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Sample records for polarized quark matter

  1. Cold quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2010-05-15

    We perform an O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) perturbative calculation of the equation of state of cold but dense QCD matter with two massless and one massive quark flavor, finding that perturbation theory converges reasonably well for quark chemical potentials above 1 GeV. Using a running coupling constant and strange quark mass, and allowing for further nonperturbative effects, our results point to a narrow range where absolutely stable strange quark matter may exist. Absent stable strange quark matter, our findings suggest that quark matter in (slowly rotating) compact star cores becomes confined to hadrons only slightly above the density of atomic nuclei. Finally, we show that equations of state including quark matter lead to hybrid star masses up to M{approx}2M{sub {center_dot},} in agreement with current observations. For strange stars, we find maximal masses of M{approx}2.75M{sub {center_dot}}and conclude that confirmed observations of compact stars with M>2M{sub {center_dot}}would strongly favor the existence of stable strange quark matter.

  2. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can be well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.

  3. Quark matter or new particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  4. Cool Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-01

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O (g5) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  5. Cool Quark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-22

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium. PMID:27494468

  6. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Jan-e.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Nayak, Tapan; Sinha, Bikash; Viyogi, Yogendra P.

    2008-10-01

    Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose

  7. Quark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. |; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin.

  8. STRANGE GOINGS ON IN QUARK MATTER.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    2001-06-05

    We review recent work on how the superfluid state of three flavor quark matter is affected by non-zero quark masses and chemical potentials. The study of hadronic matter at high baryon density has recently attracted a lot of interest. At zero baryon density chiral symmetry is broken by a quark-anti-quark condensate. At high density condensation in the quark-anti-quark channel is suppressed. Instead, attractive interactions in the color anti-symmetric quark-quark channel favor the formation of diquark condensates. As a consequence, cold dense quark matter is expected to be a color superconductor. The symmetry breaking pattern depends on the density, the number of quark flavors, and their masses. A particularly symmetric phase is the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of three flavor quark matter. This phase is believed to be the true ground state of ordinary matter at very large density.

  9. STAR: Characterizing hot quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buren, G.; STAR Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    With discovery of Quark Gluon Plasma well-established at RHIC, the STAR Experiment continues to work toward a more complete understanding of properties of the produced matter, and the conditions necessary for the phase change. We will present recent progress on characterizing quark matter at high temperature through a wide variety of measurement techniques in STAR's repertoire: from observing species suppression and correlations, to determining statistical moments and prospecting for symmetry-breaking. RHIC has further embarked on a program to study this matter through a range of conditions achieved by varying the collision energies, which are hoped to span and locate the QCD critical point. We will show how STAR's toolkit is already providing intriguing results from the the first phase of this program and discuss possible future directions for the program.

  10. Magnetism in Dense Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Efrain J.; de la Incera, Vivian

    We review the mechanisms via which an external magnetic field can affect the ground state of cold and dense quark matter. In the absence of a magnetic field, at asymptotically high densities, cold quark matter is in the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase of color superconductivity characterized by three scales: the superconducting gap, the gluon Meissner mass, and the baryonic chemical potential. When an applied magnetic field becomes comparable with each of these scales, new phases and/or condensates may emerge. They include the magnetic CFL (MCFL) phase that becomes relevant for fields of the order of the gap scale; the paramagnetic CFL, important when the field is of the order of the Meissner mass, and a spin-one condensate associated to the magnetic moment of the Cooper pairs, significant at fields of the order of the chemical potential. We discuss the equation of state (EoS) of MCFL matter for a large range of field values and consider possible applications of the magnetic effects on dense quark matter to the astrophysics of compact stars.

  11. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  12. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  13. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  14. Strange-quark-matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-11-01

    We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 13 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that it is implausible that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, is a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation if strange matter is stable at an energy density exceeding about 5.4 times that of nuclear matter. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 34 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  16. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces. PMID:25541769

  17. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  18. QUARK MATTER IN MASSIVE COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenborn, Simon; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Sagert, Irina; Hempel, Matthias

    2011-10-10

    The recent observation of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 with a mass of 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub sun} gives a strong constraint on the quark and nuclear matter equations of state (EoS). We explore the parameter ranges for a parameterized EoS for quark stars. We find that strange stars, made of absolutely stable strange quark matter, comply with the new constraint only if effects from the strong coupling constant and color-superconductivity are taken into account. Hybrid stars, compact stars with a quark matter core and a hadronic outer layer, can be as massive as 2 M{sub sun}, but only for a significantly limited range of parameters. We demonstrate that the appearance of quark matter in massive stars crucially depends on the stiffness of the nuclear matter EoS. We show that the masses of hybrid stars stay below the ones of hadronic and pure quark stars, due to the softening of the EoS at the quark-hadron phase transition.

  19. Finite temperature quark matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Avancini, S. S.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.

    2011-06-15

    In this paper, we use the mean-field approximation to investigate quark matter described by both SU(2) and SU(3) versions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at temperatures below 150 MeV and subject to a strong magnetic field. This kind of matter is possibly present in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions and in the interior of protoneutron stars. We have studied symmetric and asymmetric quark matter. The effect of the magnetic field on the effective quark masses and chemical potentials is only felt for quite strong magnetic fields, above 5x10{sup 18} G, with larger effects for the lower densities. Spin polarizations are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields and are larger for lower temperatures and lower densities. Temperature tends to wash out the magnetic field effects.

  20. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-01

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  1. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars. PMID:27472110

  2. Strange quark matter fragmentation in astrophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulucci, L.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-06-01

    The conjecture of Bodmer-Witten-Terazawa suggesting a form of quark matter (Strange Quark Matter) as the ground state of hadronic interactions has been studied in laboratory and astrophysical contexts by a large number of authors. If strange stars exist, some violent events involving these compact objects, such as mergers and even their formation process, might eject some strange matter into the interstellar medium that could be detected as a trace signal in the cosmic ray flux. To evaluate this possibility, it is necessary to understand how this matter in bulk would fragment in the form of strangelets (small lumps of strange quark matter in which finite effects become important). We calculate the mass distribution outcome using the statistical multifragmentation model and point out several caveats affecting it. In particular, the possibility that strangelets fragmentation will render a tiny fraction of contamination in the cosmic ray flux is discussed.

  3. Quark matter induced extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Kyle

    2011-05-15

    If the dark matter of our Galaxy is composed of nuggets of quarks or antiquarks in a color superconducting phase there will be a small but nonzero flux of these objects through the Earth's atmosphere. A nugget of quark matter will deposit only a small fraction of its kinetic energy in the atmosphere and is likely to be undetectable. If however the impacting object is composed of antiquarks, the energy deposited can be quite large. In this case nuclear annihilations within the nugget will trigger an extensive air shower the particle content of which is similar to that produced by an ultrahigh energy cosmic ray. This paper gives a qualitative description of the basic properties of such a shower. Several distinctions from an air shower initiated by a single ultrahigh energy nucleus will be described, allowing these events to be distinguished from the cosmic ray background. The subtlety of these features may mean that some fraction of the high energy cosmic ray spectrum may in fact be due to this type of dark matter interaction. The estimated flux of dark matter nuggets and the energy deposited in the atmosphere are such that the Pierre Auger Observatory may prove an ideal facility to place constraints on the flux of heavy quark matter objects. This paper attempts to highlight the best techniques to search for a quark matter signature through an extensive air shower signal.

  4. Seismic Search for Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, Vigdor

    2004-01-01

    Two decades ago, Witten suggested that the ground state of matter might be material of nuclear density made from up, down and strange quarks. Since then, much effort has gone into exploring astrophysical and other implications of this possibility. For example, neutron stars would almost certainly be strange quark stars; dark matter might be strange quark matter. Searches for stable strange quark matter have been made in various mass ranges, with negative, but not conclusive results. Recently, we [D. Anderson, E. Herrin, V. Teplitz, and I. Tibuleac, Bull. Seis. Soc. of Am. 93, 2363 (2003)] reported a positive result for passage through the Earth of a multi-ton "nugget" of nuclear density in a search of about a million seismic reports, to the U.S. Geological Survey for the years 1990-93, not associated with known Earthquakes. I will present the evidence (timing of first signals to the 9 stations involved, first signal directions, and unique waveform characteristics) for our conclusion and discuss potential improvements that could be obtained from exploiting the seismologically quieter environments of the moon and Mars.

  5. Space station as quark matter factory

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-11-01

    We review the theoretical arguments indicating that hadronic matter dissolves into a quark gluon plasma at energy densities only one order of magnitude above the energy density in nuclei and point out that such energy densities can be achieved in nuclear collisions at 10 to 1000 AGeV. 17 references.

  6. Quark and gluon condensates in isospin matter

    SciTech Connect

    He Lianyi; Jiang Yin; Zhuang Pengfei

    2009-04-15

    By applying the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to a charged pion gas, the quark and gluon condensates at low isospin density are determined by precise pion properties. At intermediate density around f{sub {pi}}{sup 2}m{sub {pi}}, from both the estimation for the dilute pion gas and the calculation with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the quark condensate is strongly and monotonously suppressed, while the gluon condensate is enhanced and can be larger than its vacuum value. This unusual behavior of the gluon condensate is universal for Bose condensed matter of mesons. Our results can be tested by lattice calculations at finite isospin density.

  7. Quark matter and fermionic dark matter compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Somenath; Basu, Devasish Narayan

    2016-03-01

    Compact stars, made of quark matter and fermionic dark matter with arbitrary masses and interaction strengths, are studied by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of general relativity. The mass-radius relation for quark matter compact stars is obtained from the MIT bag model equation of state (EoS) with thin crust for different bag constants. The EoS of non-self-annihilating dark matter for an interacting Fermi gas with dark matter particle of 1-100 GeV mass is studied. For sufficiently strong interactions, the maximum stable mass of compact stars and its radius are controlled by the parameter of the interaction, both increasing linearly with the interaction strength. The mass-radius relation for compact stars made of strongly interacting fermions shows that the radius remains approximately constant for a wide range of compact stars.

  8. Quark mean field approach with derivative coupling for nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabata, M.; Akiyama, S.; Futami, Y.; Nakasone, T.; Yukino, T.

    2008-05-15

    We propose the quark mean field model including derivative coupling between quarks and scalar mesons in nuclear matter. This model concisely interprets an increasing size of the nucleon as well as a modification of coupling constant in the nuclear environment.

  9. Quark and pion effective couplings from polarization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2016-05-01

    A flavor SU(2) effective model for pions and quarks is derived by considering polarization effects departing from the usual quark-quark effective interaction induced by dressed gluon exchange, i.e. a global color model for QCD. For that, the quark field is decomposed into a component that yields light mesons and the quark-antiquark condensate, being integrated out by means of the auxiliary field method, and another component which yields constituent quarks, which is basically a background quark field. Within a long-wavelength and weak quark field expansion (or large quark effective mass expansion) of a quark determinant, the leading terms are found up to the second order in a zero-order derivative expansion, by neglecting vector mesons that are considerably heavier than the pion. Pions are considered in the structureless limit and, besides the chiral invariant terms that reproduce previously derived expressions, symmetry breaking terms are also presented. The leading chiral quark-quark effective couplings are also found corresponding to a NJL and a vector-NJL couplings. All the resulting effective coupling constants and parameters are expressed in terms of the current and constituent quark masses and of the coupling g.

  10. Possible resolution of the strange quark polarization puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Alexander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.

    2011-07-01

    The strange quark polarization puzzle, i.e. the contradiction between the negative polarized strange quark density obtained from analyses of inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and the positive values obtained from combined analyses of inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data using de Florian, Sassot, Stratmann fragmentation functions, is discussed. To this end the results of a new combined next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the polarized inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data, using the Hirai, Kumano, Nagai, Sudoh (HKNS) fragmentation functions, are presented. It is demonstrated that the polarized strange quark density is very sensitive to the kaon fragmentation functions, and if the set of HKNS fragmentation functions is used, the polarized strange quark density obtained from the combined analysis turns out to be negative and well consistent with values obtained from the pure deep inelastic scattering analyses.

  11. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2007-03-01

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  12. Dissipative processes in superfluid quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2010-12-01

    We present some results about dissipative processes in fermionic superfluids that are relevant for compact stars. At sufficiently low temperatures the transport properties of a superfluid are dominated by phonons. We report the values of the bulk viscosity, shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of phonons in quark matter at extremely high density and low temperature. Then, we present a new dissipative mechanism that can operate in compact stars and that is named "rocket term". The effect of this dissipative mechanism on superfluid r-mode oscillations is sketched.

  13. Dissipative processes in superfluid quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2010-12-22

    We present some results about dissipative processes in fermionic superfluids that are relevant for compact stars. At sufficiently low temperatures the transport properties of a superfluid are dominated by phonons. We report the values of the bulk viscosity, shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of phonons in quark matter at extremely high density and low temperature. Then, we present a new dissipative mechanism that can operate in compact stars and that is named 'rocket term'. The effect of this dissipative mechanism on superfluid r-mode oscillations is sketched.

  14. Extracting the flavor dependence of the polarized sea quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinghua

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of single spin asymmetry AL of W bosons in longitudinally polarized pp collisions at RHIC provides an unique probe for the flavor separation of the nucleon spin structure, especially the polarization of sea quarks. The recent AL results of W bosons from RHIC via leptonic decay provided significant new constraints on the helicity distributions of light sea quarks in addition to constraints from the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data, which also indicated a symmetry breaking between anti-u and anti-d quark polarization in the nucleon. In 2013 the RHIC/STAR experiment collected a proton-proton collision data sample about 3 times larger than the previous data sample. The newest results of AL analysis from RHIC W program and the impact on sea quark polarization will be discussed.

  15. A corresponding-state approach to quark-cluster matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yan-Jun; Lai, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2014-05-01

    The state of super-dense matter is essential for us to understand the nature of pulsars; however, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics makes it very difficult to make direct calculations of the state of cold matter at realistic baryon number densities inside compact stars. Nevertheless, from an observational point of view, it is conjectured that pulsars could be made up of quark clusters since the strong coupling between quarks might render the quarks to be grouped in clusters. In this paper, we attempt to find an equation of state of condensed quark-cluster matter in a phenomenological way. Supposing that the quark-clusters could be analogized to inert gases, we apply here the corresponding-state approach to derive the equation of state of quark-cluster matter, as was similarly demonstrated for nuclear and neutron-star matter in the 1970s. According to the calculations that we have presented, the quark-cluster stars, which are composed of quark-cluster matter, could have a high maximum mass that is consistent with observations and, in turn, further observations of pulsar mass could also place a constraint on the properties of quark-cluster matter. We will also briefly discuss the melting heat during the solid-liquid phase conversion and its related astrophysical consequences.

  16. GENERAL: Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Zade S.; D, Patil K.; N, Mulkalwar P.

    2008-05-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid. The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole. We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng [Phys. Lett. A 266 (2000) 249] to the non-spherical case.

  17. Phenomenological determination of polarized quark distributions in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanisław

    1996-03-01

    We present a fit to spin asymmetries which gives polarized quark distributions. These functions are closely related to the ones given by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarized structure functions. The integrals of polarized distributions are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained from neutron and hyperon β-decay data. We use the combination of proton, neutron and deuteron spin asymmetries in order to determine the coefficients of our polarized quark distributions. Our fit shows that phenomenologically there is no need for taking polarized gluons into account.

  18. Quark matter under strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres Menezes, Débora; Laércio Lopes, Luiz

    2016-02-01

    We revisit three of the mathematical formalisms used to describe magnetized quark matter in compact objects within the MIT and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models and then compare their results. The tree formalisms are based on 1) isotropic equations of state, 2) anisotropic equations of state with different parallel and perpendicular pressures and 3) the assumption of a chaotic field approximation that results in a truly isotropic equation of state. We have seen that the magnetization obtained with both models is very different: while the MIT model produces well-behaved curves that are always positive for large magnetic fields, the NJL model yields a magnetization with lots of spikes and negative values. This fact has strong consequences on the results based on the existence of anisotropic equations of state. We have also seen that, while the isotropic formalism results in maximum stellar masses that increase considerably when the magnetic fields increase, maximum masses obtained with the chaotic field approximation never vary more than 5.5%. The effect of the magnetic field on the radii is opposed in the MIT and NJL models: with both formalisms, isotropic and chaotic field approximation, for a fixed mass, the radii increase with the increase of the magnetic field in the MIT bag model and decrease in the NJL, the radii of quark stars described by the NJL model being smaller than the ones described by the MIT model.

  19. The rigidity of three flavor quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rishi; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Cold three flavor quark matter at large (but not asymptotically large) densities may exist in a crystalline color superconducting phase. These phases are characterized by a gap parameter {Delta} that varies periodieally in space, forming a crystal structure. A Ginzburg-Landau expansion in {Delta} shows that two crystal structures based on cubic symetry are particularly favorable, and may be the ground state of matter at densities present in neutron star cores. We derive the effective action for the phonon fields that describe space-and time-dependent fluctuations of the crystal structure formed by {Delta}, and obtain the shear modulus from the coefficients of the spatial derivative terms. Within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, we find shear moduli which are 20 to 1000 times larger than those of neutron star crusts. This phase ofmatter is thus more rigid than any known material in the universe, but at the same time the crystalline color superconducting phase is also superftuid. These properties raise the possibility that the presence of this phase within neutron stars may have distinct implications for their phenomenology. For example, (some) pulsar glitches may originate in crystalline superconducting neutron star cores.

  20. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  1. Domain growth and ordering kinetics in dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Puri, S.; Mishra, H.

    2012-06-15

    The kinetics of chiral transitions in quark matter is studied in a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We focus on the phase-ordering dynamics subsequent to a temperature quench from the massless quark phase to the massive quark phase. We study the dynamics by considering a phenomenological model (Ginzburg-Landau free-energy functional). The morphology of the ordering system is characterized by the scaling of the order-parameter correlation function.

  2. Symmetric and anti-symmetric Landau parameters and magnetic properties of dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Kausik; Dutt-Mazumder, Abhee K.

    2010-05-01

    We calculate the dimensionless Fermi liquid parameters (FLPs), F0,1sym and F0,1asym, for spin asymmetric dense quark matter. In general, the FLPs are infrared divergent due to the exchange of massless gluons. To remove such divergences, the hard density loop (HDL) corrected gluon propagator is used. The FLPs so determined are then invoked to calculate magnetic properties such as magnetization and magnetic susceptibility χM of spin polarized quark matter. Finally, we investigate the possibility of magnetic instability by studying the density dependence of and χM.

  3. Attenuation and recombination of quarks in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, A.; Takagi, F.

    1980-03-24

    Quark models of hadron production in the beam-fragmentation region are extended to production off nuclei by taking into account quark attenuation in nuclear matter. Simple expressions are derived for the A dependence of the production of beam fragments. They reproduce well the experimental data on hadron-nucleus and virtual photon-nucleus collisions.

  4. Higher dimensional strange quark matter solutions in self creation cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, R.; Aygün, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have generalized the higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe solutions for a cloud of string with perfect fluid attached strange quark matter (SQM) in Self Creation Cosmology (SCC). We have obtained that the cloud of string with perfect fluid does not survive and the string tension density vanishes for this model. However, we get dark energy model for strange quark matter with positive density and negative pressure in self creation cosmology.

  5. Meson condensation and critical point in dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Andreas; Stetina, Stephan; Tachibana, Motoi

    2011-05-23

    The phase structure of dense QCD matter is studied based on the Ginzburg-Landau approach. In three flavor massless quark matter, one can show that a novel entanglement between chiral condensate and diquark condensate via the axial anomaly gives rise to a critical point at moderate density. We further investigate the effect of nonzero strange quark mass by taking into account a possible meson condensate. Then the fate of the critical point is discussed.

  6. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Yves; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, the Quark Matter conferences have been the most important forum for presenting results in the field of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The 22nd conference in this series took place in Annecy, France, on 22-29 May 2011, and it attracted a record attendance of almost 800 participants. More than 500 requests to give presentations were received and, based on the recommendations of the International Advisory Committee, almost 200 were selected. This special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains the written reports of those oral presentations. Quark Matter 2011 was scheduled to take place six months after the start of the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Hence, these proceedings mark a historical milestone: two decades after starting to prepare for the LHC, the present volume documents the first substantial harvest of LHC heavy-ion data. In addition, these proceedings feature a complete overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments over two orders of magnitude in the center-of-mass energy of heavy-ion collisions. In particular, they include prominently the latest results from the heavy-ion experiments at Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and a broad range of theoretical highlights. Early in the organization of Quark Matter 2011, it was recognized that the novelty of the results expected at this conference argues for a very rapid publication of the proceedings. We would like to thank all who helped meet the ambitious production schedule. In particular, we would like to thank the paper committees of the LHC experiments ATLAS, ALICE and CMS, and the RHIC experiments PHENIX and STAR who ensured, in a coordinated action, that all experimental contributions were received within four weeks of the end of the conference. We would also like to thank the many individual contributors, as well as the anonymous referees appointed by Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

  7. Valence quark polarization in the nucleon and the deuteron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2008-10-01

    Within the framework of the so-called valon model, we argue that a substantial part of the nucleon spin, about 40%, is carried by the polarized valence quarks. The remaining is the result of cancelations between gluon polarization and the orbital angular momentum, where the gluon polarization is the dominant one. It is shown that the sea quark contributions to the spin of any hadron is simply marginal and consistent with zero. Our findings point to a substantially smaller value for a8 than inferred from hyperon β decay, suggesting that full SU (3) symmetric assumption needs to be reconsidered. New and emerging experimental data tend to support this finding. Finally, we show that within the model presented here the experimental data on the polarized structure functions g1p,n,d are reproduced.

  8. PREFACE: Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Kodama, Takeshi; Padula, Sandra; Takahashi, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) was held in Brazil from 27 September to 2 October 2009 at Hotel Atlântico, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro. The conference was jointly organized by Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Over 120 scientists from Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the USA gathered at the meeting to discuss the physics of hot and dense matter through the signals of strangeness and also the behavior of heavy quarks. Group photograph The topics covered were strange and heavy quark production in nuclear collisions, strange and heavy quark production in elementary processes, bulk matter phenomena associated with strange and heavy quarks, and strangeness in astrophysics. In view of the LHC era and many other upcoming new machines, together with recent theoretical developments, sessions focused on `New developments and new facilities' and 'Open questions' were also included. A stimulating round-table discussion on 'Physics opportunities in the next decade in the view of strangeness and heavy flavor in matter' was chaired in a relaxed atmosphere by Grazyna Odyniec and conducted by P Braun-Munzinger, W Florkowski, K Redlich, K Šafařík and H Stöcker, We thank these colleagues for pointing out to young participants new physics directions to be pursued. We also thank J Dunlop and K Redlich for excellent introductory lectures given on the Sunday evening pre-conference session. In spite of the not-so-helpful weather, the beauty and charm of the town of Búzios helped to make the meeting successful. Nevertheless, the most important contributions were the excellent talks, whose contents are part of these proceedings, given

  9. Phase diagram of neutral quark matter in nonlocal chiral quark models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Dumm, D.; Blaschke, D. B.; Grunfeld, A. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2006-06-01

    We consider the phase diagram of two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints for two nonlocal, covariant quark models within the mean-field approximation. In the first case (Model I) the nonlocality arises from the regularization procedure, motivated by the instanton liquid model, whereas in the second one (Model II) a separable approximation of the one-gluon exchange interaction is applied. We find that Model II predicts a larger quark mass gap and a chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) phase transition line which extends 15 20% further into the phase diagram spanned by temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). The corresponding critical temperature at μ=0, Tc(0)≃140MeV, is in better accordance to recent lattice QCD results than the prediction of the standard local NJL model, which exceeds 200 MeV. For both Model I and Model II we have considered various coupling strengths in the scalar diquark channel, showing that different low-temperature quark matter phases can occur at intermediate densities: a normal quark matter (NQM) phase, a two-flavor superconducting (2SC) quark matter phase and a mixed 2SC-NQM phase. Although in most cases there is also a gapless 2SC phase, this occurs in general in a small region at nonzero temperatures, thus its effect should be negligible for compact star applications.

  10. Dark matter and dark energy from quark bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Brilenkov, Maxim; Eingorn, Maxim; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Zhuk, Alexander E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the present expansion of our Universe endowed with relict colored objects — quarks and gluons — that survived hadronization either as isolated islands of quark-gluon ''nuggets'' or spread uniformly in the Universe. In the first scenario, the QNs can play the role of dark matter. In the second scenario, we demonstrate that uniform colored objects can play the role of dark energy providing the late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  11. Jet substructures of boosted polarized hadronic top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2016-03-01

    We study jet substructures of a boosted polarized top quark, which undergoes the hadronic decay t →b u d ¯, in the perturbative QCD framework, focusing on the energy profile and the differential energy profile. These substructures are factorized into the convolution of a hard top-quark decay kernel with a bottom-quark jet function and a W -boson jet function, where the latter is further factorized into the convolution of a hard W -boson decay kernel with two light-quark jet functions. Computing the hard kernels to leading order in QCD and including the resummation effect in the jet functions, we show that the differential jet energy profile is a useful observable for differentiating the helicity of a boosted hadronic top quark: a right-handed top jet exhibits quick descent of the differential energy profile with the inner test cone radius r , which is attributed to the V -A structure of weak interaction and the dead-cone effect associated with the W -boson jet. The above helicity differentiation may help reveal the chiral structure of physics beyond the standard model at high energies.

  12. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  13. Dense stellar matter with strange quark matter driven by kaon condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    2011-09-15

    The core of neutron-star matter is supposed to be at a much higher density than the normal nuclear-matter density, for which various possibilities have been suggested, such as, for example, meson or hyperon condensation and/or deconfined quark or color-superconducting matter. In this work, we explore the implication on hadron physics of a dense compact object that has three ''phases'': nuclear matter at the outer layer, kaon condensed nuclear matter in the middle, and strange quark matter at the core. Using a drastically simplified but not unreasonable model, we develop the scenario where the different phases are smoothly connected with the kaon condensed matter playing a role of a ''doorway'' to a quark core, the equation of state of which with parameters restricted within the range allowed by nature could be made compatible with the mass vs radius constraint given by the 1.97-solar-mass object PSR J1614-2230 recently observed.

  14. INTERACTING QUARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FOR COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-02-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of the thermodynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma demonstrate the importance of accounting for the interactions of quarks and gluons if one wants to investigate the phase structure of strongly interacting matter. Motivated by this observation and using state-of-the-art results from perturbative QCD, we construct a simple, effective equation of state (EOS) for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an EOS that is equally straightforward to use. We also demonstrate that, at moderate densities, our EOS can be made to smoothly connect to hadronic EOSs, with the two exhibiting very similar behavior near the matching region. The resulting hybrid stars are seen to have masses similar to those predicted by the purely nucleonic EOSs.

  15. Quark matter in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagert, Irina; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Rauscher, Thomas; Thielemann, Friedrich-K.; Kaeppeli, Roger; Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Liebendoerfer, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Recent neutron star mass measurements point to compact star maximum masses of at least 1.97±0.04 solar masses and represent thereby a challenge for soft nuclear equations of state, which often go hand in hand with the presence of hyperons or quarks. In this talk I will discuss such high neutron star masses regarding the nuclear equation of state from heavy ion experiments. Furthermore, I will introduce equations of state for core-collapse supernova and binary merger simulations, which include a phase transition to strange quark matter. As was recently shown, neutrino signals from supernova explosions can provide a probe for the low density appearance of quark matter. The compatibility of the latter with high neutron star masses is an interesting and important question and will be addressed in the talk.

  16. Aharonov-Bohm phase in high density quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-03-01

    Stable non-Abelian vortices, which are color magnetic flux tubes as well as superfluid vortices, are present in the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter with diquark condensations. We calculate the Aharanov-Bohm phases of charged particles, that is, electrons, muons, and color-flavor locked mesons made of tetraquarks around a non-Abelian vortex.

  17. Axion electrodynamics and nonrelativistic photons in nuclear and quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We argue that the effective theory for electromagnetic fields in spatially varying meson condensations in dense nuclear and quark matter is given by the axion electrodynamics. We show that one of the helicity states of photons there has the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation ω ˜k2 at small momentum, while the other is gapped. This "nonrelativistic photon" may also be realized at the interface between topological and trivial insulators in condensed matter systems.

  18. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian; Ferrer, Efrain

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Transverse top quark polarization and the forward-backward asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Tweedie, Brock

    2013-08-01

    The forward-backward asymmetry in top pair production at the Tevatron has long been in tension with the Standard Model prediction. One of the only viable new physics scenarios capable of explaining this anomaly is an s-channel axigluon-like resonance, with the quantum numbers of the gluon but with significant axial couplings to quarks. While such a resonance can lead to a clear bump or excess in the or dijet mass spectra, it may also simply be too broad to cleanly observe. Here, we point out that broad resonances generally lead to net top and antitop polarizations transverse to the production plane. This polarization is consistent with all discrete spacetime symmetries, and, analogous to the forward-backward asymmetry itself, is absent in QCD at leading order. Within the parameter space consistent with the asymmetry measurements, the induced polarization can be sizable, and might be observable at the Tevatron or the LHC.

  20. From quark drops to quark stars. Some aspects of the role of quark matter in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, Germán

    2016-03-01

    We review some recent results about the mechanism of deconfinement of hadronic matter into quark matter in cold neutron stars and protoneutron stars. We discuss the role of finite-size effects and the relevance of temperature and density fluctuations on the nucleation process. We also examine the importance of surface effects for mixed phases in hybrid stars. A small drop of quark matter nucleated at the core of a compact star may grow if the conversion is sufficiently exothermic. In such a case, it may trigger the burning of the stellar core and even the whole star if quark matter is absolutely stable. We explore the physical processes that occur inside the flame and analyze the hydrodynamic evolution of the combustion front. In the last part of this review, we focus on hybrid stars using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with scalar, vector and 't Hooft interactions, paying particular attention to a generalized non-standard procedure for the choice of the "bag constant". We also describe the non-radial oscillation modes of hadronic, hybrid and strange stars with maximum masses above 2M_{odot} and show that the frequency of the p1 and g fluid modes contains key information about the internal composition of compact objects.

  1. Stability of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored relative to well-separated triplets of so-called semi-superfluid color flux tubes. However, the short-range interaction (metastable versus unstable) has not been established. In this paper we perform numerical calculations using the effective theory of the condensate field, mapping the regions in the parameter space of coupling constants where the vortices are metastable versus unstable. For the case of zero-gauge coupling we analytically identify a candidate for the unstable mode and show that it agrees well with the results of the numerical calculations. We find that in the region of the parameter space that seems likely to correspond to real-world CFL quark matter the vortices are unstable, indicating that if such matter exists in neutron star cores it is very likely to contain semi-superfluid color flux tubes rather than superfluid vortices.

  2. Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, P. K.; Providência, C.; Menezes, D. P.

    2010-10-01

    In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.

  3. Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.; Menezes, D. P.

    2010-10-15

    In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.

  4. Measurement of W Boson Polarization in Top Quark Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Vickey, Trevor Neil

    2004-11-01

    A measurement of the polarization of the W boson from top quark decay is an excellent test of the V-A form of the charged-current weak interaction in the standard model. Since the longitudinal W boson is intimately related to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism, and the standard model gives a specific prediction for the fraction of longitudinal W bosons from top decays, it is of particular interest for study. This thesis presents a measurement of W boson polarization in top quark decays through an analysis of the cos{theta}* distribution in the lepton-plus-jets channel of t{bar t} candidate events from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement uses an integrated luminosity of {approx} 162 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF Run II detector, resulting in 31 t{bar t} candidate events with at least one identified b jet. Using a binned likelihood fit to the cos{theta}* distribution from the t{bar t} candidate events found in this sample, the fraction of W bosons with longitudinal polarization is determined to be F{sub 0} = 0.99{sub -0.35}{sup +0.29}(stat.) {+-} 0.19(syst.), F{sub 0} > 0.33 {at} 95% CL. This result is consistent with the standard model prediction, given a top quark mass of 174.3 GeV/c{sup 2}, of F{sub 0} = 0.701 {+-} 0.012.

  5. A search for dark matter with bottom quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruskal, Michael Evans

    2016-01-01

    Despite making up over 80% of the matter in the universe, very little is known about dark matter. Its only well-established property is that it interacts gravitationally, but does not interact with ordinary matter through any of the other known forces. Specific details such as the number of dark matter particles, their quantum properties, and their interactions remain elusive and are only loosely constrained by experiments. In this dissertation I describe a novel search for a particular type of dark matter that couples preferentially to heavy quarks, using LHC proton-proton collisions at ATLAS. With a model-independent framework, comparisons are made to results obtained from other dark matter searches, and new limits are set on various interaction strengths.

  6. Nonthermal dark matter and the top polarization at collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the characteristic collider signatures, in particular a highly polarized resonant single-top channel for a minimal color triplet extension to the Standard Model. This extension provides baryogensis and a non-thermal production history of a dark matter candidate. We further discuss the implementation of both completely left and right-handed chiral interaction in the model and the difference in phenomenology between the two scenarios. If the color triplets are isospin singlets, the dark matter candidate mass is 1 GeV and the single-top quarks are strictly right-handed polarized. Alternatively, the isospin-doublet color triplets lead to strictly left-handed single top events and a more extended particle spectrum.

  7. Quark matter nucleation in neutron stars and astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Vidaña, Isaac; Providência, Constança

    2016-03-01

    A phase of strong interacting matter with deconfined quarks is expected in the core of massive neutron stars. We investigate the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T=0 and hot β -stable hadronic matter. Assuming a first order phase transition, we calculate and compare the nucleation rate and the nucleation time due to quantum and thermal nucleation mechanisms. We show that above a threshold value of the central pressure a pure hadronic star (HS) (i.e. a compact star with no fraction of deconfined quark matter) is metastable to the conversion to a quark star (QS) (i.e. a hybrid star or a strange star). This process liberates an enormous amount of energy, of the order of 1053erg, which causes a powerful neutrino burst, likely accompanied by intense gravitational waves emission, and possibly by a second delayed (with respect to the supernova explosion forming the HS) explosion which could be the energy source of a powerful gamma-ray burst (GRB). This stellar conversion process populates the QS branch of compact stars, thus one has in the Universe two coexisting families of compact stars: pure hadronic stars and quark stars. We introduce the concept of critical mass M_{cr} for cold HSs and proto-hadronic stars (PHSs), and the concept of limiting conversion temperature for PHSs. We show that PHSs with a mass M < M_{cr} could survive the early stages of their evolution without decaying to QSs. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary paths of proto-hadronic stars.

  8. Surface effects in color superconducting strange-quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oertel, Micaela; Urban, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Surface effects in strange-quark matter play an important role for certain observables which have been proposed in order to identify strange stars, and color superconductivity can strongly modify these effects. We study the surface of color superconducting strange-quark matter by solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations for finite systems ('strangelets') within the MIT bag model, supplemented with a pairing interaction. Because of the bag-model boundary condition, the strange-quark density is suppressed at the surface. This leads to a positive surface charge, concentrated in a layer of {approx}1 fm below the surface, even in the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. However, since in the CFL phase all quarks are paired, this positive charge is compensated by a negative charge, which turns out to be situated in a layer of a few tens of fm below the surface, and the total charge of CFL strangelets is zero. We also study the surface and curvature contributions to the total energy. Because of the strong pairing, the energy as a function of the mass number is very well reproduced by a liquid-drop type formula with curvature term.

  9. Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter and strange stars in a new quark mass scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Qian; Chen, ShiWu; Peng, GuangXiong; Xu, JianFeng

    2013-09-01

    Considering the effect of one-gluon-exchange interaction between quarks, the color-flavor locked strange quark matter and strange stars are investigated in a new quark mass density-dependent model. It is found that the color-flavor locked strange quark matter can be more stable if the one-gluon-exchange effect is included. The lower density behavior of the sound velocity in this model is different from the previous results. Moreover, the new equation of state leads to a heavier acceptable maximum mass, supporting the recent observation of a compact star mass as large as about 2 times the solar mass.

  10. Models of quark-hadron matter and compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, S.; Dexheimer, V.; Negreiros, R.; Steinheimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological approaches to Quantum Chromodynamics covering the whole region of low and high temperatures and/or densities must address the problem that the effective degrees of freedom change from hadrons to quarks and gluons. We approach this task with a unified description of hadronic and quark matter allowing for cross-over as well as first or second-order phase transitions. As a further benefit of such an approach, a quantitatively satisfactory description of nuclear ground state matter as well as nuclear and hypernuclear properties can be achieved. We apply this model to neutron stars and consider potential constraints on star properties arising from lattice gauge results in relation with the observation of 2 solar mass stars.

  11. The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E

    2012-05-10

    This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.

  12. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter: Urca versus nonleptonic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sa'd, Basil A.; Shovkovy, Igor A.; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2007-06-15

    A general formalism for calculating the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter is developed. Contrary to the common belief that the nonleptonic processes alone give the dominant contribution to the bulk viscosity, the inclusion of the Urca processes is shown to play an important role at intermediate densities when the characteristic r-mode oscillation frequencies are not too high. The interplay of nonleptonic and Urca processes is analyzed in detail.

  13. Quark matter under strong magnetic fields in chiral models

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, Aziz; Providencia, Constanca

    2011-05-15

    The chiral model is used to describe quark matter under strong magnetic fields and is compared to other models, the MIT bag model and the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The effect of vacuum corrections due to the magnetic field is discussed. It is shown that if the magnetic-field vacuum corrections are not taken into account explicitly, the parameters of the models should be fitted to low-density meson properties in the presence of the magnetic field.

  14. Limits on quark nugget dark matter from cosmic ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Kyle

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this talk is to highlight the potential role of large scale cosmic ray detectors in constraining the presence of certain classes of high mass dark matter candidates. These models are not easily constrained by conventional dark matter searches due to their very small flux, and thus, alternative detection techniques must be considered. I will begin with a brief review of heavy compact composite dark matter and some motivation for considering this class of models. In particular I will describe a model in which the dark matter consists of heavy "nuggets" of quarks and antiquarks, and highlight its relation to baryogenesis. As this form of dark matter is based in known physics its properties, as established by arguments from nuclear physics and electrodynamics, are strongly constrained. Based on these properties I will give a primarily qualitative description of the nuggets' interaction with visible matter and of the consequences of the passage of a dark matter nugget through the earth's atmosphere. From the general scales and properties of these events I argue that they may be detectable using cosmic ray observatories and that the largest of these observatories are likely to impose the strongest known constraints on this class of dark matter candidates.

  15. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamical combustion to strange quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Niebergal, Brian; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2010-12-15

    We present results from a numerical solution to the burning of neutron matter inside a cold neutron star into stable u,d,s quark matter. Our method solves hydrodynamical flow equations in one dimension with neutrino emission from weak equilibrating reactions, and strange quark diffusion across the burning front. We also include entropy change from heat released in forming the stable quark phase. Our numerical results suggest burning front laminar speeds of 0.002-0.04 times the speed of light, much faster than previous estimates derived using only a reactive-diffusive description. Analytic solutions to hydrodynamical jump conditions with a temperature-dependent equation of state agree very well with our numerical findings for fluid velocities. The most important effect of neutrino cooling is that the conversion front stalls at lower density (below {approx_equal}2 times saturation density). In a two-dimensional setting, such rapid speeds and neutrino cooling may allow for a flame wrinkle instability to develop, possibly leading to detonation.

  16. Quark Hadron duality tests on polarized structure functions using CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tony Forest

    2004-06-02

    Inclusive electron-nucleon scattering data from Jefferson Lab's Hall B has been analyzed to test quark-hadron duality for the polarized structure function g1(x,Q{sup 2}) over a Q{sup 2} range from 0.2 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Incident polarized electron beam energies of 1.6 and 5.7 GeV were scattered by polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}ND{sub 3} targets. The measurements of g1(x,Q{sup 2}) in the resonance region appear to be equivalent to a fit of g1(x,Q{sup 2}) in the deep inelastic scattering region at high Q{sup 2}. A quantitative test comparing the ratio of first moment in the resonance region to the first moment in the deep inelastic region is consistent with unity when Q{sup 2} > 2.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} but substantially departs from unity when Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  17. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinmian; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM) scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜ -mχ ≲ O (100) GeV) in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  18. Phase structure of cold magnetized color superconducting quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, PG; Grunfeld, AG; Scoccola, NN

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2) f NJL-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, non-physical oscillations that arise from regularizing magnetic field dependent terms are naturally removed, and oscillations that are actually physical can be better appreciated. The phase diagrams in the ẽB – μ plane are presented for different values of the diquark coupling.

  19. Medium polarization in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. S.; Cao, L. G.; Lombardo, U.; Schuck, P.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the medium polarization on the effective nuclear interaction of asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated in the framework of the induced interaction theory. The strong isospin dependence of the density and spin-density fluctuations is studied as it is driven by the interplay between the neutron and proton medium polarizations. Going from symmetric nuclear matter to pure neutron matter, the crossover of the induced interaction from attractive to repulsive in the spin-singlet state is determined as a function of the isospin imbalance. The density range in which the crossover occurs is also determined. For the spin-triplet state the induced interaction turns out to be always repulsive. The implications of the results for neutron star superfluid phases are briefly discussed.

  20. Wormhole geometries supported by quark matter at ultra-high densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental ingredient in wormhole physics is the presence of exotic matter, which involves the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). In this context, we investigate the possibility that wormholes could be supported by quark matter at extreme densities. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the structure of baryons show that strange quark matter, consisting of the u, d and s quarks, is the most energetically favorable state of baryonic matter. Moreover, at ultra-high densities, quark matter may exist in a variety of superconducting states, namely, the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase. Motivated by these theoretical models, we explore the conditions under which wormhole geometries may be supported by the equations of state (EOS) considered in the theoretical investigations of quark-gluon interactions. For the description of the normal quark matter, we adopt the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model EOS, while the color superconducting quark phases are described by a first-order approximation of the free energy. By assuming specific forms for the bag and gap functions, several wormhole models are obtained for both normal and superconducting quark matter. The effects of the presence of an electrical charge are also taken into account.

  1. Shear and bulk viscosities of quark matter from quark-meson fluctuations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-04-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .

  2. Viscous damping of r-mode oscillations in compact stars with quark matter.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaikumar, P.; Rupak, G.; Steiner, A. W.; Physics; Inst. of Mathematical Sciences; North Carolina State Univ.; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-12-01

    We determine characteristic time scales for the viscous damping of r-mode oscillations in rapidly rotating compact stars that contain quark matter. We present results for the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter, in which the up, down, and strange quarks are gapped, as well as the normal (ungapped) quark phase. While the ungapped quark phase supports a temperature window 10{sup 8} K < = T < = 5 x 10{sup 9} K where the r mode is damped even for rapid rotation, the r mode in a rapidly rotating pure CFL star is not damped in the temperature range 10{sup 10} K < = T < = 10{sup 11} K. Rotating hybrid stars with quark matter cores display an instability window whose width is determined by the amount of quark matter present, and they can have large spin frequencies outside this window. Except at high temperatures T > = 10{sup 10} K, the presence of a quark phase allows for larger critical frequencies and smaller spin periods compared to rotating neutron stars. If low-mass x-ray binaries contain a large amount of ungapped or CFL quark matter, then our estimates of the r-mode instability suggest that there should be a population of rapidly rotating binaries at nu > {approx} 1000 Hz which have not yet been observed.

  3. Search for Stable Strange Quark Matter in Lunar Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.; Chikanian, A.; Emmet, W.; Finch, L. E.; Majka, R. D.; Sandweiss, J.; Ashenfelter, J.; Heinz, A.; Madsen, J.; Monreal, B.

    2009-08-28

    We report results from a search for strangelets (small chunks of strange quark matter) in lunar soil using the Yale WNSL accelerator as a mass spectrometer. We have searched over a range in mass from A=42 to A=70 amu for nuclear charges 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11. No strangelets were found in the experiment. For strangelets with nuclear charge 8, a concentration in lunar soil higher than 10{sup -16} is excluded at the 95% confidence level. The implied limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays is the most sensitive to date for the covered range and is relevant to both recent theoretical flux predictions and a strangelet candidate event found by the AMS-01 experiment.

  4. Quark matter in an SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two types of vector interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Ma, Hong-Yang; Dong, Yu-Min; Chang, Su-Ling; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Liu, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the properties of asymmetric quark matter and strange quark matter in the framework of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with two types of vector interactions: (1) the flavor-dependent repulsion among different flavors of quarks with the coupling constant GV , and (2) the universal repulsion and the vector-isovector interaction among different flavors of quarks with the coupling constants gV and GI V. Using these two types of vector interactions in the NJL model, we study the quark symmetry energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state in strange quark matter, the maximum mass of a quark star, and the properties of the QCD phase diagram. We find that including the two types of vector interactions in the SU(3) NJL model can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. In particular, our results indicate that we can describe PSR J 1614 -2230 and PSR J 0348 +0432 as quark stars by considering the universal repulsion and the vector-isovector interaction among quark matter in the SU(3) NJL model.

  5. Charm quark energy loss in infinite QCD matter using a parton cascade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younus, Mohammed; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2015-02-01

    We utilize the parton cascade model to study the evolution of charm quarks propagating through a thermal brick of QCD matter. We determine the energy loss and the transport coefficient q ̂ for charm quarks. The calculations are done at a constant temperature of 350 MeV and the results are compared to analytical calculations of heavy-quark energy loss in order to validate the applicability of using a parton cascade model for the study of heavy-quark dynamics in hot and dense QCD matter.

  6. Hydrodynamical study on the conversion of hadronic matter to quark matter: I. Shock-induced conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sanada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-02-01

    We study transitions of hadronic matter (HM) to three-flavor quark matter (3QM) locally, regarding the conversion processes as combustion and describing them hydrodynamically. Not only the jump condition on both sides of the conversion front but the structures inside the front are also considered by taking into account what happens during the conversion processes on the time scale of weak interactions as well as equations of state (EOSs) in the mixed phase. Under the assumption that HM is metastable with their free energies being larger than those of 3QM but smaller than those of two-flavor quark matter (2QM), we consider the transition via 2QM triggered by a rapid density rise in a shock wave. Based on the results, we discuss which combustion modes (strong/weak detonation) may be realized. HM is described by an EOS based on the relativistic mean field theory, and 2QMs and 3QMs are approximated by the MIT bag model. We demonstrate for a wide range of the bag constant and strong coupling constant in this combination of EOSs that the combustion may occur in the so-called endothermic regime, in which the Hugoniot curve for combustion runs below the one for the shock wave in the p -V plane and which has no terrestrial counterpart. Elucidating the essential features in this scenario first by a toy model, we then analyze more realistic models. We find that strong detonation always occurs. Depending on the EOS of quark matter as well as the density of HM and the Mach number of the detonation front, deconfinement from HM to 2QM is either completed or not completed in the shock wave. In the latter case, which is more likely if the EOS of quark matter ensures that deconfinement occurs above the nuclear saturation density and that the maximum mass of cold quark stars is larger than 2 M⊙, the conversion continues further via the mixing state of HM and 3QM on the time scale of weak interactions.

  7. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Daniel; Diehl, Markus; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    femtoscope scale lepton-collider ever, exceeding the intensity of the HERA collider a thousand fold. HERA, with its center-of-mass (CM) energy of 320 GeV, was built to search for quark substructure. An EIC, with its scientific focus on studying QCD in the regime where the sea quarks and gluons dominate, would have a lower CM energy. In a staged EIC design, the CM energy will range from 50-70 GeV in stage I to approximately twice that for the full design. In addition to being the first lepton collider exploring the structure of polarized protons, an EIC will also be the first electron-nucleus collider, probing the gluon and sea quark structure of nuclei for the first time. Following the same structure as the scientific discussions at the INT, this report is organized around the following four major themes: (1) The spin and flavor structure of the proton; (2) Three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space; (3) QCD matter in nuclei; and (4) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this executive summary, we will briefly outline the outstanding physics questions in these areas and the suite of measurements that are available with an EIC to address these. The status of accelerator and detector designs is addressed at the end of the summary. Tables of golden measurements for each of the key science areas outlined are presented on page 12. In addition, each chapter in the report contains a comprehensive overview of the science topic addressed. Interested readers are encouraged to read these and the individual contributions for more details on the present status of EIC science.

  8. Hydrodynamical study on the conversion of hadronic matter to quark matter. II. Diffusion-induced conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sanada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-02-01

    We study transitions of hadronic matter (HM) to three-flavor quark matter (3QM), regarding the conversion processes as combustion and describing them hydrodynamically. Under the assumption that HM is metastable with their free energies being larger than those of 3QM but smaller than those of two-flavor quark matter, we consider in this paper the conversion induced by diffusions of the seed 3QM. This is a sequel to our previous paper, in which the shock-induced conversion was studied in the same framework. We not only pay attention to the jump condition on both sides of the conversion front, but the structures inside the front are also considered by taking into account what happens during the conversion processes on the time scale of weak interactions. We employ for HM Shen's equation of state (EOS), which is based on the relativistic mean field theory, and the bag model-based EOS for quark matter just as in the previous paper. We demonstrated in that paper that in this combination of EOSs, the combustion will occur for a wide range of the bag constant and strong coupling constant in the so-called endothermic regime, in which the Hugoniot curve for combustion runs below the initial state. Elucidating the essential features of the diffusion-induced conversion both in the exothermic and endothermic regimes first by a toy model, we then analyze more realistic models. We find that weak deflagration nearly always occurs and that weak detonation is possible only when the diffusion constant is (unrealistically) large and the critical strange fraction is small. The velocities of the conversion front are ˜103- 107 cm /s depending on the initial temperature and density as well as the parameters in the quark matter EOS and become particularly small when the final state is in the mixed phase. Finally we study linear stability of the laminar weak-deflagration front and find that it is unstable in the exothermic regime (Darrius-Landau instability) but stable in the endothermic

  9. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  10. Magnetic moments of octet baryons, angular momenta of quarks, and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    One can determine antiquark polarizations in a proton using the information from deep inelastic scattering, {beta} decays of baryons, orbital angular momenta of quarks, as well as their integrated magnetic distributions. The last quantities were determined previously by us performing a fit to magnetic moments of a baryon octet. However, because of the SU(3) symmetry our results depend on two parameters. The quantity {Gamma}{sub V}, measured recently in a COMPASS experiment, gives the relation between these parameters. We can fix the last unknown parameter using the ratio of up and down quark magnetic moments which one can get from the fit to radiative vector meson decays. We calculate antiquark polarizations with the orbital momenta of valence quarks that follow from lattice calculations. The value of the difference of up and down antiquark polarizations obtained in our calculations is consistent with the result obtained in a HERMES experiment.

  11. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Balali, Mahboobe

    2016-03-01

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(\\uparrow ) rightarrow bW^+, followed by brightarrow H_bX, for nonzero b-quark mass (m_bne 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H_b, as a function of the normalized H_b-energy fraction x_H, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low-x_H threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e^+e^- annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations.

  12. QCD constraints on the shape of polarized quark and gluon distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Burkardt, Matthias; Schmidt, Ivan

    1995-02-01

    We develop simple analytic representations of the polarized quark and gluon distributions in the nucleon at low Q2 which incorporate general constraints obtained from the requirements of color coherence of gluon couplings at x ˜ 0 and the helicity retention properties of perturbative QCD couplings at x ˜ 1. The unpolarized predictions are similar to the Do' distributions given by Martin, Roberts, and Stirling. The predictions for the quark helicity distributions are compared with polarized structure functions measured by the E142 experiment at SLAC and the SMC experiment at CERN.

  13. Probing Valence Quark's Sivers' Distribution with Polarized-Beam Drell-Yan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Paul E.

    2014-09-01

    The E-906/SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab is collecting unpolarized Drell-Yan and J / Φ data. These data will elucidate aspects of the antiquark distributions in nucleon and nuclear structure, including the the flavor asymmetry in the light quark sea and the EMC effect in the sea distributions. Presently, neither the beam nor the target is polarized in SeaQuest. With little or no modification to the spectrometer, the addition of either a polarized target or beam will unleash exciting new opportunities to examine the spin structure of the valence (polarized beam) and sea (polarized target) quark structure of the proton, including the valence and sea quark Sivers' distributions. QCD predicts that the Sivers' distribution measured with polarized Drell-Yan is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the Sivers' distribution measured by semi-inclusive DIS. After a review of SeaQuest's current physics program and spectrometer status, this talk will focus on the achievements that will be made with the addition of a polarized beam from the Fermilab Main Injector, including a precise determination of the Sivers' distribution of a wide range of xBj necessary for this comparison. The E-906/SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab is collecting unpolarized Drell-Yan and J / Φ data. These data will elucidate aspects of the antiquark distributions in nucleon and nuclear structure, including the the flavor asymmetry in the light quark sea and the EMC effect in the sea distributions. Presently, neither the beam nor the target is polarized in SeaQuest. With little or no modification to the spectrometer, the addition of either a polarized target or beam will unleash exciting new opportunities to examine the spin structure of the valence (polarized beam) and sea (polarized target) quark structure of the proton, including the valence and sea quark Sivers' distributions. QCD predicts that the Sivers' distribution measured with polarized Drell-Yan is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign

  14. PREFACE: SQM2007 International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šafařík, Karel; Šándor, Ladislav; Tomášik, Boris

    2008-04-01

    The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM) was held from 24-29 June 2007 at the Congress Hall of the city cultural centre in the charming mediaeval town of Levoča in north-eastern Slovakia. The Institute of Experimental Physics of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Faculty of Science of the P J Šafárik University in Košice shared the duties of main organizers of the conference. SQM2007 was attended by more than 100 participants from about 20 countries. The natural beauty and the rich cultural and historical monuments of the surrounding Spiš (Scepusium) region created an inspiring setting for the scientific, social and cultural framework of the conference. Continuing the trend started at the SQM2006 conference, heavy flavour physics in heavy-ion collisions was a topic given equal importance in the SQM2007 programme alongside strange quark physics. The Symposium for Students, from Students, organized by Christian Klein-Boesing and Boris Tomášik on the basis of the contributed abstracts, was again an integral and successful part of the conference. The jury, drawn from the organizers, awarded William A Horowitz (Columbia University) the title of best student contribution. The good news is that many students and younger researchers attended the conference. This could not have happened without generous support from our sponsors whom we would like to thank for valuable financial support: CERN, Journal of Physics G, the Prešov self-governing region authorities and the Slovak Physical Society. The kind assistance of the mayor of the town of Levoča is also warmly acknowledged. We would like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference, which ensured that everything worked smoothly. Our special thanks go to our secretaries, Adri Chomičová and Mery Šemš'aková, as well as to the management of the SATEL Hotel in Levoča for their highly

  15. Impact of strange quark matter nuggets on pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crusts of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Golf, B.; Hellmers, J.; Weber, F.

    2009-07-15

    This article presents an investigation into the pycnonuclear reaction rates in dense crustal matter of neutron stars contaminated with strange quark matter nuggets. The presence of such nuggets in the crustal matter of neutron stars would be a natural consequence if Witten's strange quark matter hypothesis is correct. The methodology presented in this article is a recreation of a recent representation of nuclear force interactions embedded within pycnonuclear reaction processes. The study then extends the methodology to incorporate distinctive theoretical characteristics of strange quark matter nuggets, like their low charge-per-baryon ratio, and then assesses their effects on the pycnonuclear reaction rates. Particular emphasis is put on the impact of color superconductivity on the reaction rates. Depending on whether quark nuggets are in this novel state of matter, their electric charge properties vary drastically, which turns out to have a dramatic effect on the pycnonuclear reaction rates. Future nuclear fusion network calculations may thus have the potential to shed light on the existence of strange quark matter nuggets and on whether they are in a color superconducting state, as suggested by QCD.

  16. Accessing sea quark's angular momentum through polarized target Drell-Yan single-spin asymmetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; P-1039 Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A Letter-Of-Intent (P-1039) has been submitted to the Fermilab's Program Advisory Committee in May 2013, for a measurement of transversely polarized proton target (NH3) single-spin asymmetry (SSA) in Drell-Yan reaction with a 120 GeV/c unpolarized proton beam using a similar setup as in the ongoing unpolarized target experiment (E906). The goal of this LOI is to clearly pin down the u -quark Sivers distribution in the x range of 0.1-0.3, where a large sea flavor asymmetry (d / u) has been observed. A non-vanishing quark Sivers distribution arises from the imaginary piece of amplitudes interference between quark angular momentum L = 0 , and L ≠ 0 wave functions. Existing semi-inclusive DIS Sivers-type SSA data from HERMES, COMPASS and JLab-Hall A, while sensitive to valence quarks' Sivers distributions, do not provide much constrains on sea quarks' Sivers distributions. In the case that u -quark carries zero angular momentum, one expects u -quark's Sivers distribution to vanish, therefore observing a zero target SSA in Drell-Yan reaction in P-1039.

  17. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  18. Quark matter and meson properties in a Nonlocal SU(3) chiral quark model at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Dumm, D.; Contrera, G. A.

    2012-06-15

    We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with a background color field. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles, and decay constants.

  19. Curvature energy effects on strange quark matter nucleation at finite density

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251 )

    1994-05-15

    We consider the effects of the curvature energy term on thermal strange quark matter nucleation in dense neutron matter. Lower bounds on the temperature at which this process can take place are given and compared to those without the curvature term.

  20. Effects of quark matter nucleation on the evolution of proto-neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Logoteta, D.; Providência, C.; Vidaña, I.

    2011-04-01

    Context. A phase of strong interacting matter with deconfined quarks is expected in the core of a massive neutron star. If this deconfinement phase transition is of the first order, as suggested by many models inspired by quantum chromodynamics, then it will be triggered by the nucleation of a critical size drop of the (stable) quark phase in the metastable hadronic phase. Within these circumstances it has been shown that cold (T = 0) pure hadronic compact stars above a threshold value of their gravitational mass (central pressure) are metastable with respect to the "decay" (conversion) to quark stars (i.e., compact stars made at least in part of quark matter). This stellar conversion process liberates a huge amount of energy (a few 1053 erg), and it could be the energy source of some of the long gamma ray bursts. Aims: The main goal of the present work is to establish whether a newborn hadronic star (proto-hadronic star) could survive the early stages of its evolution without "decaying" to a quark star. To this aim, we study the nucleation process of quark matter in hot (T ≠ 0) β-stable hadronic matter, with and without trapped neutrinos, using a finite temperature equation of state (EOS) for hadronic and quark matter. Methods: The finite-temperature EOS for the hadronic and for the quark phases were calculated using the nonlinear Walecka model and the MIT bag model, respectively. The quantum nucleation rate was calculated making use of the Lifshitz & Kagan nucleation theory. The thermal nucleation rate was calculated using the Langer nucleation theory. Results: We calculate and compare the nucleation rate and the nucleation time due to thermal and quantum nucleation mechanisms. We compute the crossover temperature above which thermal nucleation dominates the finite temperature quantum nucleation mechanism. We next discuss the consequences of quark matter nucleation for the physics and the evolution of proto-neutron stars. We introduce the new concept of

  1. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  2. J/{Psi} suppression as an evidence for quark gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1998-08-10

    The J/{psi} suppression was originally proposed as a signature of the quark-gluon plasma. Strong suppression of J/{psi} production was indeed observed recently by the NA50 Collaboration at CERN SPS. Is it the first signature of a long-awaited quark-gluon matter, or just a peculiar combination of ''conventional'' effects acting together to produce the puzzling pattern observed experimentally? In this lecture, I am trying to summarize the existing theoretical explanations.

  3. Landau levels of cold dense quark matter in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin-Jian; Liang, Jun-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The occupied Landau levels of strange quark matter are investigated in the framework of the SU(3) NJL model with a conventional coupling and a magnetic-field dependent coupling respectively. At lower density, the Landau levels are mainly dominated by u and d quarks. Threshold values of the chemical potential for the s quark onset are shown in the μ -B plane. The magnetic-field-dependent running coupling can broaden the region of three-flavor matter by decreasing the dynamical masses of s quarks. Before the onset of s quarks, the Landau level number of light quarks is directly dependent on the magnetic field strength B by a simple inverse proportional relation ki ,max≈Bi0/B with Bd0=5 ×1 019 G , which is approximately 2 times Bu0 of u quarks at a common chemical potential. When the magnetic field increases up to Bd0, almost all three flavors are lying in the lowest Landau level.

  4. Impact of a magnetic field on the thermodynamics of magnetized quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, R. L. S.; Timóteo, V. S.; Avancini, S.; Pinto, M. B.; Krein, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on the thermodynamics of magnetized quark matter at finite temperature. By using the Nambu Jona-Lasino (NJL) model, we show that the lattice results for the quark consensate can be reproduced when the coupling constant G of the model decreases with the magnetic field and the temperature. Our results show that thermodynamic quantities and quark condensates are very sensitive to the dependence of G with the temperature, even in the absence of a magnetic field.

  5. Nucleation of quark matter in the PQM model

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Bruno W.; Stiele, Rainer; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2013-03-25

    We use Langer's theory to calculate the surface tension of critical bubbles in a first-order quark-hadron phase transition at moderate and high baryon chemical potential, as predicted by the Polyakov-Quark-Meson (PQM) model at the mean-field level. We define an effective 4-dimensional order parameter, which is used to overestimate the surface tension of nucleating bubbles within the thin-wall approximation. We find relatively low values for the surface tension, {Sigma} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 15MeV/fm{sup 2}. This implies that a metastable state, such as a supercooled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), quickly decays even in regions relatively close to the coexistence line of the phase diagram. Possible consequences for cosmology are briefly outlined.

  6. Nucleation of quark matter in the PQM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, Bruno W.; Stiele, Rainer; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    We use Langer's theory to calculate the surface tension of critical bubbles in a first-order quark-hadron phase transition at moderate and high baryon chemical potential, as predicted by the Polyakov-Quark-Meson (PQM) model at the mean-field level. We define an effective 4-dimensional order parameter, which is used to overestimate the surface tension of nucleating bubbles within the thin-wall approximation. We find relatively low values for the surface tension, Σ ≲ 15MeV/fm2. This implies that a metastable state, such as a supercooled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), quickly decays even in regions relatively close to the coexistence line of the phase diagram. Possible consequences for cosmology are briefly outlined.

  7. Recent results of gluon and sea quark polarization measurements in polarized proton-proton collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Star Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is carrying out a comprehensive high-energy spin physics program to understand the internal structure and dynamics of the proton in polarized proton-proton collisions at = 200 GeV and = 500/510 GeV. STAR has the capability, with nearly full azimuthal coverage, to reconstruct leptons, hadrons and jets in the mid-rapidity region (|η| < 1). The results for inclusive jet longitudinal double spin asymmetries taken during the 2009 RHIC run indicate the first non-zero gluon contribution (Δg(x,Q2)/g(x,Q2)) to the proton spin for 0.05 < x < 1 (Bjorken-x: momentum fraction of partons). Recent longitudinal single-spin asymmetry measurements of W+/- bosons at = 500/510 GeV in polarized proton-proton collisions provide a direct probe of the polarized anti-u and anti-d quark distributions (Δū(x, Q2), Δbar d(x, Q2)). These results better constrain the polarized gluon and sea quark distributions of the proton in the RHIC sensitive kinematic region. Future measurements with continuing high energy polarized proton-proton run at RHIC and detector upgrade will explore the gluonic contribution to the proton spin in extended range.

  8. PREFACE: SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xiao, Zhigang; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2009-06-01

    The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM2008) was held from 5-10 October 2008 at the Tsinghua University campus, Beijing, China. The Department of Physics, Tsinghua University and the School of Physics, Central China Normal University (CCNU) shared the organizational duties of this conference. SQM2008 was attended by more than 200 participants from approximately 20 countries. The SQM2008 scientific programme comprised 49 plenary talks in 14 sessions and 36 parallel talks in 4 sessions. Continuing the tradition of the previous conferences, the talks were mainly dedicated to the most recent progress in strangeness, heavy flavour, collective phenomena and particle productions in relativistic nuclear collisions. In addition, the recent status of various projects on SPS, LHC, FAIR and HIRFL-CSR was also reported. Particularly, with their enjoyable presentations, many young students and junior physicists shared their research with the audience. Thirty posts were presented during the five day conference. We would like to express our gratitude to the sponsors for their generous financial support, which allowed many young researchers to attend the conference: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, STAR Collaboration, Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), CCNU, Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), Sandong University (SDU), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), The Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (TPCSF-CAS). The support from Tsinghua University was especially appreciated. We would also like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference that made everything run smoothly. We thank all the speakers for their inspiring

  9. Fault system polarity: A matter of chance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Martin; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John; Nicol, Andy; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Many normal fault systems and, on a smaller scale, fracture boudinage exhibit asymmetry so that one fault dip direction dominates. The fraction of throw (or heave) accommodated by faults with the same dip direction in relation to the total fault system throw (or heave) is a quantitative measure of fault system asymmetry and termed 'polarity'. It is a common belief that the formation of domino and shear band boudinage with a monoclinic symmetry requires a component of layer parallel shearing, whereas torn boudins reflect coaxial flow. Moreover, domains of parallel faults are frequently used to infer the presence of a common décollement. Here we show, using Distinct Element Method (DEM) models in which rock is represented by an assemblage of bonded circular particles, that asymmetric fault systems can emerge under symmetric boundary conditions. The pre-requisite for the development of domains of parallel faults is however that the medium surrounding the brittle layer has a very low strength. We demonstrate that, if the 'competence' contrast between the brittle layer and the surrounding material ('jacket', or 'matrix') is high, the fault dip directions and hence fault system polarity can be explained using a random process. The results imply that domains of parallel faults are, for the conditions and properties used in our models, in fact a matter of chance. Our models suggest that domino and shear band boudinage can be an unreliable shear-sense indicator. Moreover, the presence of a décollement should not be inferred on the basis of a domain of parallel faults only.

  10. Studying top quark decay into the polarized W boson in the topcolor-assisted technicolor model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xuelei; Zhang Qiaoli; Qiao Qingpeng

    2005-01-01

    We study the decay mode of the top quark decaying into Wb in the topcolor-assisted technicolor (TC2) model where the top quark is distinguished from other fermions by participating in a strong interaction. We find that the TC2 correction to the decay width {gamma}(t{yields}bW) is generally several percent and the maximum value can reach 8% for the currently allowed parameters. The magnitude of such a correction is comparable with the QCD correction and larger than that of the minimal supersymmetric model. Such a correction might be observable in the future colliders. We also study the TC2 correction to the branching ratio of top quark decay into the polarized W bosons and find the correction is below 1%. After considering the TC2 correction, we find that our theoretical predictions about the decay branching ratio are also consistent with the experimental data.

  11. Polarized Quarks, Gluons and Sea in Nucleon Structure Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Santorelli, P.; Soffer, J.

    1998-06-01

    We perform a NLO analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data to test two different solutions to the so-called spin crisis, one of them based on the axial gluon anomaly and consistent with the Bjorken sum rule, and another in which the defects in the spin sum rules and in the Gottfried sum rule are related. In this case a defect is also expected for the Bjorken sum rule. The first solution is slightly favoured by the SLAC E154 results, but both options seem to be consistent with the CERN SMC data.

  12. The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by Δu and Δd of the polarized functions.

  13. The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-05-06

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by {Delta}u and {Delta}d of the polarized functions.

  14. Hadron-quark phase transition in asymmetric matter with boson condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnoli, Rafael; Providencia, Constanca; Menezes, Debora P.

    2011-04-15

    In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition with boson condensation in asymmetric matter by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature to mimic the QCD phase diagram. We consider a system with two conserved charges (isospin and baryon densities) using the Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. To obtain these conditions we use two different models for the two possible phases, namely, the nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM) for the hadron matter (also including hyperons) and the MIT bag model for the quark phase. It is shown that the phase transition is very sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy. For an isospin asymmetry of 0.2 and a mixed phase with a fraction of 20% of quarks, a transition density in the interval 2{rho}{sub 0}<{rho}{sub t}<4{rho}{sub 0} was obtained for temperatures 30

  15. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K.; Zhitnitsky, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  16. Bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Agasian, N. O.

    2013-11-15

    On the basis of low-energy QCD theorems, the bulk viscosity {zeta}(T, Micro-Sign , H) is expressed in terms of basic thermodynamic quantities that characterizes quark-gluon matter at finite temperature and a finite baryon density in a magnetic field. Various limiting cases are considered.

  17. (Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group's research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter.

  18. Quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields: phase diagram and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Débora P.; Pinto, Marcus B.; Providência, Constança; Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Márcio; Castro, Luis B.

    2015-07-01

    In the present work we are interested in understanding various properties of quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields described by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop. We start by analysing the differences arising from two different vector interactions in the Lagrangian densities, at zero temperature, and apply the results to stellar matter. We then investigate the position of the critical end point for different chemical potential and density scenarios.

  19. Tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions in a spin-one hadron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, S.

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming crucial to understand orbital-angular-momentum contributions for clarifying the nucleon-spin issue in the parton level. Twist-two structure functions b1 and b2 for spin-one hadrons could probe orbital-angular-momentum effects, which reflect a different aspect from current studies for the spin-1/2 nucleon. The structure functions b1 and b2 are described by tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions δTq and δTq¯. Using HERMES data on the b1 structure function for the deuteron, we made an analysis of extracting the distributions δTq and δTq¯ in a simple x-dependent functional form. Optimum distributions are proposed for the tensor-polarized valence and antiquark distribution functions from the analysis. A finite tensor polarization is obtained for antiquarks if we impose a constraint that the first moments of tensor-polarized valence-quark distributions vanish.

  20. Tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions in a spin-one hadron

    SciTech Connect

    Kumano, S.

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming crucial to understand orbital-angular-momentum contributions for clarifying the nucleon-spin issue in the parton level. Twist-two structure functions b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} for spin-one hadrons could probe orbital-angular-momentum effects, which reflect a different aspect from current studies for the spin-1/2 nucleon. The structure functions b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} are described by tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions {delta}{sub T}q and {delta}{sub T}q. Using HERMES data on the b{sub 1} structure function for the deuteron, we made an analysis of extracting the distributions {delta}{sub T}q and {delta}{sub T}q in a simple x-dependent functional form. Optimum distributions are proposed for the tensor-polarized valence and antiquark distribution functions from the analysis. A finite tensor polarization is obtained for antiquarks if we impose a constraint that the first moments of tensor-polarized valence-quark distributions vanish.

  1. Dark matter and triality symmetry of leptons and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Furui, Sadataka

    2012-11-12

    The radiation in the universe has a mass equivalent of approximately 2% of the luminous matter. Presence of a large amount of non-luminous matter is a problem. In order to solve this puzzle, I use quaternion basis for the leptons, and make an octonion from a combination of two quaternions. With a principle that the electro-magnetic interaction selects one triality and photon couples with a gluon of one triality sector, color-flavor locking becomes natural, and the problem of dark matter may be solved.

  2. A New Phase of Matter: Quark-Gluon Plasma Beyond the Hagedorn Critical Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Berndt

    I retrace the developments from Hagedorn's concept of a limiting temperature for hadronic matter to the discovery and characterization of the quark-gluon plasma as a new state of matter. My recollections begin with the transformation more than 30 years ago of Hagedorn's original concept into its modern interpretation as the "critical" temperature separating the hadron gas and quark-gluon plasma phases of strongly interacting matter. This was followed by the realization that the QCD phase transformation could be studied experimentally in high-energy nuclear collisions. I describe here my personal effort to help develop the strangeness experimental signatures of quark and gluon deconfinement and recall how the experimental program proceeded soon to investigate this idea, at first at the SPS, then at RHIC, and finally at LHC. As is often the case, the experiment finds more than theory predicts, and I highlight the discovery of the "perfectly" liquid quark-gluon plasma at RHIC. I conclude with an outline of future opportunities, especially the search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram.

  3. Study of Polarized Sea Quark Distributions in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sq root(s) = 500 GeV with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Mibe, Tsutomu

    2009-08-04

    The PHENIX spin program studies the flavor structure of the polarized sea quark distributions in polarized proton-proton collisions. Starting from 2009 run, the quark and antiquark polarization, sorted by flavor, will be investigated with the parity-violating single-spin asymmetry of W-boson production at the collision energy of sq root(s) = 500 GeV. High momentum muons from W-boson decay are detected in the PHENIX muon arms. The muon trigger is being upgraded to allow one to select high momentum muons.

  4. String cloud and domain walls with quark matter for a higher dimensional FRW universe in self creation cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halife, Caǧlar; Sezgin, Aygün

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we research a higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in Barber–s second theory when strange quark matter (SQM) and normal matter (NM) are attached to the string cloud and domain walls. We obtain zero string tension density for this model. We obtain dust quark matter solutions. This result agrees with Kiran and Reddy, Krori et al, Sahoo and Mishra and Reddy. In our solutions the quark matter transforms to other particles over time. We also obtain two different solutions for domain walls with quark and normal matters by using a deceleration parameter. Also, the features of the obtained solutions are discussed and some physical and kinematical quantities are generalized and discussed. Our results are consistent with Yılmaz, Adcox et al and Back et al in four and five dimensions.

  5. Formation of gapless phases of K{sup 0} condensed color-flavor locked superconducting quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobing; Kapusta, J. I.

    2007-03-01

    Electric and color neutral solutions, and the critical conditions for the formation of gapless color superconductors, are investigated in K{sup 0} condensed color-flavor locked quark matter for nonzero strange quark mass. We show that as the strange quark mass increases, gapless modes for up-strange quark pairing occur first, followed by down-strange quark pairing. The behavior of the gaps, the dispersion relations, and the thermodynamic potential are all found as functions of the strange quark mass on the basis of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. To a high degree of accuracy, they are presented as relatively simple elementary functions. This allows for easy computation for any reasonable range of baryon chemical potential and strange quark mass.

  6. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p{sub t} and collective flow, the shape of p{sub t} distribution, strangeness production, J/{psi} suppression and {phi} enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Snow matters in the polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodeau, John

    2010-03-01

    to 30 times greater than those found in ice-free areas. The main question to ask is: how might the bromine have become released to the atmosphere? Many ideas have, in fact, been put forward over the last few years as to how such polar ocean-troposphere exchanges can take place. Much of the interest was driven by the so-called 'sudden' ozone depletion episodes first detected in Arctic air during the 1990s alongside simultaneous bromine 'explosions' which were monitored by ground-based instrumentation and satellite (as the radical BrO) over sea-ice covered by snowpack (Hausmann and Platt 1994, Schonhardt et al 2008). The likely precursors suggested, to date, have been sea-salt, frost-flowers and anthropogenic contents rather than organo- bromine matter (Simpson et al 2007). Associated processing routes including the formation of HOBr, the need for acidity, the involvement of trihalide ions and the potential role of freezing processes and the quasi-liquid layer have all been discussed in this context (Abbatt 1994, Neshyba et al 2009, O'Driscoll et al 2006). Computational work has also led to suggestions that preferential surface dispersion of the more highly polarizable halides (iodide and bromide ions) may lead to their direct interfacial reaction with atmospheric ozone leading to BrO or IO formation (Jungwirth and Winter 2008). The involvement of snow micro-algae in the production of halo-compounds such as CHBr3 and CH2Br2 in Antarctica cannot, of course, be ignored following the measurement of these compounds by Sturges and co-workers over 15 years ago (Sturges et al 1993). And the measurement of high levels of nutrient discussed in the recent work by Antony et al (2010) in the ice-cap areas do provide a basis for understanding why micro- algae growth in snow might be promoted. However the question still comes back to: how are these halo-compounds processed to produce 'active' species like BrO radicals, HOBr, Br atoms, Br2 gas or interhalogens such as BrCl? The

  8. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  9. Properties of quark matter in a new quasiparticle model with QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, ZhenYan; Peng, GuangXiong; Xu, JianFeng; Zhang, ShiPeng

    2016-06-01

    The running of the QCD coupling in the effective mass causes thermodynamic inconsistency problem in the conventional quasiparticle model. We provide a novel treatment which removes the inconsistency by an effective bag constant. The chemical potential dependence of the renormalization subtraction point is constrained by the Cauchy condition in the chemical potential space. The stability and microscopic properties of strange quark matter are then studied within the completely self-consistent quasiparticle model, and the obtained equation of state of quark matter is applied to the investigation of strange stars. It is found that our improved model can describe well compact stars with mass about two times the solar mass, which indicates that such massive compact stars could be strange stars.

  10. Electrosphere of macroscopic 'quark nuclei': A source for diffuse MeV emissions from dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Michael McNeil; Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-10-15

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultrarelativistic densities to the nonrelativistic Boltzmann regime that we use to present microscopically justified calculations of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the Galaxy. As no phenomenological parameters are required to describe these observations, the calculation provides another nontrivial verification of the dark-matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  11. Cold Uniform Matter and Neutron Stars in the Quark-Meson-Coupling Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Stone; P.A.M. Guichon; H.H. Matevosyan; A.W. Thomas

    2007-08-01

    A new density dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction has been recently derived from the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model, offering impressive results in application to finite nuclei and dense baryon matter. This self-consistent, relativistic quark-level approach is used to construct the Equation of State (EoS) and to calculate key properties of high density matter and cold, slowly rotating neutron stars. The results include predictions for the maximum mass of neutron star models, together with the corresponding radius and central density, as well the properties of neutron stars with mass of order 1.4 M{sub {circle_dot}}. The cooling mechanism allowed by the QMC EoS is explored and the parameters relevant to slow rotation, namely the moment of inertia and the period of rotation investigated. The results of the calculation, which are found to be in good agreement with available observational data, are compared with the predictions of more traditional EoS, based on the A18+{delta}v+UIX* and modified Reid soft core potentials, the Skyrme SkM* interaction and two relativistic mean field (RMF) models for a hybrid stars including quark matter. The QMC EoS provides cold neutron star models with maximum mass 1.9-2.1 M{sub {circle_dot}}, with central density less than 6 times nuclear saturation density (n{sub 0} = 0.16 fm{sup -3}) and offers a consistent description of the stellar mass up to this density limit. In contrast with other models, QMC predicts no hyperon contribution at densities lower than 3n{sub 0}, for matter in {beta}-equilibrium. At higher densities, {Xi}{sup -,0} and {Lambda} hyperons are present. The absence of lighter {Sigma}{sup {+-},0} hyperons is understood as a consequence of antisymmetrization, together with the implementation of the color hyperfine interaction in the response of the quark bag to the nuclear scalar field.

  12. Probing Quark-Gluon Structure of Matter with e-p and e-A Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the strong interaction (QCD) in the truly strong ('non-perturbative') region remains a major challenge in modern physics. Nucleon and nuclei provide natural laboratories to study the strong interaction. The quark-gluon structure of the nucleon and nuclei are important by themselves since they are the main (>99%) part of the visible world. With electroweak interaction well-understood, e-p and e-A are clean means to probe the nucleon and nuclear structure and to study the strong interaction (QCD). Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinally-polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions (PDFs). It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse structure (both transverse spatial structure via generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum structure via transverse- momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs)) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction(QCD). The transverse spin, GPDs and TMDs have been the subjects of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With 12 GeV energy upgrade, Jefferson Lab (JLab) will provide the most precise multi-dimensional map of the TMDs and GPDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) and Deep-Exclusive experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum and spatial spaces. The precision information on TMDs and GPDs will provide access to the quark orbital angular momentum and its correlation with the quark and the nucleon spins. The planned future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will enable a precision study of the TMDs and GPDs of the sea quarks and gluons, in addition to completing the study in the valence region. The EIC will also open a new window to study the role of gluons in nuclei.

  13. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter. PMID:24655241

  14. Does dark matter consist of baryons of new stable family quarks?

    SciTech Connect

    Bregar, G.; Mankoc Borstnik, N. S.

    2009-10-15

    We investigate the possibility that the dark matter consists of clusters of the heavy family quarks and leptons with zero Yukawa couplings to the lower families. Such a family is predicted by the approach unifying spin and charges as the fifth family. We make a rough estimation of properties of baryons of these new family members, of their behavior during the evolution of the Universe and when scattering on the ordinary matter, and study possible limitations on the family properties due to the cosmological and direct experimental evidences.

  15. Dark atoms of dark matter from new stable quarks and leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2012-06-20

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the Universe can consist of new stable charged leptons and quarks, if they are hidden in elusive 'dark atoms' of composite dark matter. Such possibility can be compatible with the severe constraints on anomalous isotopes, if there exist stable particles with charge -2 and there are no stable particles with charges +1 and -1. These conditions cannot be realized in supersymmetric models, but can be satisfied in several recently developed alternative scenarios. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium 'atoms', maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the Warmer than Cold Dark Matter. The puzzles of direct dark matter searches appear in this case as a reflection of nontrivial nuclear physics of O-helium.

  16. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-03-01

    We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.

  17. Properties of strange quark matter objects with two types of surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Jun; Peng, Guang-Xiong; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-04-01

    We study strange quark matter (SQM) objects ranging from strangelets to strange stars based on our recently proposed unified description. The important interface effects are investigated by adopting a constant surface tension as well as the multiple reflection expansion (MRE) method. It is shown that the properties of SQM objects are strongly affected by the different surface treatments. In the former case, strangelets are more compact, an electric dipole is predicted on the surface of the quark part, and a local minimum of the energy per baryon appears for unusually small values of the surface tension. In the latter case, on the other hand, an electric potential well is formed, and the energy per baryon decreases monotonically with the SQM object's size. It is found that the MRE scenario coincides with the constant-surface-tension one if realistic values are considered. However, the effects of quark depletion on the quark-vacuum interface cannot be solely described by a constant surface tension. Thus we conclude that the MRE scenario is more reasonable.

  18. Ginzburg-Landau phase diagram for dense matter with axial anomaly, strange quark mass, and meson condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Andreas; Stetina, Stephan; Tachibana, Motoi

    2011-02-15

    We discuss the phase structure of dense matter, in particular, the nature of the transition between hadronic and quark matter. Calculations within a Ginzburg-Landau approach show that the axial anomaly can induce a critical point in this transition region. This is possible because in three-flavor quark matter with instanton effects a chiral condensate can be added to the color-flavor locked phase without changing the symmetries of the ground state. In (massless) two-flavor quark matter such a critical point is not possible since the corresponding color superconductor (2SC) does not break chiral symmetry. We study the effects of a nonzero but finite strange quark mass which interpolates between these two cases. Since at ultrahigh density the first reaction of the color-flavor locked phase to a nonzero strange quark mass is to develop a kaon condensate, we extend previous Ginzburg-Landau studies by including such a condensate. We discuss the fate of the critical point systematically and show that the continuity between hadronic and quark matter can be disrupted by the onset of a kaon condensate. Moreover, we identify the mass terms in the Ginzburg-Landau potential which are needed for the 2SC phase to occur in the phase diagram.

  19. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[matter is independent of the lightest glueball mass and scalar-glueball-baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  20. Constraining crystalline color superconducting quark matter with gravitational-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lap-Ming

    2007-10-01

    We estimate the maximum equatorial ellipticity sustainable by compact stars composed of crystalline color-superconducting quark matter. For the theoretically allowed range of the gap parameter Δ, the maximum ellipticity could be as large as 10-2, which is about 4 orders of magnitude larger than the tightest upper limit obtained by the recent science runs of the LIGO and GEO600 gravitational-wave detectors based on the data from 78 radio pulsars. We point out that the current gravitational-wave strain upper limit already has some implications for the gap parameter. In particular, the upper limit for the Crab pulsar implies that Δ is less than O(20)MeV for a range of quark chemical potential accessible in compact stars, assuming that the pulsar has a mass 1.4M⊙, radius 10 km, breaking strain 10-3, and that it has the maximum quadrupole deformation it can sustain without fracturing.

  1. Baryonic matter onset in two-color QCD with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scior, Philipp; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    We study the cold and dense regime in the phase diagram of two-color QCD with heavy quarks within a three-dimensional effective theory for Polyakov loops. This theory is derived from two-color QCD in a combined strong-coupling and hopping expansion. In particular, we study the onset of diquark density as the finite-density transition of the bosonic baryons in the two-color world. In contrast to previous studies of heavy dense QCD, our zero-temperature extrapolations are consistent with a continuous transition without binding energy. They thus provide evidence that the effective theory for heavy quarks is capable of describing the characteristic differences between diquark condensation in two-color QCD and the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter in QCD.

  2. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr

    2007-08-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  3. Measuring the anti-quark contribution to the proton spin using parity violating W production in polarized proton proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ciprian

    Since the 1980s the spin puzzle has been at the heart of many experimental measurements. The initial discovery that only ~30% of the spin of the proton comes from quarks and anti-quarks has been refined and cross checked by several other deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and semi inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments. Through measurements of polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) the individual contributions of the u, d, u, d, quarks have been measured. The flavor separation done in SIDIS experiments requires knowledge of fragmentation functions (FFs). However, due to the higher uncertainty of the anti-quark FFs compared to the quark FFs, the quark polarized PDFs (Deltau(x), Delta d(x)) are significantly better constrained than the anti-quark distributions (Deltau( x), Deltad(x). By accessing the anti-quarks directly through W boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions (ud → W+ → e+/mu+ and du→ W- → e-/mu-), the large FF uncertainties are avoided and a cleaner measurement can be done. The parity violating single spin asymmetry of the W decay leptons can be directly related to the polarized PDFs of the anti-quarks. The W+/- → e+/- measurement has been performed with the PHENIX central arm detectors at √s=510 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and is presented in this thesis. Approximately 40 pb-1 of data from the 2011 and 2012 was analyzed and a large parity violating single spin asymmetry for W+/- has been measured. The combined data for 2011 and 2012 provide a single spin asymmetry for both charges: W+: -0.27 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.01(syst) W -: 0.28 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.02(syst) These results are consistent with the different theoretical predictions at the 1sigma level. The increased statistical precision enabled and required a more careful analysis of the background contamination for the this measurement. A method based on Gaussian Processes for Regression has been employed to determine this background contribution. This

  4. Possible ferromagnetism in the large N{sub c} and N{sub f} limit of quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Kazuaki; Oka, Makoto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2007-11-01

    We consider high density quark matter in the large N{sub c} and N{sub f} limit with N{sub f}/N{sub c} fixed. In this limit, the color superconductivity disappears. We discuss that the chiral density wave state is also absent in the limit, if we assume the existence of the nonperturbative magnetic screening effect as indicated by recent lattice study. We argue that ferromagnetism can become a candidate for the ground state if quarks are massive.

  5. Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect on the inhomogeneous chiral transition in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Shintaro; Lee, Tong-Gyu; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations on the phase boundary between the inhomogeneous chiral phase and the chiral-restored phase in the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential. Introducing the composite fields made of quark bilinear fields, we construct an effective action for them in quark matter by way of the correlation function method. Utilizing this effective action, we discuss the effects of the quark-antiquark and particle-hole pair fluctuations to find possible modifications of the vertex functions of the order parameter included in the thermodynamic potential. We find that the most important effect of the pair fluctuations is to change the sign of the fourth-order vertex function to make the phase transition always the first, rather than the second, order (we call it the Brazovskii-Dyugaev effect). Another important effect manifests in the second-order vertex function: it exhibits a singular behavior near the critical point, which prohibits the second-order phase transition. It, together with the fourth-order vertex function, alters the location of the phase boundary.

  6. Effect of polarization on superfluidity in low density neutron matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. W.; Kallman, C.-G.; Yang, C.-H.; Chakkalakal, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The singlet-state quasi-particle interaction in neutron matter is examined on the basis of results of a detailed evaluation of the Landau Fermi-liquid parameters for pure neutron effects, including polarization effects. This means that the interaction induced by exchange of density and spin-density excitations is taken into account. It is shown that polarization actually works to suppress the pairing matrix elements, owing to the spin dependence of the quasi-particle interaction and, ultimately, the balance of attraction, repulsion, and spin dependence in the fundamental two-neutron interaction. Since the isotropic energy gap and the condensation energy in low-density neutron-star matter are extremely sensitive functions of the pairing matrix elements, they will also be suppressed by the polarizability of the neutron medium.

  7. On the spectral induced polarization signature of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Furman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  8. Spectral Induced Polarization Signature of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  9. Signatures from scalar dark matter with a vector-like quark mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacchino, Federica; Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez Honorez, Laura; Tytgat, Michel H. G.; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a model where the dark matter is composed of a singlet real scalar that couples to the Standard Model predominantly via a Yukawa interaction with a light quark and a colored vector-like fermion. A distinctive feature of this scenario is that thermal freeze-out in the early universe may be driven by annihilation both into gluon pairs at one-loop (gg) and by virtual internal Bremsstrahlung of a gluon (qbar q g). Such a dark matter candidate may also be tested through direct and indirect detection and at the LHC; viable candidates have either a mass nearly degenerate with that of the fermionic mediator or a mass above about 2 TeV.

  10. Search for neutral strange quark matter in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    De Cataldo, G.; Giglietto, N.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Barish, K.; Hill, J.C.; Hoversten, R.A.; Lajoie, J.G.; Libby, B.; Wohn, F.K.; Rabin, M.S.; Haridas, P.; Pless, I.A.; Van Buren, G.; Armstrong, T.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Reid, J.D.; Smith, G.A.; Toothacker, W.S.; Davies, R.; Hirsch, A.S.; Porile, N.T.; Rimai, A.; Scharenberg, R.; Tincknell, M.L.; Lainus, T.; Greene, S.V.; Maguire, C.F.; Bennett, S.J.; Cormier, T.M.; Dee, P.R.; Fachini, P.; Kim, B.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Munhoz, M.G.; Pruneau, C.A.; Zhao, K.; Chikanian, A.; Coe, S.D.; Diebold, G.E.; Finch, L.E.; George, N.K.; Kumar, B.S.; Majka, R.D.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Rotondo, F.S.; Sandweiss, J.; Slaughter, A.J.

    1999-04-01

    We present results of a search for neutral strange quark matter (strangelets) in 11.6A GeV/c Au+Pb reactions from the 1995 run of experiment E864 at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. We have sampled approximately 1.3 billion 10{percent} most central Au+Pb interactions and have observed no statistically significant signal for neutral strangelet states with baryon number in the range 6{lt}A{lt}100. We set upper limits on the production of these exotic states at the level of 8{times}10{sup {minus}8} per central collision for mass {gt}20 GeV/c{sup 2}. These limits are the first limits reported on the production of heavy neutral strangelets. They complement searches for positively and negatively charged strangelets also conducted by our collaboration. We discuss the implications of these results on strangelet production mechanisms and the stability of strange quark matter. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Confronting effective models for deconfinement in dense quark matter with lattice data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Brauner, Tomáš; Naylor, William R.

    2015-12-01

    Ab initio numerical simulations of the thermodynamics of dense quark matter remain a challenge. Apart from the infamous sign problem, lattice methods have to deal with finite volume and discretization effects as well as with the necessity to introduce sources for symmetry-breaking order parameters. We study these artifacts in the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and compare its predictions to existing lattice data for cold and dense two-color matter with two flavors of Wilson quarks. To achieve even qualitative agreement with lattice data requires the introduction of two novel elements in the model: (i) explicit chiral symmetry breaking in the effective contact four-fermion interaction, referred to as the chiral twist, and (ii) renormalization of the Polyakov loop. The feedback of the dense medium to the gauge sector is modeled by a chemical-potential-dependent scale in the Polyakov-loop potential. In contrast to previously used analytical Ansätze, we determine its dependence on the chemical potential from lattice data for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop. Finally, we propose adding a two-derivative operator to our effective model. This term acts as an additional source of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, mimicking an analogous term in the lattice Wilson action.

  12. Sea Quark Polarization Measurement Via W-Boson in Forward Rapidity at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Itaru; Collaboration: PHENIX Forward Muon Trigger Upgrade Collaboration

    2011-12-14

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL provides a unique opportunity to collide polarized protons. One of the hightlight of the spin program at {radical}(s) = 500 GeV is the direct measurement of sea quark contribution to the proton spin via W-boson production by measuring parity violating single spin asymmetry. A new trigger on forward muons in PHENIX identiienAoes and triggers on high momentum Ws suppressing a large number of low momentum muons coming from hadronic decays. Since the original muon trigger will fire on any muon above {approx}2 GeV/c, it will not provide the required rejection factor for 500 GeV running, which is about 4500. New fast readout trigger electronics and timing device were developed and installed to existing muon detection system in PHENIX. The performance of the new muon trigger and the fast turnaround offline analysis result from the first {radical}(s) = 500 GeV production run (Run11) will be discussed.

  13. Trajectory of the cosmic plasma through the quark matter phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) focus on two, in practice distinct, regimes: one in which the baryonic chemical potential μB is essentially zero, the other in which it is of the same order of magnitude as the temperature. The cosmic QGP which dominates the early universe after reheating is normally assumed to be of the first kind, but recently it has been suggested that it might well be of the second: this is the case in the theory of "little inflation." If that is so, then it becomes a pressing issue to fix the trajectory of the Universe, as it cools, through the quark matter phase diagram: in particular, one wishes to know where in that diagram the plasma epoch ends, so that the initial conditions of the hadronic epoch can be determined. Here we combine various tools from strongly coupled QGP theory (the latest lattice results, together with gauge-gravity duality) in order to constrain that trajectory, assuming that little inflation did occur.

  14. Constant-sound-speed parametrization for Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models of quark matter in hybrid stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Han, Sophia; Orsaria, Milva G.; Contrera, Gustavo A.; Weber, Fridolin; Alford, Mark G.

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of pulsars as heavy as 2 solar masses has led astrophysicists to rethink the core compositions of neutron stars, ruling out many models for the nuclear equations of state (EoS). We explore the hybrid stars that occur when hadronic matter is treated in a relativistic mean-field approximation and quark matter is modeled by three-flavor local and nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) models with repulsive vector interactions. The NJL models typically yield equations of state that feature a first-order transition to quark matter. Assuming that the quark-hadron surface tension is high enough to disfavor mixed phases and restricting to EoSs that allow stars to reach 2 solar masses, we find that the appearance of the quark-matter core either destabilizes the star immediately (this is typical for nonlocal NJL models) or leads to a very short hybrid star branch in the mass-radius relation (this is typical for local NJL models). Using the constant-sound-speed parametrization we can see that the reason for the near absence of hybrid stars is that the transition pressure is fairly high and the transition is strongly first order.

  15. Gravitational catalysis of chiral and color symmetry breaking of quark matter in hyperbolic space

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.; Tyukov, A. V.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2009-10-15

    We study the dynamical breaking of chiral and color symmetries of dense quark matter in the ultrastatic hyperbolic spacetime R x H{sup 3} in the framework of an extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. On the basis of analytical expressions for chiral and color condensates as functions of curvature and temperature, the phenomenon of dimensional reduction and gravitational catalysis of symmetry breaking in strong gravitational field is demonstrated in the regime of weak coupling constants. In the case of strong couplings it is shown that curvature leads to small corrections to the flat-space values of condensate and thus enhances the symmetry breaking effects. Finally, using numerical calculations phase transitions under the influence of chemical potential and negative curvature are considered and the phase portrait of the system is constructed.

  16. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, M.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J. Da; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböeck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Heng, Y.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Keung, J.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. 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A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Denis, R. D. St.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-02-01

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in of collisions collected at TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing -quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter-nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.

  17. Fast spinning strange stars: possible ways to constrain interacting quark matter parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Thampan, Arun V.

    2016-04-01

    For a set of equation of state (EoS) models involving interacting strange quark matter, characterized by an effective bag constant (Beff) and a perturbative quantum chromodynamics corrections term (a4), we construct fully general relativistic equilibrium sequences of rapidly spinning strange stars for the first time. Computation of such sequences is important to study millisecond pulsars and other fast spinning compact stars. Our EoS models can support a gravitational mass (MG) and a spin frequency (ν) at least up to ≈3.0 M⊙ and ≈1250 Hz, respectively, and hence are fully consistent with measured MG and ν values. This paper reports the effects of Beff and a4 on measurable compact star properties, which could be useful to find possible ways to constrain these fundamental quark matter parameters, within the ambit of our EoS models. We confirm that a lower Beff allows a higher mass. Besides, for known MG and ν, measurable parameters, such as stellar radius, radius-to-mass ratio and moment of inertia, increase with the decrease of Beff. Our calculations also show that a4 significantly affects the stellar rest mass and the total stellar binding energy. As a result, a4 can have signatures in evolutions of both accreting and non-accreting compact stars, and the observed distribution of stellar mass and spin and other source parameters. Finally, we compute the parameter values of two important pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J1748-2446ad, which may have implications to probe their evolutionary histories, and for constraining EoS models.

  18. Mean-field theory of baryonic matter for QCD in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss theoretical issues pertaining to baryonic matter in the combined heavy-quark and large Nc limits of QCD. Witten's classic argument that baryons and interacting systems of baryons can be described in a mean-field approximation with each of the quarks moving in an average potential due to the remaining quarks is heuristic. It is important to justify this heuristic description for the case of baryonic matter since systems of interacting baryons are intrinsically more complicated than single baryons due to the possibility of hidden color states—states in which the subsystems making up the entire baryon crystal are not color-singlet nucleons but rather colorful states coupled together to make a color-singlet state. In this work, we provide a formal justification of this heuristic prescription. In order to do this, we start by taking the heavy quark limit, thus effectively reducing the problem to a many-body quantum mechanical system. This problem can be formulated in terms of integrals over coherent states, which for this problem are simple Slater determinants. We show that for the many-body problem, the support region for these integrals becomes narrow at large Nc, yielding an energy which is well approximated by a single coherent state—that is a mean-field description. Corrections to the energy are of relative order 1/Nc. While hidden color states are present in the exact state of the heavy quark system, they only influence the interaction energy below leading order in 1/Nc.

  19. Strange Quark Star Crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Andrew W.

    2007-02-27

    If strange quark matter is absolutely stable, some neutron stars may be strange quark stars. Strange quark stars are usually assumed to have a simple liquid surface. We show that if the surface tension of droplets of quark matter in the vacuum is sufficiently small, droplets of quark matter on the surface of a strange quark star may form a solid crust on top of the strange quark star. This solid crust can significantly modify the predictions for the photon emission for the surface in an observable way.

  20. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-02-24

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in 20.3 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at √s=8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing b-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the massmore » scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter–nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a colored mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.« less

  1. Search for dark matter in events with heavy quarks and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-02-24

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in 20.3 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at √s=8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing b-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter–nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a colored mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.

  2. Dark matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: Quark nuggets and newtorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.

    2016-05-01

    Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 m2 sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than 10-5 g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another example. In this case the sensitivity is quite poor and a short discussion is reported on possible improvements.

  3. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy. PMID:26406816

  4. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik, Norma Mankoč; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Borštnik and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Borštnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Borštnik et al., DMFA Založništvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  5. Calculating the hadronic vacuum polarization and leading hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment with improved staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Blum, T.

    2007-06-01

    We present a lattice calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarization and the lowest order hadronic contribution (HLO) to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, a{sub {mu}}=(g-2)/2, using 2+1 flavors of improved staggered fermions. A precise fit to the low-q{sup 2} region of the vacuum polarization is necessary to accurately extract the muon g-2. To obtain this fit, we use staggered chiral perturbation theory, including a model to incorporate the vector particles as resonances, and compare these to polynomial fits to the lattice data. We discuss the fit results and associated systematic uncertainties, paying particular attention to the relative contributions of the pions and vector mesons. Using a single lattice spacing ensemble generated by the MILC Collaboration (a=0.086 fm), light quark masses as small as roughly one-tenth the strange quark mass, and volumes as large as (3.4 fm){sup 3}, we find a{sub {mu}}{sup HLO}=(713{+-}15)x10{sup -10} and (748{+-}21)x10{sup -10} where the error is statistical only and the two values correspond to linear and quadratic extrapolations in the light quark mass, respectively. Considering various systematic uncertainties not eliminated in this study (including a model of vector resonances used to fit the lattice data and the omission of disconnected quark contractions in the vector-vector correlation function), we view this as agreement with the current best calculations using the experimental cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation to hadrons (692.4{+-}5.9{+-}2.4)x10{sup -10}, and including the experimental decay rate of the tau lepton to hadrons (711.0{+-}5.0{+-}0.8{+-}2.8)x10{sup -10}. We discuss several ways to improve the current lattice calculation.

  6. The scenario of two families of compact stars. Part 2: Transition from hadronic to quark matter and explosive phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Alessandro; Pagliara, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    We will follow the two-families scenario described in the accompanying paper, in which compact stars having a very small radius and masses not exceeding about 1.5 M ⊙ are made of hadrons, while more massive compact stars are quark stars. In the present paper we discuss the dynamics of the transition of a hadronic star into a quark star. We will show that the transition takes place in two phases: a very rapid one, lasting a few milliseconds, during which the central region of the star converts into quark matter and the process of conversion is accelerated by the existence of strong hydrodynamical instabilities, and a second phase, lasting about ten seconds, during which the process of conversion proceeds as far as the surface of the star via production and diffusion of strangeness. We will show that these two steps play a crucial role in the phenomenological implications of the model. We will discuss the possible implications of this scenario both for long and for short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), using the proto-magnetar model as the reference frame of our discussion. We will show that the process of quark deconfinement can be connected to specific observed features of the GRBs. In the case of long GRBs we will discuss the possibility that quark deconfinement is at the origin of the second peak present in quite a large fraction of bursts. Also we will discuss the possibility that long GRBs can take place in binary systems without being associated with a SN explosion. Concerning short GRBs, quark deconfinement can play the crucial role in limiting their duration. Finally we will shortly revisit the possible relevance of quark deconfinement in some specific type of Supernova explosions, in particular in the case of very massive progenitors.

  7. Phase diagram of chiral quark matter: From weakly to strongly coupled Fulde-Ferrell phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, Armen; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the phase diagram of two-flavor quark matter within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the temperature-flavor asymmetry plane in the case where there are three competing phases: the homogeneous Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) phase, the unpaired phase, and a phase with broken spatial symmetry, which is here taken to be the counterpart of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase in condensed matter physics. The system belongs to the universality class of paramagnetic-ferromagnetic-helical systems, and therefore contains a tricritical Lifshitz point in its phase diagram, where the momentum scale characterizing the breaking of translational invariance has a critical exponent of 1/2 to leading order. Upon varying the coupling constant of the theory we find that in weak coupling, the FFLO phase is favored at arbitrary flavor asymmetries for sufficiently low temperatures; at intermediate coupling its occupancy domain is shifted towards larger asymmetries. Strong coupling features a new regime of an inhomogeneous FF state, which we identify with a current-carrying Bose-Einstein condensate of tightly bound up and down quarks. The temperature and asymmetry dependence of the gap function is studied. It is shown that the anomalous temperature dependence of the gap in the homogeneous, flavor-asymmetric phase is transformed into a normal dependence (self-similar to the BCS phase) at arbitrary coupling, once the FF phase is allowed for. We analyze the occupation numbers and the Cooper-pair wave function and show that when the condensate momentum is orthogonal to the particle momentum the minority component contains a blocking region (breach) around the Fermi sphere in the weak-coupling limit, which engulfs more low-momentum modes as the coupling is increased, and eventually leads to a topological change in strong coupling, where the minority Fermi sphere contains either two occupied strips or an empty sphere. For nonorthogonal momenta, the blocking

  8. Generalized Beth–Uhlenbeck approach to mesons and diquarks in hot, dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Buballa, M.; Dubinin, A.; Röpke, G.; Zablocki, D.

    2014-09-15

    An important first step in the program of hadronization of chiral quark models is the bosonization in meson and diquark channels. This procedure is presented at finite temperatures and chemical potentials for the SU(2) flavor case of the NJL model with special emphasis on the mixing between scalar meson and scalar diquark modes which occurs in the 2SC color superconducting phase. The thermodynamic potential is obtained in the Gaussian approximation for the meson and diquark fields and it is given in the Beth–Uhlenbeck form. This allows a detailed discussion of bound state dissociation in hot, dense matter (Mott effect) in terms of the in-medium scattering phase shift of two-particle correlations. It is shown for the case without meson–diquark mixing that the phase shift can be separated into a continuum and a resonance part. In the latter, the Mott transition manifests itself by a change of the phase shift at threshold by π in accordance with Levinson’s theorem, when a bound state transforms to a resonance in the scattering continuum. The consequences for the contribution of pionic correlations to the pressure are discussed by evaluating the Beth–Uhlenbeck equation of state in different approximations. A similar discussion is performed for the scalar diquark channel in the normal phase. Further developments and applications of the developed approach are outlined.

  9. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Aspects of the strongly interacting matter phase diagram within non-local quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Pagura, V.; Dumm, D. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2013-03-25

    We study a nonlocal extension of the so-called Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and chemical potential, considering the impact of the presence of dynamical quarks on the scale parameter appearing in the Polyakov potential. Both real and imaginary chemical potentials are considered. The effect of varying the current quark mass is also investigated.

  11. J/\\psi suppression in p-A collisions from charm quark energy loss in cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L. H.; Duan, C. G.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss effect of charm quarks in cold nuclear matter on J/\\psi suppression in p-A collisions is studied. By means of two parametrizations of quark energy loss, the leading-order computations for J/\\psi production cross section ratios {R}W({{Fe})/{{Be}}}({x}F) are presented and compared with the selected E866 experimental data, with the c\\bar{c} remaining colored on its entire path in the medium. It is found that the energy loss of the color octet c\\bar{c} is an important effect in J/\\psi suppression; however, whether it is linear or quadratic with the path length cannot be determined. The successful description of J/\\psi suppression in 0.2\\lt {x}F\\lt 0.65 gives the charm quark mean energy loss per unit path length α =1.49+/- 0.37 {{GeV}}/fm. Using the same quark energy loss model, we further give the phenomenological analysis at the leading order for J/\\psi production cross section ratios as a function of y for the Large Hadron Collider experimental data.

  12. Towards a quantitative kinetic theory of polar active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihle, T.

    2014-06-01

    A recent kinetic approach for Vicsek-like models of active particles is reviewed. The theory is based on an exact Chapman- Kolmogorov equation in phase space. It can handle discrete time dynamics and "exotic" multi-particle interactions. A nonlocal mean-field theory for the one-particle distribution function is obtained by assuming molecular chaos. The Boltzmann approach of Bertin, et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 022101 (2006) and J. Phys. A 42, 445001 (2009), is critically assessed and compared to the current approach. In Boltzmann theory, a collision starts when two particles enter each others action spheres and is finished when their distance exceeds the interaction radius. The average duration of such a collision, τ0, is measured for the Vicsek model with continuous time-evolution. If the noise is chosen to be close to the flocking threshold, the average time between collisions is found to be roughly equal to τ0 at low densities. Thus, the continuous-time Vicsek-model near the flocking threshold cannot be accurately described by a Boltzmann equation, even at very small density because collisions take so long that typically other particles join in, rendering Boltzmann's binary collision assumption invalid. Hydrodynamic equations for the phase space approach are derived by means of a Chapman-Enskog expansion. The equations are compared to the Toner-Tu theory of polar active matter. New terms, absent in the Toner-Tu theory, are highlighted. Convergence problems of Chapman-Enskog and similar gradient expansions are discussed.

  13. Astrophysical implications of gapless color-flavor locked quark matter: A hot water bottle for aging neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark; Jotwani, Pooja; Kouvaris, Chris; Kundu, Joydip; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2005-06-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is a candidate for the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity CV and the heat loss by neutrino emission Lν. The gCFL phase is characterized by an unusual quasiparticle dispersion relation that makes both its specific heat cV and its neutrino emissivity ɛν parametrically larger than in any other phase of nuclear or quark matter. During the epoch in which the cooling of the star is dominated by direct Urca neutrino emission, the presence of a gCFL region does not strongly alter the cooling history because the enhancements of CV and Lν cancel against each other. At late times, however, the cooling is dominated by photon emission from the surface, so Lν is irrelevant, and the anomalously large heat capacity of the gCFL region keeps the star warm. The temperature drops with time as T˜t-1.4 rather than the canonical T˜t-5. This provides a unique and potentially observable signature of gCFL quark matter.

  14. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    The 2013 Strangeness in Quark Matter conference took place at the University of Birmingham in July 2013, in a period of remarkably good weather that gave a very welcome boost to the event. 158 physicists from 25 countries gathered for a week of discussions on the production of strangeness and heavy flavour in heavy ion collisions. The dates for the meeting had been set two years earlier in Cracow, so as to allow it to offer the first major examination of proton-lead collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. It had originally been thought that these collisions would be recorded by the end of 2012, but in the event it turned out that the running period was postponed until January and February of 2013, giving the LHC collaborations - all four major collaborations since LHCb also took part in pPb data taking - very little time to prepare their results. Nevertheless, new results were provided, and their presentation and interpretation formed one of the highlights of the conference. In addition, there was a more detailed assessment of the RHIC beam energy scan, many new heavy flavour results from the RHIC and LHC heavy ion runs and detailed discussions of the future FAIR and NICA programmes. The conference also hosted a good cross-section of current topics in theoretical talks. In the last few years there has been much interest in thermalization and in the use of hydrodynamics to describe the fluctuations visible in higher-order flow coefficients. Discussions of both of these features were well represented, indicating the maturing of this field. We gratefully acknowledge support from The University of Birmingham, CERN, The Extreme Matter Institute (EMMI), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Institute of Physics Publishing and from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). This assistance allowed us to support over twenty young physicists, and allowed us to ensure that we had the breadth of programme needed for a successful conference

  15. Broken valence chiral symmetry and chiral polarization of Dirac spectrum in Nf=12 QCD at small quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass-degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB-ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass mc such that for m > mc the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for mch < m < mc the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses m < mch, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the mch = 0 possibility open. The latter option could place massless Nf=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalous behavior of overlap Dirac spectrum for mch < m < mc is qualitatively similar to one observed previously in zero and few-flavor theories as an effect of thermal agitation.

  16. Magnetized color superconducting cold quark matter within the SU(2 ) f NJL model: A novel regularization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, P.; Grunfeld, A. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2 ) f Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, nonphysical oscillations that might arise in the alternative regularization schemes previously used in the literature are naturally removed. In this way, a clearer interpretation of the physical oscillations is possible. The sensitivity of our results to the model parametrization is analyzed.

  17. PREFACE: SQM2004 The 8th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleymans, Jean; Steinberg, Peter; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2005-06-01

    The 8th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2004) was held at at the Breakwater Lodge, which is part of the Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town. The architecture of the Breakwater Lodge is a stark reminder of the fact that its original purpose was to serve as a municipal jail. It appears that the spectacular background of Table Mountain and the V&A Waterfront and an excellent set of speakers were sufficient to keep the lecture rooms full to capacity, despite the numerous temptations of Cape Town. This is the first time a major heavy ion conference has been held in South Africa, and the timing is fortuitous, with a long-delayed MoU between South Africa and CERN at last being signed and finalized. At last, funding is being made available for South African scientists to play a meaningful role and make contributions to the international effort in heavy ion physics. Despite the substantial distance from the major cities in the northern hemisphere, the conference was very well attended and the number of participants was about 50% larger than originally anticipated. Participants came from China, India, Japan, the United States, Brazil and many European countries. We would like to thank all of the SQM2004 participants for their efforts and, in particlular, all of the plenary and parallel speakers for their hard work in making this conference such a success. Of course, even more thanks go to all the chairpersons of the various sessions who struggled to keep the conference program on the (admittedly tight) schedule. For future conferences, we recommend keeping a bell handy! Photograph Participants gather on the UCT campus with Table Mountain in the backgound. We would like to thank Professor Tony Fairall for a most entertaining after-dinner talk about all that is unusual and fascinating about the southern hemisphere. It could not be emphasized enough that the daily working of the meeting would have ground to a halt without the

  18. Lowest order constrained variational calculation of polarized neutron matter at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-11-15

    Some properties of polarized neutron matter at finite temperature have been studied using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the Argonne V18 (AV18) potential. Our results indicate that a spontaneous transition to the ferromagnetic phase does not occur. Effective mass, free energy, magnetic susceptibility, entropy, and the equation of state of polarized neutron matter at finite temperature are also calculated. A comparison is also made between our results and those of other many-body techniques.

  19. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Blaschke, D.; Kekelidze, V.; Matveev, V.; Sorin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 15th International Conference Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM) took place at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (VBLHEP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the period July 6 -11, with a record participation of 244 people from 31 countries! The previous meeting of the series in Birmingham 2013 had collected 158 physicists from 25 countries [J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 509, 011001 (2014)]. At SQM-2015, there was also a record participation of young scientist; every 4th conference attendee did not yet hold a PhD degree! There was a special program of 4 general lectures, a devoted session of parallel talks for Young Talents and the Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) with 16 lecturers on the topics regarding Dense Matter (29.06.-11.07.) as a satellite event at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) and at VBLHEP. Another satellite event was the Round TableWorkshop on Physics at NICA, jointly organized by JINR and the Republic of South Africa on July 5, 2015. The selection of Dubna as the place for SQM-2015 conference by the International Advisory Committee (IAC) demonstrates the broad interest of the community in the progress of the Russian Megascience Project on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) hosted at JINR Dubna. In a few years from now the experiments planned at NICA will produce data that provide new information of unprecedented accuracy which will help to answer some of the key questions which are topical at this conference. The SQM-2015 conference had an ambitious scientific program with 38 plenary talks, 97 parallel talks in 7 topical directions and 39 posters reporting the state of the research and the future directions in the fields of strangeness, heavy avors and bulk physics, suggested by the IAC to be the subtitle of the conference from 2016 onwards. Most of the contributions are represented in these Proceedings which we recommend to the community! We gratefully

  20. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  1. The role of asymptotic freedom for the pseudocritical temperature in magnetized quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, R. L. S.; Gomes, K. P.; Krein, G.; Pinto, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by discrepancies observed between lattice QCD simulations and quark models regarding the behavior of the pseudo critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration as a function of the magnetic field B, we investigate the effects of a running the quark coupling constant G with temperature T and the magnetic field B in the context of the Nambu-Jona- Lasinio model(NJL). Our point that when asymptotic freedom, an essential feature of QCD and absent in the model, is included through a running of G with T and B results from the NJL model can be brought in qualitative agreement with lattice QCD simulations.

  2. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  3. Exact solutions of bulk viscous with string cloud attached to strange quark matter for higher dimensional FRW universe in Lyra geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlar, Halife; Aygün, Sezgin

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have investigated bulk viscous with strange quark matter attached to the string cloud for higher dimensional Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in Lyra geometry. By using varying deceleration parameter and conservation equations we have solved Einstein Field Equations (EFE's) and obtained generalized exact solutions for our model. Also we have found that string is not survived for bulk viscous with strange quark matter attached to the string cloud in framework higher dimensional FRW universe in Lyra geometry. This result agrees with Kiran and Reddy, Krori et al, Sahoo and Mishra and Mohanty et al. in four and five dimensions.

  4. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of B quarks using momentum-weighted track charge at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A{sub b} by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b}. Data were taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), with the Stanford Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions at a center of mass energy {radical}s = 91.2 GeV/c{sup 2} at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provides a unique and ideal environment for measuring electroweak asymmetries. Heavy flavor decays of the Z{sup 0} were identified inclusively by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and SLD`s precise tracking detectors. Two analysis techniques for measuring A{sub b} are presented: a binned fit to the left-right forward-backwards asymmetry of tagged events signed with momentum-weighted track charge, and a self-calibrating maximum-likelihood technique using momentum-weighted charge from the two hemispheres in each tagged event. From our 1994-1995 sample of 3.6 pb{sup {minus}1}, having a luminosity-weighted average e{sup {minus}} polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb{sup {minus}1}, having a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain A{sub b} = 0.848 {plus_minus} 0.046(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.050(syst.).

  5. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  6. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  7. Deconfinement to quark matter in neutron stars - The influence of strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dexheimer, V.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.; Hempel, M.

    2013-03-25

    We use an extended version of the hadronic SU(3) non-linear realization of the sigma model that also includes quarks to study hybrid stars. Within this approach, the degrees of freedom change naturally as the temperature/density increases. Different prescriptions of charge neutrality, local and global, are tested and the influence of strong magnetic fields and the anomalous magnetic moment on the particle population is discussed.

  8. Searches for New Physics, involving Top Quarks, Dark Matter and the Higgs Bosons, at the ATLAS, CDF and Fermi-LAT Particle Experiments, and a description of a new limit re-interpretation tool, Basis-Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kanury Kanishka

    Searches for new physics are presented in the lepton + jets channel at the CDF and ATLAS experiments. At CDF, we search for exotic quarks that couple to dark matter, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, a Z' boson decaying quarks, and a two-Higgs doublet model. At ATLAS, we search for fourth generation down-type quarks, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, and a multi-Higgs boson cascade. A novel methodology, Basis-limits, which allows for re-interpretation of experimental limits is presented. Basis-limits is used to extend ATLAS limits on fourth generation quarks to set limits on a new vector-like quark for all its decay modes. Finally, a spatial analysis of the gamma-ray excess, seen by the Fermi-LAT experiment, is performed. We find the location of the excess to be consistent with a dark matter halo at the Galactic center as the source.

  9. Measurements of t t ¯ spin correlations and top quark polarization using dilepton final states in p p collisions at √{s }= 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fang, W.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of the top quark-antiquark (t t ¯ ) spin correlations and the top quark polarization are presented for t t ¯ pairs produced in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV . The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured from the angular distributions of the two selected leptons, both inclusively and differentially, with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the t t ¯ system. The measurements are unfolded to the parton level and found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model. A search for new physics in the form of anomalous top quark chromo moments is performed. No evidence of new physics is observed, and exclusion limits on the real part of the chromo-magnetic dipole moment and the imaginary part of the chromo-electric dipole moment are evaluated.

  10. [Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions]. Technical progress report for the period April 1990--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group`s research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R&D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter.

  11. Finite-temperature calculations for spin-polarized asymmetric nuclear matter with the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bigdeli, M.; Bordbar, G. H.; Poostforush, A.

    2010-09-15

    The lowest order constrained variational technique has been used to investigate some of the thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter, such as the free energy, symmetry energy, susceptibility, and equation of state. We have shown that the symmetry energy of the nuclear matter is substantially sensitive to the value of spin polarization. Our calculations show that the equation of state of the polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter is stiffer for higher values of the polarization as well as the isospin asymmetry parameter. Our results for the free energy and susceptibility show that spontaneous ferromagnetic phase transition cannot occur for hot asymmetric matter.

  12. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  13. Lunar Seismic Detector to Advance the Search for Strange Quark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas B.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of small seismic signals on the Moon are needed to study lunar internal structure and to detect possible signals from Strange Quark m&er transit events. The immediate objective is to create a prototype seismic detector using a tunnel diode oscillator with a variable capacitor attached to a proof mass. The device is designed to operate effectively on the Moon, which requires a low power consumption to operate through lunar night, while preserving sensitivity. The goal is capacitance resolution of better than 1 part in 10' and power consumption of less than 1 watt.

  14. Bare Quark Matter Surfaces of Strange Stars and e+e- Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, V. V.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the Coulomb barrier at the quark surface of a hot strange star may be a powerful source of e+e- pairs which are created in an extremely strong electric field of the barrier and flow away from the star. The luminosity in the outflowing pair plasma depends on the surface temperature TS and may be very high, up to ~3×1051 ergs s-1 at TS~1011 K. The effect of pair creation by the Coulomb barrier may be a good observational signature of strange stars which can give an answer to the question of whether a compact object is a neutron or strange star.

  15. Characterization and origin of polar dissolved organic matter from the Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Rostad, C.E.; Davisson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Polar dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from a surface-water sample from the Great Salt Lake by separating it from colloidal organic matter by membrane dialysis, from less-polar DOM fractions by resin sorbents, and from inorganic salts by a combination of sodium cation exchange followed by precipitation of sodium salts by acetic acid during evaporative concentration. Polar DOM was the most abundant DOM fraction, accounting for 56% of the isolated DOM. Colloidal organic matter was 14C-age dated to be about 100% modern carbon and all of the DOM fractions were 14C-age dated to be between 94 and 95% modern carbon. Average structural models of each DOM fraction were derived that incorporated quantitative elemental and infrared, 13C-NMR, and electrospray/mass spectrometric data. The polar DOM model consisted of open-chain N-acetyl hydroxy carboxylic acids likely derived from N-acetyl heteropolysaccharides that constituted the colloidal organic matter. The less polar DOM fraction models consisted of aliphatic alicyclic ring structures substituted with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, ester, and methyl groups. These ring structures had characteristics similar to terpenoid precursors. All DOM fractions in the Great Salt Lake are derived from algae and bacteria that dominate DOM inputs in this lake.

  16. Gravitomagnetic acceleration of accretion disk matter to polar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, John; Mathews, Grant

    2016-03-01

    The motion of the masses of an accretion disk around a black hole creates a general relativistic, gravitomagnetic field (GEM) from the moving matter (be it charged or uncharged) of the accretion disk. This GEM field accelerates moving masses (neutral or charged) near the accretion disk vertically upward and away from the disk, and then inward toward the axis of the disk. As the accelerated material nears the axis with approximately vertical angles, a frame dragging effect contributes to the formation of narrow jets emanating from the poles. This GEM effect is numerically evaluated in the first post Newtonian (1PN) approximation from observable quantities like the mass and velocity of the disk. This GEM force is linear in the total mass of the accretion disk matter and quadratic in the velocity of matter near to the disk with approximately the same velocity. Since these masses and velocities can be quite high in astrophysical contexts, the GEM force, which in other contexts is weak, is quite significant. This GEM effect is compared to the ordinary electromagnetic effects applied to this problem in the past.

  17. Is dark matter an illusion created by the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2011-08-01

    Assuming that a particle and its antiparticle have the gravitational charge of the opposite sign, the physical vacuum may be considered as a fluid of virtual gravitational dipoles. Following this hypothesis, we present the first indications that dark matter may not exist and that the phenomena for which it was invoked might be explained by the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum by the known baryonic matter.

  18. Light in Condensed Matter in the Upper Atmosphere as the Origin of Homochirality: Circularly Polarized Light from Rydberg Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-08-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  19. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM. PMID:19586392

  20. From quarks and gluons to hadronic matter: A bridge too far?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the third edition of the QCD-TNT workshop the traditional focus of the last two editions (that is gaining a firmer grasp on the infrared behavior of the QCD Green's functions) will be slightly shifted towards attempts to implement the transition from the fundamental (quarks and gluons) to the effective (mesons and hadrons) degrees of freedom. So in addition to the traditional QCD-TNT themes (e.g., confinement, gluon mass generation, lattice simulations in different gauges, QCD at finite temperature and density) we plan to have more phenomenologically oriented topics (e.g., experimental reviews, determination of form factors from first principle, construction of Bethe-Salpeter kernels). In addition, a special session will be dedicated to review talks, summarizing the state-of-the-art, as well as highlighting the future perspectives, of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields using ultracold neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices, and other systems.

  1. Recent Results on High-Energy Spin Phenomena of Gluons and Sea-Quarks in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at Rhic at Bnl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is carrying out a spin physics program in high-energy polarized proton collisions at √ {s} = 200 GeV and √ {s} = 500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. One of the main objectives of the spin physics program at RHIC is the precise determination of the polarized gluon distribution function. The STAR detector is well suited for the reconstruction of various final states involving jets, π0, π±, e± and γ, which allows to measure several different processes. Recent results suggest a gluon spin contribution to the proton spin at the same level as the quark spin contribution itself. The production of W bosons in polarized p+p collisions at √ {s} = 500 GeV opens a new era in the study of the spin-flavor structure of the proton. W-(+) bosons are produced in \\bar {u} + d (\\bar {d} + u) collisions and can be detected through their leptonic decays, e- + \\bar {ν }e (e++ν e), where only the respective charged lepton is measured. Results of W-(+) production suggest a large asymmetry between the polarization of anti-u and anti-d quarks.

  2. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  3. Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Chami, M; Santer, R; Dilligeard, E

    2001-05-20

    A radiative transfer code termed OSOA for the ocean-atmosphere system that is able to predict the total and the polarized signals has been developed. The successive-orders-of-scattering method is used. The air-water interface is modeled as a planar mirror. Four components grouped by their optical properties, pure seawater, phytoplankton, nonchlorophyllose matter, and yellow substances, are included in the water column. Models are validated through comparisons with standard models. The numerical accuracy of the method is better than 2%; high computational efficiency is maintained. The model is used to study the influence of polarization on the detection of suspended matter. Polarizing properties of hydrosols are discussed: phytoplankton cells exhibit weak polarization and small inorganic particles, which are strong backscatterers, contribute appreciably to the polarized signal. Therefore the use of the polarized signal to extract the sediment signature promises good results. Also, polarized radiance could improve characterization of aerosols when open ocean waters are treated. PMID:18357248

  4. Correlation of soil and sediment organic matter polarity to aqueous sorption of nonionic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Wershaw, R. L.; Chiou, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Polarities of the soiL/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment sam pies were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct assessment of the polarity of SOM that is not possible by elemental analysis. The percent of organic carbon associated with polar functional groups was estimated from the combined fraction of carbohydrate and carboxylamide-ester carbons. A plot of the measured partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC) shows distinctly different populations of soils and sediments as well as a roughly inverse trend among the soil/sediment populations. Plots of K(oc) values for CT against other structural group carbon fractions did not yield distinct populations. The results indicate that the polarity of SOM is a significant factor in accounting for differences in K(oc) between the organic matter in soils and sediments. The alternate direct correlation of the sum of aliphatic and aromatic structural carbons with K(oc) illustrates the influence of nonpolar hydrocarbon on solute partition interaction. Additional elemental analysis data of selected samples further substantiate the effect of the organic matter polarity on the partition efficiency of nonpolar solutes. The separation between soil and sediment samples based on percent POC reflects definite differences of the properties of soil and sediment organic matters that are attributable to diagenesis.Polarities of the soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment samples were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct

  5. Can spin-polarized photoemission measure spin properties in condensed matter?

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Jürg

    2012-05-01

    Photoemitted electrons move in a vacuum; their quantum state can be completely characterized in terms of energy, momentum and spin polarization by spin-polarized photoemission experiments. A review article in this issue by Heinzmann and Dil (2012 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 173001) considers whether the measured spin properties, i.e. the magnitude and direction of the spin polarization vector, can be traced back to the quantum state from which these electrons originate. The careful conclusion is that they can, which is highly relevant in view of the current interest in these experiments and their application to topological insulators, where the spin-orbit interaction produces spin-polarized surface states. PMID:22481567

  6. Spin-polarized neutron matter: Critical unpairing and BCS-BEC precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the critical magnetic field required for complete destruction of S -wave pairing in neutron matter, thereby setting limits on the pairing and superfluidity of neutrons in the crust and outer core of magnetars. We find that for fields B ≥1017 G the neutron fluid is nonsuperfluid—if weaker spin 1 superfluidity does not intervene—a result with profound consequences for the thermal, rotational, and oscillatory behavior of magnetars. Because the dineutron is not bound in vacuum, cold dilute neutron matter cannot exhibit a proper BCS-BEC crossover. Nevertheless, owing to the strongly resonant behavior of the n n interaction at low densities, neutron matter shows a precursor of the BEC state, as manifested in Cooper-pair correlation lengths being comparable to the interparticle distance. We make a systematic quantitative study of this type of BCS-BEC crossover in the presence of neutron fluid spin polarization induced by an ultrastrong magnetic field. We evaluate the Cooper-pair wave function, quasiparticle occupation numbers, and quasiparticle spectra for densities and temperatures spanning the BCS-BEC crossover region. The phase diagram of spin-polarized neutron matter is constructed and explored at different polarizations.

  7. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  8. Quark matter in a parallel electric and magnetic field background: Chiral phase transition and equilibration of chiral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, M.; Peng, G. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for quark matter in the background of static and homogeneous parallel electric field E and magnetic field B . We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a local kernel interaction to compute the relevant quantities to describe chiral symmetry breaking at a finite temperature for a wide range of E and B . We study the effect of this background on the inverse catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking for E and B of the same order of magnitude. We then focus on the effect of the equilibration of chiral density n5 , produced dynamically by an axial anomaly on the critical temperature. The equilibration of n5 , a consequence of chirality-flipping processes in the thermal bath, allows for the introduction of the chiral chemical potential μ5, which is computed self-consistently as a function of the temperature and field strength by coupling the number equation to the gap equation and solving the two within an expansion in E /T2 , B /T2 , and μ52/T2 . We find that even if chirality is produced and equilibrates within a relaxation time τM , it does not change drastically the thermodynamics, with particular reference to the inverse catalysis induced by the external fields, as long as the average μ5 at equilibrium is not too large.

  9. Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei

    2005-04-01

    We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, ω, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap Δ, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For ω≪2Δ, a phonon corresponding to fluctuations in the U(1) phase of Δ appears as a sharp peak in the particle-particle (“H”) channel. We reproduce the property known from low-energy effective theories that this mode propagates at a velocity of vH=1/√(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant fH obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches ω=2Δ. Above the threshold for pair excitations (ω>2Δ), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how Landau damping smears the phonon peak in the finite

  10. Einstein's Gravitational Field Approach to Dark Matter and Dark Energy-Geometric Particle Decay into the Vacuum Energy Generating Higgs Boson and Heavy Quark Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Walter James

    2015-08-01

    During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, "according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field" [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.

  11. Reverse-phase HPLC method for measuring polarity distributions of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Namjesnik-Dejanovic, Ksenija; Cabaniss, Stephen E

    2004-02-15

    A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to measure the polarity distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) samples. The polarity distribution is obtained by calibrating an octadecyl bonded silica phase column and polar eluent with compounds of known octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and using this calibration curve to transform NOM retention times into an equivalent Kow. Polarity distributions treat the NOM samples as a complex mixture rather than summarizing the polarity in a single number. The method is sensitive, with UV detection allowing quantitation of samples with <5 mg of C/L. Individual chromatograms are acquired in <20 min, allowing much faster analysis on smaller samples than XAD resin separation or 13C NMR. Polarity distributions of 10 representative NOM isolates and 2 whole water samples indicate that NOM is generally hydrophilic in nature (log Kow < 2), although XAD-8 isolates are more hydrophobic than RO isolates from the same source. Hydrophilicity, as indicated by recovery from the HPLC column, is correlated to the elemental oxygen/carbon ratio but does not correlate strongly with molecular weight or 13C NMR aromaticity. PMID:14998025

  12. NICA at JINR: New prospects for exploration of quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kekelidze, V. D. Kovalenko, A. D.; Meshkov, I. N.; Sorin, A. S.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2012-05-15

    A new scientific program is proposed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna aimed at studies of hot and dense baryonic matter in the wide energy range from 2 GeV/u kinetic energy in fixed target experiments to {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 - 11 GeV/u in the collider mode. To realize this program the development of the JINR accelerator facility in high-energy physics (HEP) has been started. This facility is based on the existing superconducting synchrotron-the Nuclotron. The program foresees both experiments at the beams extracted from the Nuclotron, and the construction of a heavy-ion collider-the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) which is designed to reach the required parameters with an average luminosity of L = 10{sup 27} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  13. Polarization of top quark as a probe of its chromomagnetic and chromoelectric couplings in tW production at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2015-10-01

    We study the sensitivity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to top quark chromomagnetic (CMDM) and chromoelectric (CEDM) dipole moments and W tb effective couplings in single-top production in association with a W - boson, followed by semileptonic decay of the top. The W t single-top production mode helps to isolate the anomalous ttg and W tb couplings, in contrast to top-pair production and other single-top production modes, where other new-physics effects can also contribute. We calculate the top polarization and the effects of these anomalous couplings on it at two centre-of-mass (cm) energies, 8 TeV and 14 TeV. As a measure of top polarization, we look at decay-lepton angular distributions in the laboratory frame, without requiring reconstruction of the rest frame of the top, and study the effect of the anomalous couplings on these distributions. We construct certain asymmetries to study the sensitivity of these distributions to top-quark couplings. We determine individual limits on the dominant couplings, viz., the real part of the CMDM Re ρ 2, the imaginary part of the CEDM Im ρ 3, and the real part of the tensor W tb coupling Ref2R, which may be obtained by utilizing these asymmetries at the LHC. We also obtain simultaneous limits on pairs of these couplings taking two couplings to be non-zero at a time.

  14. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sato, S. A.; Jakubeit, C.; Latka, T.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Fattahi, H.; Jobst, M.; Schweinberger, W.; Shirvanyan, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Kienberger, R.; Yabana, K.; Karpowicz, N.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.

    2016-06-01

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light–matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible–infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.

  15. Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids.

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Bothschafter, E M; Sato, S A; Jakubeit, C; Latka, T; Razskazovskaya, O; Fattahi, H; Jobst, M; Schweinberger, W; Shirvanyan, V; Yakovlev, V S; Kienberger, R; Yabana, K; Karpowicz, N; Schultze, M; Krausz, F

    2016-06-01

    Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device. PMID:27251280

  16. Search for Charged Strange Quark Matter Produced in 11.5{ital A} GeV/{ital c} Au+Pb Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    De Cataldo, G.; Giglietto, N.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Huang, H.Z.; Hill, J.C.; Hoversten, R.A.; Libby, B.; Wohn, F.K.; Rabin, M.S.; Haridas, P.; Pless, I.A.; Van Buren, G.; Armstrong, T.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Reid, J.D.; Smith, G.A.; Toothacker, W.S.; Davies, R.; Hirsch, A.S.; Porile, N.T.; Rimai, A.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Srivastava, B.K.; Tincknell, M.L.; Lainis, T.; Greene, S.V.; Bennett, S.J.; Cormier, T.M.; Dee, P.; Fachini, P.; Kim, B.; Li, Q.; Munhoz, M.G.; Pruneau, C.A.; Wilson, W.K.; Zhao, K.; Barish, K.N.; Bennett, M.J.; Chikanian, A.; Coe, S.D.; Diebold, G.E.; Finch, L.E.; George, N.K.; Kumar, B.S.; Lajoie, J.G.; Majka, R.D.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Rotondo, F.S.; Sandweiss, J.; Slaughter, A.J.; Wolin, E.J.; Xu, Z.

    1997-11-01

    We present results of a search for strange quark matter (strangelets) in 11.5A GeV /c Au+Pb collisions from the 1994 and 1995 runs of experiment E864 at Brookhaven{close_quote}s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. We observe no strangelet candidates and set a 90{percent} confidence level upper limit of approximately 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} per 10{percent} central interaction for the production of {vert_bar}Z{vert_bar}=1 and {vert_bar}Z{vert_bar}=2 strangelets over a large mass range and with metastable lifetimes of about 50ns or more. These results place constraints primarily on quark-gluon plasma based production models for strangelets. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Current trends in non-accelerator particle physics: 1, Neutrino mass and oscillation. 2, High energy neutrino astrophysics. 3, Detection of dark matter. 4, Search for strange quark matter. 5, Magnetic monopole searches

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yudong |

    1995-07-01

    This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled `Neutrino Mass and Oscillation`, `High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics`, `Detection of Dark Matter`, `Search for Strange Quark Matter`, and `Magnetic Monopole Searches`. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author`s papers.

  18. Accelerating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis of Soil Organic Matter with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, A. E.; Smith, A. N.; Long, J. R.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    13C magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has become an essential tool for discerning the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the technique is limited due to the inherent insensitivity of NMR resulting in long acquisition times, especially for low carbon (C) soil. The pursuits of higher magnetic fields or concentrating C with hydrofluoric acid are limited solutions for signal improvement. Recent advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have addressed the insensitivity of NMR. DNP utilizes the greater polarization of an unpaired electron in a given magnetic field and transfers that polarization to an NMR active nucleus of interest via microwave irradiation. Signal enhancements of up to a few orders of magnitude have been achieved for various DNP experiments. In this novel study, we conduct DNP 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS ssNMR experiments of SOM varying in soil C content and chemical composition. DNP signal enhancements reduce the experiment run time allowing samples with low C to be analyzed in hours rather than days. We compare 13C CP MAS ssNMR of SOM with multiple magnetic field strengths, hydrofluoric acid treatment, and novel DNP approaches. We also explore DNP surface enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (SENP) to determine the surface chemistry of SOM. The presented results and future DNP MAS ssNMR advances will lead to further understanding of the nature and processes of SOM.

  19. Measurement of W-Boson Polarization in Top-quark Decay in ppbar Collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-03-01

    We report measurements of the polarization of W bosons from top-quark decays using 2.7 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected by the CDF II detector. Assuming a top-quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2}, three measurements are performed. A simultaneous measurement of the fraction of longitudinal (f{sub 0}) and right-handed (f{sub +}) W bosons yields the model-independent results f{sub 0} = 0.88 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst) and f{sub +} = -0.15 {+-} 0.07(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst) with a correlation coefficient of -0.59. A measurement of f{sub 0} (f{sub +}) constraining f{sub +} (f{sub 0}) to its standard model value of 0.0 (0.7) yields f{sub 0} = 0.70 {+-} 0.07(stat) {+-} 0.04(syst) (f{sub +} = 0.01 {+-} 0.02(stat) {+-} 0.05(syst)). All these results are consistent with standard model expectations.

  20. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O L; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; 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Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brost, E; Brown, G; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; 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Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Cirkovic, P; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coelli, S; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Colas, J; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; 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Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-12-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7  fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s=7  TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of α(ℓ)P, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, α(ℓ)P(CPC)=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and α(ℓ)P(CPV)=0.020±0.016(stat)(-0.017)(+0.013)(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization. PMID:24476258

  1. Antimatter and Dark Matter Search in Space: BESS-Polar Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Yamamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The apex of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007-2008 Austral Summer, that obtained 24.5 days of data on over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events. The US-Japan BESS Collaboration uses elementary particle measurements to study the early Universe and provides fundamental data on the spectra of light cosmic-ray elements and isotopes. BESS measures the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic sources, such as dark-matter candidates, and searches for heavier anti-nuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed during symmetry breaking processes in the early Universe. Since 1993, BESS has carried out eleven high-latitude balloon flights, two of long duration, that together have defined the study of antiprotons below about 4 GeV, provided standard references for light element and isotope spectra, and set the most sensitive limits on the existence of anti-deuterons and anti-helium, The BESS-Polar II flight took place at Solar Minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. The rich BESS-Polar II dataset more than doubles the combined data from all earlier BESS flights and has 10-20 times the statistics of BESS data from the previous Solar Minimum. Here, we summarize the scientific results of BESS program, focusing on the results obtained using data from the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II.

  2. Role of polarity fractions of effluent organic matter in binding and toxicity of silver and copper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Shim, Taeyong; Hur, Jin; Jung, Jinho

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the physicochemical properties of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from industrial and sewage wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the binding and toxicity of Ag and Cu. EfOM was isolated into hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic fractions depending on its polarity, and was characterized by elemental, specific ultraviolet absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses. Our results suggest that the EfOM consists of microbially derived non-humic substances that have lower aromaticity than the Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM). The Freundlich model was better at explaining the binding of Ag and Cu onto both SR-NOM and EfOM than the Langmuir model. In particular, the hydrophilic fractions of sewage EfOM showed higher binding capacities and affinities for Ag and Cu than the corresponding hydrophobic fractions, resulting in better reduction of the acute toxicity of Ag and Cu towards Daphnia magna. However, in the case of both SR-NOM and industrial EfOM, the hydrophobic fractions were more efficient at reducing metal toxicity. These findings suggest that the EfOM has different physicochemical properties compared with NOM and that the binding and toxicity of heavy metals are largely dependent on the polarity fractions of EfOM. PMID:27318731

  3. High affinity sorption domains in soil are blocked by polar soil organic matter components.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Perry J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-01-01

    Reported correlations between organic contaminant sorption affinity and soil organic matter (OM) structure vary widely, suggesting the importance of OM physical conformation and accessibility. Batch equilibration experiments were used to examine the sorption affinity of bisphenol A, atrazine, and diuron to five soils of varying OM composition. (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic carbon chemistry of the soil samples. High sorption by a soil low in O-alkyl components suggested that these structures may block high affinity sorption sites in soil OM. As such, soil samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis, and NMR results showed a decrease in the O-alkyl carbon signal intensity for all soils. Subsequent sorption experiments revealed that organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficient (K(OC)) values increased for all three contaminants. Before hydrolysis, K(OC) values correlated positively with soil aromatic carbon content and negatively with polar soil O-alkyl carbon content. While these correlations were weaker after hydrolysis, the correlation between K(OC) values and soil alkyl carbon content improved. This study suggests that hydrolyzable O-alkyl soil OM components may block high affinity sorption sites and further highlights the importance of OM physical conformation and accessibility with respect to sorption processes. PMID:23206246

  4. Impacts of Polar Changes on the UV-induced Mineralization of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Sulzberger, Barbara; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Local climates in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are influenced by Arctic Amplification and by interactions of the Antarctic ozone hole with climate change, respectively. Polar changes may affect hydroclimatic conditions in temperate regions, for example, by increasing the length and intensity of precipitation events at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Additionally, global warming has led to the thawing of ancient permafrost soils, particularly in Arctic regions, due to Arctic Amplification. Both heavy precipitation events and thawing of permafrost are increasing the net transfer of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land to surface waters. In aquatic ecosystems, UV-induced oxidation of terrigenous DOM (tDOM) produces atmospheric CO2 and this process is one of several mechanisms by which natural organic matter in aquatic and soil environments may play an important role in climate feedbacks. The Arctic is particularly affected by these processes: for example, melting of Arctic sea ice allows solar UV radiation to penetrate into the ice-free Arctic Ocean and to cause photochemical reactions that result in bleaching and mineralization of tDOM. Open questions, in addition to those shown in the Graphical Abstract, remain regarding the resulting contributions of tDOM photomineralization to CO2 production and global warming. PMID:27110903

  5. Search for a dark matter candidate produced in association with a single top quark in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anza, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2012-02-01

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb{sup -1} of Tevatron p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process p{bar p} {yields} t + D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0 - 150 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  6. Search for the Production of Dark Matter in Association with Top-Quark Pairs in the Single-Lepton Final State in Proton-Proton Collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    A search is presented for particle dark matter produced in association with a pair of top quarks in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s√=8 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. This search requires the presence of one lepton, multiple jets, and large missing transverse energy. No excess of events is found above the SM expectation, and upper limits are derived on the production cross section. Interpreting the findings in the context of a scalar contact interaction between fermionic dark matter particles and topmore » quarks, lower limits on the interaction scale are set. These limits are also interpreted in terms of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for the spin-independent scalar operator and they complement direct searches for dark matter particles in the low mass region.« less

  7. Search for the Production of Dark Matter in Association with Top-Quark Pairs in the Single-Lepton Final State in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    A search is presented for particle dark matter produced in association with a pair of top quarks in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s√=8 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. This search requires the presence of one lepton, multiple jets, and large missing transverse energy. No excess of events is found above the SM expectation, and upper limits are derived on the production cross section. Interpreting the findings in the context of a scalar contact interaction between fermionic dark matter particles and top quarks, lower limits on the interaction scale are set. These limits are also interpreted in terms of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for the spin-independent scalar operator and they complement direct searches for dark matter particles in the low mass region.

  8. Search for the production of dark matter in association with top-quark pairs in the single-lepton final state in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M. Vidal; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Reis Martins, T. Dos; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Tziaferi, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Trapani, P. P.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, D. H.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. 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R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. 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W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-06-01

    A search is presented for particle dark matter produced in association with a pair of top quarks in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. This search requires the presence of one lepton, multiple jets, and large missing transverse energy. No excess of events is found above the SM expectation, and upper limits are derived on the production cross section. Interpreting the findings in the context of a scalar contact interaction between fermionic dark matter particles and top quarks, lower limits on the interaction scale are set. These limits are also interpreted in terms of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for the spin-independent scalar operator and they complement direct searches for dark matter particles in the low mass region. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Search for a Dark Matter Candidate Produced in Association with a Single Top Quark in pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anzá, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; et al

    2012-05-15

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb⁻¹ of Tevatron pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp̄→t+D as a function of the massmore » of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0–150 GeV/c².« less

  10. Search for a Dark Matter Candidate Produced in Association with a Single Top Quark in pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anzá, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuks, B.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

    2012-05-15

    We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb⁻¹ of Tevatron pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp̄→t+D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0–150 GeV/c².

  11. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark-gluon plasma with fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-09-01

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark-gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark-gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  12. Exotic heavy-quark states at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Belle Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The search for multi-quark states beyond the meson (quark-antiquark) and baryon (three-quark) has resulted in the discovery of many new exotic states of matter, starting with the X(3872) discovery by Belle in 2003. We report selected recent results on searches for such states at Belle. supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

  13. To be or not to be oblate: the shape of the dark matter halo in polar ring galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoperskov, S. A.; Moiseev, A. V.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.

    2014-07-01

    With the aim of determining the spatial distribution of the dark matter halo, we investigate two polar ring galaxies, NGC 4262 and SPRC-7. For both galaxies, the stellar kinematics data for the central galaxy were obtained from optical spectroscopy at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Information about polar gaseous components was taken from optical three-dimensional spectroscopic observations of ionized gas (for SPRC-7) and from H I radio observations (for NGC 4262). SPRC-7 is a system with a relative angle δ = 73° towards the central galaxy and quite a massive stellar-gaseous polar component. Meanwhile, NGC 4262 is a classic polar case with δ = 88°, where the polar ring mainly consists of neutral gas with a negligible stellar contribution to the mass. Thus, we are dealing with two different systems, and the results are also diverse. The observed properties of both galaxies were compared with the results of self-consistent simulations of velocity fields of the polar component along with the rotation curve of the central lenticular galaxy. For SPRC-7, we have found a slightly flattened halo towards the polar plane with the axial ratio c/a ≃ 1.7 ± 0.2 for the isothermal halo model and c/a ≃ 1.5 ± 0.2 for the NFW model. NGC 4262 is more unusual, because the shape of the dark matter distribution varies strongly with radius. That is, the dark matter halo is flattened in the vicinity of the galactic disc (c/a ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1), but it is prolate far beyond the central galaxy (c/a ≈ 1.7 for the isothermal halo model and c/a ≈ 2.3 for the NFW model).

  14. Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter Enhances Th17 Polarization through the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    van Voorhis, Michael; Knopp, Samantha; Julliard, Walker; Fechner, John H.; Zhang, Xiaoji; Schauer, James J.; Mezrich, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Lung diseases, including asthma, COPD, and other autoimmune lung pathologies are aggravated by exposure to particulate matter (PM) found in air pollution. IL-17 has been shown to exacerbate airway disease in animal models. As PM is known to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and the AHR has recently been shown to play a role in differentiation of Th17 T cells, the aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to PM could impact Th17 polarization in an AHR-dependent manner. This study used both cell culture techniques and in vivo exposure in mice to examine the response of T cells to PM. Initially experiments were conducted with urban dust particles from a standard reference material, and ultimately repeated with freshly collected samples of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke. The readout for the assays was increased T cell differentiation as indicated by increased generation of IL-17A in culture, and increased populations of IL-17 producing cells by intracellular flow cytometry. The data illustrate that Th17 polarization was significantly enhanced by addition of urban dust in a dose dependent fashion in cultures of wild-type but not AHR-/- mice. The data further suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons played a primary role in this enhancement. There was both an increase of Th17 cell differentiation, and also an increase in the amount of IL-17 secreted by the cells. In summary, this paper identifies a novel mechanism whereby PM can directly act on the AHR in T cells, leading to enhanced Th17 differentiation. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathologic Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity seen after exposure to pollution will allow direct targeting of proteins involved in AHR activation and function for treatment of PM exposures. PMID:24349309

  15. Stability of Quark Star Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M., Azam; S. A., Mardan; M. A., Rehman

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of quark stars with four different types of inner matter configurations; isotropic, charged isotropic, anisotropic and charged anisotropic by using the concept of cracking. For this purpose, we have applied local density perturbations technique to the hydrostatic equilibrium equation as well as on physical parameters involved in the model. We conclude that quark stars become potentially unstable when inner matter configuration is changed and electromagnetic field is applied.

  16. Unexpected manifestation of quark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    A comparative analysis of some quark ensembles governed by a four-fermion interaction is performed. Arguments in support of the statement that the presence of a gas-liquid phase transition is a feature peculiar to them are adduced. The instability of small quark droplets is discussed and is attributed to the formation of a chiral soliton. The stability of baryon matter is due to a mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter.

  17. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  18. Nucleon transverse spin structure in the valence quark region: Probing color forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziani, Zein-Eddine

    2016-03-01

    The first direct observation that protons are not elementary objects and the discovery that their constituents, dubbed ``partons'', are point-like particles made use of elastic and deep inelastic (DIS) scattering of electrons off protons, respectively. With the advent of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of strong interactions, partons were identified as quarks and gluons and an intensive theoretical effort is still underway to grasp the full consequences of this theory. Recently scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab using a 6 GeV polarized electron beam and polarized targets at high luminosity have allowed us to delve deeper into the role of partons dynamics in the nucleon (proton and neutron). These studies of dynamics in the valence quark region are helping us unravel the rich but elusive structure of the confined building blocks of matter and impacting our understanding of the non-perturbative aspects of QCD through comparisons with lattice QCD and models. I will present recent results of measurements of the average color electric and magnetic forces acting on the struck quark in a proton, due to the remnant ``di-quark'' as it start its journey to emerge as a hadron. A flavor separation of the color force acting on the up and down quarks is carried out by combining measurements on polarized protons and neutrons. I will conclude by describing the planned measurements with the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Lab to complete our picture of nucleon transverse spin structure in the valence region.

  19. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  20. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production in d+Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S

    2012-12-14

    The PHENIX experiment has measured electrons and positrons at midrapidity from the decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks produced in d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV in the transverse-momentum range 0.85 ≤ p(T)(e) ≤ 8.5 GeV/c. In central d+Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor R(dA) at 1.5matter effects on light- and heavy-flavor mesons could contribute to the observed differences between the π(0) and heavy-flavor-electron nuclear modification factors R(AA). PMID:23368311

  1. EMC and polarized EMC effects in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; Wolfgang Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2006-05-23

    We determine nuclear structure functions and quark distributions for {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 15}N and {sup 27}Al. For the nucleon bound state we solve the covariant quark-diquark equations in a confining Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which yields excellent results for the free nucleon structure functions. The nucleus is described using a relativistic shell model, including mean scalar and vector fields that couple to the quarks in the nucleon. The nuclear structure functions are then obtained as a convolution of the structure function of the bound nucleon with the light-cone nucleon distributions. We find that we are readily able to reproduce the EMC effect in finite nuclei and confirm earlier nuclear matter studies that found a large polarized EMC effect.

  2. Gluonic structure of the constituent quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelev, Nikolai; Lee, Hee-Jung; Zhang, Baiyang; Zhang, Pengming

    2016-06-01

    Based on both the constituent quark picture and the instanton model for QCD vacuum, we calculate the unpolarized and polarized gluon distributions in the constituent quark and in the nucleon. Our approach consists of the two main steps. At the first step, we calculate the gluon distributions inside the constituent quark generated by the perturbative quark-gluon interaction, the non-perturbative quark-gluon interaction, and the non-perturbative quark-gluon-pion anomalous chromomagnetic interaction. The non-perturbative interactions are related to the existence of the instantons, strong topological fluctuations of gluon fields, in the QCD vacuum. At the second step, the convolution model is applied to derive the gluon distributions in the nucleon. A very important role of the pion field in producing the unpolarized and the polarized gluon distributions in the hadrons is discovered. We discuss a possible solution of the proton spin problem.

  3. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  4. Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at √{s }=7 T e V using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. 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M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawade, K.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-Zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. 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M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced t and t ¯ quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=7 TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles θ1 and θ2 between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the t t ¯ rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of cos θ1.cos θ2 is sensitive to the spin correlation between the t and t ¯ quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.

  5. Investigation of the field-induced ferromagnetic phase transition in spin-polarized neutron matter: A lowest order constrained variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Rezaei, Z.; Montakhab, Afshin

    2011-04-15

    In this article, the lowest order constrained variational method is used to investigate the magnetic properties of spin-polarized neutron matter in the presence of strong magnetic field at zero temperature employing the AV{sub 18} potential. Our results indicate that a ferromagnetic phase transition is induced by a strong magnetic field with strength greater than 10{sup 18} G, leading to a partial spin polarization of the neutron matter. It is also shown that the equation of state of neutron matter in the presence of a magnetic field is stiffer than in the absence of a magnetic field.

  6. The anomalous solid state decomposition of ammonium dinitramide: a matter of surface polarization.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Brinck, Tore

    2009-05-28

    Polarized dinitramide anions on the surface of solid ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have a decomposition barrier that is reduced by 16 kcal mol(-1) and explain the anomalous solid state decomposition of ADN. PMID:19436902

  7. Signatures of field induced spin polarization of neutron star matter in seismic vibrations of paramagnetic neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Yang, J.; Podgainy, D. V.; Weber, F.

    2003-04-01

    A macroscopic model of the dissipative magneto-elastic dynamics of viscous spin polarized nuclear matter is discussed in the context of seismic activity of a paramagnetic neutron star. The source of the magnetic field of such a star is attributed to Pauli paramagnetism of baryon matter promoted by a seed magnetic field frozen into the star in the process of gravitational collapse of a massive progenitor. Particular attention is given to the effect of shear viscosity of incompressible stellar material on the timing of non-radial torsional magneto-elastic pulsations of the star triggered by starquakes. By accentuating the fact that this kind of vibration is unique to the seismology of a paramagnetic neutron star we show that the high-frequency modes decay faster than the low-frequency modes. The obtained analytic expressions for the period and relaxation time of this mode, in which the magnetic susceptibility and viscosity enter as input parameters, are then quantified by numerical estimates for these parameters taken from early and current works on transport coefficients of dense matter. It is found that the effect of viscosity is crucial for the lifetime of magneto-torsion vibrations but it does not appreciably affect the periods of this seismic mode which fall in the realm of periods of pulsed emission of soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous x-ray pulsars - young super-magnetized neutron stars, radiating, according to the magnetar model, at the expense of the magnetic energy release. Finally, we present arguments that the long periodic pulsed emission of these stars in a quiescent regime of radiation can be interpreted as a manifestation of weakly damped seismic magneto-torsion vibrations exhibiting the field induced spin polarization of baryon matter.

  8. Massive Compact Stars as Quark Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário; Barbosa Duarte, Sérgio; de Oliveira, José Carlos T.

    2011-03-01

    High-mass compact stars have been reported recently in the literature, providing strong constraints on the properties of the ultra dense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. In view of these results, the calculations of quark star or hybrid star equilibrium structure must be compatible with the provided observational data. But since the equations of state used in describing quark matter are in general too soft in comparison with the equation of states used to describe the hadronic or nuclear matter, the calculated quark star models presented in the literature are in general not suitable to explain the stability of highly-compact massive objects. In this work, we present the calculations of a spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state that takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. The quark matter behavior introduced by this model stiffens the corresponding equation of state. We thus investigate the influence of this model on the mass-radius diagram of quark stars. We obtain massive quark stars due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when a reasonable parameterization of the color superconducting gap is used. Models of quark stars enveloped by a nucleonic crust composed of a nuclear lattice embedded in an electron gas, with nuclei close to neutron drip line, are also discussed.

  9. Getting to the root of plant iron uptake and cell-cell transport: Polarity matters!

    PubMed Central

    Dubeaux, Guillaume; Zelazny, Enric; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins play pivotal roles in mediating responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Regulation of membrane protein levels and establishment of polarity are fundamental for many cellular processes. In plants, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the major root iron transporter but is also responsible for the absorption of other divalent metals such as manganese, zinc and cobalt. We recently uncovered that IRT1 is polarly localized to the outer plasma membrane domain of plant root epidermal cells upon depletion of its secondary metal substrates. The endosome-recruited FYVE1 protein interacts with IRT1 in the endocytic pathway and plays a crucial role in the establishment of IRT1 polarity, likely through its recycling to the cell surface. Our work sheds light on the mechanisms of radial transport of nutrients across the different cell types of plant roots toward the vascular tissues and raises interesting parallel with iron transport in mammals. PMID:26479146

  10. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  11. Physics of the Charm Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Elsa Fabiola

    2006-09-25

    This is a brief summary about the development of the charm quark physics in the area of experimental physics. The summary is centered in what is done by mexican physicists, particularly in the E791 and the FOCUS Experiment at FERMILAB. FOCUS (or E831) was designed to detect states of matter combining one or more charm quarks with light quarks (strange, up, down). The experiment created 10 times as many such particles as in previous experiments and investigated several topics on charm physics including high precision studies of charm semileptonic decays, studies of hadronic charm decays (branching ratios and Daltiz analyses), lifetime measurements of all charm particles, searches for mixing, CP/CPT violation, rare and forbidden decays, spectroscopy of excited charm mesons and baryons, charm production asymmetry measurements, light quark diffractive studies, QCD studies using charm pair events and searches for and upper limits on: charm pentaquarks, double charm baryons, DSJ(2632)

  12. Transverse Force on Quarks in DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The $x^2$-moment of the twist-3 polarized parton distribution $g_2(x)$ is related to the transverse force acting on the active quark in deep-inelastic scattering off a transversely polarized nucleon immediately after it has absorbed the virtual photon. Lattice calculations of the corresponding matrix element as well as experimental measurements of $g_2(x)$ are used to estimate sign and magnitude of this force. Similarly, the $x^2$-moment of the chirally odd twist-3 unpolarized parton distribution $e(x)$ can be related to the transverse force experienced by a transversely polarized quark ejected from a transversely polarized nucleon.

  13. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  14. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-12-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Melting hadrons, boiling quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.

  16. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  17. Hybrid neutron stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model and various quark-gluon vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2015-05-01

    We study cold dense quark matter and hybrid neutron stars with a Dyson-Schwinger quark model and various choices of the quark-gluon vertex. We obtain the equation of state of quark matter in beta equilibrium and investigate the hadron-quark phase transition in combination with a hadronic equation of state derived within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory. Comparing with the results for quark matter within the rainbow approximation, the Ball-Chiu (BC) Ansatz and the 1BC Ansatz for the quark-gluon vertex lead to a reduction of the effective interaction at finite chemical potential, qualitatively similar to the effect of our gluon propagator. We find that the phase transition and the equation of state of the quark or mixed phase and consequently the resulting hybrid star mass and radius depend mainly on a global reduction of the effective interaction due to effects of both the quark-gluon vertex and gluon propagator, but are not sensitive to details of the vertex Ansatz.

  18. Microstructural Analysis of Human White Matter Architecture Using Polarized Light Imaging: Views from Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Axer, Hubertus; Beck, Sindy; Axer, Markus; Schuchardt, Friederike; Heepe, Jörn; Flücken, Anja; Axer, Martina; Prescher, Andreas; Witte, Otto W.

    2011-01-01

    To date, there are several methods for mapping connectivity, ranging from the macroscopic to molecular scales. However, it is difficult to integrate this multiply-scaled data into one concept. Polarized light imaging (PLI) is a method to quantify fiber orientation in gross histological brain sections based on the birefringent properties of the myelin sheaths. The method is capable of imaging fiber orientation of larger-scale architectural patterns with higher detail than diffusion MRI of the human brain. PLI analyses light transmission through a gross histological section of a human brain under rotation of a polarization filter combination. Estimates of the angle of fiber direction and the angle of fiber inclination are automatically calculated at every point of the imaged section. Multiple sections can be assembled into a 3D volume. We describe the principles of PLI and present several studies of fiber anatomy as a synopsis of PLI: six brainstems were serially sectioned, imaged with PLI, and 3D reconstructed. Pyramidal tract and lemniscus medialis were segmented in the PLI datasets. PLI data from the internal capsule was related to results from confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is a method of smaller scale fiber anatomy. PLI fiber architecture of the extreme capsule was compared to macroscopical dissection, which represents a method of larger-scale anatomy. The microstructure of the anterior human cingulum bundle was analyzed in serial sections of six human brains. PLI can generate highly resolved 3D datasets of fiber orientation of the human brain and has high comparability to diffusion MR. To get additional information regarding axon structure and density, PLI can also be combined with classical histological stains. It brings the directional aspects of diffusion MRI into the range of histology and may represent a promising tool to close the gap between larger-scale diffusion orientation and microstructural histological analysis of connectivity. PMID

  19. Probing Sea Quarks and Gluons: The Electron-Ion Collider Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    The 21st century holds great promise for reaching a new era for unlocking the mysteries of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the nucleons inside it governed by the theory of strong interactions (QCD). In particular, much remains to be learned about the dynamical basis of the structure of hadrons and nuclei in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons. One of the main goals of existing and nearly completed facilities is to map out the spin flavor structure of the nucleons in the valence region. A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would be the world's first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world's first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge.

  20. Electrically charged strange quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanco; Weber, Fridolin; Malheiro, Manuel; Usov, Vladimir

    2009-10-15

    The possible existence of compact stars made of absolutely stable strange quark matter--referred to as strange stars--was pointed out by Witten almost a quarter of a century ago. One of the most amazing features of such objects concerns the possible existence of ultrastrong electric fields on their surfaces, which, for ordinary strange matter, is around 10{sup 18} V/cm. If strange matter forms a color superconductor, as expected for such matter, the strength of the electric field may increase to values that exceed 10{sup 19} V/cm. The energy density associated with such huge electric fields is on the same order of magnitude as the energy density of strange matter itself, which, as shown in this paper, alters the masses and radii of strange quark stars at the 15% and 5% levels, respectively. Such mass increases facilitate the interpretation of massive compact stars, with masses of around 2M{sub {center_dot}}, as strange quark stars.

  1. Single top quark production and Vtb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2010-09-01

    Single top quark production via the electroweak interaction was observed by the D0 and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab. Multivariate analysis techniques are employed to extract the small single top quark signal. The combined Tevatron cross section is 2.76{sub -0.47}{sup +0.58} pb. This corresponds to a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}| of 0.77. Also reported are measurements of the t-channel cross section, the top quark polarization in single top quark events, and limits on gluon-quark flavor-changing neutral currents and W{prime} boson production.

  2. Characterizing the compositional variation of dissolved organic matter over hydrophobicity and polarity using fluorescence spectra combined with principal component analysis and two-dimensional correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Su, Ben-Sheng; Qu, Zhen; He, Xiao-Song; Song, Ying-Hao; Jia, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from three leachates with different landfill ages was fractionated, and its compositional variation based on hydrophobicity and polarity was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectra combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation technique. The results showed that the bulk DOM and its fractions were comprised of tryosine-, tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances. Tyrosine-like matter was dominant in the young leachate DOM and its fractions, while tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances were the main components in the intermediate and old leachate DOMs and their fractions. Tryosine-, tryptophan-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances varied concurrently with the hydrophobicity and polarity. However, the change ratio of these substances was different for the three leachates. Tyrosine-like matter, humic-like materials, and fulvic-like substances were the most sensitive to the hydrophobicity and polarity in the young, intermediate, and old leachates, respectively. Such an integrated approach jointly enhances the characterization of the hydrophobicity- and polarity-dependent DOM fractions and provides a promising way to elucidate the environmental behaviors of different DOM species. PMID:26841775

  3. HDAC inhibition prevents white matter injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the GSK3β/PTEN/Akt axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Shi, Yejie; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Leak, Rehana K; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yun; Pu, Hongjian; Li, Wei-Wei; Tang, Bo; Wang, Yun; Gao, Yanqin; Zheng, Ping; Bennett, Michael V L; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits destruction of both gray and white matter, which is exacerbated by secondary proinflammatory responses. Although white matter injury (WMI) is strongly correlated with poor neurological status, the maintenance of white matter integrity is poorly understood, and no current therapies protect both gray and white matter. One candidate approach that may fulfill this role is inhibition of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we demonstrate that the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid protects white matter up to 35 d after TBI, as shown by reductions in abnormally dephosphorylated neurofilament protein, increases in myelin basic protein, anatomic preservation of myelinated axons, and improved nerve conduction. Furthermore, Scriptaid shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the protective M2 phenotype and mitigated inflammation. In primary cocultures of microglia and oligodendrocytes, Scriptaid increased expression of microglial glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylated and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), thereby enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling and polarizing microglia toward M2. The increase in GSK3β in microglia and their phenotypic switch to M2 was associated with increased preservation of neighboring oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with recent findings that microglial phenotypic switching modulates white matter repair and axonal remyelination and highlight a previously unexplored role for HDAC activity in this process. Furthermore, the functions of GSK3β may be more subtle than previously thought, in that GSK3β can modulate microglial functions via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and preserve white matter homeostasis. Thus, inhibition of HDACs in microglia is a potential future therapy in TBI and other neurological conditions with white matter destruction. PMID:25691750

  4. Vector dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny; Yaylali, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider monojet searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for spin-1 dark matter that interacts with quarks through a contact operator. If the dark matter particles are produced with longitudinal polarizations, then the production matrix element is enhanced by factors of the energy. We show that this particularly effective search strategy can test models for which the energy suppression scale of the operator is as large as 105 TeV . As such, these searches can probe a large class of models for which the contact-operator approximation is valid. We find that for contact operators that permit velocity-independent dark matter-nucleon scattering, LHC monojet searches for spin-1 dark matter are competitive with or far surpass direct-detection searches depending on whether the scattering is spin independent or spin dependent, respectively.

  5. Search for dark matter produced in association with a Higgs boson decaying to two bottom quarks in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from 20.3 fb-1 of p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The decay of the Higgs boson is reconstructed as a high-momentum b b ¯ system with either a pair of small-radius jets, or a single large-radius jet with substructure. The observed data are found to be consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Model-independent upper limits are placed on the visible cross sections for events with a Higgs boson decaying into b b ¯ and large missing transverse momentum with thresholds ranging from 150 to 400 GeV. Results are interpreted using a simplified model with a Z' gauge boson decaying into different Higgs bosons predicted in a two-Higgs-doublet model, of which the heavy pseudoscalar Higgs decays into a pair of dark matter particles. Exclusion limits are also presented for the mass scales of various effective field theory operators that describe the interaction between dark matter particles and the Higgs boson.

  6. Quark-jet model for transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, W.; Kotzinian, A.; Matevosyan, H. H.; Ninomiya, Y.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to describe the hadronization of polarized quarks, we discuss an extension of the quark-jet model to transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. The description is based on a product ansatz, where each factor in the product represents one of the transverse momentum dependent splitting functions, which can be calculated by using effective quark theories. The resulting integral equations and sum rules are discussed in detail for the case of inclusive pion production. In particular, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional momentum sum rules are satisfied naturally in this transverse momentum dependent quark-jet model. Our results are well suited for numerical calculations in effective quark theories and can be implemented in Monte Carlo simulations of polarized quark hadronization processes.

  7. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  8. Fluctuation Probes of Quark Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, Masayuki; Heinz, Ulrich; Mueller, Berndt

    2000-09-04

    The size of the average fluctuations of net baryon number and electric charge in a finite volume of hadronic matter differs widely between the confined and deconfined phases. These differences may be exploited as indicators of the formation of a quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, because fluctuations created in the initial state survive until freeze-out due to the rapid expansion of the hot fireball. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. The parton distributions in nuclei and in polarized nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The emerging information was reviewed on the way quark and anti-quark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. Some implications of the recent data on polarized leptoproduction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Production and decay of heavy top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.P.

    1989-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.

  11. How S-S' Di Quark Pairs Signify an Einstein Constant Dominated Cosmology and Facilitate Reconstruction of Initial Dark Matter Contributions to CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, A. W.

    2006-07-01

    We review the results of a model of how nucleation of a new universe occurs, assuming a di quark identification for soliton-anti soliton constituent parts of a scalar field. The initial potential system employed is semi classical in nature, becoming non-classical at the end of chaotic inflation at the same time cosmological expansion is dominated by the Einstein cosmological constant. The material below is now a proposal, in part accepted as a point of discussion as a white paper (appropriately) submitted to the Dark Energy Task Force, in its mission to advise (through its parent committees) the NSF, NASA and DOE. This was for helping to select both ground-based and space-based techniques for analyzing data as well as recommending the science requirements for a space-based dark energy mission.

  12. Cold-nuclear-matter effects on heavy-quark production at forward and backward rapidity in d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-06-27

    The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6  GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < |y| < 2.0) in d+Au and p + p collisions at √sNN = 200  GeV. In central d+Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter. PMID:25014805

  13. Recent Results on Top-Quark Physics at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Kenneth

    2015-10-23

    We present the most recent measurements on top-quark physics obtained with Tevatron $p\\bar{p}$ collisions recorded by the D0 experiment at $\\sqrt{s}= 1.96$ TeV. The full Run II data set of 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ is analyzed. Both lepton+jets and dilepton channels of top-quark pair production are used to measure the differential and inclusive cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries, the top-quark mass, the spin correlations, and the top-quark polarization.

  14. Collider signature of T-quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Hubisz, Jay; Perelstein, Maxim; Verdier, Patrice; /Lyon, IPN

    2006-10-01

    Little Higgs models with T Parity contain new vector-like fermions, the T-odd quarks or ''T-quarks'', which can be produced at hadron colliders with a QCD-strength cross section. Events with two acoplanar jets and large missing transverse energy provide a simple signature of T-quark production. We show that searches for this signature with the Tevatron Run II data can probe a significant part of the Little Higgs model parameter space not accessible to previous experiments, exploring T-quark masses up to about 400 GeV. This reach covers parts of the parameter space where the lightest T-odd particle can account for the observed dark matter relic abundance. We also comment on the prospects for this search at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  15. The Unquenched Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, E.; Bijker, R.

    2008-10-13

    We present a new generation of unquenched quark models for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, pair creation mechanism. As an application, we study the effect of quark-antiquark pairs on the spin of the proton.

  16. Magnetic moments of JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons using effective quark masses in a chiral constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdhar, Aarti; Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic moments of JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons have been calculated in the chiral constituent quark model (χ CQM ) with explicit results for the contribution coming from the valence quark polarizations, sea quark polarizations, and their orbital angular momentum. Since the JP=3/2+ decuplet baryons have short lifetimes, the experimental information about them is limited. The χ CQM has important implications for chiral symmetry breaking as well as SU(3) symmetry breaking since it works in the region between the QCD confinement scale and the chiral symmetry breaking scale. The predictions in the model not only give a satisfactory fit when compared with the experimental data but also show improvement over the other models. The effect of the confinement on quark masses has also been discussed in detail and the results of χ CQM are found to improve further with the inclusion of effective quark masses.

  17. Top Quark Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; /UC, Riverside

    2006-08-01

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is one of a pair of third-generation quarks in the Standard Model of particle physics. It has charge +2/3e and a mass of 171.4 GeV, about 40 times heavier than its partner, the bottom quark. The CDF and D0 collaborations have identified several hundred events containing the decays of top-antitop pairs in the large dataset collected at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the last four years. They have used these events to measure the top quark's mass to nearly 1% precision and to study other top quark properties. The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model, and knowledge of its value with small uncertainty allows us to predict properties of the as-yet-unobserved Higgs boson. This paper presents the status of the measurements of the top quark mass.

  18. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {<ℓ1|γμ|ℓ2]}/{√{2}[ℓ1|ℓ2]}, and for the other helicity assign |ℓ1>, {<ℓ2|γμ|ℓ1]}/{√{2}<ℓ2|ℓ1>}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the

  19. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  20. Using the Moon As A Low-Noise Seismic Detector For Strange Quark Nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Chui, Talso; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Herrin, Eugene T.; Nakamura, Yosio; Paik, Ho Jung; Penanen, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Doris; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Young, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Strange quark matter made of up, down and strange quarks has been postulated by Witten [1]. Strange quark matter would be nearly charge neutral and would have density of nuclear matter (10(exp 14) gm/cu cm). Witten also suggested that nuggets of strange quark matter, or strange quark nuggets (SQNs), could have formed shortly after the Big Bang, and that they would be viable candidates for cold dark matter. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [2], an SQN may pass through a celestial body releasing detectable seismic energy along a straight line. The Moon, being much quieter seismically than the Earth, would be a favorable place to search for such events. We review previous searches for SQNs to illustrate the parameter space explored by using the Moon as a low-noise detector of SQNs. We also discuss possible detection schemes using a single seismometer, and using an International Lunar Seismic Network.

  1. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  2. Quark distributions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Catara, F.; Sambataro, M. Italy Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita, 95129 Catania )

    1992-08-01

    By making use of a mapping procedure recently proposed, we construct the nucleon image of the one-body quark density operator in the framework of the nonrelativistic quark model of the nucleons. We evaluate the expectation value of this operator in the ground state of the doubly magic nuclei {sup 4}He, {sup 16}O, and {sup 40}Ca described within the nuclear shell model. We analyze the role of quark exchanges between nucleons. We also investigate the effect on the quark density of short-range correlations in the nuclear wave functions as well as of variations in the nucleon size.

  3. Composite quarks and leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Preskill, J.

    1982-01-01

    Calculability of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles is stressed as the primary motivation for constructing models in which quarks and leptons are composite particles. A general strategy for constructing such models is outlined, in which quarks and leptons are kept light compared to their inverse sizes by approximate chiral symmetries. The origin of multiple families is discussed, and an unrealistic model is exhibited which has several generations and a complicated pattern of masses and generation-mixing angles. The new physics responsible for binding quarks and leptons tends to induce various rare processes at rates which are potentially too large.

  4. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  5. Effects of strong interaction on the structure of color-flavor-locked quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J. C. T.; Rodrigues, H.; Duarte, S. B.

    2008-12-15

    The static spherically symmetric quark star structure is calculated by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. Some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, namely, the density-dependent quark mass model. The effects from the strong interaction described by these models can affect the equation of state of the quark matter substantially. In this work we discuss the influence of these effects on the conventional mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state at low densities, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  6. The Quark - A Decade Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  7. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (Rs) was evaluated in microcosms containing -1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing Rs values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM.

  8. Choosing the polarity of the phase-encoding direction in diffusion MRI: Does it matter for group analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Kennis, M.; van Rooij, S.J.H.; Kahn, R.S.; Geuze, E.; Leemans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Notorious for degrading diffusion MRI data quality are so-called susceptibility-induced off-resonance fields, which cause non-linear geometric image deformations. While acquiring additional data to correct for these distortions alleviates the adverse effects of this artifact drastically – e.g., by reversing the polarity of the phase-encoding (PE) direction – this strategy is often not an option due to scan time constraints. Especially in a clinical context, where patient comfort and safety are of paramount importance, acquisition specifications are preferred that minimize scan time, typically resulting in data obtained with only one PE direction. In this work, we investigated whether choosing a different polarity of the PE direction would affect the outcome of a specific clinical research study. To address this methodological question, fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of FreeSurfer brain regions were obtained in civilian and combat controls, remitted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and persistent PTSD patients before and after trauma-focused therapy and were compared between diffusion MRI data sets acquired with different polarities of the PE direction (posterior-to-anterior, PA and anterior-to-posterior, AP). Our results demonstrate that regional FA estimates differ on average in the order of 5% between AP and PA PE data. In addition, when comparing FA estimates between different subject groups for specific cingulum subdivisions, the conclusions for AP and PA PE data were not in agreement. These findings increase our understanding of how one of the most pronounced data artifacts in diffusion MRI can impact group analyses and should encourage users to be more cautious when interpreting and reporting study outcomes derived from data acquired along a single PE direction. PMID:27158586

  9. Top Quark Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A. P.

    2006-11-17

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is one of a pair of third-generation quarks in the Standard Model of particle physics. It has charge +2/3e and a mass of 171.4 GeV, about 40 times heavier than its partner, the bottom quark. The CDF and DO collaborations have identified several hundred events containing the decays of top-antitop pairs in the large dataset collected at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the last four years. They have used these events to measure the top quark's mass to nearly 1% precision and to study other top quark properties. The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model, and knowledge of its value with small uncertainty allows us to predict properties of the as-yet-unobserved Higgs boson. This paper presents the status of the measurements of the top quark mass. It is based on a talk I gave at the Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics in Puerto Rico, May 2006, which also included discussion of measurements of other top quark properties.

  10. Quark structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics involved in the relativistic quark structure of nuclei such as the infinite momentum variables, scaling variables, counting rules, forward-backward variables, thermodynamic-like limit, QCD effects, higher quark bags, confinement, and many unanswered questions.

  11. The Quantum Quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; 1. Introduction; 2. Symmetry; 3. The quantum world; 4. Towards QCD; 5. The one number of QCD; 6. The gregarious gluon; 7. Quarks and hadrons; 8. Quarks under the microscope; 9. Much ado about nothing; 10. Checkerboard QCD; Appendix 1. A QCD chronology; Appendix 2. Greek alphabet and SI prefixes; Appendix 3. Glossary; Appendix 4. Further reading; Index.

  12. Studies of single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Breese; /Mississippi U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present several measurements of single top quark production from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron. The various analyses utilize integrated luminosity ranging from 2.1 to 4.8 fb{sup -1}. The results include the observation of single top production with a combined cross section of 2.76{sub -0.47}{sup +0.58} pb for a top quark mass of 170 GeV/c{sup 2}, as well as measurements of top quark polarization and first evidence for t-channel production.

  13. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robin D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-10-01

    While the top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron, a decade later they still have very little information about the top. As the heaviest particle yet discovered, the top quark is interesting in and of itself, but some speculate that it may play a special role in physics beyond the Standard Model. With Run 2 of the Tevatron well underway, they have the opportunity to study top quark properties with much better sensitivity, and to test whether top quarks behave as predicted by current theories. This article focuses on the basics of top quark physics at the Tevatron, highlighting only a sample of the many recent measurements, as new results are being released monthly, and constantly changing the landscape of our knowledge of top.

  14. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  15. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures.

  16. Compact stars with a quark core within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, C. H.; Schneider, A. S.; Providencia, C.; Marinho, R. M. Jr.

    2010-07-15

    An ultraviolet cutoff dependent on the chemical potential as proposed by Casalbuoni et al. is used in the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The model is applied to the description of stellar quark matter and compact stars. It is shown that with a new cutoff parametrization it is possible to obtain stable hybrid stars with a quark core. A larger cutoff at finite densities leads to a partial chiral symmetry restoration of quark s at lower densities. A direct consequence is the onset of the s quark in stellar matter at lower densities and a softening of the equation of state.

  17. Neutron stars and strange matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    The likelihood is investigated that quark matter with strangeness of order unity resides in neutron stars. In the strong coupling regime near rho/sub 0/ this is found to be unlikely. Considering higher densities where perturbative expansions are used, we find a lower bound to be at 7rho/sub 0/ for the transition density. This is higher than the inferred density of observed neutron stars, and thus the transition to quark matter is precluded. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. QCD tests with polarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Takashi; SLD Collaboration

    1996-09-01

    The authors present three QCD studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, utilizing the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. They performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method. They studied the correlation between the Z{sup 0} spin and the event-plane orientation in polarized Z{sup 0} decays into three jets.

  19. Top Quark Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark has undergone intensive studies. Besides the Tevatron experiments, with the start of the LHC in 2010 a top quark factory started its operation. It is now possible to measure top quark properties simultaneously at four different experiments, namely ATLAS and CMS at LHC and CDF and D0 at Tevatron. Having collected thousands of top quarks each, several top quark properties have been measured precisely, while others are being measured for the first time. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 are presented, using up to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Tevatron and 1.1 fb{sup -1} at the LHC. In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, mass difference, foward backward charge asymmetry, t{bar t} spin correlations, the ratio of branching fractions, W helicity, anomalous couplings, color flow and the search for flavor changing neutral currents are discussed.

  20. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid

  1. Color sextet vector bosons and same-sign top quark pairs at the LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Berger, E. L.; Cao, Q.-H.; Chen, C.-R.; Shaughnessy, G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Tokyo; Northwestern Univ.; Peking Univ.

    2010-12-08

    We investigate the production of beyond-the-standard-model color sextet vector bosons at the Large Hadron Collider and their decay into a pair of same-sign top quarks. We demonstrate that the energy of the charged lepton from the top quark semi-leptonic decay serves as a good measure of the top quark polarization, which, in turn determines the quantum numbers of the boson and distinguishes vector bosons from scalars.

  2. Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.

  3. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  4. To reveal the quark structure of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1996-11-01

    The author presents a overview of some central issues facing strong interaction physics today, with an emphasis on questions that will be addressed in concert by CEBAF at Jefferson Lab and by the new DAPHNE machine at Frascati Lab.

  5. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  6. How is Transversity Related to Helicity for Quarks and Antiquarks Inside the Proton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques

    We consider the quark and antiquark transversity distributions inside a polarized proton and study how they are expected to be related to the corresponding helicity distributions, both in sign and magnitude. Our considerations lead to simple predictions in good agreement with their first determination for light quarks from experimental data. We also give our predictions for the light antiquarks transversity distributions, so far unknown.

  7. Towards the quark-gluon plasma Equation of State with dynamical strange and charm quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Florian; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Müller-Preussker, Michael; Trunin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We present an ongoing project aimed at determining the thermodynamic Equation of State (EoS) of quark-gluon matter from lattice QCD with two generations of dynamical quarks. We employ the Wilson twisted mass implementation for the fermionic fields and the improved Iwasaki gauge action. Relying on T = 0 data obtained by the ETM Collaboration the strange and charm quark masses are fixed at their physical values, while the pion mass takes four values in the range from 470 MeV down to 210 MeV. The temperature is varied within a fixed-lattice scale approach. The values for the pseudocritical temperature are obtained from various observables. For the EoS we show preliminary results for the pure gluonic contribution obtained at the pion mass value 370 MeV, where we can compare with previously obtained results with Nf = 2 degenerate light flavours.

  8. Helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions and composite constituent quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Scopetta, Sergio; Vento, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    An approach, recently proposed to calculate the nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in a constituent quark model (CQM) scenario, in which the constituent quarks are taken as complex systems, is used to obtain helicity-dependent GPDs. They are obtained from the wave functions of the nonrelativistic CQM of Isgur and Karl, convoluted with the helicity-dependent GPDs of the constituent quarks themselves. The latter are modeled by using the polarized structure functions of the constituent quark, the double distribution representation of GPDs, and a phenomenological constituent quark form factor. The present approach permits us to access a kinematical range corresponding to both the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi and the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage regions, for small values of the momentum transfer and of the skewedness parameter. In this kinematical region, the present calculation represents a prerequisite for the evaluation of cross sections relevant to deeply virtual Compton scattering. In particular, we have calculated the leading twist helicity-dependent GPD H-tilde and, from our expressions, its general relations with the nonrelativistic definition of the axial form factor and with the leading twist polarized quark density are consistently recovered.

  9. Fermi-Dirac distributions for quark partons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Miele, G.; Migliore, G.; Soffer, J.; Tibullo, V.

    1994-09-01

    We propose to use Fermi-Dirac distributions for quark and antiquark partons. It allows a fair description of the x-dependence of the very recent NMC data on the proton and neutron structure functions F {2/ p } (x) and F {2/ n } (x) at Q 2=4 GeV2, as well as the CCFR antiquark distributionxbar q(x). We show that one can also use a corresponding Bose-Einstein expression to describe consistently the gluon distribution. The Pauli exclusion principle, which has been identified to explain the flavor asymmetry of the light-quark sea of the proton, is advocated to guide us for making a simple construction of the polarized parton distributions. We predict the spin dependent structure functions g {1/ p } (x) and g {1/ n } (x) in good agreement with EMC and SLAC data. The quark distributions involve some parameters whose values support well the hypothesis that the violation of the quark parton model sum rules is a consequence of the Pauli principle.

  10. The nonlocal chiral quark model and the muon g - 2 problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, A. E.; Radzhabov, A. E.; Shamakhov, F. A.; Zhevlakov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    In the first part of the review we discuss the effective nonlocal approach in the quantum field theory. It concerns primary the historical retrospective of this approach, and than we concentrate on the interaction of matter particles (fermions and bosons) with the (abelian and nonabelian) gauge fields. In the second part of the review we consider the hadronic corrections (vacuum polarization) to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon g - 2 factor discussed within the SUf(2) nonlocal chiral quark model. This is considered in the leading and, partially, in the next-to-leading orders (the effect of the fermion propagator dressing due to pion field) of expansion in small parameter 1/ N c ( N c is the number of colors in QCD).

  11. Rare Down Quark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Kwong-Kwai Humphrey

    1992-01-01

    The rare decays bto sX are sensitive to strong interaction corrections. The effects can be estimated by a renormalization group technique which requires the evaluation of QCD mixing among effective operators. In the dimensional reduction and the naive dimensional regularization methods, there are discrepancies in evaluating the QCD mixing of the four-quark operators with the bto sgamma and bto s+gluon dipole operators. In this thesis, the problem is investigated by considering the contributions of the epsilon -scalar field and the epsilon -dimensional operators that distinguish between the two methods. The discrepancies are shown to come from the epsilon-dimensional four-quark operators in dimensional reduction and not from the epsilon -scalar field. In the decay bto sl^+l^ -, the intermediate of cc pairs in the charm-penguin diagram can form the resonance states J/psi and psi^'. In the published literature, there is a sign discrepancy in the Breit-Wigner amplitude for the resonance effects. Here, the sign difference is settled by considering the unitarity limit of the amplitude in the Argand diagram. The effects of the resonances are quite substantial on the invariant mass spectrum for this decay. However, they are shown to be negligible on the dilepton energy spectrum below 0.95 GeV. The energy spectrum is, thus, more useful than the invariant mass spectrum for measurements of the top -quark mass. The decays Bto K^*X are well modeled by the quark-level decays bto sX. In the quark model, the hadronization is done using a nonrelativistic wave function. In the decay B to K^*gamma, the large K ^* recoil creates an uncertainty in calculating the branching ratio using the quark model. The problem is explored by considering other meson processes where data exist. The data on the pi form factor and the omegapi^0 transition form factor suggest the necessity to retain relativistic spinor and meson normalizations in the quark -model; however, the data do not resolve the

  12. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  13. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  14. A Future Polarized Drell-Yan Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David William

    2015-06-04

    The topic is treated in a series of slides under the following headings: Motivation (Nucleon Spin Puzzle, Quark Orbital Momentum and the Sivers Function, Accessing Sivers via Polarized Drell-Yan (p+p↑ → μ+μ-)); Transition of Seaquest (E906 → E1039) (Building a Polarized proton Target, Status of Polarized Target); and Outlook. The nucleon spin puzzle: when the quark and gluon contributions to the proton spin are evaluated, nearly 50% of the measured spin is missing; lattice QCD calculations indicate as much as 50% may come from quark orbital angular momentum. Sea quarks should carry orbital angular momentum (O.A.M.). The E1039 Polarized Target Drell-Yan Experiment provides opportunity to study possible Sea Quark O.A.M. Data taking is expected to begin in the spring of 2017.

  15. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  16. Prediction of new Quarks, Generations and Quark Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Thedore

    2002-04-01

    The Standard model currently suggests no relationship between the quark and lepton masses. The CBM (model) of the nucleus has resulted in the prediction of two new quarks, an up quark mass of 237.31 MeV/c2 and a dn quark mass of 42.392 MeV/c2. These two new quarks help explain the numerical relationship between all the quark and lepton masses in a single function. The mass of each SNU-P (quark or lepton) is just the geometric mean of two related SNU-Ps, either in the same generation or in the same family. This numerology predicts the following masses for the electron family: 0.511000 (electron), 7.743828 (predicted), 117.3520, 1778.38, 26950.08 MeV. The resulting slope of these masses when plotted on semi log paper is "e" to 5 significant figures using the currently accepted mass for Tau. This theory suggests that all the "dn like" quarks have a mass of just 10X multiples of 4.24 MeV (the mass of the "d" quark). The first 3 "up like" quark masses are 38, 237 and 1500 MeV. This theory also predicts a new heavy generation with a lepton mass of 27 GeV, a "dn like" quark of 42.4 GeV, and an "up like" quark of 65 GeV. Significant evidence already exists for the existence of these quarks, and lepton.

  17. Quark Helicity Distributions at Large Longitudinal Momentum Fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyun Avakian; Stanley Brodsky; Alexandre Deur; Feng Yuan

    2007-08-01

    We study the quark helicity distributions at large $x$ in perturbative QCD, taking into account contributions from the valence Fock states of the nucleon which have nonzero orbital angular momentum. These states are necessary to have a nonzero anomalous magnetic moment. We find that the quark orbital angular momentum contributes a large logarithm to the negative helicity quark distribution in addition to its power behavior, scaling as $(1-x)^5\\log^2(1-x)$ in the limit of $x\\to 1$. Our analysis show that the ratio of the polarized over unpolarized down quark distributions, $\\Delta d/d$, will still approach 1 in this limit. By comparing with the current experimental data, we find that this ratio will cross zero at $x\\approx 0.75$.

  18. Physics with Polarized Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2008-04-30

    Polarized antiprotons will provide access to a wealth of double- (and single-) spin observables, thereby opening a window to physics uniquely accessible with the HESR at FAIR. This include a first direct measurement of the transversity distribution of the valence quarks in the proton and a first measurement of the moduli and phase of the time-like electric and magnetic form factors G{sub E,M} of the proton. Additional applications of a polarized antiproton beam can be forseen in hadron spectroscopy, and nucleon-antinucleon scattering.

  19. The discovery of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    In the period following World War II, there was a rapid development of particle physics. With the construction of synchrotrons and the development of detector technology, many new particles were discovered and the systematics of their interactions investigated. The invention of the bubble chamber played an especially important role in uncovering the rich array of hadrons that were discovered in this period.In 1961 Murray Gell-Mann [1] and Yuval Ne'eman [2] independently introduced a classification scheme, based on SU(3) symmetry, which placed hadrons into families on the basis of spin and parity. Like the periodic table for the elements, this scheme was predictive as well as descriptive, and various hadrons, such as the - , were predicted within this framework and were later discovered.In 1964 Gell-Mann [3] and George Zweig [4] independently proposed quarks as the building blocks of hadrons as a way of generating the SU(3) classification scheme. When the quark model was first proposed, it postulated three types of quarks: up (u), down (d), and strange (s), with charges 2/3, - 1/3, and - 1/3 respectively. Each of these was hypothesized to be a spin1/2 particle. In this model the nucleon (and all other baryons) is made up of three quarks, and each meson consists of a quark and an antiquark. For example, as the proton and neutron both have ero strangeness, they are (u,u,d) and (d,d,u) systems respectively.

  20. Last orbits of binary strange quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota

    2005-03-15

    We present the first relativistic calculations of the final phase of inspiral of a binary system consisting of two stars built predominantly of strange quark matter (strange quark stars). We study the precoalescing stage within the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is either rigidly rotating or irrotational, taking into account the finite density at the stellar surface--a distinctive feature with respect to the neutron star case. The gravitational-radiation driven evolution of the binary system is approximated by a sequence of quasiequilibrium configurations at fixed baryon number and decreasing separation. We find that the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is given by an orbital instability both for synchronized and irrotational systems. This contrasts with neutron stars for which the ISCO is given by the mass-shedding limit in the irrotational case. The gravitational wave frequency at the ISCO, which marks the end of the inspiral phase, is found to be {approx}1400 Hz for two irrotational 1.35 M{sub {center_dot}} strange stars and for the MIT bag model of strange matter with massless quarks and a bag constant B=60 MeV fm{sup -3}. Detailed comparisons with binary neutrons star models, as well as with third order post-Newtonian point-mass binaries are given.

  1. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  2. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  3. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  4. Heavy quark physics in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, G.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The most recent results which concern the heavy quark hadrons done in the CMS experiment are reported. The searching area spans over the heavy quark spectroscopy, production cross sections, beauty meson decay properties, rare decays, and CP violation.

  5. Quark search at the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-03-13

    An experiment to search for quarks at the CBA is described. The cross sections for the production of massive quark-antiquark pairs in nucleon-nucleon interactions is estimated, and the experimental design and procedures are described. (WHK)

  6. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  7. Heavy quarks and nuclei, or the charm & beauty of nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1997-09-22

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following: why heavy quarks? Heavy quarkonium in QCD vacuum and in matter; Phenomenology of quarkonium production; Induced decay of QCD vacuum in heavy ion collisions? Implications for quarkonium production; and Outlook.

  8. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  9. Improving the Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurement at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Han, Zhenyu; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-15

    At the LHC, top quark pairs are dominantly produced from gluons, making it difficult to measure the top quark forward-backward asymmetry. To improve the asymmetry measurement, we study variables that can distinguish between top quarks produced from quarks and those from gluons: the invariant mass of the top pair, the rapidity of the top-antitop system in the lab frame, the rapidity of the top quark in the top-antitop rest frame, the top quark polarization and the top-antitop spin correlation. We combine all the variables in a likelihood discriminant method to separate quark-initiated events from gluon-initiated events. We apply our method on models including G-prime's and W-prime's motivated by the recent observation of a large top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron. We have found that the significance of the asymmetry measurement can be improved by 10% to 30%. At the same time, the central values of the asymmetry increase by 40% to 100%. We have also analytically derived the best spin quantization axes for studying top quark polarization as well as spin-correlation for the new physics models.

  10. Top quark and electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Leone

    2003-11-04

    In 2001 the Tevatron run II began, after a five year period of significant upgrade of the accelerator itself and of the experiments CDF and D0. After a detector commissioning run, the CDF experiment is now taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report in this talk the first preliminary CDF results on top quark and W/Z boson properties, based on run II data. The top quark, discovered in 1995 at the Tevatron, has proven to be a very interesting particle. Its properties allow to perform stringent tests of the Standard Model (SM) and to search for new physics through a deviation from SM predictions. We give here some expectations of what Tevatron run II will ultimately provide to our understanding of matter.

  11. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  12. The quark-hadron transition in cosmology and astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Olive, K A

    1991-03-01

    A transition from normal hadronic matter (such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon matter is expected at both high temperatures and densities. In physical situations, this transition may occur in heavy ion collisions, the early universe, and in the cores of neutron stars. Astrophysics and cosmology can be greatly affected by such a phase transition. With regard to the early universe, big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory describing the primordial origin of the light elements, can be affected by inhomogeneities produced during the transition. A transition to quark matter in the interior by neutron stars further enhances our uncertainties regarding the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star properties such as the maximum mass and rotation frequencies. PMID:17799279

  13. Identification of water-soluble polar organics in air and vehicular emitted particulate matter using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and Capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Yassine, M.; Gebefugi, I.; Hertkorn, N.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aerosols on human health, atmospheric chemistry, and climate are among the central topics in current environmental health research. Detailed and accurate measurements of the chemical composition of air particulate matter (PM) represent a challenging analytical task. Minute sample amounts are usually composed of several main constituents and hundreds of minor and trace constituents. Moreover, the composition of individual particles can be fairly uniform or very different (internally or externally mixed aerosols), depending on their origin and atmospheric aging processes (coagulation, condensation / evaporation, chemical reaction). The aim of the presentation was the characterization of the organic matter (OM) fraction of environmental aerosols which is not accessible by GC-methods, either because of their high molecular weight, their polarity or due to thermal instability. We also describe the main chemical characteristics of complexe oligomeric organic fraction extracted from different aerosols collected in urban and rural area in Germany and Canada. Mass spectrometry (MS) became an essential tool used by many prominent leaders of the biological research community and the importance of MS to the future of biological research is now clearly evident as in the fields of Proteomics and Metabolomics. Especially Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) is an ultrahigh resolution MS that allows new approach in the analysis of complex mixtures. The mass resolution (< 200 ppb) allowed assigning the elemental composition (C, H, O, N, S…) to each of the obtained mass peaks and thus already a description of the mixture in terms of molecular composition. This possibility is used by the authors together with a high resolution separation method of charged compounds: capillary electrophoresis. A CE-ESI-MS method using an ammonium acetate based background electrolyte (pH 4.7) was developed for the determination of isomeric benzoic acids in

  14. Quark nuggets search using gravitational waves aluminum bar detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Up to now there is no evidence of supersymmetric WIMPS dark matter. This may suggests to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets. Nuclearites are an example of compact objects that could be constituent of the dark matter. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER is reported.

  15. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  16. Heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2011-07-15

    One of the most promising probes to study deconfined matter created in high energy nuclear collisions is the energy loss of (heavy) quarks. It has been shown in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that even charm and bottom quarks, despite their high mass, experience a remarkable medium suppression in the quark gluon plasma. In this exploratory investigation we study the energy loss of heavy quarks in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at LHC energies. Although the colliding systems are smaller than compared to those at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (p+p vs Au+Au), the higher energy might lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The interaction of charm quarks with this environment gives rise to a non-negligible suppression of high momentum heavy quarks in elementary collisions. PMID:21838351

  17. Measurement of Λ polarization from Z decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajlatouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Aleppo, M.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    The polarization of Λ baryons from Z decays is studied with the ALEPH apparatus. Evidence of longitudinal polarization of s quarks from Z decay is observed for the first time. The measured longitudinal Λ polarization is PLΛ = -0.32 ± 0.07 for z = {p}/{p beam} > 0.3 . This agrees with the prediction of -0.39 ± 0.08 from the standard model and the constituent quark model, where the error is due to uncertainties in the mechanism for Λ production. The observed Λ polarization is diluted with respect to the primary s quark polarization by Λ baryons without a primary s quark. Measurements of the Λ forward-backward asymmetry and of the correlation between back-to-back Λ overlineΛ pairs are used to check this dilution. In addition the transverse Λ polarization is measured. An indication of transverse polarization, more than two standard deviations away from zero, is found along the normal to the plane defined by the thrust axis and the Λ direction.

  18. Transverse Force on Quarks in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Transverse single-spin asymmetries are not the only observable where the transverse force on quarks in DIS plays a role. For example, higher-twist effects in polarized inclusive DIS can be related to that force. Furthermore the torque due to that force is relevant when comparing the Jaffe-Manohar with the Ji definition for quark orbital angular momentum. I explain the origin of that force in semi-classical pictures and discuss connections and differences with the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  19. Chromohydrodynamic approach to the unstable quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Cristina; Mrówczyński, Stanisław

    2006-11-01

    We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time-scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromohydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler over other approaches and well-designed for numerical studies of the dynamics of an unstable quark-gluon plasma.

  20. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.

  1. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  2. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  3. Seismic search for strange quark nuggets

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, Eugene T.; Rosenbaum, Doris C.; Teplitz, Vigdor L.

    2006-02-15

    Bounds on masses and abundances of Strange Quark Nuggets (SQNs) are inferred from a seismic search on Earth. Potential SQN bounds from a possible seismic search on the Moon are reviewed and compared with Earth capabilities. Bounds are derived from the data taken by seismometers implanted on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. We show that the Apollo data implies that the abundance of SQNs in the region of 10 kg to 1 ton must be at least an order of magnitude less than would saturate the dark matter in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Heavy quark in exotic hadron and nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS) symmetry in the heavy quark limit, and show that all heavy hadrons are classified by the HQS symmetry, i.e. either HQS singlet or doublet. Next, in order to discuss the long-range physics of exotic hadrons, we introduce the heavy hadron effective theory according to the HQS symmetry in heavy quark sector as well as by chiral symmetry in light quark sector. As examples, we investigate the theoretically possible states of hadronic molecules with an anti-D meson (B meson) and nucleons with baryon number one, two and infinity (i.e. nuclear matter). Calculating the energies, we show that many of them exhibit the HQS doublets. Beyond the leading order in heavy quark limit, we further discuss the 1/M corrections with heavy hadron mass M, and show that finding the HQS-breaking (non-breaking) terms at 1/M is important to investigate the magnetic (electric) gluons in the heavy hadrons in nuclear medium [1,5]. In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS

  5. Deconfined phase of QCD and thermodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkova, Ludmila

    2012-03-01

    The quark-gluon plasma is a state of matter which forms at very high temperatures or densities. It is believed that up to microseconds after the big bang the quark-gluon plasma was a dominant component of the Universe. This state of matter is recreated in heavy-ion collision experiments (such as RHIC and ALICE) which study its formation and transition to ordinary matter. Knowledge of the properties of the quark-gluon plasma is essential to our understanding of the particle spectra produced in these experiments, and also for phenomena related to cosmology and compact star formation. I present recent results for the thermodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD, which is the only nonperturbative method currently allowing its first principle determination.

  6. Dense neutron star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J. R.

    2014-05-02

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics.

  7. Dense neutron star matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.

    2014-05-01

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics.

  8. Exotic decays of heavy B quarks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David

    2016-01-08

    Heavy vector-like quarks of charge –1/3, B, have been searched for at the LHC through the decays B → bZ, bh, tW. In models where the B quark also carries charge under a new gauge group, new decay channels may dominate. We focus on the case where the B is charged under a U(1)' and describe simple models where the dominant decay mode is B → bZ' → b(bb¯¯). With the inclusion of dark matter such models can explain the excess of gamma rays from the Galactic center. We develop a search strategy for this decay chain and estimate thatmore » with integrated luminosity of 300 fb–1 the LHC will have the potential to discover both the B and the Z' for B quarks with mass below ~ 1.6 TeV, for a broad range of Z' masses. Furthermore, a high-luminosity run can extend this reach to 2 TeV.« less

  9. Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; W. Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquarks channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.

  10. Prediction of new Quarks, Generations & low Mass Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2003-04-01

    The CBM (model) of the nucleus has resulted in the prediction of two new quarks, an "up" quark of mass 237.31 MeV/c2 and a "dn" quark of mass 42.392 MeV/c2. These two new predicted quarks helped to determine that the masses of the quarks and leptons are all related by a geometric progression relationship. The mass of each quark or lepton is just the "geometric mean" of two related elementary particles, either in the same generation or in the same family. This numerology predicts the following masses for the electron family: 0.511000 (electron), 7.74 (predicted), 117.3, 1778.4 (tau), 26950.1 MeV. The geometric ratio of this progression is 15.154 (e to the power e). The mass of the tau in this theory agrees very well with accepted values. This theory suggests that all the "dn like" quarks have a mass of just 10X multiples of 4.24 MeV (the mass of the "d" quark). The first 3 "up like" quark masses are 38, 237.31 and 1500 MeV. This theory also predicts a new heavy generation with a lepton mass of 27 GeV, a "dn like" quark of 42.4 GeV, and an "up like" quark of 65 GeV. Significant evidence already exists for the existence of these new quarks, and lepton. Ref. Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/ 0008026, @ http://xxx.lanl.gov. Infinite Energy, Vol 5, issue 30.

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE TRANSFORMATION AND METABOLISM OF ANTHROPOGENIC ORGANIC MATTER IN ESTUARIES USING INTACT POLAR LIPIDS: A BIOMARKER APPROACH TO ECOSYSTEM HEALTH ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because polar lipids are critical structural components of all planktonic cells, it is expected that anthropogenic stressors will be found to alter substantively the relative proportions and types of polar lipids produced by various species in the two ecosystems. In additio...

  12. What is a Quark?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2015-03-01

    We are used to thinking of quarks as fundamental particles in the same way we think of the electron, or gauge bosons, neutrinos, leptons. In strong theory, these objects are unified with gravitation and the physics of spacetime into what is hoped to be an ultimate theory, string/M theory. The string/M theory paradigm completely changes the way we think of the socalled elementary particles in quantum field theory.

  13. What is a quark?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    We are used to thinking of quarks as fundamental particles in the same way we think of the electron, or gauge bosons, neutrinos, leptons. In strong theory, these objects are unified with gravitation and the physics of spacetime into what is hoped to be an ultimate theory, string/M theory. The string/M theory paradigm completely changes the way we think of the so-called elementary particles in quantum field theory.

  14. On Anomalous Quark Triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainshtein, Arkady

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous quark triangles with one axial and two vector currents are studied in special kinematics when one of the vector currents carries a soft momentum. According to the Adler-Bardeen theorem the anomalous longitudinal part of the triangle is not renormalized in the chiral limit. We show that perturbative corrections the transversal part of the triangle is also absent. This nonrenormalization, in difference with the longitudinal part, holds on only perturbatively.

  15. Transversity quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    I.C. Cloet; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Transversity quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. Particular attention is paid to comparing our results with the recent experimental extraction of the transversity distributions by Anselmino et al. We also compare our transversity results with earlier spin-independent and helicity quark distributions calculated in the same approach.

  16. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinella, William M.; Weber, Fridolin; Contrera, Gustavo A.; Orsaria, Milva G.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (lesssim10^9 K) and quark fractions (lesssim 30% , and that contributions due to lattice vibrations are insignificant compared to static-lattice contributions.

  17. Using the Moon as a Strange Quark Nugget Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, Eugene T.; Rosenbaum, Doris C.; Teplitz, Vigdor L.

    2007-11-01

    We review the romance and mystery of strange quark matter (SQM), including: its basics, our recent work on bounds on the abundance of ton-range strange quark nuggets (SQNs) from Earth seismology, potential SQN bounds from a possible seismic search on the Moon, and our recent bounds on SQNs in the 10 kilogram to ton range from the data of Apollo-implanted seismometers. Finally, we speculate a bit on using the sun or the solar system to detect passage of SQNs of much greater mass than the aforementioned.

  18. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1987-01-01

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  19. String worldsheet for accelerating quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2015-10-01

    We consider the AdS bulk dual to an external massive quark in SYM following an arbitrary trajectory on Minkowski background. While a purely outgoing boundary condition on the gluonic field allows one to express the corresponding string worldsheet in a closed form, the setup has curious consequences. In particular, we argue that any quark whose trajectory on flat spacetime approaches that of a light ray in the remote past (as happens e.g. in the case of uniform acceleration) must necessarily be accompanied by an anti-quark. This is puzzling from the field theory standpoint, since one would expect that a sole quark following any timelike trajectory should be allowed. We explain the resolution in terms of boundary and initial conditions. We analyze the configuration in global AdS, which naturally suggests a modification to the boundary conditions allowing for a single accelerated quark without accompanying anti-quark. We contrast this resolution with earlier proposals.

  20. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or

  1. Opportunities with polarized beam & target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyachi, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Single spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan (DY) scattering, which are going to be measured in the present and planned polarized DY experiments, gain further insight into the internal structure of the nucleon. For the novel Sivers distribution function, the possible sign change in DY and Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (SIDIS) may be confirmed for the first time, which is a critical test of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization in QCD, and precise information on the sea quarks, which are less sensitive in DIS, will be obtained. Since DY is one of the cleanest hard scattering processes, where no hadron fragmentation involved, it does not require information on hadron fragmentation functions (FF) to extract TMD PDF from the observed azimuthal amplitudes, where TMD PDF appears along with a corresponding FF in the case of SIDIS. Various azimuthal amplitudes of un-polarized cross section and singly-polarized or doubly-polarized cross section asymmetries in SIDIS have been measured. Double spin asymmetry in DY where beam and target are polarized is another unique tool to study TMD PDFs directly and it is a complementary measurement to SIDIS toward the complete description of the nucleon. Single spin asymmetries of the W-production cross section in the polarized proton-proton collision, recently measured at the RHIC/spin program, indicate the possible quark flavor symmetry violation in the polarized light-sea. Similar flavor asymmetry in the un-polarized light-sea, known as violation of the Gottfried sum rule, is currently studied at the on-going DY experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab. The observed flavor asymmetries can be a key to understand non-perturbative structure of the nucleon. With double spin asymmetry measurements in longitudinally polarized DY the flavor asymmetry in the polarized sea can be confirmed. In the presentation, physics cases which can be studied in doubly polarized DY and related topics will be discussed.

  2. Cold dark matter and the cosmic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash

    2016-01-01

    It is entirely plausible that during the primordial quark- hadron phase transition in the universe, microseconds after the Big Bang, supercooling takes place, accompanied by miniinflation. With µ/T ∼ 1 (µ is chemical potential), leading to a first order phase transition from quarks to hadrons; there will be relics in the form of quark nuggets, and, that they consist of Strange Quark Matter. The possibility that these SQM nuggets may well be the candidates of cold dark matter is critically examined. A cursory comparison with the neutron star is presented at the end.

  3. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Potamianos, Karolos

    2011-12-01

    We present the recent results of top-quark physics using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions analyzed by the CDF collaboration. The large number of top quark events analyzed, of the order of several thousands, allows stringent checks of the standard model predictions. Also, the top quark is widely believed to be a window to new physics. We present the latest measurements of top quark intrinsic properties as well as direct searches for new physics in the top sector.

  4. Valence quark spin distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-09-01

    The hyperfine interactions of the constituent quark model provide a natural explanation for many nucleon properties, including the {Delta} - N splitting, the charge radius of the neutron, and the observation that the proton's quark distribution function ratio d(x)/u(x) {r_arrow} 0 as x {r_arrow} 1. The hyperfine-perturbed quark model also makes predictions for the nucleon spin-dependent distribution functions. Precision measurements of the resulting asymmetries A{sub 1}{sup p}(x) and A{sub 1}{sup n}(x) in the valence region can test this model and thereby the hypothesis that the valence quark spin distributions are ''normal''.

  5. Chirality and the Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Swanson; Adam P. Szczepaniak

    2002-06-07

    The relationship of the quark model to the known chiral properties of QCD is a long-standing problem in the interpretation of low energy QCD. In particular, how can the pion be viewed as both a collective Goldstone boson quasiparticle and as a valence quark antiquark bound state? A comparison of the many-body solution of a simplified model of QCD to the constituent quark model demonstrates that the quark model is sufficiently flexible to describe meson hyperfine splitting provided proper renormalization conditions and correct degrees of freedom are employed consistently.

  6. Binding Energies of Hyperonic Matter and Applications to Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-10-21

    The conserving nonlinear, nonchiral {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field approximation is applied to saturation properties of nuclear and hyperonic matter, properties of hadron and hadron-quark neutron stars. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. The effective masses and coupling constants become density-dependent, and they simultaneously determine binding energies and saturation properties of nuclear matter and hyperonic matter. The conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  7. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  8. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  9. Magnetic moments of octet baryons and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Using generalized Sehgal equations for magnetic moments of baryon octet and taking into account {sigma}{sup 0}-{lambda} mixing and two particle corrections to independent quark contributions we obtain very good fit using experimental values for errors of such moments. We present sum rules for quark magnetic moments ratios and for integrated spin densities ratios. Because of the SU(3) structure of our equations the results for magnetic moments of quarks and their densities depend on two additional parameters. Using information from deep inelastic scattering and baryon {beta}-decays we discuss the dependence of antiquark polarizations on introduced parameters. For some plausible values of these parameters we show that these polarizations are small if we neglect angular momenta of quarks. Our very good fit to magnetic moments of baryon octet can still be improved by using specific model for angular momentum of quarks.

  10. Spin Measurement in Top Quark Events at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Linacre, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of polarisation and spin correlations are presented in events with top quarks produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of $5 fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 20 $fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors. The top quark polarization is measured in both single top quark production in the t-channel and $t\\bar{t}$ pair-production, from the angular distributions of charged leptons in the rest frame of their parent top quark. The spin correlations are measured in $t\\bar{t}$ events using various angular distributions of the decay products. The measurements are made using both template fitting methods and by unfolding the distributions to the parton-level, where differential measurements with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the $t\\bar{t}$ system are also made. The spin correlation measurements are used to search for new physics in the form of a light top squark or an anomalous top quark chromo-magnetic dipole moment. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  11. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  13. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  14. The Fluid Nature of Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc, W. A.

    2008-06-01

    Collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energies offer the exciting possibility of experimentally exploring the phase transformation from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom which is predicted to occur at several times normal nuclear density and/or for temperatures in excess of ˜170MeV. Such a state, often referred to as a quark-gluon plasma, is thought to have been the dominant form of matter in the universe in the first few microseconds after the Big Bang. Data from the first five years of heavy ion collisions of Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) clearly demonstrate that these very high temperatures and densities have been achieved. While there are strong suggestions of the role of quark degrees of freedom in determining the final-state distributions of the produced matter, there is also compelling evidence that the matter does not behave as a quasi-ideal state of free quarks and gluons. Rather, its behavior is that of a dense fluid with very low kinematic viscosity exhibiting strong hydrodynamic flow and nearly complete absorption of high momentum probes. The current status of the RHIC experimental studies is presented, with a special emphasis on the fluid properties of the created matter, which may in fact be the most perfect fluid ever studied in the laboratory.

  15. Progress in Top Quark Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Evelyn J.

    2006-07-11

    Experimental measurements of the properties of the top quark have improved and will continue to improve significantly, with the excellent operation of the CDF and D0 experiments and the Tevatron pp-bar collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. All of the final state experimental signatures from top quark production and decay are being analysed to test if this most massive quark is sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. So far, observations are consistent with the standard model. New techniques have dramatically improved the precision of the top quark mass measurement to 1.7% and set the stage for a sub-1% measurement by 2008. This improved knowledge of the top quark mass sharpens the standard model prediction for the mass of the undiscovered Higgs boson, with implications for Higgs studies at the future LHC and ILC.

  16. Progress in top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Evelyn J.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-02-01

    Experimental measurements of the properties of the top quark have improved and will continue to improve significantly, with the excellent operation of the CDF and D0 experiments and the Tevatron p{bar p} collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. All of the final state experimental signatures from top quark production and decay are being analyzed to test if this most massive quark is sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. So far, observations are consistent with the standard model. New techniques have dramatically improved the precision of the top quark mass measurement to 1.7% and set the stage for a sub-1% measurement by 2008. This improved knowledge of the top quark mass sharpens the standard model prediction for the mass of the undiscovered Higgs boson, with implications for Higgs studies at the future LHC and ILC.

  17. Phenomenology of heavy quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of heavy quark production in {bar p}p, {pi}{sup -}p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections and of single quark inclusive differential cross sections d{sup 2}{omega}/dk{sub T}dy are described including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of the charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Predictions and open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A brief discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent (F1p ,n and F2p ,n) and the spin dependent (g1p ,n) structure functions of the nucleon on the Bjorken scaling variable x using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks q (x ) and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks Δ q (x ) respectively. The chiral constituent quark model, which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of p and n . In light of the improved precision of the world data, the p and n longitudinal spin asymmetries [A1p(x ) and A1n(x )] have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for the ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the p and n Δ/up(x ) up(x ) , Δ/dp(x ) dp(x ) , Δ/un(x ) un(x ) , and Δ/dn(x ) dn(x ) . The ratio of the n and p structure functions Rn p(x )=F/2n(x ) F2p(x ) has also been presented. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations. The results on the spin sum rule have also been included and compared with data and other recent approaches.

  19. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  20. Explore the possibility of accelerating polarized He-3 beam in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2012-05-20

    As the world's first high energy polarized proton collider, RHIC has made significant progresses in measuring the proton spin structure in the past decade. In order to have better understanding of the contribution of up quarks and down quarks to the proton spin structure, collisions of high energy polarized neutron beams are required. Polarized He-3 beams offer an effectiveway to provide polarized neutron beams. In this paper, we present studies of accelerating polarized He-3 in RHIC with the current dual snake configuration. Possibilities of adding two more pairs of snakes for accelerating polarized He-3 were explored. Results of six snake configuration in RHIC are also reported in the paper.

  1. Experimental study of collective motion in the quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumi, Shinichi

    2008-04-01

    Collective phenomena have been studied to investigate a property of Quark Gluon Plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC experiments. Whether the origin of elliptic and/or radial collective expansions is given in a partonic or a hadronic phase during the collisons is a key question for the experimetal observables to be sensitive to the QGP or not. The number of quark scaling in the observed elliptic flow parameter v2 is one of intuitive evidences for the existence of the quark phase before the hadronization. The radial and elliptic flow of heavy quarks would also favour the strong interacting plasma phase. The modification of the near- and away-side jet shape and its relation to the elliptic anisotropy could prove the property of the matter in the phase. Experimental measurements especially on the collective motion of the high density and temperature matter created in high-enegy heavy-ion collisions will be presented and discussed.

  2. RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2003-01-01

    The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.

  3. Shock wave produced by hadron-quark phase transition in neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavo de Almeida, Luis; Duarte, Sérgio José Barbosa; Rodrigues, Hilário

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present a schematic description of the detonation wave in hadronic matter inside a neutron star core. We have used a simplified two shells model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by a large outer shell composed of hadronic matter. We have utilized an equation of state (EOS) based on Relativistic Mean Field Theory with the parameter set NL3 to describe the nuclear and subnuclear phases. We use the MIT bag model to describe the strange quark matter. The hadron-quark phase transition actually induces highly non equilibrium modes, which may become a detonation process (faster) or a burning process (slower). The main purpose of the work is to study the formation of a remnant quark star and the possibility of mass ejection caused by the hadron-quark phase transition. We have found that the total amount of ejected mass is dependant of the bag constant utilized in the strange matter description.

  4. Heavy quark diffusion with relativistic Langevin dynamics in the quark-gluon fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2009-05-15

    The relativistic diffusion process of heavy quarks is formulated on the basis of the relativistic Langevin equation in Ito discretization scheme. The drag force inside the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is parametrized according to the formula for the strongly coupled plasma obtained by the anti-de-Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The diffusion dynamics of charm and bottom quarks in QGP is described by combining the Langevin simulation under the background matter described by the relativistic hydrodynamics. Theoretical calculations of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} and the elliptic flow v{sub 2} for the single electrons from the charm and bottom decays are compared with the experimental data from the relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The R{sub AA} for electrons with large transverse momentum (p{sub T}>3 GeV) indicates that the drag force from the QGP is as strong as the AdS/CFT prediction.

  5. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology.

    SciTech Connect

    Lagae, J.-F.

    1998-06-09

    We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase.

  6. Tests of QCD with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, T.J.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three measurements that exploit the highly-polarized incident electrons of the SLC facility to probe QCD and the hadronization process. We observe preliminary evidence for leading particle production in hadronic decays of the Zo to light-quark pairs. In a high-purity sample of quark jets, the momentum spectra of p, A0, and K(-) are harder than those of p(bar), A(bar)0, and K(+), supporting the hypothesis that faster particles in jets are more likely to carry the primary quark or antiquark of the jet. Second, we present an improved limit on jet handedness, which seeks to measure the transport of quark spin through the hadronization process. Finally, we search for a correlation of the three jet event orientation with the Zo spin direction, which would indicate new physics beyond the Standard model.

  7. Bound Nucleon Form Factors, Quark-Hadron Duality, and the Nuclear EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; D.H. Lu; W. Melnitchouk; K. Saito; A.W. Thomas

    2002-09-13

    We discuss the electromagnetic form factors, axial form factors, and structure functions of a nucleon bound in the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. Free space nucleon form factors are calculated using the improved cloudy bag model (ICBM). After describing finite nuclei and nuclear matter in the quark-based (EMC) model, the in-medium modification of the bound nucleon form factors is calculated in the same model. Finally, the bound nucleon structure function, F2, is extracted using the calculated in-medium electromagnetic form factors and Bloom-Gilman (quark-hadron) duality.

  8. The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  9. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  10. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Menzione, A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the material presented in this report, comes from contributions to the parallel session PL20 of this conference. We summarise the experimental results of direct production of Top quarks, coming from the CDF and C0 Collaborations at Fermilab, and compare these results to what one expects within current theoretical understanding. Particular attention is given to new results such as all hadronic modes of t{bar t} decay. As far as the mass is concerned, a comparison is made with precision measurements of related quantities, coming from LEP and other experiments. An attempt is made to look at the medium-term future and understand which variables and with what accuracy one can measure them with increased integrated luminosity.

  11. Quantifying zigzag motion of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, D.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The quark condensate is calculated in terms of the effective string tension and the constituent quark mass. For 3 colors and 2 light flavors, the constituent mass is bounded from below by the value of 460 MeV. This value is only accessible when the string tension decreases linearly with the Schwinger proper time. For this reason, the Hausdorff dimension of a light-quark trajectory is equal to 4, indicating that these trajectories are similar to branched polymers, which can describe a weak first-order deconfinement phase transition in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Using this indication, we develop a gluon-chain model based on such trajectories.

  12. Top Quark Production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit

    2010-02-10

    The large data samples of top quark candidate events collected at the Tevatron CDF II experiment allow for a variety of measurements to analyze the production of the top quark. This article discusses recent results of top quark production at CDF presented at the SUSY09 conference, including updates to the top pair production cross section, forward-backward asymmetry in tt-bar production, single top search, search for top resonances and a search for heavy top. The discussed measurements utilize up to 3.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at CDF.

  13. Top quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Harvard U.

    2010-01-01

    The large data samples of top quark candidate events collected at the Tevatron CDF II experiment allow for a variety of measurements to analyze the production of the top quark. This article discusses recent results of top quark production at CDF presented at the SUSY09 conference, including updates to the top pair production cross section, forward-backward asymmetry in t{bar t} production, single top search, search for top resonances and a search for heavy top. The discussed measurements utilize up to 3.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at CDF.

  14. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag {ital b} quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and D{null} collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  15. Heavy quarks in the jet calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this paper we explore a method for treating heavy quarks such as c and b quarks within the jet calculus. These quarks are differentiated from the more common u, d, and s quarks by the requirement that the gluons never branch into heavy-quark pairs during the jet development. We compute and discuss the charmed-quark ''propagators''; the x distribution of colorless clusters containing a charmed quark, a noncharmed antiquark, and gluons; and the mass distribution of the parent partons giving rise to these colorless clusters.

  16. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  17. Opportunities for Polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenauer E.; Deshpande, A.; Fischer, W.; Derbenev, S.; Milner, R.; Roser, T.; Zelenski, A.

    2011-10-01

    The workshop on opportunities for polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC was targeted at finding practical ways of implementing and using polarized He-3 beams. Polarized He-3 beams will provide the unique opportunity for first measurements, i.e, to a full quark flavor separation measuring single spin asymmetries for p{sup +}, p{sup -} and p{sup 0} in hadron-hadron collisions. In electron ion collisions the combination of data recorded with polarized electron proton/He-3 beams allows to determine the quark flavor separated helicity and transverse momentum distributions. The workshop had sessions on polarized He-3 sources, the physics of colliding polarized He-3 beams, polarimetry, and beam acceleration in the AGS Booster, AGS, RHIC, and ELIC. The material presented at the workshop will allow making plans for the implementation of polarized He-3 beams in RHIC.

  18. Equation of State for Neutron Stars with Hyperons and Quarks in the Relativistic Hartree-Fock Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Saito, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    We construct the equation of state (EoS) for neutron stars explicitly including hyperons and quarks. Using the quark-meson coupling model with the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, the EoS for hadronic matter is derived by taking into account the strange (σ* and ϕ) mesons as well as the light non-strange (σ, ω, {\\boldsymbol{π }}, and {\\boldsymbol{ρ }}) mesons. Relevant coupling constants are determined to reproduce the experimental data of nuclear matter and hypernuclei in SU(3) flavor symmetry. For quark matter, we employ the MIT bag model with a one-gluon-exchange interaction, and Gibbs criteria for chemical equilibrium in the phase transition from hadrons to quarks. We find that the strange vector (ϕ) meson and the Fock contribution make the hadronic EoS stiff, and that the maximum mass of a neutron star can be consistent with the observed mass of heavy neutron stars even if the coexistence of hadrons and quarks takes place in the core. However, in the present calculation, the transition to pure quark matter does not occur in stable neutron stars. Furthermore, the lower bound of the critical chemical potential of the quark-hadron transition at zero temperature turns out to be around 1.5 GeV in order to be consistent with the recent observed neutron-star data.

  19. Off-forward quark-quark correlation function

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, Sabrina

    2006-09-01

    The properties of the nonforward quark-quark correlation function are examined. We derive constraints on the correlation function from the transformation properties of the fundamental fields of QCD occurring in its definition. We further develop a method to construct an Ansatz for this correlator. We present the complete leading order set of generalized parton distributions in terms of the amplitudes of the Ansatz. Finally we conclude that the number of independent generalized parton helicity changing distributions is four.

  20. Hadronic contributions to the muon anomaly in the Constituent Chiral Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greynat, David

    2016-04-01

    The hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon which are relevant for the confrontation between theory and experiment at the present level of accuracy, are evaluated within the same framework: the constituent chiral quark model. This includes the contributions from the dominant hadronic vacuum polarization as well as from the next-to-leading order hadronic vacuum polarization, the contributions from the hadronic light-by-light scattering, and the contributions from the electroweak hadronic Zγγ vertex. They are all evaluated as a function of only one free parameter: the constituent quark mass. We also comment on the comparison between our results and other phenomenological evaluations.

  1. Tunguska dark matter ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froggatt, C. D.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is suggested that the Tunguska event in June 1908 was due to a cm-large ball of a condensate of bound states of 6 top and 6 antitop quarks containing highly compressed ordinary matter. Such balls are supposed to make up the dark matter as we earlier proposed. The expected rate of impact of this kind of dark matter ball with the earth seems to crudely match a time scale of 200 years between the impacts. The main explosion of the Tunguska event is explained in our picture as material coming out from deep within the earth, where it has been heated and compressed by the ball penetrating to a depth of several thousand km. Thus the effect has some similarity with volcanic activity as suggested by Kundt. We discuss the possible identification of kimberlite pipes with earlier Tunguska-like events. A discussion of how the dark matter balls may have formed in the early universe is also given.

  2. Quarks and a Unified Theory of Nature Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, I.

    2015-03-01

    Quarks were introduced 50 years ago opening the road towards our understanding of the elementary constituents of matter and their fundamental interactions. Since then, a spectacular progress has been made with important discoveries that led to the establishment of the Standard Theory that describes accurately the basic constituents of the observable matter, namely quarks and leptons, interacting with the exchange of three fundamental forces, the weak, electromagnetic and strong force. Particle physics is now entering a new era driven by the quest of understanding of the composition of our Universe such as the unobservable (dark) matter, the hierarchy of masses and forces, the unification of all fundamental interactions with gravity in a consistent quantum framework, and several other important questions. A candidate theory providing answers to many of these questions is string theory that replaces the notion of point particles by extended objects, such as closed and open strings. In this short note, I will give a brief overview of string unification, describe in particular how quarks and leptons can emerge and discuss what are possible predictions for particle physics and cosmology that could test these ideas.

  3. Quarks and a unified theory of Nature fundamental forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Quarks were introduced 50 years ago opening the road towards our understanding of the elementary constituents of matter and their fundamental interactions. Since then, a spectacular progress has been made with important discoveries that led to the establishment of the Standard Theory that describes accurately the basic constituents of the observable matter, namely quarks and leptons, interacting with the exchange of three fundamental forces, the weak, electromagnetic and strong force. Particle physics is now entering a new era driven by the quest of understanding of the composition of our Universe such as the unobservable (dark) matter, the hierarchy of masses and forces, the unification of all fundamental interactions with gravity in a consistent quantum framework, and several other important questions. A candidate theory providing answers to many of these questions is string theory that replaces the notion of point particles by extended objects, such as closed and open strings. In this short note, I will give a brief overview of string unification, describe in particular how quarks and leptons can emerge and discuss what are possible predictions for particle physics and cosmology that could test these ideas.

  4. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Penttila, S. I.

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development, of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized 'LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beanis with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed.

  5. Quark model and CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    After a short review of the activities of Shoichi Sakata and his group, how the six-quark model explains CP violation is described. Experimental verification of the model at the B-factories is also briefly discussed.

  6. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  7. r-mode instability in quark stars with a crystalline crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupak, Gautam; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2013-12-01

    Among the oscillatory modes of neutron stars or quark stars, the r-mode is particularly interesting since it couples strongly to gravitational waves, which rapidly remove angular momentum from the star and spin it down. The r-mode can also provide a penetrating probe into the composition of such objects, where matter is compressed to the most extreme densities possible in nature. At these densities, exotic matter composed of subatomic particles—quarks—can manifest many interesting phases. We construct a model for quark stars that is a step towards resolving the puzzle of rapidly spinning pulsars in low mass X-ray binaries. The explanation makes use of a crystalline superconducting quark crust that is sufficiently robust to damp the r-mode, keeping the star spinning quickly. A crust made of neutrons or non-superconducting quark matter cannot damp the r-mode as effectively, thus, the fast spin rates observed in some LMXB pulsars may be an astrophysical signature of superconducting quark matter.

  8. Symmetry energy effects on the mixed hadron-quark phase at high baryon density

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, M.; Greco, V.; Plumari, S.; Liu, B.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.

    2011-01-15

    The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter at high baryon and isospin density is analyzed. Relativistic mean-field models are used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT bag model is adopted for quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Due to the different symmetry term in the two phases, isospin effects appear to be rather significant. With increasing isospin asymmetry the binodal transition line of the (T,{rho}{sub B}) diagram is lowered to a region accessible through heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned facilities (e.g., the FAIR/NICA projects). Some observable effects are suggested, in particular an isospin distillation mechanism with a more isospin asymmetric quark phase, to be seen in charged meson yield ratios, and an onset of quark number scaling of the meson-baryon elliptic flows. The presented isospin effects on the mixed phase appear to be robust with respect to even large variations of the poorly known symmetry term at high baryon density in the hadron phase. The dependence of the results on a suitable treatment of isospin contributions in effective QCD Lagrangian approaches, at the level of explicit isovector parts and/or quark condensates, is discussed.

  9. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  10. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  11. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV {bar p}p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark{endash}gluon plasma in proton{endash}antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus{endash}nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  12. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV [bar p]p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. [Detect ionization of charged particles directly in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark[endash]gluon plasma in proton[endash]antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus[endash]nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  13. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. Lastly, we report on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.

  14. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kleinjan, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. Lastly, we reportmore » on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.« less

  15. A polarized Drell-Yan experiment to probe the dynamics of the nucleon sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David

    2015-04-10

    In QCD, nucleon spin comes from the sum of the quark spin, gluon spin, and the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum, but how these different components contribute and the interplay among them is not yet understood. For instance, sea quark orbital contribution remains largely unexplored. Measurements of the Sivers function for the sea quarks will provide a probe of the sea quark orbital contribution. The upcoming E1039 experiment at Fermilab will measure the Sivers asymmetry of the sea quarks via the Drell-Yan process using a 120 GeV unpolarized proton beam directed a transversely polarized ammonia target. We report on the status and plans of the E1039 polarized Drell-Yan experiment.

  16. K meson-nucleus interactions: strangeness and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is provided of some straightforward K-nuclear and ..lambda..-hypernuclear systems. A discussion of less straightforward speculations on H-dibaryons and strange quark matter by many authors, is also given. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Why the proton spin is not due to quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karliner, M.

    1988-07-01

    Recent EMC data on the spin-dependent proton structure function suggest that very little of the proton spin is due to the helicity of the quarks inside it. We argue that, at leading order in the 1/N/sub c/ expansion, none of the proton spin would be carried by quarks in the chiral limit where m/sub q/ = 0. This model-independent result is based on a physical picture of the nucleon as a soliton solution of the effective chiral Lagrangian of large-N/sub c/ QCD. The Skyrme model is then used to estimate quark contribution to the proton spin when chiral symmetry and flavor SU(3) are broken: this contribution turns out to be small, as suggested by the EMC. Next, we discuss the other possible contributions to the proton helicity in the infinite-momentum frame---polarized gluons (..delta..G), and orbital angular momentum (L/sub z/). We argue on general grounds and by explicit example the ..delta..G = 0 and that if the parameters of the chiral Lagrangian are adjusted so that gluons carry /approximately/50% of the proton momentum, most of the orbital angular momentum L/sub z/ is carried by quarks. We mention several experiments to test the EMC results and their interpretation. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Supernova explosion and black hole formation with hadron-quark phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro

    2014-05-02

    Hadronic matter undergoes a deconfinement transition to quark matter at high temperature and/or high density. It would be realized in collapsing cores of massive stars. The fates of core collapses are investigated for various cases. Equations of state including the hadron-quark phase transition with different values of bag constant are used. As a result, for the case with a small bag constant (i.e. the transition occurs at low density), the second bounce revives the shock wave leading to explosion for the model with 15 solar mass. The systematics on the bag constant is also studied for the black hole formation of a 40 solar mass progenitor.

  19. ALICE: The Quest for 'Primordial' Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-21

    ALICE - An LHC Ion Collider Experiment - is being prepared to study, in an optimized and dedicated approach, the physics of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The LHC Ion programme is the logical sequel in the quest to study the novel form of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the form of matter believed to have existed in our Universe during the first microsecond after the Big Bang. The status of ALICE, its research programme and discovery potential are presented.

  20. Hadron production in light and heavy, quark and antiquark jets

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, K.G.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The authors review four hadronization studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, involving separation of light (Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} u{anti u}, d{anti d}, s{anti s}), c, and b flavors using precision vertexing, and separation of q- and {anti q}-jets using the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They measured the differences between the average charged multiplicities in Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} light, {r_arrow} c{anti c}, and {r_arrow}b{anti b} events, and found that the results were consistent with predictions of perturbative QCD. Next, they measured {pi}/{Kappa}/p/{Kappa}{sup 0}/{Lambda}{sup 0} production in light events for the first time, and compared with production in c- and b-flavor events. They then examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. Lastly, they performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method.

  1. Bulk Properties and Collective Flow of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joseph

    2007-10-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics predicts a transition from a hadronic phase at temperatures less than 150-200 MeV to a quark gluon plasma phase at higher temperatures. Lattice calculations show a big increase in the entropy density in this vicinity. Whether the transition is first or second order or a smooth rapid crossover depends upon the values of the up, down and strange quark masses. The goal of the heavy ion experimental program at RHIC is to observe this transition and to study the nature of the quark gluon plasma quantitatively. Two big surprises arose from these experiments: Substantial collective flow has been observed, as evidenced by single-particle transverse momentum distributions and by azimuthal correlations among the produced particles, and the degree to which high energy jets are attenuated in the produced matter. A variety of theoretical models of these collisions require initial energy densities more than a factor of 10 greater than in neutron star cores and more than a factor of 100 greater than within atomic nuclei. Taken together this body of work implies a strongly interacting phase of quarks and gluons beyond the capabilities of perturbation theory. This has motivated approaches based on gauge theories with gravity duals where physical observables may be calculated in a strong coupling limit. This in turn has stimulated interest from members of the string theory community who are currently bringing their expertise to bear on the problem.

  2. Nonstandard Yukawa couplings and Higgs portal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Uttarayat, Patipan; Zupan, Jure

    2016-01-01

    We study the implications of non-standard Higgs Yukawa couplings to light quarks on Higgs-portal dark matter phenomenology. Saturating the present experimental bounds on up-quark, down-quark, or strange-quark Yukawa couplings, the predicted direct dark matter detection scattering rate can increase by up to four orders of magnitude. The effect on the dark matter annihilation cross-section, on the other hand, is subleading unless the dark matter is very light — a scenario that is already excluded by measurements of the Higgs invisible decay width. We investigate the expected size of corrections in multi-Higgs-doublet models with natural flavor conservation, the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model, the Giudice-Lebedev model of light quark masses, minimal flavor violation new physics models, Randall-Sundrum, and composite Higgs models. We find that an enhancement in the dark matter scattering rate of an order of magnitude is possible. Finally, we point out that a discovery of Higgs-portal dark matter could lead to interesting bounds on the light-quark Yukawa couplings.

  3. Nonstandard Yukawa couplings and Higgs portal dark matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Uttayarat, Patipan; Zupan, Jure

    2016-01-04

    We study the implications of non-standard Higgs Yukawa couplings to light quarks on Higgs-portal dark matter phenomenology. Saturating the present experimental bounds on up-quark, down-quark, or strange-quark Yukawa couplings, the predicted direct dark matter detection scattering rate can increase by up to four orders of magnitude. The effect on the dark matter annihilation cross-section, on the other hand, is subleading unless the dark matter is very light — a scenario that is already excluded by measurements of the Higgs invisible decay width. We investigate the expected size of corrections in multi-Higgs-doublet models with natural flavor conservation, the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model,more » the Giudice-Lebedev model of light quark masses, minimal flavor violation new physics models, Randall-Sundrum, and composite Higgs models. We find that an enhancement in the dark matter scattering rate of an order of magnitude is possible. In conclusion, we point out that a discovery of Higgs-portal dark matter could lead to interesting bounds on the light-quark Yukawa couplings.« less

  4. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron helicity retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. He also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  5. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactionsmore » of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.« less

  6. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactions of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.

  7. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  8. Quark helicity distributions from DIS and SIDIS at COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuro; Iwata, Takahiro; Horikawa, Naoaki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Doshita, Norihiro; Horikawa, Kaori; Michigami, Takuma

    2009-10-01

    The COMPASS collaboration at CERN is measuring the spin structures of nucleon. At this meeting we will present the inclusive asymmetry A1,d and the semi-inclusive asymmetries A1,d^pi+, A1,d^pi- ,A1,d^K+, A1,d^K-measured in the polarized deep inelastic muon-deuteron scattering. The data cover the range Q^2>1GeV^2 and 0.004 quark helicity distributions extracted from the LO analysis using these results. The strange quark distribution is compatible with zero in the whole measured range.

  9. Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, Marco

    2009-08-04

    We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.

  10. Nontopological soliton in the Polyakov quark-meson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Mao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Within a mean-field approximation, we study a nontopological soliton solution of the Polyakov quark-meson model in the presence of a fermionic vacuum term with two flavors at finite temperature and density. The profile of the effective potential exhibits a stable soliton solution below a critical temperature T ≤Tχc for both the crossover and the first-order phase transitions, and these solutions are calculated here with appropriate boundary conditions. However, it is found that only if T ≤Tdc is the energy of the soliton MN less than the energy of the three free constituent quarks 3 Mq . As T >Tdc , there is an instant delocalization phase transition from hadron matter to quark matter. The phase diagram together with the location of a critical end point has been obtained in the T and μ plane. We notice that two critical temperatures always satisfy Tdc≤Tχc . Finally, we present and compare the result of thermodynamic pressure at zero chemical potential with lattice data.

  11. Molecular content of polar-ring galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Moiseev, A.; Reshetnikov, V.

    2013-06-01

    We have searched for CO lines in a sample of 21 new morphologically determined polar-ring galaxies (of which nine are kinematically confirmed), obtained from a wide search in the Galaxy Zoo project by Moiseev and collaborators. Polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) are a unique class of objects, tracing special episodes in the galaxy mass assembly: they can be formed through galaxy interaction and merging, but also through accretion from cosmic filaments. Furthermore, they enable the study of dark matter haloes in three dimensions. The polar ring itself is a sub-system rich in gas, where molecular gas is expected, and new stars are formed. Among the sample of 21 PRGs, we have detected five CO-rich systems, that can now be followed up with higher spatial resolution. Their average molecular mass is 9.4 × 109M⊙, and their average gas fraction is 27% of their baryonic mass, with a range from 15 to 43%, implying that they have just accreted a large amount of gas. The position of the detected objects in the velocity-magnitude diagram is offset from the Tully-Fisher relation of normal spirals, as was already found for PRGs. This work is part of our multi-wavelength project to determine the detailed morphology and dynamics of PRGs, test through numerical models their formation scenario, and deduce their dark matter content and 3D-shape. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Spectra of detections are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5">130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/554/A11

  12. Using the Moon and Mars as Giant Detectors for Strange Quark Nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Strayer, Don; Banerdt, Bruce; Tepliz, Vigdor; Herrin, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    On the Earth, the detectability of small seismic signals is limited by pervasive seismic background noise, caused primarily by interactions of the atmosphere and oceans with the solid surface. Mars, with a very thin atmosphere and no ocean is expected to have a noise level at least an order of magnitude lower than the Earth, and the airless Moon is even quieter still. These pristine low-vibration environments are ideal for searching for nuggets of "strange quark matter." Strange quark matter was postulated by Edward Witten [Phys. Rev. D30, 272, 1984] as the lowest possible energy state of matter. It would be made of up, down, and strange quarks, instead of protons and neutrons made only of up and down quarks. It would have nuclear densities, and hence be difficult to detect. Micron-sized nuggets would weigh in the ton range. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [Nature 312 (5996): 734, 1984], a massive strange quark nugget can generate a trail of seismic waves, as it traverses a celestial body. We discuss the mission concept for deploying a network of sensitive seismometers on Mars and on the Moon for such a search.

  13. Quarks in the Bootstrap Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, D.

    2015-03-01

    The quark model emerged from the Gell-Mann-Ne'eman flavor SU(3) symmetry. Its development, in the context of strong interactions, took place in a heuristic theoretical framework, referred to as the Bootstrap Era. Setting the background for the dominant ideas in strong interaction of the early 1960s, we outline some aspects of the constituent quark model. An independent theoretical development was the emergence of hadron duality in 1967, leading to a realization of the Bootstrap idea by relating hadron resonances (in the s-channel) with Regge pole trajectories (in t- and u-channels). The synthesis of duality with the quark-model has been achieved by duality diagrams, serving as a conceptual framework for discussing many aspects of hadron dynamics toward the end of the 1960s.

  14. Quarks in the bootstrap era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, D.

    2014-12-01

    The quark model emerged from the Gell-Mann-Ne'eman flavor SU(3) symmetry. Its development, in the context of strong interactions, took place in a heuristic theoretical framework, referred to as the Bootstrap Era. Setting the background for the dominant ideas in strong interaction of the early 1960s, we outline some aspects of the constituent quark model. An independent theoretical development was the emergence of hadron duality in 1967, leading to a realization of the Bootstrap idea by relating hadron resonances (in the s-channel) with Regge pole trajectories (in t- and u-channels). The synthesis of duality with the quark-model has been achieved by duality diagrams, serving as a conceptual framework for discussing many aspects of hadron dynamics toward the end of the 1960s.

  15. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  16. Boosted top quarks and jet structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schätzel, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is the first particle accelerator that provides high enough energy to produce large numbers of boosted top quarks. The decay products of these top quarks are confined to a cone in the top quark flight direction and can be clustered into a single jet. Top quark reconstruction then amounts to analysing the structure of the jet and looking for subjets that are kinematically compatible with top quark decay. Many techniques have been developed in this context to identify top quarks in a large background of non-top jets. This article reviews the results obtained using data recorded in the years 2010-2012 by the experiments ATLAS and CMS. Studies of Standard Model top quark production and searches for new massive particles that decay to top quarks are presented.

  17. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Top Quark as a Window to Beyond the Standard Model Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chiu-Tien

    2013-01-01

    The top quark was the last of the Standard Model quarks to be discovered, and is of considerable interest. The closeness of the top quark mass to the electroweak scale is suggestive that the top quark could be closely related to the mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking. Any new physics in electroweak symmetry breaking models could then preferentially couple to the top quark, making the top quark a promising probe for new physics. In this thesis, we will explore two aspects of the top quark as a harbinger to new physics: the top forward-backward asymmetry as seen at the Tevatron and the search for stops. In this thesis, we will discuss the Asymmetric Left-Right Model (ALRM), a model that is based on the gauge group $U'(1)\\times SU(2)\\times SU'(2)$ with couplings $g_1^\\prime, g_2^\\prime,$ and $g'$ associated with the fields $B',W,W'$, respectively, and show how this model can explain the top forward-backward asymmetry. We will then explore the scalar sector of the ALRM, and provide a specific Higgs mechanism that provides the masses for the $W'$ and $Z'$ bosons. The top forward-backward asymmetry is a test of invariance of charge-conjugation. Thus, we look at the $X$-gluon model, a model that was motivated by the top forward-backward asymmetry, and show that one can look at the longitudinal polarization of the top-quark to test parity conservation. Finally, we investigate searches for stop squarks, the supersymmetric partner of the top quark, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using shape-based analyses.

  19. The Top Quark as a Window to Beyond the Standard Model Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chiu-Tien

    The top quark was the last of the Standard Model quarks to be discovered, and is of considerable interest. The closeness of the top quark mass to the electroweak scale is suggestive that the top quark could be closely related to the mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking. Any new physics in electroweak symmetry breaking models could then preferentially couple to the top quark, making the top quark a promising probe for new physics. In this thesis, we will explore two aspects of the top quark as a harbinger to new physics: the top forward-backward asymmetry as seen at the Tevatron and the search for stops. In this thesis, we will discuss the Asymmetric Left-Right Model (ALRM), a model that is based on the gauge group U'(1) x SU(2) x SU'(2) with couplings g' 1,g'2; and g' associated with the fields B',W,W', respectively, and show how this model can explain the top forwardbackward asymmetry. We will then explore the scalar sector of the ALRM, and provide a specific Higgs mechanism that provides the masses for the W' and Z' bosons. The top forward-backward asymmetry is a test of invariance of chargeconjugation. Thus, we look at the X-gluon model, a model that was motivated by the top forward-backward asymmetry, and show that one can look at the longitudinal polarization of the top-quark to test parity conservation. Finally, we investigate searches for stop squarks, the supersymmetric partner of the top quark, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using shape-based analyses.

  20. Top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Varnes, Erich W.; /Arizona U.

    2010-09-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron has, until recently, been the only accelerator with sufficient energy to produce top quarks. The CDF and D0 experiments have collected large samples of top quarks. We report on recent top quark production measurements of the single top and t{bar t} production cross sections, as well as studies of the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution and a search for highly boosted top quarks.

  1. Quark propagators in confinement and deconfinement phases

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Masatoshi; Yahiro, Masanobu; Kouno, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Saito, Takuya

    2010-05-01

    We study quark propagators near the confinement/deconfinement phase transition temperature in quenched-lattice simulation of QCD. We find that there is no qualitative change for the quark propagators in both phases. In the confinement phase, those effective quark masses in units of the critical temperature behave as a constant as a function of the temperature, while above the critical temperature, the value of the effective quark mass drops to circa half value.

  2. Top Quark Spin Correlations - Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2012-02-01

    The top quark decay width (G{sub F}m{sub t}{sup 3} {approx} 1 GeV) is much larger than the QCD hadronization scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD} {approx} 0.1 GeV) and much larger than the spin decorrelation scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}/m{sub t} {approx} 0.1 MeV). Therefore, spin correlations in top quark pair production are reflected in angular correlations of the decay products, see [1] and [2].

  3. Photon signals from quarkyonic matter.

    PubMed

    Torrieri, Giorgio; Vogel, Sascha; Bäuchle, Bjørn

    2013-07-01

    We calculate the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum emitted from dynamically evolving "quarkyonic" matter and compare this spectrum with that of a high chemical potential quark-gluon plasma as well as to a hadron gas. We find that the transverse momentum distribution and the harmonic coefficient is markedly different in the three cases. The transverse momentum distribution of quarkyonic matter can be fit with an exponential but is markedly steeper than the distribution expected for the quark-gluon plasma or a hadron gas, even at the lower temperatures expected in the critical point region. The quarkyonic elliptic flow coefficient fluctuates randomly from event to event and within the same event at different transverse momenta. The latter effect, which can be explained by the shape of quark wave functions within quarkyonic matter, might be considered as a quarkyonic matter signature, provided that the initial temperature is low enough that the quarkyonic regime dominates over deconfinement effects and the reaction-plane flow can be separated from the fluctuating component. PMID:23862994

  4. Top quark and Higgs boson masses from wormhole physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, B.A.; Joshi, G.C. )

    1994-11-01

    We bring together quantum field theory on [ital S][sub 4] with the Coleman wormhole hypothesis, which imposes constraints on terms in the gravitational Lagrangian. In particular, we investigate the effect of matter fields on the trace anomaly, which is related to the (curvature)[sup 2] terms, by the use of the renormalization group equations. We consider a toy model of a nonconformally coupled Higgs boson to a single top'' quark. By numerically solving the renormalization group equations for the couplings of the model, we can find preferred values of the particle masses for various values of the bare nonconformal coupling. By making the [ital ad] [ital hoc] assumption that the tree-level, Higgs boson treace anomaly vanishes on shell, a unique prediction can be made within this model for the masses of both the Higgs boson and the top quark.

  5. Some aspects of three-quark potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Oleg

    2016-05-01

    We analytically evaluate the expectation value of a baryonic Wilson loop in a holographic model of an S U (3 ) pure gauge theory. We then discuss three aspects of a static three-quark potential: an aspect of universality which concerns properties independent of a geometric configuration of quarks, a heavy diquark structure, and a relation between the three- and two-quark potentials.

  6. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  7. The Quark-Deconfinement Nova model for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Bombaci, I.

    2005-10-21

    We report on a new model which is able to explain how a gamma-ray burst (GRB) can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. We show that above a threshold value of the gravitational mass a pure hadronic star ('neutron star') is metastable to the conversion into a quark star (hybrid star or strange star), i.e. a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The stellar conversion process can be delayed if finite size effects at the interface between hadronic and deconfined quark matter phases are taken into account. A huge amount of energy, on the order of 1052 - 1053 ergs, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful gamma-ray burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay inferred in GRB 990705 and in GRB 011211.

  8. RHIC PHYSICS: THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: 4 LECTURES

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the RHIC heavy ion program. These center around the production of new states of matter. The Quark Gluon Plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the big bang which may be made at RHIC. The Color Glass Condensate is a universal form of matter which controls the high energy limit of strong interactions. Both such forms of matter might be produced and probed at RHIC.

  9. Top quark mass and kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  10. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  11. Observation of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, H.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-05-01

    The DO collaboration reports on a search for the Standard Model top quark in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50 pb{sup {minus}1}. We have searched for t{bar t} production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels, with and without tagging of b quark jets. We observe 17 events with an expected background of 3.8 {plus_minus} 0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measure its mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat.) {plus_minus}22 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4 {plus_minus} 2.2 pb.

  12. Physics of the Quark Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  13. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the

  14. Mean free paths, viscosity, and the limitations of perfect fluid hydrodynamics in the description of the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    1984-11-01

    The author discusses the applicability of a hydrodynamic description of high energy hadronic collisions. The author reviews the results of recent computations of the mean free paths of quarks and gluons in a quark-gluon plasma, and the corresponding results for viscous coefficients. These quantities are employed to evaluate the limits to the application of perfect fluid hydrodynamics as a description of time evolution of matter produced in various hadronic collisions. 22 references.

  15. Top quark physics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Jeong

    2014-04-01

    In 2011, an integrated luminosity of more than 5 fb-1 at 7 TeV has been delivered by the LHC. The measurement of the cross section in top quark pair production and in single top quark production, top quark mass, top quark properties and new physics searches in top quark decays have been performed at the CMS experiment with various integrated luminosities. An overview of the latest results of these measurements and searches by the time of ICFP 2012 conference will be presented.

  16. Synthesis of baryons from unconfined quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, D.A.; Pati, J.C.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1980-02-15

    We calculate, for a number of cases, the cosmic temperature at which primordial quarks condense into baryons, within a field theory of partially confined quarks that enjoys temporary asymptotic freedom. We assume that the mass of a quark in a dense quark-antiquark medium is a monotonic function of the medium: that is, we assume the validity of the so-called ''Archimedes effect.'' We show that, within such models, unbound-quark lifetimes are larger than the age of the universe at the time of the transition.

  17. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  18. Confining quark condensate model of the nucleon.

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Michael; Tandy, Peter

    1992-07-01

    We obtain a mean-field solution for the nucleon as a quark-meson soliton obtained from the action of the global color-symmetry model of QCD. All dynamics is generated from an effective interaction of quark currents. At the quark-meson level there are two novel features: (1) absolute confinement is produced from the space-time structure of the dynamical self-energy in the vacuum quark propagator; and (2) the related scalar meson field is an extended q-barq composite that couples nonlocally to quarks. The influence of these features upon the nucleon mass contributions and other nucleon properties is presented.

  19. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-11-01

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  20. Probing the Quark Sea and Gluons: the Electron-Ion Collider Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Rolf Ent

    2012-04-01

    EIC is the generic name for the nuclear science-driven Electron-Ion Collider presently considered in the US. Such an EIC would be the world’s first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world’s first e-A collider. Very little remains known about the dynamical basis of the structure of hadrons and nuclei in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). A large community effort to sharpen a compelling nuclear science case for an EIC occurred during a ten-week program taking place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle from September 13 to November 19, 2010. The critical capabilities of a stage-I EIC are a range in center-of-mass energies from 20 to 70 GeV and variable, full polarization of electrons and light ions (the latter both longitudinal and transverse), ion species up to A=200 or so, multiple interaction regions, and a high luminosity of about 10{sup 34} electron-nucleons per cm{sup 2} and per second. The physics program of such a stage-I EIC encompass inclusive measurements (ep/A{yields}e'+X), which require detection of the scattered lepon and/or the full scattered hadronic debris with high precision, semi-inclusive processes (ep/A{yields}e'+h+X), which require detection in coincidence with the scattered lepton of at least one (current or target region) hadron; and exclusive processes (ep/A{yields}e'+N'/A'+{gamma}/m), which require detection of all particles in the reaction. The main science themes of an EIC are to i) map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, ii) discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and (iii) understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge. In addition, there are opportunities at an EIC for fundamental symmetry and nucleon structure measurements using the electroweak probe. To truly make headway to image the sea quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, the EIC needs high luminosity over a range of energies as more exclusive

  1. Top Quark Phenomenology in CP-Violating Supersymmetric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Briceno, Alexander

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics so far has successfully described all measurements of phenomena at the subatomic level of ordinary matter at very high precision. The theoretical developments and experimental observations during the last 50 years, including the long sought and recently observed SM Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), have provided us with a framework to understand the strong and the electroweak interactions between fermions, gauge bosons and the scalar boson, the Higgs boson, which is called the SM. However, the SM is considered to be incomplete. It does not provide a framework to include gravity and it does not provide an explanation for a number of observations such as the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU), neutrino oscillations and dark matter. One possible extension of the SM is Supersymmetry, which provides for instance a dark matter candidate. No direct or indirect evidence of Supersymmetry has been observed so far. Searches for supersymmetric particles at high energy collider experiments, for instance, have set limits on parameters of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM (MSSM). Supersymmetry may also affect the properties of SM particles through their virtual presence in higher order corrections in perturbation theory. Here we study indirect, i.e. virtual effects, of Supersymmetry in the production of top quark pairs at the LHC. In particular, we investigate possible CP violating effects due to one loop corrections to top-quark pair production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the context of the complex (MSSM) with minimal flavor violation (MFV). We include the complete supersymmetric QCD as well as supersymmetric electroweak contributions to the two main top-quark pair production mechanisms at the LHC, namely quark-antiquark annihilation, qq → tt, and gluon fusion, gg → tt. At the level of the top quarks, we study in detail spin-spin correlating observables that are sensitive to CP

  2. Quark spectral density and a strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma.

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, S.; Chang, L.; Liu, Y.; Roberts, C. D.

    2011-07-13

    The maximum entropy method is used to compute the dressed-quark spectral density from the self-consistent numerical solution of a rainbow truncation of QCD's gap equation at temperatures above that for which chiral symmetry is restored. In addition to the normal and plasmino modes, the spectral function also exhibits an essentially nonperturbative zero mode for temperatures extending to 1.4-1.8 times the critical temperature, T{sub c}. In the neighborhood of T{sub c}, this long-wavelength mode contains the bulk of the spectral strength and as long as this mode persists, the system may fairly be described as a strongly-coupled state of matter.

  3. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 light dynamical (staggered) quark flavours on a 16{sup 3} {times} 8 lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A.; Heller, U.M.; Kennedy, A.D.; Kogut, J.B.; Liu, W.; Renken, R.L.; Sinclair, D.K.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.; Wang, K.C.

    1991-12-31

    Lattice QCD with 2 light staggered quark flavours is being simulated on a 16{sup 3} {times} 8 lattice to study the transition from hadronic matter to a quark gluon plasma. We have completed runs at m{sub q} = 0.0125 and are extending this to m{sub q} = 0.00625. We also examine the addition of a non-dynamical ``strange`` quark. Thermodynamic order parameters are being measured across the transition and further into the plasma phase, as are various screening lengths. No evidence for a first order transition is seen, and we estimate the transition temperature to be {Tc} = 143(7)MeV.

  4. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 light dynamical (staggered) quark flavours on a 16 sup 3 times 8 lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A. . Dept. of Physics); Heller, U.M.; Kennedy, A.D. . Supercomputer Computations Research Inst.); Kogut, J.B. . Dept. of Physics); Liu, W. ); Renken, R.L. (University of Central F

    1991-01-01

    Lattice QCD with 2 light staggered quark flavours is being simulated on a 16{sup 3} {times} 8 lattice to study the transition from hadronic matter to a quark gluon plasma. We have completed runs at m{sub q} = 0.0125 and are extending this to m{sub q} = 0.00625. We also examine the addition of a non-dynamical strange'' quark. Thermodynamic order parameters are being measured across the transition and further into the plasma phase, as are various screening lengths. No evidence for a first order transition is seen, and we estimate the transition temperature to be {Tc} = 143(7)MeV.

  5. Quark number fluctuations at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Petreczky, P.; Hegde, P.; Velytsky, A.

    2009-11-01

    We calculate the second, fourth and sixth order quark number fluctuations in the deconfined phase of 2+1 flavor QCD using lattices with temporal extent N{sub t} = 4,6,8 and 12. We consider light, strange and charm quarks. We use p4 action for valence quarks and gauge configurations generated with p4 action with physical value of the strange quark mass and light quark mass m{sub q} = 0.1 m{sub s} generated by the RBC-Bielefeld collaboration. We observe that for all quark masses the quark number fluctuations rapidly get close to the corresponding ideal gas limits. We compare our results to predictions of a quasi-particle model and resummed high temperature perturbative calculations. We also investigate correlations among different flavor channels.

  6. Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, Sven; Horvat, Szabolcs; Mishustin, Igor N.; Csernai, Laszlo P.

    2011-04-15

    The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

  7. Heavy Quarkonium Production and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George

    2012-03-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies, which includes both the leading-power (LP) and next-to-leading-power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/pT2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. We estimate fragmentation functions in the nonrelativistic QCD formalism and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit next-to-leading-order calculations in the color-singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  8. Proton Quark Helicity Structure via W-Boson Production in PP Collision @ Phenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, F.

    2016-02-01

    The spin structure of the proton has been long studied in the past decades, but, while the contributions to the proton spin from valence quarks is by now precisely known, large uncertainties are still affecting our knowledge of the sea quark contributions. The measurement of single-spin asymmetries of the parity violating W production in pp collision allows a (quasi-)model independent access to the flavor-dependent light sea quark contributions. Being maximally parity violating, the W charge can be directly realted to the quark and antiquark flavor, and in addition, moving from forward to backward rapidities with respect to the polarized proton beam direction it is possible to change the relative contributions of u, d, anti-u, anti-d quarks, thus accessing each light-quark spin alignment with respect to the proton spin. At PHENIX, the W boson produced in pp collision at center of mass energies of about 500 GeV is accessed via its decays into electron (muon) at central (forward) rapidities. Here the status of the analysis and the most updated results is reported.

  9. The study of hadronic matter at the highest density; the search for the deconfined quark-gluon phase using 2 TeV anti p -p collisions; and the exclusive study of nuclear fragmentation using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory EOS-TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.

    1990-08-15

    This report discusses the: Fermilab experiment 735, a search for the quark-gluon plasma; an exclusive study of nuclear fragmentation using the EOS-TPC; and a study of the central rapidity region at the relativistic heavy ion collider.

  10. Single Spin Asymmetry in Strongly Correlated Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Musulmanbekov, G.

    2007-06-13

    The Single Transverse - Spin Asymmetry (SSA) is analysed in the framework of the Strongly Correlated Quark Model proposed by author, where the proton spin emerges from the orbital momenta of quark and qluon condensates circulating around the valence quarks. It is shown that dominating factors of appearance of SSA are the orbiting around the valence quarks sea quark and qluon condensates and spin dependent quark-quark cross sections.

  11. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  12. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  13. Polarization developments

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  14. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross-section in dimuon final states in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Konrath, Jens Peter; /Freiburg U.

    2008-09-01

    Particle physics deals with the fundamental building blocks of matter and their interactions. The vast number of subatomic particles can be reduced to twelve fundamental fermions, which interact by the exchange of spin-1 particles as described in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The SM provides the best description of the subatomic world to date, despite the fact it does not include gravitation. Following the relation {lambda} = h/p, where h is Planck's constant, for the examination of physics at subatomic scales with size {lambda} probes with high momenta p are necessary. These high energies are accessible through particle colliders. Here, particles are accelerated and brought to collision at interaction points at which detectors are installed to record these particle collisions. Until the anticipated start-up of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the Tevatron collider at Fermilab near Chicago is the highest energy collider operating in the world, colliding protons and anti-protons at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Its two interaction points are covered by the multi purpose particle detectors D0 and CDF. During the first data-taking period, known as Run I, the Tevatron operated at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV. This run period lasted from 1992 to 1996. During this period, the long-predicted top quark was discovered. From 1996 and 2001, the accelerator was upgraded to deliver higher instantaneous luminosities at its current center-of-mass energy. At the same time, the experiments were upgraded to take full advantage of the upgraded accelerator complex. The Tevatron is currently the only accelerator in the world with a sufficient energy to produce top quarks. Studying top quark production, decay and properties is an important part of the D0 and CDF physics programs. Because of its large mass, the top quark is a unique probe of the Standard Model, and an interesting environment to search for new physics. In this thesis, a

  15. Top Quark Anomalous Couplings at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Devetak, Erik; Nomerotski, Andrei; Peskin, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    We present a study of the experimental determination of the forward-backward asymmetry in the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} t{bar t} and in the subsequent t {yields} Wb decay, studied in the context of the International Linear Collider. This process probes the elementary couplings of the top quark to the photon, the Z and the W bosons at a level of precision that is difficult to achieve at hadron colliders. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry requires excellent b quark identification and determination of the quark charge. The study reported here is performed in the most challenging all-hadronic channel e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} b{bar b}q{bar q}q{bar q}. It includes realistic details of the experimental environment, a full Monte Carlo simulation of the detector, based on the Silicon Detector concept, and realistic event reconstruction. The forward-backward asymmetries are determined to a precision of approximately 1% for each of two choices of beam polarization. We analyze the implications for the determination of the t{bar t}Z and Wt{bar b} couplings.

  16. Neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tetsuya; Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-06-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally distinct processes called axons and dendrites. This polarization underlies the directional flow of information in the central nervous system, so the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarization is crucial for correct development and function. Great progress in our understanding of how neurons establish their polarity has been made through the use of cultured hippocampal neurons, while recent technological advances have enabled in vivo analysis of axon specification and elongation. This short review and accompanying poster highlight recent advances in this fascinating field, with an emphasis on the signaling mechanisms underlying axon and dendrite specification in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26081570

  17. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  18. Evidence for quark-hadron duality in {gamma}*p helicity cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Malace, S. P.; Melnitchouk, W.; Psaker, A.

    2011-03-15

    Combining data on unpolarized and polarized inclusive proton structure functions, we perform the first detailed study of quark-hadron duality in individual helicity-1/2 and 3/2 virtual photoproduction cross sections. We find that duality is realized more clearly in the helicity-1/2 channel, with duality-violating corrections < or approx. 10% over the entire nucleon resonance region, while larger, < or approx. 20% corrections are found in the helicity-3/2 sector. The results are in general agreement with quark model expectations, and suggest that data above the {Delta} resonance region may be used to constrain both spin-averaged and spin-dependent parton distributions.

  19. Effects of the quark-hadron phase transition on highly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzon, B.; Gomes, R. O.; Schramm, S.

    2016-08-01

    The presence of quark-hadron phase transitions in neutron stars can be related to several interesting phenomena. In particular, previous calculations have shown that fast rotating neutron stars, when subjected to a quark-hadron phase transition in their interiors, could give rise to the backbending phenomenon characterized by a spin-up era. In this work, we use an equation of state composed of two phases, containing nucleons (and leptons) and quarks. The hadronic phase is described in a relativistic mean field formalism that takes many-body forces into account, and the quark phase is described by the MIT bag model with a vector interaction. Stationary and axi-symmetric stellar models are obtained in a self-consistent way by solving numerically the Einstein-Maxwell equations by means of a pseudo-spectral method. As a result, we obtain the interesting backbending phenomenon for fast spinning neutron stars. More importantly, we show that a magnetic field, which is assumed to be axi-symmetric and poloidal, can also be enhanced due to the phase transition from normal hadronic matter to quark matter on highly magnetized neutron stars. Therefore, in parallel to the spin-up era, classes of neutron stars endowed with strong magnetic fields may go through a "magnetic-up era" in their lives.

  20. Revisiting the boiling of primordial quark nuggets at nonzero chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Liu, Tong; Gubler, Philipp; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2015-03-01

    The boiling of possible quark nuggets during the quark-hadron phase transition of the Universe at nonzero chemical potential is revisited within the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employed for the hadron phase, using two kinds of baryon interactions as fundamental inputs. To describe the deconfined phase of quark matter, we use a recently developed quark mass density-dependent model with a fully self-consistent thermodynamic treatment of confinement. We study the baryon number limit Aboil (above which boiling may be important) with three typical values for the confinement parameter D. It is firstly found that the baryon interaction with a softer equation of state for the hadron phase would only lead to a small increase of Aboil . However, results depend sensitively on the confinement parameter in the quark model. Specifically, boiling might be important during the Universe cooling for a limited parameter range around D 1 / 2 = 170 MeV, a value satisfying recent lattice QCD calculations of the vacuum chiral condensate, while for other choices of this parameter, boiling might not happen and cosmological quark nuggets of 102 < A <1050 could survive.

  1. Local gauge transformation for the quark propagator in an SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, M. Jamil; Bashir, A.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    In an S U (N ) gauge field theory, the n -point Green functions, namely, propagators and vertices, transform under the simultaneous local gauge variations of the gluon vector potential and the quark matter field in such a manner that the physical observables remain invariant. In this article, we derive this intrinsically nonperturbative transformation law for the quark propagator within the system of covariant gauges. We carry out its explicit perturbative expansion up to O (gs6) and, for some terms, up to O (gs8) . We study the implications of this transformation for the quark-antiquark condensate, multiplicative renormalizability of the massless quark propagator, as well as its relation with the quark-gluon vertex at the one-loop order. Setting the color factors CF=1 and CA=0 , Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformation for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics is trivially recovered. We also test whether the usually employed proposals for the truncations of Schwinger-Dyson equations are consistent with what the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations entail for the massless quark propagator.

  2. Quark-hadron composition of rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, Richard D., Jr.

    It is well known that isolated neutron stars spin down over time through magnetic braking. To maintain hydrostatic equilibrium as they do so, the density profile of the star changes. At densities as high as those expected to exist in the interiors of neutron stars, this can lead to changes in the state of matter found there. Given several models for the nuclear equations of state, we use numerical techniques to determine, for each, the quark-hadron composition for varying frequencies and the results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. The CD-ROM, an appendix to this thesis, is available for viewing at the Media Center of the Library.

  3. Quark Spectral Function above T{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Sixue; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Roberts, Craig D.

    2011-05-24

    The maximum entropy method is used to calculate the dressed-quark spectral density from the self-consistent solution of the rainbow-truncated gap equation of QCD at temperatures above T{sub c}, the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration. We find that, besides the normal and plasmino modes, the spectral function exhibits an essentially nonperturbative zero mode at the temperatures above but near T{sub c}. In the vicinity of T{sub c}, this long-wavelength mode contains the bulk of the spectral strength. So long as this mode persists, the system may reasonably be described as a strongly-coupled state of matter.

  4. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV. PMID:25192088

  5. Entanglement interaction and the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G. Y.; Tang, Z. D.; Di Toro, M.; Colonna, M.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, N.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The entanglement interactions between the Polyakov loop and chiral condensate have been recently studied in the entangled Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (EPNJL). The calculation shows that such an interaction plays an important role in the pseudocritical temperatures of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration. As a further study, here we construct a hadron-quark two-equation-of-state (two-EoS) model, based on the Walecka-quantum hadrodynamics and the EPNJL pictures, in order to study the equilibrium transition between hadronic and quark matter in heavy-ion collisions at finite densities and temperatures. We can explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter and the transition boundaries from nuclear to quark matter. We discuss the influence of the entanglement interaction on the critical point of the expected first-order phase transition in the two-EoS model. In particular, for charge asymmetric matter, we analyze the local asymmetry of the u , d quarks as a function of quark concentration in the hadron-quark mixed phase during the phase transition. We finally propose some related observables that are possibly measurable in heavy-ion collision experiments.

  6. Quark eigenmodes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guofeng

    In this thesis, we study a number of topics in lattice QCD through the low-lying quark eigenmodes in the domain wall fermion (DWF) formulation in the quenched approximation. Specifically, we present results for the chiral condensate measured from these eigenmodes; we investigate the QCD vacuum structure by looking at the correlation between the magnitude of the chirality density, |psi†(x)gamma5psi( x)|, and the normal density, psi†( x)psi(x), for these states; we study the behavior of DWF formulation at large quark masses by investigating the mass dependence of the eigenvalues of the physical four dimensional-states as well as the bulk, five-dimensional states.

  7. Diquark abundance in stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E.; de Freitas Pacheco, J.A.; de Araujo, J.C.N. )

    1992-11-15

    The clustering of quarks into pairs (diquarks) has been suggested recently to play an important role in dense matter and its astrophysical realization in neutron-star cores. We address in this work the features of diquark matter by employing an accurate equation of state valid for the effective {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} diquark theory, and find milder (although non-negligible) effects than in previous calculations. Some considerations on the very presence of a diquark-dominated region immediately above the deconfinement density are also given.

  8. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; DeMaster

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  9. Theory review on hadrons in strongly interacting matter

    SciTech Connect

    Leupold, Stefan; Mosel, Ulrich

    2010-12-28

    I will review our present understanding of in-medium changes of the properties of hadrons. Results of calculations for cold (nuclear matter) and for hot (heavy-ion collisions) strongly interacting matter will be discussed. The focus will be on hadrons made out of light quarks, in particular vector mesons and their interrelation to baryonic resonances.

  10. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  11. New approach to polarized deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques

    1993-12-01

    We show, in a simple way, that the flavor asymmetry in the light-quark sea of the proton discovered by the New Muon Collaboration suggests also a large flavor asymmetry for the corresponding polarized distributions. This accounts for the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe proton sum rule reported by the European Muon Collaboration, but it implies no violation of the Ellis-Jaffe neutron sum rule, which seems confirmed from the very recent SLAC data.

  12. Dark matter from unification of color and baryon number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornal, Bartosz; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze a recently proposed extension of the Standard Model based on the S U (4 )×S U (2 )L×U (1 )X gauge group, in which baryon number is interpreted as the fourth color and dark matter emerges as a neutral partner of the ordinary quarks under S U (4 ). We show that under well-motivated minimal flavor-violating assumptions the particle spectrum contains a heavy dark matter candidate which is dominantly the partner of the right-handed top quark. Assuming a standard cosmology, the correct thermal relic density through freeze-out is obtained for dark matter masses around 2-3 TeV. We examine the constraints and future prospects for direct and indirect searches for dark matter. We also briefly discuss the LHC phenomenology, which is rich in top quark signatures, and investigate the prospects for discovery at a 100 TeV hadron collider.

  13. Polarized rainbow.

    PubMed

    Können, G P; de Boer, J H

    1979-06-15

    The Airy theory of the rainbow is extended to polarized light. For both polarization directions a simple analytic expression is obtained for the intensity distribution as a function of the scattering angle in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. This approach is valid at least down to droplet diameters of 0.3 mm in visible light. The degree of polarization of the rainbow is less than expected from geometrical optics; it increases with droplet size. For a droplet diameter >1 mm the locations of the supernumerary rainbows are equal for both polarization directions, but for a diameter <1 mm the supernumerary rainbows of the weaker polarization component are located between those in the strong component. PMID:20212586

  14. Lifetimes and heavy quark expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Kolya Uraltsev was one of the inventors of the Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), that describes inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks and in particular lifetimes. Besides giving a pedagogic introduction to the subject, we review the development and the current status of the HQE, which just recently passed several non-trivial experimental tests with an unprecedented precision. In view of many new experimental results for lifetimes of heavy hadrons, we also update several theory predictions: τ (B+)/τ (Bd) = 1.04+0.05-0.01 ± 0.02 ± 0.01, τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) = 1.001 ±0.002, τ(Λb)/τ(Bd) = 0.935 ±0.054 and \\bar {τ } (Ξ b0)/\\bar {τ } (Ξ b+) = 0.95 ± 0.06. The theoretical precision is currently strongly limited by the unknown size of the non-perturbative matrix elements of four-quark operators, which could be determined with lattice simulations.

  15. Quark masses and their hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, M.

    1987-12-01

    Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.

  16. Novel Physics with Tensor Polarized Deuteron Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Slifer, Karl J.; Long, Elena A.

    2013-09-01

    Development of solid spin-1 polarized targets will open the study of tensor structure functions to precise measurement, and holds the promise to enable a new generation of polarized scattering experiments. In this talk we will discuss a measurement of the leading twist tensor structure function b1, along with prospects for future experiments with a solid tensor polarized target. The recently approved JLab experiment E12-13-011 will measure the lead- ing twist tensor structure function b1, which provides a unique tool to study partonic effects, while also being sensitive to coherent nuclear properties in the simplest nuclear system. At low x, shadowing effects are expected to dominate b1, while at larger values, b1 provides a clean probe of exotic QCD effects, such as hidden color due to 6-quark configuration. Since the deuteron wave function is relatively well known, any non-standard effects are expected to be readily observable. All available models predict a small or vanishing value of b1 at moderate x. However, the first pioneer measurement of b1 at HERMES revealed a crossover to an anomalously large negative value in the region 0.2 < x < 0.5, albeit with relatively large experimental uncertainty. E12-13-011 will perform an inclusive measurement of the deuteron tensor asymmetry in the region 0.16 < x < 0.49, for 0.8 < Q2 < 5.0 GeV2. The UVa solid polarized ND3 target will be used, along with the Hall C spectrometers, and an unpolarized 115 nA beam. This measurement will provide access to the tensor quark polarization, and allow a test of the Close-Kumano sum rule, which vanishes in the absence of tensor polarization in the quark sea. Until now, tensor structure has been largely unexplored, so the study of these quantities holds the potential of initiating a new field of spin physics at Jefferson Lab.

  17. Formation of the seed black holes: a role of quark nuggets?

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, X.Y.; Xu, R.X. E-mail: r.x.xu@pku.edu.cn

    2010-05-01

    Strange quark nuggets (SQNs) could be the relics of the cosmological QCD phase transition, and they could very likely be the candidate of cold quark matter if survived the cooling of the later Universe, although the formation and evolution of these SQNs depend on the physical state of the hot QGP (quark-gluon plasma) phase and the state of cold quark matter. We reconsider the possibility of SQNs as cold dark matter, and find that the formation of black holes in primordial halos could be significantly different from the standard scenario. In a primordial halo, the collision between gas and SQNs could be frequent enough, and thus the viscosity acting on each SQN would decrease its angular momentum and make it to sink into the center of the halo, as well as heat the gas. The SQNs with baryon numbers less than 10{sup 35} could assemble in the center of the halo before the formation of primordial stars. A black hole could form by merger of these SQNs, and then its mass could quickly become about 10{sup 3}M{sub s}un or higher, by accreting the surrounding SQNs or gas. The black holes formed in this way could be the seeds for the supermassive black holes at redshift as high as z ∼ 6.

  18. Isovector channel of quark-meson-coupling model and its effect on symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Qi, C.; Xu, F. R.

    2011-08-01

    The non-relativistic approximation of the quark-meson-coupling model has been discussed and compared with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model which includes spin exchanges. Calculations show that the spin-exchange interaction has important effect on the descriptions of finite nuclei and nuclear matter through the Fock exchange. Also in the quark-me