexander; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Meglinski, Igor

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of further development of a unified computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics, we introduce an electric field Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulation of backscattering of coherent linearly polarized light from a turbid tissue-like scattering medium with a rough surface. We consider the laser speckle patterns formation and the role of surface roughness in the depolarization of linearly polarized light backscattered from the medium. The mutual phase shifts due to the photons' pathlength difference within the medium and due to reflection/refraction on the rough surface of the medium are taken into account. The validation of the model includes the creation of the phantoms of various roughness and optical properties, measurements of co- and cross-polarized components of the backscattered/reflected light, its analysis and extensive computer modeling accelerated by parallel computing on the NVIDIA graphics processing units using compute unified device architecture (CUDA). The analysis of the spatial intensity distribution is based on second-order statistics that shows a strong correlation with the surface roughness, both with the results of modeling and experiment. The results of modeling show a good agreement with the results of experimental measurements on phantoms mimicking human skin. The developed MC approach can be used for the direct simulation of light scattered by the turbid scattering medium with various roughness of the surface.

  2. Martian dust aerosols in the North Polar summer: scattering properties and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Emily; Lemmon, M.

    2013-10-01

    Martian atmospheric dust appears to be largely homogenized. However, there are a continuum of sources that are accessed by seasonally distinct processes: Southern summer dust storms, polar cap edge storms, and dust devils. The Phoenix landing site was in a region that fell within the northern seasonal ice cap; its mission began while the receding cap edge was north of the site. The Phoenix Lander’s Surface Stereo Imager performed several cross-sky brightness surveys to characterize atmospheric dust in the Martian north polar environment. These surveys, comparable to those by the Viking and Pathfinder landers and the Mars Exploration Rovers, constrain the size distribution and scattering and absorption properties of the airborne dust. We analyze a set taken in early summer in order to compare the results to those of previous missions and constrain the size of dust in a near-cap-edge environment. The spectrophotometric data from 440-1000 nm were taken shortly after a period of local dust storms and during a period of active dust-devil lifting, and thus approximate a measurement of the lifted dust. We will present a discussion of constraints on the size distribution, spectral single scattering albedo and imaginary index of refraction of the dust. We also present the first polarimetric observations from inside the Martian atmosphere. These observations show the dust is weakly polarizing in a way that is, as expected, inconsistent with Mie scattering.

  3. Polarization of x-gamma radiation produced by a Thomson and Compton inverse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Giribono, A.; Maroli, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.

    2015-11-01

    A systematic study of the polarization of x-gamma rays produced in Thomson and Compton scattering is presented, in both classical and quantum schemes. Numerical results and analytical considerations let us to establish the polarization level as a function of acceptance, bandwidth and energy. Few sources have been considered: the SPARC_LAB Thomson device, as an example of a x-ray Thomson source, ELI-NP, operating in the gamma range. Then, the typical parameters of a beam produced by a plasma accelerator has been analyzed. In the first case, with bandwidths up to 10%, a contained reduction (<10 % ) in the average polarization occurs. In the last case, for the nominal ELI-NP relative bandwidth of 5 ×1 0-3 , the polarization is always close to 1. For applications requiring larger bandwidth, however, a degradation of the polarization up to 30% must be taken into account. In addition, an all optical gamma source based on a plasma accelerated electron beam cannot guarantee narrow bandwidth and high polarization operational conditions required in nuclear photonics experiments.

  4. Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Berger, R L; London, R A; Meezan, N B; Strozzi, D J; Neumayer, P; Ross, J S; Stagnitto, S; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2008-09-12

    We demonstrate a significant reduction of stimulated Brillouin scattering by polarization smoothing in large-scale high-temperature hohlraum plasma conditions where filamentation is measured to be negligible. The stimulated Brillouin scattering experimental threshold (defined as the intensity at which 5% of the incident light is backscattered) is measured to increase by a factor of 1.7+/-0.2 when polarization smoothing is applied. An analytical model relevant to inertial confinement fusion plasma conditions shows that the measured reduction in backscatter with polarization smoothing results from the random spatial variation in polarization of the laser beam, not from the reduction in beam contrast. PMID:18851289

  5. Effect of molecular anisotropy on the intensity and degree of polarization of light scattered from model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahethi, O. P.; Fraser, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Computations of the properties of sunlight scattered from models of the earth-atmosphere system are presented to show the effect of molecular anisotropy on the intensity, flux, and degree of polarization of the scattered light. The values of these parameters change significantly when the anisotropy factor is neglected in the molecular optical thickness and scattering phase matrix. However, if the Rayleigh scattering optical thickness is kept constant and the molecular anisotropy factor is included only in the Rayleigh phase matrix, the flux does not change, the intensity changes by a small amount, but the changes in the degree of polarization are still significant.

  6. Stress- and polarization-induced stimulated Raman scattering in optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong; Cai, Hongxing; Sun, Xiuping; Gao, Xun; Zhang, Xihe

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, the dependence of stimulated Raman scattering spectra on external pressure levels of tens of kPa and the polarized pump light is investigated in optical fibers. The Raman peaks show blueshift under a lower external pressure because of the self-phase modulation. But under a higher external pressure, the Raman peaks begin to redshift, because the change of the inter-tetrahedral angle of the glassy AX2 systems plays a more important role. Moreover, the shifts of an elliptically polarized pump beam are smaller than the those of a linearly polarized pump beam under external pressure. These results could provide new applications for silica fibers as optical frequency generators or stress sensors.

  7. Polarized lepton-nucleon elastic scattering and a search for a light scalar boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A.

    2015-09-01

    Lepton-nucleon elastic scattering, using the one-photon and one-scalar-boson exchange mechanisms considering all possible polarizations, is used to study searches for a new scalar boson and suggest new measurements of the nucleon form factors. A new light scalar boson, which feebly couples to leptons and nucleons, may account for the proton radius and muon g -2 puzzles. We show that the scalar boson produces relatively large effects in a certain kinematic region when using sufficient control of lepton and nucleon spin polarization. We generalize current techniques to measure the ratio GE:GM and present a new method to separately measure GM2 and GE2 using polarized incoming and outgoing muons.

  8. Polarization due to dust scattering in the planetary nebula Cn1-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Harish C.

    1989-01-01

    The peculiar emission-line object Cn1-1 (=HDE330036=PK330+4 degrees 1), classified both as a symbiotic star and as a planetary nebula, was detected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) as a strong source of far-infrared dust in the system. Bhatt and Mallik (1986) discussed the nature of the dust in Cn1-1 and argued that the object is a Type I protoplanetary nebula in a binary system. The argument presented here is that the polarization is intrinsic to Cn1-1 and is due to scattering by large (compared to interstellar) dust grains in the protoplanetary nebula that are asymmetrically distributed around the central star. The large degree of polarization (approximately 3 percent for the Cn1-1 distance of approximately 450 pc) with a large lambda(sub max) is naturally explained if it is caused by scattering by large dust grains in the Cn1-1 nebula. Since the H(sub alpha) line is also polarized at the same level and position angle as the continuum, the dust must be asymmetrically distributed around the central star. The morphology of the protoplanetary nebula in Cn1-1 may be bipolar. Thus, the polarization observations support the suggestion that Cn1-1 is a bipolar Type I planetary nebula.

  9. Evaluation of polarization rotation in the scattering responses from individual semiconducting oxide nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices. PMID:27158560

  10. Evaluation of polarization rotation in the scattering responses from individual semiconducting oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices.

  11. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering and pionic models of the EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, T.A.; Jones, K.W.; McClelland, J.B.; Moss, J.M.; Rees, L.B.; Tanaka, N.; Bacher, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported was to make a precise test of the enhanced pion field model in a medium-energy scattering experiment. The quantity probed is the spin-longitudinal response function, a measure of the nuclear pion density which is used explicitly in the pion-excess models of the EMC effect. The point of reference used is deuterium. The spin-dependent response functions for heavy targets and /sup 2/H are compared using identical experimental techniques. The technique of complete polarization transfer is used to separate the spin-longitudinal and spin-transverse response in the continuum. The experiment consisted of precise determinations of the polarization transfer coefficients for 500 MeV protons inelastically scattered from Pb, Ca, and /sup 2/H. The experiment utilized longitudinal, sideways, and normal polarized beams in conjunction with final polarization analysis from the focal-plane polarimeter of the high-resolution spectrometer. Quantities constructed from these data are the longitudinal and transverse spin-flip probabilities. Calculations were performed of the ratio of longitudinal to transverse response functions and of the EMC effect with the same model. No evidence was found for collectivity in the isovector spin-longitudinal response function. 10 refs. (LEW)

  12. Development of perturbation Monte Carlo methods for polarized light transport in a discrete particle scattering model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Mourant, Judith R.; Venugopalan, Vasan; Spanier, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    We present a polarization-sensitive, transport-rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo (pMC) method to model the impact of optical property changes on reflectance measurements within a discrete particle scattering model. The model consists of three log-normally distributed populations of Mie scatterers that approximate biologically relevant cervical tissue properties. Our method provides reflectance estimates for perturbations across wavelength and/or scattering model parameters. We test our pMC model performance by perturbing across number densities and mean particle radii, and compare pMC reflectance estimates with those obtained from conventional Monte Carlo simulations. These tests allow us to explore different factors that control pMC performance and to evaluate the gains in computational efficiency that our pMC method provides. PMID:27231642

  13. Development of perturbation Monte Carlo methods for polarized light transport in a discrete particle scattering model.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K; Mourant, Judith R; Venugopalan, Vasan; Spanier, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    We present a polarization-sensitive, transport-rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo (pMC) method to model the impact of optical property changes on reflectance measurements within a discrete particle scattering model. The model consists of three log-normally distributed populations of Mie scatterers that approximate biologically relevant cervical tissue properties. Our method provides reflectance estimates for perturbations across wavelength and/or scattering model parameters. We test our pMC model performance by perturbing across number densities and mean particle radii, and compare pMC reflectance estimates with those obtained from conventional Monte Carlo simulations. These tests allow us to explore different factors that control pMC performance and to evaluate the gains in computational efficiency that our pMC method provides. PMID:27231642

  14. Moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner based on polarization resolved in-finger scattered light.

    PubMed

    Back, Seon-Woo; Lee, Yong-Geon; Lee, Sang-Shin; Son, Geun-Sik

    2016-08-22

    A moisture-insensitive optical fingerprint scanner (FPS) that is based on polarization resolved in-finger light is proposed and realized. Incident visible light, which is selectively fed to a fingerprint sample via a polarization beam splitter (PBS), is deemed to be partially scattered backward by tissues associated with the skin of the finger. The backscattered light is mostly index-guided in the ridge comprising the fingerprint, which has a higher refractive index, and is drastically dispersed in the valley, which is typically filled with water or air and so has a lower index. However, when light reflects directly off the surface of the finger skin, it fundamentally prevents the scanned image from being determined. The proposed FPS produces bright and dark intensity patterns that are alternately created on the surface of the PBS and correspond to the ridges and valleys, respectively. Thus, this method can especially distinguish between a fake synthetic fingerprint and a genuine fingerprint due to its use of in-finger scattered light. The scanner has been rigorously designed by carrying out ray-optic simulations depending on the wavelength, with tissue-induced scattering taken into account. The device was constructed by incorporating a wire-grid type PBS in conjunction with visible LED sources, including blue, green and red. The scanner adopting a blue LED, which exhibits the strongest light scattering, resulted in the best fingerprint image, enabling enhanced fidelity under the wet and dry situations. Finally, a fake synthetic fingerprint could be successfully discriminated. PMID:27557199

  15. Modeling radiometric and polarized light scattering from exoplanet oceans and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugger, Michael E.

    Proposed space-based observatories such as NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder-Coronograph (TPF-C) may make it possible in the near future to detect the presence of oceans on nearby extrasolar planets (exoplanets) by studying the polarization of visible, infrared, or ultraviolet radiation reflected from the planet. In this dissertation, we model and analyze light scattering properties of various notional exoplanets, including brightness and polarization state versus wavelength and position in the orbit (orbital longitude, OL) in order to predict the potential observability of distant oceans. We find that total flux light curves from Lambertian and Rayleigh scattering dominated planets peak at full phase, OL = 180°, whereas ocean planets with thin atmospheres exhibit peak flux in the crescent phase near OL = 30°. The polarized results for ocean planets show that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column, dilute the polarization fraction and shift it away from the OL = 74° predicted by Fresnel theory. On planets for which Rayleigh scattering dominates, the polarization peaks near an orbital longitude of 90°, but clouds and Lambertian surfaces dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL, and a shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. In addition to end-member planets dominated by Lambertian or Rayleigh scattering, we simulate variations of "water Earths"; these are planets similar to Earth but completely covered by oceans, disturbed only by light winds. For these models, we also include US 1962 Standard Atmosphere absorption, and maritime aerosols using the standard 5 km low visibility and 23 km high visibility aerosols, and some other much higher visibilities for comparison. The polarization fraction for cases with Earth-like aerosols peaks at only about 0.15 at OL = 100° for the 5 km case, and at less than 0.35 at

  16. Development of high-performance alkali-hybrid polarized 3He targets for electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaideep T.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Averett, T. D.; Kelleher, A.; Mooney, K. E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Wang, Yunxiao; Zheng, Yuan; Cates, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    Background: Polarized 3He targets have been used as effective polarized neutron targets for electron scattering experiments for over twenty years. Over the last ten years, the effective luminosity of polarized 3He targets based on spin-exchange optical pumping has increased by over an order of magnitude. This has come about because of improvements in commercially-available lasers and an improved understanding of the physics behind the polarization process. Purpose: We present the development of high-performance polarized 3He targets for use in electron scattering experiments. Improvements in the performance of polarized 3He targets, target properties, and operating parameters are documented. Methods: We utilize the technique of alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping to polarize the 3He targets. Spectrally narrowed diode lasers used for the optical pumping greatly improved the performance. A simulation of the alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping process was developed to provide guidance in the design of the targets. Data was collected during the characterization of 24 separate glass target cells, each of which was constructed while preparing for one of four experiments at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. Results: From the data obtained we made determinations of the so-called X -factors that quantify a temperature-dependent and as-yet poorly understood spin-relaxation mechanism that limits the maximum achievable 3He polarization to well under 100%. The presence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism was clearly evident in our data. Good agreement between the simulation and the actual target performance was obtained by including details such as off-resonant optical pumping. Included in our results is a measurement of the K -3He spin-exchange rate coefficient kseK=(7.46 ±0.62 ) ×10-20cm3/s over the temperature range 503 K to 563 K. Conclusions: In order to achieve high performance under the operating conditions described in this paper

  17. Atomic scattering spectroscopy for determination of the polarity of semipolar AlN grown on ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Ueno, Kohei; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2013-11-04

    Determination of the polarity of insulating semipolar AlN layers was achieved via atomic scattering spectroscopy. The back scattering of neutralized He atoms on AlN surfaces revealed the atomic alignment of the topmost layers of semipolar AlN and the ZnO substrate. Pole figures of the scattering intensity were used to readily determine the polarity of these wurtzite-type semipolar materials. In addition, we found that +R-plane AlN epitaxially grows on −R-plane ZnO, indicating that the polarity flips at the semipolar AlN/ZnO interface. This polarity flipping is possibly explained by the appearance of −c and m-faces on the −R ZnO surfaces, which was also revealed by atomic scattering spectroscopy.

  18. Coherent-backscatter effect - A vector formulation accounting for polarization and absorption effects and small or large scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on the coherent-backscatter effect in the context of speckle time autocorrelation has gone beyond the diffusion approximation and the assumption of isotropic (point) scatterers. This paper extends the theory to include the effects of polarization and absorption, and to give the angular line shape. The results are expressions for angular variations valid for small and large scatterers and linear and circular polarizations, in lossless or lossy media. Calculations show that multiple anisotropic scattering results in the preservation of incident polarization. Application to a problem in radar astronomy is considered. It is shown that the unusual radar measurements (high reflectivity and polarization ratios) of Jupiter's icy Galilean satellites can be explained by coherent backscatter from anisotropic (forward) scatterers.

  19. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ca II IR TRIPLET IN HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, E. S.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2013-02-10

    Velocity gradients in a stellar atmospheric plasma have an effect on the anisotropy of the radiation field that illuminates each point within the medium, and this may in principle influence the scattering line polarization that results from the induced atomic level polarization. Here, we analyze the emergent linear polarization profiles of the Ca II infrared triplet after solving the radiative transfer problem of scattering polarization in time-dependent hydrodynamical models of the solar chromosphere, taking into account the effect of the plasma macroscopic velocity on the atomic level polarization. We discuss the influence that the velocity and temperature shocks in the considered chromospheric models have on the temporal evolution of the scattering polarization signals of the Ca II infrared lines as well as on the temporally averaged profiles. Our results indicate that the increase of the linear polarization amplitudes caused by macroscopic velocity gradients may be significant in realistic situations. We also study the effect of the integration time, the microturbulent velocity, and the photospheric dynamical conditions, and discuss the feasibility of observing with large-aperture telescopes the temporal variation of the scattering polarization profiles. Finally, we explore the possibility of using a Hanle effect line-ratio technique in the IR triplet of Ca II to facilitate magnetic field diagnostics in dynamic situations.

  20. SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ca II IR TRIPLET FOR PROBING THE QUIET SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: jtb@iac.e

    2010-10-20

    The chromosphere of the quiet Sun is a very important stellar atmospheric region whose thermal and magnetic structure we need to decipher in order to unlock new discoveries in solar and stellar physics. To this end, we need to identify and exploit observables sensitive to weak magnetic fields (B {approx}< 100 G) and to the presence of cool and hot gas in the bulk of the solar chromosphere. Here, we report on an investigation of the Hanle effect in two semi-empirical models of the quiet solar atmosphere with different chromospheric thermal structures. Our study reveals that the linear polarization profiles produced by scattering in the Ca II IR triplet have thermal and magnetic sensitivities potentially of great diagnostic value. The linear polarization in the 8498 A line shows a strong sensitivity to inclined magnetic fields with strengths between 0.001 and 10 G, while the emergent linear polarization in the 8542 A and 8662 A lines is mainly sensitive to magnetic fields with strengths between 0.001 and 0.1 G. The reason for this is that the scattering polarization of the 8542 A and 8662 A lines, unlike the 8498 A line, is controlled mainly by the Hanle effect in their (metastable) lower levels. Therefore, in regions with magnetic strengths noticeably larger than 1 G, their Stokes Q and U profiles are sensitive only to the orientation of the magnetic field vector. We also find that for given magnetic field configurations the sign of the Q/I and U/I profiles of the 8542 A and 8662 A lines is the same in both atmospheric models, while the sign of the linear polarization profile of the 8498 A line turns out to be very sensitive to the thermal structure of the lower chromosphere. We suggest that spectropolarimetric observations providing information on the relative scattering polarization amplitudes of the Ca II IR triplet will be very useful to improve our empirical understanding of the thermal and magnetic structure of the quiet chromosphere.

  1. Spin dependence in polarized proton-proton elastic scattering at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyku, Donika

    The STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC - Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) experiment is equipped with Roman Pots, insertion devices that allow detectors to be moved close to the beam for the measurement of high energy protons scattered at very small angles. This setup, together with the unique capability of RHIC to collide spin-polarized proton beams, allows STAR to study both the dynamics and the spin-dependence of the proton-proton ( pp) elastic scattering process. Silicon strip detectors, installed inside the Roman Pots, measure tracks of protons scattered diffractively at very small angles. In a dedicated run with special beam optics during the 2009 RHIC run, the collaboration collected about 20 million elastic events with transversely polarized proton beams at the center of mass energy s = 200 GeV and four momentum transfer squared (t) range of 0.003 ≤ |t| ≤ 0.035 (GeV/c) 2, where, due to the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI), a measurable single spin asymmetry arises. While the electromagnetic interaction can be determined in QED, the description of the hadronic interaction at small -t scattering requires the use of nonperturbative techniques in QCD, and, phenomenological models, rather than pQCD, are used to describe the exchange mechanism. High energy diffractive scattering at small-t is dominated by the Pomeron exchange, treated in pQCD as a color singlet combination of two gluons carrying quantum numbers of the vacuum (JPC = 0++). In this dissertation, I report on a high precision measurement of the transverse single spin asymmetry A N at s = 200 GeV in pp elastic scattering at RHIC. The measured AN and its t-dependence are consistent with the absence of a hadronic spin-flip amplitude. The major contribution to the uncertainty in AN comes from the uncertainty in the beam polarization measurement. The presented results provide a precise measurement in the non-perturbative QCD regime, where experimental data are indispensable, and, a significant

  2. ORIGIN OF SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE WINGS OF THE Ca I 4227 A line

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.

    2009-07-10

    Polarization that is produced by coherent scattering can be modified by magnetic fields via the Hanle effect. This has opened a window to explorations of solar magnetism in parameter domains not accessible to the Zeeman effect. According to standard theory the Hanle effect should only be operating in the Doppler core of spectral lines but not in the wings. In contrast, our observations of the scattering polarization in the Ca I 4227 A line reveal the existence of spatial variations of the scattering polarization throughout the far line wings. This raises the question whether the observed spatial variations in wing polarization have a magnetic or nonmagnetic origin. A magnetic origin may be possible if elastic collisions are able to cause sufficient frequency redistribution to make the Hanle effect effective in the wings without causing excessive collisional depolarization, as suggested by recent theories for partial frequency redistribution (PRD) with coherent scattering in magnetic fields. To model the wing polarization we bypass the problem of solving the full polarized radiative transfer equations and instead apply an extended version of the technique based on the 'last scattering approximation'. It assumes that the polarization of the emergent radiation is determined by the anisotropy of the incident radiation field at the last scattering event. We determine this anisotropy from the observed limb darkening as a function of wavelength throughout the spectral line. The empirical anisotropy profile is used together with the single-scattering redistribution matrix, which contains all the PRD, collisional, and magnetic field effects. The model further contains a continuum opacity parameter, which increasingly dilutes the polarized line photons as we move away from the line center, and a continuum polarization parameter that represents the observed polarization level far from the line. This model is highly successful in reproducing the observed Stokes Q

  3. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  4. Disc polarization from both emission and scattering of magnetically aligned grains: the case of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie W.; Cox, Erin G.; Tobin, John; Stephens, Ian W.; Segura-Cox, Dominque M.; Harris, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    Dust polarization in millimetre (and centimetre) has been mapped in discs around an increasing number of young stellar objects. It is usually thought to come from emission by magnetically aligned (non-spherical) grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering. We present a semi-analytic theory of disc polarization that includes both the direction emission and scattering, with an emphasis on their relative importance and how they are affected by the disc inclination. For face-on discs, both emission and scattering tend to produce polarization in the radial direction, making them difficult to distinguish, although the scattering-induced polarization can switch to the azimuthal direction if the incident radiation is beamed strongly enough in the radial direction in the disc plane. Disc inclination affects the polarizations from emission and scattering differently, especially on the major axis where, in the edge-on limit, the former vanishes while the latter reaches a polarization fraction as large as 1/3. The polarizations from the two competing mechanisms tend to cancel each other on the major axis, producing two low polarization `holes' (one on each side of the centre) under certain conditions. We find tantalizing evidence for at least one such `hole' in NGC 1333 IRAS 4A1, whose polarization observed at 8 mm on the 100 au scale is indicative of a pattern dominated by scattering close to the centre and by direction emission in the outer region. If true, it would imply not only that a magnetic field exists on the disc scale, but that it is strong enough to align large, possibly mm-sized, grains.

  5. Multiple Scattering Approach to Polarization Dependence of F K-Edge XANES Spectra for Highly Oriented Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamatsu, S.; Ono, M.; Kera, S.; Okudaira, K. K.; Fujikawa, T.; Ueno, N.

    2007-02-02

    The polarization dependence of F K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of highly-oriented thin-film of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been analyzed by using multiple scattering theory. The spectra show clear polarization dependence due to the highly-oriented structure. The multiple scattering calculations reflects a local structure around an absorbing atom. The calculated results obtained by considering intermolecular-interactions are in good agreement with the observed polarization-dependence. We have also analyzed structural models of the radiation damaged PTFE films.

  6. Polarization and absorption effects in electron-helium scattering at 30--400 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumalai, D.; Truhlar, D.G.; Brandt, M.A.; Eades, R.A.; Dixon, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    We report several calculations of the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering, and of the absorption cross sections (for the sum of all electronically inelastic and ionization processes) for electron-He collisions at 30--400 eV. We consider two basically different approaches to include the effect of absorption, i.e., loss of flux from the initial channel. The first is the matrix effective potential (MEP) based on a variational calculation of the polarization potential; this models absorption by including a pseudochannel whose properties are based on a variational adiabatic polarization potential. This method predicts both the absorption and elastic cross sections. The second method involves phenomenological absorption (A) potentials, calibrated against experimental absorption cross sections. These potentials, when combined with static (S), exchange (E), and real polarization (P) potentials form an SEPA optical model potential that is used to predict the elastic cross sections. The MEP model based on the variational polarization potential predicts the absorption cross sections with an average absolute error of 28% at 30 and 50 eV and 5% at 100--400 eV. It predicts the elastic integral cross sections with an average absolute error of 8% over the whole energy range. The SEPA models, including a nonadiabatic polarization potential, predict the elastic integral cross sections with average absolute errors of 12 or 6%, depending on the shape function (i.e., r dependence) of the absorption potential. The adiabatic approximation for polarization is less accurate than the nonadiabatic one, even when absorption effects are included. Five new calculations of the differential cross sections at each of five impact energies are compared to experimental results in detail.

  7. Polarization and absorption effects in electron-helium scattering at 30-400 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumalai, Devarajan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Brandt, Maynard A.; Eades, Robert A.; Dixon, David A.

    1982-06-01

    We report several calculations of the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering, and of the absorption cross sections (for the sum of all electronically inelastic and ionization processes) for electron-He collisions at 30-400 eV. We consider two basically different approaches to include the effect of absorption, i.e., loss of flux from the initial channel. The first is the matrix effective potential (MEP) based on a variational calculation of the polarization potential; this models absorption by including a pseudochannel whose properties are based on a variational adiabatic polarization potential. This method predicts both the absorption and elastic cross sections. The second method involves phenomenological absorption (A) potentials, calibrated against experimental absorption cross sections. These potentials, when combined with static (S), exchange (E), and real polarization (P) potentials form an SEPA optical model potential that is used to predict the elastic cross sections. The MEP model based on the variational polarization potential predicts the absorption cross sections with an average absolute error of 28% at 30 and 50 eV, and 5% at 100-400 eV. It predicts the elastic integral cross sections with an average absolute error of 8% over the whole energy range. The SEPA models, including a nonadiabatic polarization potential, predict the elastic integral cross sections with average absolute errors of 12 or 6%, depending on the shape function (i.e., r dependence) of the absorption potential. The adiabatic approximation for polarization is less accurate than the nonadiabatic one, even when absorption effects are included. Five new calculations of the differential cross sections at each of five impact energies are compared to experimental results in detail.

  8. Longitudinal polarization of hyperon and antihyperon in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shanshan; Chen Ye; Liang Zuotang; Xu Qinghua

    2009-05-01

    We make a detailed study of the longitudinal polarization of hyperons and antihyperons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. We present the numerical results for spin transfer in quark fragmentation processes, and analyze the possible origins for a difference between the polarization for hyperon and that for the corresponding antihyperon. We present the results obtained in the case that there is no asymmetry between sea and antisea distribution in the nucleon as well as those obtained when such an asymmetry is taken into account. We compare the results with the available data such as those from COMPASS and make predictions for future experiments including those at even higher energies such as at eRHIC.

  9. Initial Research of np Scattering with Polarized Deuterium Target at ANKE/COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, B.

    2016-02-01

    The quasi-free np charge-exchange reaction pd→ →{pp}sn has to be employed to extend the investigations of np scattering at ANKE to the highest energy available at COSY. As the proof-of-principle experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy Tp = 600 MeV using a polarized Deuterium target. The vector and tensor analyzing powers Ay and Ayy were measured for momentum transfers q ⩾ 160 MeV/c. These data connect smoothly with the previous measurements at q ⩽ 140 MeV/c performed using a polarized deuteron beam. The reported data are well reproduced by the impulse approximation using the SAID np amplitudes. The results therefore proves that it is possible to continue the np programme at higher energies at ANKE.

  10. Electron-N/sub 2/ scattering calculations with a parameter-free model polarization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M.A.; Saha, B.C.; Gibson, T.L.

    1987-10-15

    We have extended our variationally determined nonadiabatic polarization potential (Gibson and Morrison, Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)) to the e-N/sub 2/ system and calculated elastic, total momentum transfer, and rotational excitation cross sections. This model potential, which requires no scaling and contains no adjustable parameters, is presented in tabular and analytic (fitted) form for possible use in future studies. We evaluated the static potential at the near-Hartree-Fock level of accuracy and included exchange effects exactly via the linear algebraic method of Collins and Schneider (Phys. Rev. A 24, 2387 (1981)). Diverse cross sections based on this model are in excellent agreement with existing experiment. We also compare various scattering quantities calculated with our model to prior theoretical results and to newly determined numbers using two other model potentials: a cutoff phenomenological form and the correlation-polarization potential of O'Connell and Lane (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)).

  11. On the angular dependence and scattering model of polar mesospheric summer echoes at VHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Svenja; Stober, Gunter; Chau, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular dependence of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System in Northern Norway (69.30° N, 16.04° E). Our results are based on multireceiver and multibeam observations using beam pointing directions with off-zenith angles up to 25° as well as on spatial correlation analysis (SCA) from vertical beam observations. We consider a beam filling effect at the upper and lower boundaries of PMSE in tilted beams, which determines the effective mean angle of arrival. Comparing the average power of the vertical beam to the oblique beams suggests that PMSE are mainly not as aspect sensitive as in contrast to previous studies. However, from SCA, times of enhanced correlation are found, indicating aspect sensitivity or a localized scattering mechanism. Our results suggest that PMSE consist of nonhomogeneous isotropic scattering and previously reported aspect sensitivity values might have been influenced by the inhomogeneous nature of PMSE.

  12. Investigating the proton structure through polarization transfers in real Compton scattering processes at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.; Salme, Giovanni; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, preliminary results of the analysis of polarization transfers in real Compton scattering (RCS) performed in Hall-C at JLAB are presented, for data collected at large scattering angle (θ{sub cm}=70{degrees}) in the experiment E07-002. A previous experiment, E99-114, has already demonstrated a complete inconsistence of its results with a pQCD mechanism at JLAB energy regime. This kind of experiment, therefore, is of crucial importance for understanding the nature of the reaction mechanism for such a simple process, involving a real photon. Furthermore, RCS experiments allow the extraction of Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), the latter connected to the total angular momentum of the nucleon.

  13. Spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles investigated using polarized neutrons and nuclear resonant scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlitschke, M.; Disch, S.; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, K.; Wetterskog, E.; Bergström, L.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4 nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization to 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.

  14. Spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles investigated using polarized neutrons and nuclear resonant scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Disch, Sabrina; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, Kai; Wetterskog, Erik; Bergstrom, Lennart; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization tomore » 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.« less

  15. A new code SORD for simulation of polarized light scattering in the Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-05-01

    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel Earth atmosphere. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering1, 2). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork3 (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/SORD/ or ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/SORD.zip

  16. A New Code SORD for Simulation of Polarized Light Scattering in the Earth Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-01-01

    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel atmosphere of the Earth. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/SORD/.

  17. Spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles investigated using polarized neutrons and nuclear resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Disch, Sabrina; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, Kai; Wetterskog, Erik; Bergstrom, Lennart; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization to 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.

  18. Study of the proton structure by measurements of polarization transfers in real Compton scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano Fanelli; Cisbani, Evarostp; Hamilton, David; Salme, G.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-03-01

    A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70°), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions, one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized.

  19. Polarized Raman scattering study of kesterite type Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guc, Maxim; Levcenko, Sergiu; Bodnar, Ivan V.; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Fontane, Xavier; Volkova, Larisa V.; Arushanov, Ernest; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A non-destructive Raman spectroscopy has been widely used as a complimentary method to X-ray diffraction characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, yet our knowledge of the Raman active fundamental modes in this material is far from complete. Focusing on polarized Raman spectroscopy provides important information about the relationship between Raman modes and CZTS crystal structure. In this framework the zone-center optical phonons of CZTS, which is most usually examined in active layers of the CZTS based solar cells, are studied by polarized resonant and non-resonant Raman spectroscopy in the range from 60 to 500 cm-1 on an oriented single crystal. The phonon mode symmetry of 20 modes from the 27 possible vibrational modes of the kesterite structure is experimentally determined. From in-plane angular dependences of the phonon modes intensities Raman tensor elements are also derived. Whereas a strong intensity enhancement of the polar E and B symmetry modes is induced under resonance conditions, no mode intensity dependence on the incident and scattered light polarization configurations was found in these conditions. Finally, Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relations are applied to estimate the ratios of the static to high-frequency optic dielectric constants parallel and perpendicular to c-optical axis.

  20. Polarized Raman scattering study of kesterite type Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Guc, Maxim; Levcenko, Sergiu; Bodnar, Ivan V.; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Fontane, Xavier; Volkova, Larisa V.; Arushanov, Ernest; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A non-destructive Raman spectroscopy has been widely used as a complimentary method to X-ray diffraction characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, yet our knowledge of the Raman active fundamental modes in this material is far from complete. Focusing on polarized Raman spectroscopy provides important information about the relationship between Raman modes and CZTS crystal structure. In this framework the zone–center optical phonons of CZTS, which is most usually examined in active layers of the CZTS based solar cells, are studied by polarized resonant and non-resonant Raman spectroscopy in the range from 60 to 500 cm−1 on an oriented single crystal. The phonon mode symmetry of 20 modes from the 27 possible vibrational modes of the kesterite structure is experimentally determined. From in-plane angular dependences of the phonon modes intensities Raman tensor elements are also derived. Whereas a strong intensity enhancement of the polar E and B symmetry modes is induced under resonance conditions, no mode intensity dependence on the incident and scattered light polarization configurations was found in these conditions. Finally, Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relations are applied to estimate the ratios of the static to high-frequency optic dielectric constants parallel and perpendicular to c-optical axis. PMID:26776727

  1. Polarized Raman scattering study of kesterite type Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Guc, Maxim; Levcenko, Sergiu; Bodnar, Ivan V; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Fontane, Xavier; Volkova, Larisa V; Arushanov, Ernest; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A non-destructive Raman spectroscopy has been widely used as a complimentary method to X-ray diffraction characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, yet our knowledge of the Raman active fundamental modes in this material is far from complete. Focusing on polarized Raman spectroscopy provides important information about the relationship between Raman modes and CZTS crystal structure. In this framework the zone-center optical phonons of CZTS, which is most usually examined in active layers of the CZTS based solar cells, are studied by polarized resonant and non-resonant Raman spectroscopy in the range from 60 to 500 cm(-1) on an oriented single crystal. The phonon mode symmetry of 20 modes from the 27 possible vibrational modes of the kesterite structure is experimentally determined. From in-plane angular dependences of the phonon modes intensities Raman tensor elements are also derived. Whereas a strong intensity enhancement of the polar E and B symmetry modes is induced under resonance conditions, no mode intensity dependence on the incident and scattered light polarization configurations was found in these conditions. Finally, Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relations are applied to estimate the ratios of the static to high-frequency optic dielectric constants parallel and perpendicular to c-optical axis. PMID:26776727

  2. Lowest order QED radiative corrections to longitudinally polarized Møller scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyichev, A.; Zykunov, V.

    2005-08-01

    The total lowest-order electromagnetic radiative corrections to the observables in Møller scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons have been calculated. The final expressions obtained by the covariant method for the infrared divergency cancellation are free from any unphysical cut-off parameters. Since the calculation is carried out within the ultrarelativistic approximation our result has a compact form that is convenient for computing. Basing on these expressions the FORTRAN code MERA has been developed. Using this code the detailed numerical analysis performed under SLAC (E-158) and JLab kinematic conditions has shown that the radiative corrections are significant and rather sensitive to the value of the missing mass (inelasticity) cuts.

  3. Polarization Analysis of Light Scattered by Pollen Grains of Cryptomeria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: THEORY STUDIES FOR POLARIZED PP SCATTERING (VOLUME 53)

    SciTech Connect

    KRETZER,S.VOGELSANG,W.

    2003-09-15

    In the past two runs of RHIC, the first measurements with polarized proton beams have been performed. For many years to come, the RHIC spin program will offer exciting physics, exploring QCD and the nucleon in new ways. The aim of this small workshop was to attract several spin theorists to the center for about two weeks, in order to collaborate with both experimentalists and theorists at RBRC, and to initiate and/or complete studies of relevance to RHIC spin. A major focus of polarized-pp measurements at RHIC is on measuring the spin-dependent gluon density, {Delta}g. A channel for accessing {Delta}g is high-p{sub T} pion production. The unpolarized cross section for this reaction has been measured by PHENIX and was found in good agreement with a perturbative-QCD based (NLO) calculation. It was a remarkable and exciting coincidence that PHENIX presented also the first results for the spin asymmetry for {rvec p}{rvec p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}X during this workshop. This sparked a lot of additional activity and discussion. First steps toward the interpretation of the data were taken. Marco Stratmann and Barbara Jager (Regensburg University) presented recent work on the NLO calculation of the polarized cross section and the spin asymmetry, setting the stage for future full analysis of the data in terms of {Delta}g. Applications to {rvec e}{rvec p} scattering, very relevant to eRHIC, were also worked out and published during this workshop. Stratmann also discussed the procedure of NLO calculations for the case of transverse polarization in pp scattering.

  5. Spin waves in full-polarized state of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets: Small-angle neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Sukhanov, A. S.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Siegfried, S.-A.; Heinemann, A.; Kizhe, P.; Maleyev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    We develop the technique to study the spin-wave dynamics of the full-polarized state of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets by polarized small-angle neutron scattering. We have experimentally proven that the spin-waves dispersion in this state has the anisotropic form. We show that the neutron scattering image displays a circle with a certain radius which is centered at the momentum transfer corresponding to the helix wave vector in helimagnetic phase ks, which is oriented along the applied magnetic field H . The radius of this circle is directly related to the spin-wave stiffness of this system. This scattering depends on the neutron polarization showing the one-handed nature of the spin waves in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets in the full-polarized phase. We show that the spin-wave stiffness A for MnSi helimagnet decreased twice as the temperature increases from zero to the critical temperature Tc.

  6. Scattering of a Spin-Polarized Neutral Fermion with the Anomalous Magnetic Moment in AN Aharonov-Casher Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilov, V. R.

    The scattering of a nonrelativistic neutral massive fermion having the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) in an electric field of a uniformly charged long conducting thread aligned perpendicularly to the fermion motion is considered to study the so-called Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect by taking into account the particle spin. For this solution, the nonrelativistic Dirac-Pauli equation for a neutral massive fermion with AMM in (3+1) dimensions is found, which takes into account explicitly the particle spin and interaction between AMM of moving fermion and the electric field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross-section are obtained for spin-polarized massive neutral fermion scattered off the above conducting thread. We conclude that the scattering amplitude and cross-section of spin-polarized massive neutral fermions are influenced by the interaction of AMM of moving neutral fermions with the electric field as well as by the polarization of fermion beam in the initial state.

  7. Spin-exchange optically pumped polarized 3He target for low-energy charged particle scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katabuchi, T.; Buscemi, S.; Cesaratto, J. M.; Clegg, T. B.; Daniels, T. V.; Fassler, M.; Neufeld, R. B.; Kadlecek, S.

    2005-03-01

    We have constructed, tested, and calibrated a polarized He3 target system which facilitates p-He3 elastic scattering at proton energies as low as 2MeV. This system consists of a target cell placed in a uniform B field inside a scattering chamber and an external optical pumping station utilizing Rb spin exchange. Computer-controlled valves allow polarized He3 gas to be transferred quickly between the optical pumping station and the spherical Pyrex target cell, which has Kapton film covering apertures for the passing beam and the scattering particles. The magnetic field required to maintain He3 polarization in the target cell is created with a compact, shielded sine-theta coil. Target gas polarimetry is accomplished using nuclear magnetic resonance and calibrated using the known analyzing power of α-He3 scattering.

  8. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND INDUCED POLARIZATION FROM SINGLE SCATTERING BY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Elsa P. R. G.; Da Silva, Antonio J. C.; Liu, Guo-Chin

    2012-09-20

    We present light-cone-integrated simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization signal induced by a single scattering in the direction of clusters of galaxies and filaments. We characterize the statistical properties of the induced polarization signals from the presence of the CMB quadrupole component (pqiCMB) and as the result of the transverse motion of ionized gas clouds with respect to the CMB rest frame (p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ). From adiabatic N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, we generated 28 random sky patches integrated along the light cone, each with about 0.86 deg{sup 2} and angular resolution of 6''. Our simulation method involves a box-stacking scheme that allows to reconstruct the CMB quadrupole component and the gas physical properties along the line of sight. We find that the linear polarization degree in the logarithmic scale of both effects follows approximately a Gaussian distribution and the mean total signal is about 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -10} for the pqiCMB and p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ effects, respectively. The polarization angle is consistent with a flat distribution in both cases. From the mean distributions of the polarization degree with redshift, the highest peak is found at z {approx_equal} 1 for the induced CMB quadrupole and at z {approx_equal} 0.5 for the kinematic component. Our results suggest that most of the contribution for the total polarization signal arises from z {approx}< 4 for the pqiCMB and z {approx}< 3 for p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ. The spectral dependency of both integrated signals is strong, increasing with the frequency, especially in the case of the p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ signal, which increases by a factor of 100 from 30 GHz to 675 GHz. The maxima values found at the highest frequency are about 3 {mu}K and 13 {mu}K for the pqiCMB and p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ, respectively. The angular power spectra of these effects peak at large multipoles l > 10{sup 4}, being of the order of 10{sup -5} {mu}K{sup 2

  9. Development of polarization-controlled multi-pass Thomson scattering system in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Morimoto, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Funaba, H.; Minami, T.

    2012-10-15

    In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, the typical electron density is comparable to that of the peripheral plasma of torus-type fusion devices. Therefore, an effective method to increase Thomson scattering (TS) signals is required in order to improve signal quality. In GAMMA 10, the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG)-TS system comprises a laser, incident optics, light collection optics, signal detection electronics, and a data recording system. We have been developing a multi-pass TS method for a polarization-based system based on the GAMMA 10 YAG TS. To evaluate the effectiveness of the polarization-based configuration, the multi-pass system was installed in the GAMMA 10 YAG-TS system, which is capable of double-pass scattering. We carried out a Rayleigh scattering experiment and applied this double-pass scattering system to the GAMMA 10 plasma. The integrated scattering signal was made about twice as large by the double-pass system.

  10. Laterally patterned spin-valve superlattice: Magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüssing, F.; Toperverg, B. P.; Devishvili, A.; Badini Confalonieri, G. A.; Theis-Bröhl, K.; Zabel, H.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetization reversal of magnetic multilayers with spin-valve like characteristics, patterned into an array of parallel stripes, was structurally and magnetically analyzed, in detail, via x-ray scattering, magnetometry, and polarized neutron reflectivity. Each stripe contains a multiple repetition of the layer sequence [Fe/Cr/Co/Cr]. X-ray and neutron scattering maps of the patterned multilayer show rich details resulting from the superposition of Bragg peaks representing the lateral in-plane periodicity and the out-of-plane multilayer period. Detailed analysis of specular and off-specular polarized neutron intensity was used to ascertain the antiparallel alignment of the Co and Fe magnetization within the kink region of their combined hysteresis loop between the coercive fields of Fe and Co layers. This includes also an examination of domain formation and inter- as well as intra-stripe correlation effects upon magnetization reversal. Our combined study shows that the shape induced anisotropy via patterning is capable of overriding the four-fold crystal anisotropy but is unable to eliminate the ripple domain state of the Co layers, already present in the continuous multilayer.