Science.gov

Sample records for policy economic cooperation

  1. Teaching Economics: A Cooperative Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caropreso, Edward J.; Haggerty, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to introductory economics based on a cooperative learning model, "Learning Together." Discussion of issues in economics education and cooperative learning in higher education leads to explanation of how to adapt the Learning Together Model to lesson planning in economics. A flow chart illustrates the process for a…

  2. Energy economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.M.; Steele, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the recent discussion on the energy crisis centered around questions of social and political policy, with little systematic attention given to the economic analysis of the policy problems presented by the changing role of energy in modern economies. To fill a gap in the literature, the established techniques of microeconomics are applied to the analysis of energy resources as scarce inputs to production processes. Intended as an undergraduate course, the text emphasizes oil and gas as the primary fuel sources and is biased in favor of competition and against monopoly. The major chapter headings are: (1) The dimensions of the energy problem; (2) Static criteria for efficient energy resource allocation; (3) Criteria for efficient dynamic resource allocation; (4) The role of the organization of petroleum exporting countries in precipitating the world energy crisis; (5) Environmental issues in energy development; (6) The national security dilemma; (7) Conservation; (8) Price controls of oil and natural gas; (9) The optimum structure and regulation of energy industries: some alternative approaches; (10) Future energy technologies and the role for energy research and development; and (11) Suggested policy directions. 38 references, 42 figures, 24 tables.

  3. Evaluating Economic Performance and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that a social welfare approach to evaluating economic performance is inappropriate at the high school level. Provides several historical case studies which could be used to augment instruction aimed at the evaluation of economic performance and policies. (JDH)

  4. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  5. Traditional American Indian Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines aspects of American Indian world views and values relevant to economic development policy; specifically, sense of community, connectedness of everything, consideration of future generations, and humility toward nature. Discusses constraints on economic development arising from these values and the relevance of common property ownership…

  6. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  7. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  8. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  9. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  10. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  11. Trust and cooperation among economic agents

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2009-01-01

    The units that are subject to selection pressure in evolutionary biology are ‘strategies’, which are conditional actions (‘Do P if X occurs, otherwise do Q’). In contrast, the units in economics select strategies from available menus so as to further their projects and purposes. As economic agents do not live in isolation, each agent's optimum choice, in general, depends on the choices made by others. Because their projects and purposes involve the future, not just the present, each agent reasons about the likely present and future consequences of their respective choices. That is why beliefs, about what others may do and what the consequences of those choices could be, are at the basis of strategy selection. A catalogue of social environments is constructed in which agents not only promise each other's cooperation, but also rationally believe that the promises will be kept. Unfortunately, non-cooperation arising from mistrust can be the outcome in those same environments: societies harbour multiple ‘equilibria’ and can skid from cooperation to non-cooperation. Moreover, a pre-occupation among analysts with the Prisoners' Dilemma game has obscured the fact that cooperative arrangements can harbour not only inequality, but also exploitation. The analysis is used to discuss why international cooperation over the use of global public goods has proved to be so elusive. PMID:19805436

  12. Trust and cooperation among economic agents.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2009-11-12

    The units that are subject to selection pressure in evolutionary biology are 'strategies', which are conditional actions ('Do P if X occurs, otherwise do Q'). In contrast, the units in economics select strategies from available menus so as to further their projects and purposes. As economic agents do not live in isolation, each agent's optimum choice, in general, depends on the choices made by others. Because their projects and purposes involve the future, not just the present, each agent reasons about the likely present and future consequences of their respective choices. That is why beliefs, about what others may do and what the consequences of those choices could be, are at the basis of strategy selection. A catalogue of social environments is constructed in which agents not only promise each other's cooperation, but also rationally believe that the promises will be kept. Unfortunately, non-cooperation arising from mistrust can be the outcome in those same environments: societies harbour multiple 'equilibria' and can skid from cooperation to non-cooperation. Moreover, a pre-occupation among analysts with the Prisoners' Dilemma game has obscured the fact that cooperative arrangements can harbour not only inequality, but also exploitation. The analysis is used to discuss why international cooperation over the use of global public goods has proved to be so elusive. PMID:19805436

  13. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  14. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  15. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. PMID:26208968

  16. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    SciTech Connect

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. How Effective are Cooperative Emission Reduction Policies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moberg, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Management of air resources in the United States is a highly contentious endeavor based in application of cutting-edge scientific research. New policies created to facilitate better science-based management of air resources are one example of ho integrating research practice with scientific goals can benefit society at large. Wisconsin's Environmental Cooperation Pilot Program (ECPP) and Green Tier Law (GT) are state initiatives that attempt to recast the relationship between government regulators and regulated firms by increasing the degree of emission flexibility allowed under Wisconsin's permitting process. While still in their infancy, these programs have attracted a large degree of national attention for the innovative mechanisms they incorporate to reach this goal. Specifically, their mandated use of Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) as a prerequisite for program eligibility has drawn both praise and ire from various observers both within the state and in the country at large. This study analyzes the effect of this program on each participating firm's emissions of criteria air pollutants from 1990 through 2004. Conclusions drawn through the statistical evaluation are supported by interviews with both regulators and participating firms. Results show that the programs have succeeded in certain specific cases by greatly improving a firm's air emissions, but that the mean trend for all participants is much less significant. Using the Wisconsin activities as case studies, we examine the potential for joint public-private cooperation as an conduit for incorporating scientific results into policy and private action. "Lessons learned" from ECPP and GT are identified, and used to suggest future directions in air quality policy.

  18. Security Economics and European Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  19. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  20. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  1. Economic Stabilization Policies. Economic Topic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wilfred

    This pamphlet was derived from a discussion paper prepared for a Joint Council conference. It was specifically revised for this series to bring an important subject to the attention of students and concerned citizens. Part One defines the problem of economic stabilization and explains the fiscal and monetary measures used to help control the…

  2. 77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its economic impact procedures. A draft of the proposed economic impact procedures can be accessed at the following location:...

  3. Cooperative Vocational Education Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual provides guidelines for establishing and conducting a cooperative vocational education program. The guide is organized in seven sections that provide information in narrative format on the following aspects of a cooperative education program: overview of the cooperative method of instruction, definitions, benefits of cooperative…

  4. International energy cooperation: The mismatch between IEA policy actions and policy goals: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis discusses the link, if any, between IEA policy actions and stated goals of the Program. Understanding the reasons for success or failure of IEA actions identifies which policies achieve real gains from international energy cooperation, and which are counterproductive. Section I is an overview of the structural framework of the IEA. Section II describes the institutional and organizational background, including the policy mechanisms, of the IEA. Section III looks at specific policy actions undertaken by the agency, particularly during the Iranian revolution and at the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War. The economic consequences of oil sharing are examined in section IV, which simulates a world oil supply disruption affecting IEA member countries differentially. Section V analyzes import controls, focusing on coordination problems and possible OPEC pricing responses, and examines the actual record of general petroleum consumption restraints in 1980. Oil stockpiling is analyzed both as a general economic phenomenon and an object of IEA coordination in section VI, which also offers an econometric analysis of actual experience in the 1970s and 1980s. Section VII considers a number of less formal assessments of IEA policies, including self-evaluations by the IEA itself.

  5. Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

    Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

  6. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  7. Why cooperate? An economic perspective is not enough.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Richard; Perelberg, Amir

    2004-06-30

    Cooperation is usually explained from an economic perspective focused mainly on the tangible outcomes received by individuals that are also dependent on the behavior of others, with little reference to the actual behaviors used when cooperating. The potential consequences of social dimensions associated with cooperative behaviors are minimized in Skinnerian and game-theory models by means of anonymous subjects that behave individually while physically isolated in separate chambers. When cooperation and non-cooperation occur in the real world, however, they are often associated not only with different outcomes but also with different behaviors. Unlike non-cooperation, cooperative behaviors are usually intrinsically social, influenced by the presence and behaviors of familiar partners. Research is described that addresses whether the social dimensions of cooperative actions go beyond mere description of behaviors to also explain why cooperation occurs. One way to resolve the relative importance of economic and social factors for explanations of cooperation is to measure choice between the options of cooperation and non-cooperation. The economic perspective, linked to models derived from game theory, frames the question as a choice determined by differences in tangible outcomes such as food or money that, in evolutionary terms, are surrogates for gains in fitness. From a behavioral perspective, the choice between cooperation and non-cooperation is also determined by social dimensions associated only with cooperation. The influence of social cooperation on preference was examined by means of two rectangular chambers interconnected by a T-maze. In one chamber, pairs of laboratory rats were reinforced with saccharin solution for coordinating back-and-forth shuttling; in the second chamber, a single animal was reinforced for back-and-forth shuttling performed in isolation. With outcomes equalized between the two options, cooperation was preferred by the majority of

  8. [Policies of economic development and population].

    PubMed

    Aleman, J L

    1974-01-01

    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  9. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

  10. 75 FR 148 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room 947, Washington, DC 20571, within...

  11. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  12. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW.,...

  13. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  14. 75 FR 48333 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States... may submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  15. 77 FR 53201 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811...

  16. 75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room...

  17. 77 FR 23247 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

  18. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  19. 77 FR 65686 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  20. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  1. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  2. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Economic Analyses of Three Energy Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accordino, Megan Henderson

    The essays included in this dissertation analyze three policy issues that have been frequently discussed in recent years. Chapter One analyzes the effects and likelihood of a particular type of manipulation with which the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has become increasingly concerned and illustrates a potential screen for such manipulation. Chapter Two analyzes the effect a federal climate policy might have given the many state climate policies that are already in place. Finally, Chapter Three examines whether it is economically justified to encourage investment in energy storage (instead of flexible natural gas generation) to compensate for the increasing variability in wind generation.

  5. 78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... regions. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  6. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this... United Kingdom. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  7. 77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... domestically in Iraq. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  8. Universities and Development: Global Cooperation. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to demonstrate that universities are key organisations in international development. Universities are involved in a wide range of international development activities, including collaborative research projects, developing entrepreneurial and employability skills and the evaluation of non-governmental organisation (NGO)…

  9. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  10. Evidence synthesis, economics and public policy.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Vale, Luke; Marsh, Kevin; Donaldson, Cam; Drummond, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Systematic reviews and syntheses of evidence are increasingly used to inform public policy decisions. Growing budgetary pressures mean that decision makers often need to consider evidence on the costs and efficiency of alternatives as well as their effects. There are a number of methodological challenges in the identification, appraisal, synthesis, interpretation and use of economic evidence. This article draws on a recently published edited volume to review the latest developments, proposals and controversies in these aspects of economic evidence synthesis methodology. It focuses on two broad classes of approach: systematic review to summarize and compare the findings of existing economic analyses and synthesis of new economic results using decision models. The availability and scope of economic evidence is currently limited in many fields, but improving. Increased engagement between economists, the wider evidence synthesis community, and decision makers is needed to improve both the production and use of economic evidence. Further research to improve the evidence base that underpins application of economic evidence synthesis methodology will need to embrace a broader range of methods than economic evaluation and systematic review alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061378

  11. Inflation, economic policy, and the inner city

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, L.A.

    1981-07-01

    This article describes the greater impact of inflation among the poor and minorities in American inner cities than among other population groups. Surveys show, however, that minorities are even more concerned over unemployment and racial discrimination than over inflation. There are indications that, especially today, crime and potential group disorder are affected by or influence inflation, unemployment, and discrimination in the inner city. With these interrelated factors in mind, present federal economic policy is reviewed, critiqued, and interpreted as basically consistent with Keynesian economic theory. Modifications of and alternatives to present policy are offered that fit both inner-city needs and the concerns of the rest of American society. These policies include targeted private sector neighborhood development and self-help, private sector productivity increases through workplace democracy, private-public sector codetermination of investment, private-public sector job guarantees, and public anti-inflation policy carefully targeted at the basic necessities of energy, food, housing, and health care - which have a disproportionate effect on inflation in the inner city, as well as the overall economy. Coalitions are suggested that could politically implement such policies.

  12. French Development Cooperation: A Scientific and Technological Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrac, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Describes a project to provide developing countries with access to scientific and technological information produced in connection with French bilateral development cooperation programs. Making an inventory of the available material, the users of the information, processing the information, and the development of a documentation policy are…

  13. Coal mining technology, economics and policy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 session papers from the American Mining Congress Coal Convention covered a variety of technical, economic, regulatory, and health and safety issues. The papers were grouped into the following categories: Coal mine ventilation technology; Coal policy; Coal utilization -- problems and opportunities; Dealing with spontaneous combustion; Energy taxation; Environmental issues; Ergonomics in the underground mine environment; Ground control technology; Lessons in compromise: the need to improve our communications strategies; Management - improving operations through organizational change; Productivity forum - how to improve the bottom line; Reclamation technology; Safety and health; Subsidence; Surface mining - technology and reclamation policy; Underground haulage - from the face to the surface.

  14. Behavioral economics: areas of cooperative research between economics and applied behavioral analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Kagel, John H.; Winkler, Robin C.

    1972-01-01

    The current research methods of behavioral economics are characterized by inadequate empirical foundations. Psychologists involved in the experimental analysis of behavior with their research strategies and their experimental technology, particularly that of the Token Economy, can assist in providing empirical foundations for behavioral economics. Cooperative research between economists and psychologists to this end should be immediately fruitful and mutually beneficial. PMID:16795356

  15. From competition to co-operation: new economic relationships in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Goddard, M; Mannion, R

    1998-03-01

    The Labour government has outlined its plans to 'replace' the competitive internal market with a more collaborative system based on partnership. Agreement amongst purchasers and providers is to be based on co-operation rather than competition. Longer term agreements covering periods of 3-5 years are to replace annual contracts within this new environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential economic implications of these policy changes by drawing on the economics of co-operation and the transaction costs approach to longer term contracting. Issues surrounding the role of trust in contractual relationships are explored and the relevance of experience and evidence from non-health care sectors is considered in the context of the NHS. It is concluded that both theory and empirical evidence suggest that co-operation and trust can play a central role in the efficient organisation of contractual arrangements in circumstances similar to those under which the NHS operates. However, we warn against the expectation that the policy changes will produce automatically the scale of benefits predicted by the Labour government, especially as they will have to find a way of extracting reasonable performance from providers under a system of collaboration and long term agreements. They may find they need to tread a fine line between competition and co-operation in order to reap the benefits of both. PMID:9565167

  16. Community Economic Development: Perspectives on Research and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaway, Burt, Ed.; Hudson, Joe, Ed.

    This book contains 27 papers that were originally developed for a research and policy symposium at which Canadian community economic development (CED) was examined in terms of research and policy requirements. The book contains the following papers: "Community Economic Development Practice in Canada" (Brodhead); "Community Economic Development: An…

  17. Present economic policies, what and why?

    PubMed

    He, J

    1981-01-01

    80% of China's population is rural. Agriculture provides almost all of the foodstuffs and 70% of the raw materials for light industry. Agriculture is therefore important and rural policies are primary to the national economy. Agricultural production has steadily increased since the cultural revolution. For example, grain output rose from 113.2 million tons in 1949 to 304.75 million tons in 1978; cotton production increased from 445,000 to 2,167,000 tons. Productivity of agricultural labor remains low due to the lack of mechanization and motivation. Before the revolution, China's rural economy lost diversity and vitality. During the revolution, agriculture was left to the peasant households and labor management was neglected. Collective economic units were blocked from initiating new ways of increasing productivity, and agriculture declined. Recent new policies are being developed to remedy this situation: 1) sizes of production teams should vary as local conditions require with the production team as the basic accounting unit; 2) flexible forms of management and responsibility for production are required within the teams. Collective production should be geared to the personal benefit of commune members; 3) plots, livestock, trees, and mountain slopes for private use are to be restored and developed; 4) production teams will not be restricted from processing farm and sideline products and doing trade; 5) rights of management and decision making of rural communes and production teams will be respected; and 6) the purchase prices of farm products will be varied substantially. Results of these new policies indicate that agricultural growth is accelerating. Increases in grain production exceeded 49 million tons from 1978-79. Incomes grew considerably in 1979 to a national average of 83.4 yuan/capita. PMID:12264110

  18. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  19. 7 CFR 1951.231 - Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity... Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans. (a) Withdrawal of member and... for Economic Opportunity Cooperative loans must be handled under the Federal Claims Collection...

  20. Reconciling Economic and Non-Economic Perspectives on Media Policy: Transcending the "Marketplace of Ideas."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entman, Robert M.; Wildman, Steven S.

    1992-01-01

    Urges construction of a new analytical framework for communications policy researchers which explicitly weighs quantifiable economic efficiency criteria alongside nonquantifiable social values. Discusses market economics versus social value, the economics of idea production and distribution, an expanded policy framework, the role of the first…

  1. Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.

    PubMed

    Hens; Boon

    1999-10-01

    influenced by the specific state of African environmental and technological capacity and by a call for the recognition of the role of traditional customs in nature conservation. This African perspective on environmental management is further intensified by an unmet need for regional, transboundary cooperation in the West African subcontinent. This specific West African context calls for an elaboration of an effective capacity-building program for environmental management in the area.KEY WORDS: Environmental profile; Environmental policy; Legal instruments; Economic instruments; African perspective; State of the environmenthttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p337.html PMID:10486044

  2. The value of superpower-submitted INDCs in cooperative and non-cooperative action scenarios: economic impact, dynamic risk, and temperature rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the 2015 Paris climate talks near, policy discussions are focused on "intended nationally determined contributions" (INDCs) submitted in advance of the discussions. As the major global emitters - specifically the United States and China - have already submitted their INDCs, we have a point of comparison for evaluating the relative potential impacts of the proposed targets. By applying integrated assessment models to robust, publicly available data sets,we aim to evaluate the interplay between climate change and economic development, comment on emissions reduction scenarios in cooperative and non-cooperative situations, and assess the dynamic risks of multiple regional emissions scenarios. We use both the RICE model and the C-ROADS model to examine alternative regional outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages,under different reduction scenarios, including a scenario where geo-engineering plays a prominent role. These simulators allow us to vary emissions, population, and economic levels in China and the United States specifically to comment on the international climate risk impact of actors working jointly - or not - toward a global climate goal. In a complementary piece of analysis we seek to understand the value judgments, trade-offs, and regional policies that would lead to favorable climate finance flows. To reach an international sample of industry decision-makers, we propose a novel application of a standard discrete-choice survey methodology. A conjoint analysis requires a participant to chose between combinations of attributes and identify trade-offs while allowing the researcher to determine the relative importance of each individual attribute by mathematically assessing the impact each attribute could have on total item utility. As climate policy negotiations will consist of allocation of scarce resources and rejection of certain attributes, a conjoint analysis is an ideal tool for evaluating policy outcomes. This research program seeks to

  3. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects. PMID:25984439

  4. The New Jersey Cooperative Home Economics Education Handbook. Part B: The Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Dorothy

    This guide is intended for use with students enrolled in cooperative occupational home economics programs. The following topics are covered in the individual modules: the basic principles of cooperative home economics; preparation for the world of work (choosing, finding, applying for, and exploring a job); safety, security, and sanitation (on and…

  5. Overseas Student Fee Policy: Some Economic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1987-01-01

    Since Great Britain instituted a policy in 1979 of charging foreign students the "full cost" of their education, there has been little effort to determine what the full cost or the policy's impact is. Calculations reveal net gain to British taxpayer from having foreign students in non-advanced further education and slight loss from having them in…

  6. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International..., and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting... Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the...

  7. Behavioral economics and health policy: understanding Medicaid's failure.

    PubMed

    Richman, Barak D

    2005-03-01

    This Article employs a behavioral economic analysis to understand why Medicaid has failed to improve the health outcomes of its beneficiaries. It begins with a formal economic model of health care consumption and then systematically incorporates a survey of psychosocial variables to formulate explanations for persistent health disparities. This methodology suggests that consulting the literature in health psychology and intertemporal decision theory--empirical sources generally excluded from orthodox economic analysis--provides valuable material to explain certain findings in health econometrics. More significantly, the lessons from this behavioral economic approach generate useful policy considerations for Medicaid policymakers, who largely have neglected psychosocial variables in implementing a health insurance program that rests chiefly on orthodox economic assumptions. The Article's chief contributions include an expansion of the behavioral economic approach to include a host of variables in health psychology, a behavioral refinement of empirical health economics, a behavioral critique of Medicaid policy, and a menu of suggested Medicaid reforms. PMID:15868692

  8. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  9. Ford Policy Forum 2002: Exploring the Economics of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Maureen E., Ed.

    The Ford Policy Forum is an integral part of the annual symposium of the Forum for the Future of Higher Education. The Forum studies key economic issues likely to influence the quality and performance of colleges and universities. This publication contains the work of the Ford Policy Forum Scholars of 2001 for the annual symposium. In early 1991,…

  10. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  11. Future Educational Policies in the Changing Social and Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Discussion at the OECD Education Committee meeting focused on education policies of OECD nations in the context of social and economic trends, the contribution of education to preparation for working life, and the transition from school to employment. The report is presented in two major sections. Section I outlines the educational policy debate.…

  12. Coping with Recession: Public Policy, Economic Downturns and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.

    This paper discusses recession and the major policy considerations that states and institutions must face in the current economic downturn. It explores the public policy implications of three major variables: (1) each of the 50 states has a unique higher education system; (2) each state also has a unique revenue and budgetary process; and (3) each…

  13. The Conservative Counter-Revolution in Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, James

    1983-01-01

    Reaganomics is a counter-revolution to the synthesis of Keynesian and neo-classical doctrine that became orthodoxy in the 1960s. The program is replacing macroeconomic stabilization and economic inequality policies. The new policies cannot cure inflation and unemployment or revive productivity, investment, hard work, and thrift. (Author/AM)

  14. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  15. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  16. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial. PMID:25583117

  17. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  18. Adverse implications for university teaching concealed in economically driven policies

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Modern universities represent large economic operations fueled by funds that are increasingly derived from student tuition as government subsidies shrink. Student recruitment and retention are now mainly driven by the need for the dollars that students pay into the system. Policy that is responsive to these pressing economic realities, promulgated at all institutional levels, promotes professional behavior that encourages student retention while allowing this to occur through subtle sacrifice of the traditional essence of the university. A multiphase analysis relates the institution's economically driven policies on retention to their classroom implications and to other effects on the behavior of the teaching faculty. PMID:22478313

  19. Behavioral Economics and Empirical Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Steven R.; Roma, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The application of economics principles to the analysis of behavior has yielded novel insights on value and choice across contexts ranging from laboratory animal research to clinical populations to national trends of global impact. Recent innovations in demand curve methods provide a credible means of quantitatively comparing qualitatively…

  20. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  1. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  2. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  3. 75 FR 3122 - Policy Statement Concerning Cooperation by Individuals in Its Investigations and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... framework it uses to evaluate cooperation by individuals. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2010. FOR... Commission is issuing a policy statement announcing the analytical framework it uses to evaluate cooperation by individuals. This framework serves two important purposes: it promotes the fair and...

  4. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal Renewal of an Advisory Committee... Coordinator, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business..., Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business...

  5. Energy and economic policy in postwar Japan, 1945-1960

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This history of the three main Japanese energy industries - coal, electric power, and petroleum - explores the dynamics of economic development and policy in postwar Japan. The immediate postwar policy debate over economic reconstruction involved the coal and electric power industry unions as well as organized business and government bureaucrats. Although union plans, which featured state control of industry and labor participation in management, were not adopted, they did raise broad questions of social justice. Union strength meant that Japan had to find a high-wage economic strategy. This labor goal was reflected in the three most important economic plans of the period: the Priority Production Policy of late 1946, the Industrial Rationalization Plan of 1949, and the 1960 Income Doubling Plan. All three plans incorporated both management and labor ideas (and bureaucratic ones). They protected managerial control of firms, but also institutionalized planning and a large role for the state. They offered a rising standard of living to workers and improvement of status through technology. Luck and international developments outside of Japanese control also were crucial to Japan's economic performance. Domestically, some of the most beneficial results of rationalization policy were unanticipated, as in the electric power and oil refining industries.

  6. Entering the policy debate: An economic evaluation of groundwater policy in flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Marie Leigh; Garrido, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    This is an age of transition in groundwater policy. The ownership and control of aquifers, changing groundwater quality, and the impact of groundwater on the environment command the attention of policy makers around the globe. Substantial pressure exists for change in the laws and regulations governing groundwater, which are critical to the management of this critical resource. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the practical policy debate from an economic perspective. This study begins by outlining the basic stages of change in groundwater policy and their economic relevance. A set of physical, economic, and institutional indicators are suggested that may help to understand various country issues. The indicators are used to describe some actual experiences in groundwater policy in the United States and Spain that are examined for insights into common policy questions. This study suggests that the public authority to initiate groundwater policy innovations often results from the physical ties between surface and groundwater. In contexts rich with spatial and temporal externalities the situation is more complex, but this increases the social benefits that result from successful reform. A credible threat of losing rights is often necessary to create enough incentives to firm existing rights. Reductions in overall use are better achieved through purchasing and retiring rights, rather than through compensation for nonuse. Finally, the policy issues important to groundwater are often more fundamental than pricing alone. These insights may help policy makers adapt to emerging groundwater management problems.

  7. Economic and policy implications of improving longevity.

    PubMed

    Vladeck, Bruce C

    2005-09-01

    With all the rhetoric surrounding the impending "entitlement crisis" produced by the "graying of America," there has been surprisingly little serious analysis of the social and economic implications of increased longevity and the doubling of the number of elderly people that will occur in this country over the next 30 years. This article identifies five critical areas in which the effect of demographic change will be significant. First, patterns of work life and labor-force participation will almost inevitably change. Second, government expenditures now financed largely by payroll and federal income taxes will increase, whereas those financed by state and local property taxes will fall, at least proportionately. Third, the post-World War II pattern of suburbanized, automobile-dependent communities will pose special challenges to serving an aging population, and new adaptations will need to be developed. Fourth, intrafamily caregiving patterns will necessarily change. Fifth, the level of disability and dependence of older people, for which the rate of change is inherently unpredictable, will have a major effect on all these and other phenomena. Whether one views the net effect of all these changes as a positive or a negative, it is necessary to begin thinking a lot harder and more systematically about all of them. PMID:16131358

  8. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  9. Cooperative Education: A Social Contract for Economic Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Ralph C.

    1982-01-01

    Increasingly, youth are unable to demonstrate minimum competencies in job skills and productive attitudes. Service and white-collar jobs are replacing manual jobs and youth lack the social skills necessary to function in these jobs. Increased attention to cooperative education, which integrates academic/career interests with productive work…

  10. Crafting an Education Reform Agenda through Economic Stimulus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The economic stimulus enacted during President Obama's initial weeks included a down payment on his ambitious education reform agenda. By combining short-term policy with reform, the strategy gained his administration three advantages: a discretionary funding source with little Congressional scrutiny; flexibility in pursuing education reform goals…

  11. Renewable Energy Financing: The Role of Policy and Economics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.

    2008-03-27

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have rapidly developed momentum in certain sections of the United States and throughout the world, primarily in response to climate and energy security concerns. This presentation at the RPS Symposium, sponsored by the Electric Utility Consultants Inc., will discuss renewable energy financing and the economics of such policies.

  12. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  13. Economic indicators selection for crime rates forecasting using cooperative feature selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwee, Razana; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam Hj; Salleh Sallehuddin, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Features selection in multivariate forecasting model is very important to ensure that the model is accurate. The purpose of this study is to apply the Cooperative Feature Selection method for features selection. The features are economic indicators that will be used in crime rate forecasting model. The Cooperative Feature Selection combines grey relational analysis and artificial neural network to establish a cooperative model that can rank and select the significant economic indicators. Grey relational analysis is used to select the best data series to represent each economic indicator and is also used to rank the economic indicators according to its importance to the crime rate. After that, the artificial neural network is used to select the significant economic indicators for forecasting the crime rates. In this study, we used economic indicators of unemployment rate, consumer price index, gross domestic product and consumer sentiment index, as well as data rates of property crime and violent crime for the United States. Levenberg-Marquardt neural network is used in this study. From our experiments, we found that consumer price index is an important economic indicator that has a significant influence on the violent crime rate. While for property crime rate, the gross domestic product, unemployment rate and consumer price index are the influential economic indicators. The Cooperative Feature Selection is also found to produce smaller errors as compared to Multiple Linear Regression in forecasting property and violent crime rates.

  14. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  15. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  16. APPLYING INSIGHTS FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS TO POLICY DESIGN

    PubMed Central

    Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this article is that an understanding of psychology and other social science disciplines can inform the effectiveness of the economic tools traditionally deployed in carrying out the functions of government, which include remedying market failures, redistributing income, and collecting tax revenue. An understanding of psychology can also lead to the development of different policy tools that better motivate desired behavior change or that are more cost-effective than traditional policy tools. The article outlines a framework for thinking about the psychology of behavior change in the context of market failures. It then describes the research on the effects of a variety of interventions rooted in an understanding of psychology that have policy-relevant applications. The article concludes by discussing how an understanding of psychology can also inform the use and design of traditional policy tools for behavior change, such as financial incentives. PMID:25520759

  17. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  18. The economics of subnational carbon policy interactions and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Fadli

    An integrated, nationwide carbon policy is essential to achieve US environmental targets relating to carbon emissions. The carbon policy literature is loaded with qualitative analysis of the implications or mechanisms of an integrated emissions market across the US, but current quantitative studies do not offer solutions regarding the interactions of coexisting US regional emission markets and other policy instruments. Therefore, this dissertation attempts to answer three fundamental concerns about US carbon policy. The second chapter analyzes the welfare implications of different relative stringencies of cap-setting under a proposed integration of two emissions markets, considering the attributes relevant to each market. The third chapter extends this market integration analysis by adding an intertemporal feature to analyze the consequences of integrating existing emission markets in the US (i.e., California and RGGI). The fourth chapter examines the adverse economic implications of adopting several overlapping carbon policy instruments to regulate carbon emissions in a region. The second and third chapters employ a simple structural model with a stochastic variable to account for uncertainties in emissions. The fourth chapter utilizes a static general equilibrium framework based on IMPLAN data for California to comprehensively evaluate the reactions of the state-wide economy to various carbon policy settings. In general, the results show that integrating existing emissions markets could generate both positive and negative effects on economic welfare. The positive effects result from gains from trading permits, while negative results come from perverse second-best interactions. Policymakers are expected to carefully consider the factors and attributes of all regions prior to setting their policy targets and designing an integrated system of carbon reduction.

  19. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn. PMID:17408494

  20. New Directions in Land Remote Sensing Policy and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Recent changes to land remote sensing satellite data policies in Brazil and the United States have led to the phenomenal growth in the delivery of land imagery to users worldwide. These new policies, which provide free and unrestricted access to land remote sensing data over a standard electronic interface, are expected to provide significant benefits to scientific and operational users, and open up new areas of Earth system science research and environmental monitoring. Freely-available data sets from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS), the U.S. Landsat satellites, and other satellite missions provide essential information for land surface monitoring, ecosystems management, disaster mitigation, and climate change research. These missions are making important contributions to the goals and objectives of regional and global terrestrial research and monitoring programs. These programs are in turn providing significant support to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and the UN Reduction in Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) program. These data policies are well-aligned with the "Data Democracy" initiative undertaken by the international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), through its current Chair, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, or INPE), and its former chairs, South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Thailand's Geo Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA). Comparable policies for land imaging data are under consideration within Europe and Canada. Collectively, these initiatives have the potential to accelerate and improve international mission collaboration, and greatly enhance the access, use, and application of land surface imagery for environmental monitoring and societal adaption to changing

  1. 76 FR 53165 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International... advisory capacity, and provides advice concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy... Sanctions Subcommittee, and the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is...

  2. Mindfulness training increases cooperative decision making in economic exchanges: Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Sharp, Carla; Hula, Andreas; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game. While controlling for acceptance rates of monetary offers between intervention groups, subjects in the MT and CT groups show differential brain activation patterns. Specifically, a subset of more cooperative MT subjects displays increased activation in the septal region, an area linked to social attachment, which may drive the increased willingness to express cooperative behavior in the MT cohort. Furthermore, MT resulted in attenuated activity in anterior insula compared with the CT group in response to unfair monetary offers post-training, which may suggest that MT enables greater ability to effectively regulate the anterior insula and thereby promotes social cooperation. Finally, functional connectivity analyses show a coupling between the septal region and posterior insula in the MT group, suggesting an integration of interoceptive inputs. Together, these results highlight that MT may be employed in contexts where emotional regulation is required to promote social cooperation. PMID:27266443

  3. National policies for technical change: where are the increasing returns to economic research?

    PubMed

    Pavitt, K

    1996-11-12

    Improvements over the past 30 years in statistical data, analysis, and related theory have strengthened the basis for science and technology policy by confirming the importance of technical change in national economic performance. But two important features of scientific and technological activities in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries are still not addressed adequately in mainstream economics: (i) the justification of public funding for basic research and (ii) persistent international differences in investment in research and development and related activities. In addition, one major gap is now emerging in our systems of empirical measurement-the development of software technology, especially in the service sector. There are therefore dangers of diminishing returns to the usefulness of economic research, which continues to rely completely on established theory and established statistical sources. Alternative propositions that deserve serious consideration are: (i) the economic usefulness of basic research is in the provision of (mainly tacit) skills rather than codified and applicable information; (ii) in developing and exploiting technological opportunities, institutional competencies are just as important as the incentive structures that they face; and (iii) software technology developed in traditional service sectors may now be a more important locus of technical change than software technology developed in "high-tech" manufacturing. PMID:8917481

  4. High School Economics, Cooperative Learning, and the End-of-Course-Test--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this twelve-week case study was to explore the use of a cooperative learning strategy with small groups of students in a 12th-grade economics class as diverse learners prepared for tests. The complete case study was based on observations of students, student surveys, focus group interviews, and interviews with educators at…

  5. Generative Teaching: An Enhancement Strategy for the Learning of Economics in Cooperative Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; Wittrock, Merlin C.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the learning of economics among 76 public high school seniors from lower socioeconomic levels by teaching them to use generative comprehension procedures in cooperative learning groups was attempted. Comparison with 66 controls indicated facilitative effects of generative teaching in increasing confidence in correctness of answers and…

  6. Influences of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Home Economics Program. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Opal

    In planning a reorganization of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service by re-grouping counties, a statewide study of home economics education was made to determine the audience for the programs, methods by which audiences were reached, and differences between members of homemakers clubs and nonmembers. Interviews were held with a 5% random…

  7. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Functional Literacy and Corporate Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Margison, Judith Ann

    This paper examines the conception of functional literacy advanced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a 29-member organization of leading industrialized countries, as part of its 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). The paper suggests that embedded within this conception of literacy and the discourse…

  8. An economic perspective on policy to reduce antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Coast, J; Smith, R D; Millar, M R

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial drugs is increasing worldwide. This resistance is, at least in part, associated with high antimicrobial usage. Despite increasing awareness, economists (and policy analysts more generally) have paid little attention to the problem. In this paper antimicrobial resistance is conceptualised as a negative externality associated with the consumption of antimicrobials and is set within the broader context of the costs and benefits associated with antimicrobial usage. It is difficult to determine the overall impact of attempting to reduce resistance, given the extremely limited ability to model the epidemiology of resistant and sensitive micro-organisms. It is assumed for the purposes of the paper, however, that dealing with resistance by reducting antimicrobial usage would lead to a positive societal benefit. Three policy options traditionally associated with environmental economics (regulation, permits and charges) are examined in relation to their potential ability to impact upon the problem of resistance. The primary care sector of the U.K.'s National Health Service provides the context for this examination. Simple application of these policies to health care is likely to be problematic, with difficulties resulting particularly from the potential reduction in clinical freedom to prescribe when appropriate, and from the desire for equity in health care provision. The paper tentatively concludes that permits could offer the best policy response to antimicrobial resistance, with the caveat that empirical research is needed to develop the most practical and efficient system. This research must be conducted alongside the required epidemiological research. PMID:9464666

  9. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  10. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding $1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

  11. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the

  12. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  13. Urban policy, economic policy, and the growth of large cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that despite a Chinese national urban policy large cities are still growing rapidly. Policy implementation is considered weak. It is suggested that a better strategy for increased urbanization in large Chinese cities would include integrating urban with economic policy, improving urban facilities, and planning and managing large cities. A short review is given of theories on city size and development in developing countries. Chinese economic reforms and their impact on urban growth are described. During 1978-90 the level of urbanization rose from 17.9% to 26.4%. Five periods during 1949 to present are identified as exhibiting distinct development profiles. Over the 40 year period, policies pertaining to cities of a particular population size changed constantly. During the early 1950s, development focused on major coastal cities and newly expanding industrial centers. After the 1950s and the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), rural areas and small urban places were the focus of Maoist development. Large cities were de-emphasized. The early 1970s emphasized the development of rural industries and small urban places in order to reduce rural-urban inequalities. A national urban policy was prepared in the early 1980s. The aim was to control the size of large cities, to develop medium sized cities, and to develop small cities. This policy was amended later and is now China's Urban Planning Law. However, the percentage of the nonagricultural population (NAP) living in cities of a million or more persons increased from 37.5% in 1978 to 41.6% in 1990. The share of NAP living in small cities increased to 21.5% in 1990. Temporary migrants were an estimated 5-15% of large city populations. Most cities were beyond their population control limit. Large cities had served important roles in development: greater efficiency in the industrial labor force and more profits; centers for culture, education, politics, and transportation; and links to foreign countries. Economic

  14. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Tuesday, May 14, 2013, in Room 1105 of the... will be hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W....

  15. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, June 20, 2012, in room 1107 of the... will be hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W....

  16. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, November 18, 2010, at the U.S... Assistant Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and...

  17. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation The meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (Public Notice 7654) scheduled for 2 to 4 p.m. on Thursday... U.S. and highlight the U.S.- Turkey Economic Partnership Commission has been cancelled....

  18. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Tuesday, January 31, 2012, in room 1107 of the... will be hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W....

  19. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  20. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  1. Oil export policy and economic development in OPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Aperjis, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    During the 1970s, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) increased the price of their oil exports by 2000% in nominal terms. The ability of OPEC countries to increase the economic and other benefits they drew from each barrel of oil was a familiar theme of that decade. However, recent developments in the world oil market may not be so encouraging for OPEC. From 1979 to 1983, demand for OPEC crude oil decreased by almost 45%, or from 30.9 to 17.5 million barrels per day (mbd). Despite this dramatic decrease, the news on the price front has not so far been that bad for OPEC. The average OPEC oil price, which had increased from $1.80/bbl (barrel) in 1970 to $36/bbl by 1980, declined to $29/bbl by 1983. OPEC has thus defied many experts by managing to avoid a price collapse. Not surprisingly, these developments have raised arguments about the nature of OPEC and how it operates. OPEC has been characterized variously as a very tight cartel and as a loose and ineffectual organization. This paper tries to shed some light on OPEC, and especially on how the economic development objectives of influential OPEC members affect their oil policies.

  2. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  3. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Kracalik, Ian T.; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock–human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated

  4. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  5. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  6. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  7. Assessing the Policy Environment for School Corporation Collaboration, Cooperation, and Consolidation in Indiana. Education Policy Brief. Volume 5, Number 5, Summer 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Magaro, Marshall M.; Chien, Rosanne W.; Zapf, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the research regarding the efforts occurring in the United States to consolidate school corporations or form cooperative agreements for shared services. The brief also examines those policy levers which are contributing to the elevated discussion concerning consolidation and shared services in Indiana. Based…

  8. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  9. 78 FR 42148 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Wednesday, July 31, 2013, in Room 1107 of the Harry S. Truman Building at...

  10. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International... on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is open to public participation,...

  11. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Monday, June 20, 2011, in room 1107 of the Harry S. Truman Building at the...

  12. The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

    This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

  13. 75 FR 16894 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday, April 15, 2010, at the U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW.,...

  14. NORTH AMERICAN PROJECT--A STUDY OF U.S. WATER BODIES. (A REPORT FOR THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, an independent international organization for promotion of economic development in member countries, is concerned with both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of economic growth. The Environment Committee of OECD is...

  15. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  16. Application of IMPLAN to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerna, Ashley; Frisvold, George; Jacobs, Laurel; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension programs are turning to the input-output software IMPLAN to demonstrate economic impacts. IMPLAN is a powerful tool that can be used to estimate the total economic activity associated with an industry, event, or policy. One possible application, therefore, is to use program spending data to estimate the economic effects of…

  17. Structuring cooperative behavior under the National Environmental Policy Act of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drtina, Ralph E.; Lundstedt, Sven B.

    1982-01-01

    A trend is presently under way to streamline the compliance requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of the United States through cooperative assessment procedures. Since the law was enacted in 1970, however, participants in the assessment process have tended to settle disagreements by adversarial rather than cooperative means. This study focuses on a highly acclaimed environmental assessment procedure undertaken by the U.S. Steel Corporation for its proposed 4.0 billion Lakefront Steel Plant. Survey research data were gathered to measure the underlying management philosophy perceived by interorganizational representatives, who attended a series of Technical Team meetings designed to coordinate the assessment effort and to open communication channels. A social psychological scale of behavioral dimensions was adapted from Likert to define the composition and the extent of cooperation at these meetings. A newly constructed scale was used to measure the quantity and quality of representation by each of the major organizations involved. Informal interviews were conducted with project participants to obtain further insight into member interaction. Results indicate that democratic problem solving was in evidence but also suggest a preference by respondents for improved procedures. The paper outlines areas of concern voiced by respondents and offers the means for improving the operating procedures of similar interorganizational environmental assessments.

  18. Economic Perspectives on Investments in Teacher Quality: Lessons Learned and Implications for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    This article reviews the contributions and limitations of economic analyses of resource allocation policies aimed at improving teacher quality. Two analytic frameworks taken from the study of the economics of education are employed: productivity theory and human capital theory. The article first summarizes results of various economic analyses of…

  19. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  20. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  1. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  2. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  3. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  4. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  5. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  6. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert GM; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. Methods Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in eight European countries was obtained from publications and pharmaceutical policy databases. Data on the volume and value of the quarterly sales of products between 2006 and 2011 in the 10 highest-selling therapeutic classes in each country were obtained from a pharmaceutical market research database. We compared these indicators in economically stable countries; Austria, Estonia and Finland, to those in economically less stable countries, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain. Findings Economically stable countries implemented two to seven policy changes each, whereas less stable countries implemented 10 to 22 each. Of the 88 policy changes identified, 33 occurred in 2010 and 40 in 2011. They involved changing out-of-pocket payments for patients in 16 cases, price mark-up schemes in 13 and price cuts in 11. Sales volumes increased moderately in all countries except Greece and Portugal, which experienced slight declines after 2009. Sales values decreased in both groups of countries, but fell more in less stable countries. Conclusion Less economically stable countries implemented more pharmaceutical policy changes during the recession than economically stable countries. Unexpectedly, pharmaceutical sales volumes increased in almost all countries, whereas sales values declined, especially in less stable countries. PMID:25378754

  7. Economical production and transshipment policy for coordinating multiple production sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taebok; Goyal, Suresh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the coordination mechanism dealing with a production-transshipment policy across the multiple regions supplying multiple products. It is assumed that each production site has its own dedicated demand region consuming multiple products. The main concern is how to determine both the production quantity and the lot-apportioning policy while minimising the relevant supply chain cost. This decision issue is formulated as a non-linear mathematical model to determine several relevant decision variables. We propose the solution procedure for deriving the production-transshipment policy minimising the overall supply chain cost.

  8. The economic basis for national science and technology policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    National science and technology policy is concerned with societal choices with respect to the rate and directions of technological change and the adoption and use of new technology in society. Such policy choices occur primarily in connection with management of the creation, dissemination, and use of scientific and technical information. Two categories of policy instruments discussed are market-oriented approaches, and direct public action. Possibilities for increased use of market-oriented approaches that can provide benefits to society in the form of an increased rate of innovation and of more 'appropriate' technology, better suited to the needs of consumers are indicated.

  9. Population Policies for a New Economic Era. Worldwatch Paper 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    After a generation of unprecedented economic growth, the world economy appears to be losing momentum. Double-digit inflation, high interest rates, and soaring deficits are often cited as causes of the global economic slowdown, but these are more symptom than cause. More fundamental is the depletion of the global resource base that allowed the…

  10. Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.

    PubMed Central

    Warford, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

  11. Management of corporate socio-economic policy by the energy corporations

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the energy corporations in the mitigation of the socio-economic impacts of rapid development. The study employed an exploratory descriptive research design. The sample was limited to an in-depth study of the socio-economic managerial processes at the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) and the Standard Oil Company of California, two of the nation's largest and wealthiest energy corporations. Findings demonstrated that division managers believe that socio-economic expenses are a normal cost of doing business and can, in fact, lead to cost savings for the corporation. The study confirmed other research findings that corporate executive management has a further role to play in the design of administrative systems that govern the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of socio-economic policy. The study recommended the development of specific centralized corporate socio-economic policies for energy-impact development, decentralization of policy implementation, integration of trained socio-economic project managers into the formal authority hierarchy, inclusion of specific socio-economic criterion in the formal performance-evaluation system, incorporation of socio-economic expenses into the operating budget format, and the development of a formal corporate-level socio-economic policy-evaluation committee.

  12. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  13. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  14. 75 FR 4416 - Policy on Cooperating Associations, Draft Director's Order #32

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... nonprofit organizations may engage in different roles with NPS, Cooperating Association activities are those guided by the Cooperating Association Agreement while other roles may be guided by separate...

  15. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  16. 76 FR 71617 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International... Policy. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building...

  17. Education Policies of Turkish Political Parties and Their Possible Effects on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nartgun, Senay S.; Eren, Altay

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the educational policies of Turkish political parties and their possible effects on economic development. Document analysis method was used to investigate the principles of education policies under various party programs--namely, the Great Union Party, the Independent Turkey Party, the Justice and Development Party, the…

  18. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  19. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  20. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  1. Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Higher Education and Economic Regeneration in Wales: A Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brychan; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the views of key policy makers concerning innovation and entrepreneurship in Wales. The development of innovation in SMEs and the policy implications for economic regeneration are also analysed. The role of a variety of actors (including users and suppliers) is considered, as is the impact of networks of SMEs linked together in…

  2. Strategic Alignment of Community Colleges and State Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, John G.; Chmura, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews approaches taken by Oregon, Arizona, Illinois, Ohio, South Carolina, North Carolina, and California to incorporate community college systems into statewide economic development strategies. Approaches focus on small business assistance; anticipation of community needs; incentives for innovation; technology transfer; comprehensive…

  3. Economic modeling and energy policy planning. [technology transfer, market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Schwartz, A., Jr.; Lievano, R. J.; Stone, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A structural economic model is presented for estimating the demand functions for natural gas and crude oil in industry and in steam electric power generation. Extensions of the model to other commodities are indicated.

  4. Politics and economics of Senate voting on coal strip-mining policy: inadequacies in the economic theory of regulation. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Zupan, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study assesses the nature and relative significance of public=interested objectives in a particular instance of federal economic policy making: US Senate voting on coal strip mining regulations. The existence of such objectives is, of course, no contradiction of the economic view of human behavior. Generally, however, economists have placed little emphasis on individuals' altruistic, publicly-interested goals. This reflects either an implicit judgment that such goals are so empirically unimportant as to allow the use of Occam's razor in positive economic models, or a well-founded apprehension that these goals are exceedingly difficult to identify, measure, and analyze. Notwithstanding the latter problem, we find that approaches which confine themselves to a view of political actors as narrowly egocentric maximizers explain and predict legislative outcomes poorly. The tracking and dissecting of the determinants of voting on coal strip mining policy suggest that the economic theory of politics has been prematurely closed to a broader conception of political behavior. The burden of the evidence we have been able to piece together thus far suggests the need for some broadening in the economic theory of politics. At least in the case of federal coal strip mining policy, however, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that individuals' preferences for altruistic, publicly-interested behavior (dubbed here as ideology) have played a highly significant, if not dominant, causal role.

  5. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Kenneth

    in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

  6. Monetary Policy and Economic Performance: Views Before and After the Freeze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Leland B.

    To assist policy makers, scholars, businessmen, the press, and the public by providing objective analysis of national and international issues, this research institute has presented a special economic analysis which details the views of a University professor of economics on the recent United States wage-price freeze. Focusing on the shortcomings…

  7. Planning and Policy Analysis in Education: What Can Economics Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that neoclassical economics has dominated educational planning and policy analysis for 20 years, despite ongoing economics debates generating different positions on planning issues. Considers the views of radical and institutionalist economists and implications for educational planning. Questions both the validity of the efficiency…

  8. Beyond Technology Transfer: Us State Policies to Harness University Research for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L.; Sa, Creso

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the recent history of State-level policies in the United States for knowledge-based economic development, and identifies an emerging model based on technology creation. This new model goes beyond traditional investments in technology transfer and prioritizes cutting-edge scientific research in economically relevant fields. As…

  9. The Impact of Economic Transition on Kindergartens in Kazakhstan: Problems and Policy Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensher, Martin; Passingham, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the most important economic factors that have had an impact upon kindergartens in Kazakhstan in recent years. Provides city-specific data detailing the effects of the collapse of communism and the rise of market-oriented economic reform on kindergarten closures. Discusses policy responses to declining enrollments and school closures.…

  10. Child Care: The Bottom Line. An Economic and Child Care Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, Barbara; And Others

    The Child Care Action Campaign commissioned research from nine leading economists and policy analysts for the purpose of focusing attention on the link between economic well-being and child care. After the preparation of the research, a national convention was convened to discuss the connection between child care and economic well-being, and to…

  11. Cascading failures and the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary-game based models of social and economical networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Armbruster, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    We study catastrophic behaviors in large networked systems in the paradigm of evolutionary games by incorporating a realistic "death" or "bankruptcy" mechanism. We find that a cascading bankruptcy process can arise when defection strategies exist and individuals are vulnerable to deficit. Strikingly, we observe that, after the catastrophic cascading process terminates, cooperators are the sole survivors, regardless of the game types and of the connection patterns among individuals as determined by the topology of the underlying network. It is necessary that individuals cooperate with each other to survive the catastrophic failures. Cooperation thus becomes the optimal strategy and absolutely outperforms defection in the game evolution with respect to the "death" mechanism. Our results can be useful for understanding large-scale catastrophe in real-world systems and in particular, they may yield insights into significant social and economical phenomena such as large-scale failures of financial institutions and corporations during an economic recession. PMID:21974647

  12. Cascading failures and the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary-game based models of social and economical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Armbruster, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    We study catastrophic behaviors in large networked systems in the paradigm of evolutionary games by incorporating a realistic "death" or "bankruptcy" mechanism. We find that a cascading bankruptcy process can arise when defection strategies exist and individuals are vulnerable to deficit. Strikingly, we observe that, after the catastrophic cascading process terminates, cooperators are the sole survivors, regardless of the game types and of the connection patterns among individuals as determined by the topology of the underlying network. It is necessary that individuals cooperate with each other to survive the catastrophic failures. Cooperation thus becomes the optimal strategy and absolutely outperforms defection in the game evolution with respect to the "death" mechanism. Our results can be useful for understanding large-scale catastrophe in real-world systems and in particular, they may yield insights into significant social and economical phenomena such as large-scale failures of financial institutions and corporations during an economic recession.

  13. Masters of Their Own Destiny; The Story of The Antigonish Movement of Adult Education Through Economic Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, M. M.

    The book records the development of the program of adult education and economic cooperation sponsored by St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. The program dates from 1853 when a Catholic theological school was established at Arichat. In 1855 the school was transferred to Antigonish, named St. Francis Xavier, enlarged and…

  14. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

  15. 75 FR 6006 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...On January 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 3212) a notice inviting applications for FY 2010 for the Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program. The notice stated that a list of eligible countries was included in the application package (75 FR 3214). The list of eligible countries included in the application package at the time the notice inviting......

  16. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  17. Policy review: Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA)--analysis of a failed nurse migration policy.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Nozomi; Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Gerlt, Lorna

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the bilateral Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement took effect. Contained within this regional free trade agreement are unique provisions allowing exchange of Filipino nurses and healthcare workers to work abroad in Japan. Japan's increasing need for healthcare workers due to its aging demographic and the Philippines need for economic development could have led to shared benefits under the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement. However, 4 years following program implementation, results have been disappointing, e.g., only 7% of candidates passing the programs requirements since 2009. These disappointing results represent a policy failure within the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement framework, and point to the need for reform. Hence, amending the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement structure by potentially adopting a USA based approach to licensure examinations and implementing necessary institutional and governance reform measures may be necessary to ensure beneficial healthcare worker migration for both countries. PMID:23787219

  18. Welcome from the policies, socio-economic aspects, and health systems research section.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Anna; Walls, Helen L; Backholer, Kathryn; Sacks, Gary; Abdullah, Asnawi

    2015-01-01

    At BMC Obesity, the Policies, Socio-economic Aspects, and Health Systems Research Section provides an opportunity to submit research focussed on what we need to know to support implementation of obesity policies most likely to achieve substantial, sustainable and equitable reductions in the prevalence of obesity globally. Here, we present the aims and objectives of this section, hearing from each of the Associate Editors in turn. The ambition of the Policies, Socio-economic Aspects, and Health Systems Research Section is to foster innovative research combining scientific quality with real world experience. We envisage this will include research addressing the structural drivers of obesity, solution oriented research, research addressing socio-economic inequalities in obesity and obesity prevention in low and middle income countries. We look forward to stimulating research to advance both the methods and substance required to drive uptake of effective and equitable obesity reduction policies globally. PMID:26217538

  19. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  20. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy: Illustrative Examples and Promising Directions.

    PubMed

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Cawley, John H; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M; Yokum, David V

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  1. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    PubMed

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. PMID:22502932

  2. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  3. Students "At-Risk" Policy: Competing Social and Economic Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosen-Lowe, Linda Audrey Joy; Vidovich, Lesley; Chapman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Within a context of global reform agendas that promote economic ideologies in education the discourses surrounding "school failure" have shifted from "individual risk" to "a nation at-risk". Enhancing the quality of schooling through improving educational outcomes and standards for all, and thereby reducing "school failure," is simultaneously…

  4. Economic Thought and Educational Policy Making: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Eric W.

    1980-01-01

    Until the 1950s, Canadian economists demonstrated little concern about the relationship between education and society's economic performance. In the 1960s, the neoclassical school became preoccupied with education's investment potential and, with the Keynsians, formed a consensus on greatly increased expenditures. In the 1970s, this judgment was…

  5. The Economics of U.S. Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The economic gains from immigration are much like those from international trade: The economy benefits overall from immigration, but there are distributional effects that create both winners and losers. Immigration is different from trade, however, in that the physical presence of the people who provide the goods and services that drive the…

  6. Farm and cooperative alcohol plant study: technical and economic assessment as a commercial venture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel grade (MFG) ethanol in smaller plants amenable to a farm or cooperative operation. Several parameters are explored as follows: six agricultural locations; three plant sizes of 90,000, 300,000, and 900,000 gallons per year; five feedstocks; ethanol proof levels of 190 and 199; and byproduct distillers grains either as whole stillage or prepared by various degrees of drying. Plants were assumed to operate only 6000 hours per year (sugar beets only 3600 hours) because of limitations of time (or beet feedstock). Locally available boiler fuels were chosen. Simplified processing was identified so as to be realistically within the time and experience available to a farmer-operator. The most attractive case used Indiana corn in a 900,000 gallon plant making 190 proof ethanol, and selling whole stillage (no dewatering or drying). Plant investment for this best case as well as several option combinations is given. The selling price of the best case 190 proof ethanol at 20% IROR was $1.79 based on $2.70 corn.

  7. Submicron aerosols during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30%-40% of industrial practices and 50% of vehicles in operation were limited in Beijing and its surroundings regions during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in 2014. Compared with values obtained prior to the APEC conference, the atmospheric concentration of submicron aerosol particles (PM1) decreased from 101 to 36.9 μg m-3, or 63%. Of all the inorganic species and black carbon present, the concentrations of nitrate to the total concentration of PM1 decreased the most in terms of both mass concentration, from 25.5 to 7.1 μg m-3, and relative contribution, from 21% to 14%. In addition, both sulfate and ammonium decreased substantially by 9.5 and 8.5 μg m-3, respectively. Accordingly, the relative contributions of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate to light extinction decreased by 10% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the pollution control measures implemented during that period. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle emissions were reduced significantly.

  8. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  9. Energy/economic model analysis. Livermore energy policy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. B.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a study done by the Energy and Resources Planning Group of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) using the LLL Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The purpose was to allow GRl to evaluate the appropriateness of their continued use of an energy model and, at the same time, for them to gain a better understanding of the consequences of current or proposed GRI supported research and development.

  10. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  11. Definition of scarcity-based water pricing policies through hydro-economic stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest current issues in integrated water resources management is to find and apply efficient and flexible management policies. Efficient management is needed to deal with increased water scarcity and river basin closure. Flexible policies are required to handle the stochastic nature of the water cycle. Scarcity-based pricing policies are one of the most promising alternatives, which deal not only with the supply costs, but also consider the opportunity costs associated with the allocation of water. The opportunity cost of water, which varies dynamically with space and time according to the imbalances between supply and demand, can be assessed using hydro-economic models. This contribution presents a procedure to design a pricing policy based on hydro-economic modelling and on the assessment of the Marginal Resource Opportunity Cost (MROC). Firstly, MROC time series associated to the optimal operation of the system are derived from a stochastic hydro-economic model. Secondly, these MROC time series must be post-processed in order to combine the different space-and-time MROC values into a single generalized indicator of the marginal opportunity cost of water. Finally, step scarcity-based pricing policies are determined after establishing a relationship between the MROC and the corresponding state of the system at the beginning of the time period (month). The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIVth century) rights. A hydro-economic model of the system has been built using stochastic dynamic programming. A reoptimization procedure is then implemented using SDP-derived benefit-to-go functions and historical flows to produce the time series of MROC values. MROC values are then aggregated and a statistical analysis is carried out to define (i) pricing policies and (ii) the relationship between MROC and

  12. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access. PMID:20478422

  13. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability. PMID:21966701

  14. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  15. Policy as Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  16. Rural Development Research: A Foundation for Policy. Contributions in Economics and Economic History, Number 170.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Thomas D., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the need for research information that can be used as a foundation for rural development policy. Part I deals with the four components of rural development: education (human capital), entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure. Part II examines analytic methods of measuring rural development efforts,…

  17. Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J

    2006-01-01

    Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality. PMID:17684673

  18. Specialty hospitals: the economics and policy issues they pose.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Erwin A; Fuhr, Joseph P

    2007-01-01

    Specialty hospitals are not a new phenomenon. From psychiatric and tuberculosis hospitals to children's and eye hospitals, they have long existed. The current interest lies in the development of single specialty hospitals for certain conditions or illness such as cardiology or orthopedics for which such hospitals were previously uncommon or non-existent. We include physician-owned surgical hospitals in our definition of single specialty hospitals. Some have claimed that these specialty hospitals (hereafter SSH) are an efficient way of producing services by concentrating them in one institution. They argue that SSHs avoid inefficiencies of scheduling and use of facilities not expressly designed for the illness or condition. Critics contend that doctors are simply trying to get the general hospital's profits and the ultimate impact will be a financial weakening of the general hospital. They argue that the cross-subsidy from these procedures and services are necessary to give general hospitals the ability to provide services to the uninsured and the poor. This debate led to a 30-month moratorium on new specialty hospitals which was lifted in August 2006. General acute care hospitals have responded by denying privileges to physicians who own or participate in competing SSHs. The appropriateness of such economic credentialing will be investigated. Further, we shall examine issues associated with Medicare pricing structures that encourage the development of SSHs as well as self-referral rules for physicians involved with SSHs. The real issue which has not been addressed is whether specialty hospitals create more value for the patient than the traditional acute care hospitals. PMID:18972990

  19. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY...; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) published February 1,...

  20. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  1. A New Look at Inflation: Economic Policy in the Early 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagan, Phillip; And Others

    The volume, a sequel to "Economic Policy and Inflation in the Sixties" presents the diverse opinions of distinguished scholars on developments in the American economy since the institution of direct wage and price controls in August 1971. Gottfried Haberler considers the international aspects of recent United States inflation. William Fellner…

  2. Education, Training and the Future of Work I: Social, Political and Economic Contexts of Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahier, John, Ed.; Esland, Geoff, Ed.

    This first of two volumes is organized around the theme of the social, political, and economic contexts of education and training. (Volume II focuses on the development of vocational policy. Both volumes form part of the Open University MA Module, Education, Training, and the Future of Work.) An introduction (Geoff Esland, John Ahier) provides an…

  3. Stimulating the Manufacturing and Distribution of Rehabilitation Products: Economic and Policy Incentives and Disincentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scadden, Lawrence A.

    Personal interviews and written correspondence were used to obtain information from 39 officers of companies involved in the manufacture and distribution of rehabilitation-related products, regarding their perceptions of the potential effects of various economic factors and governmental policies. An attempt was made to identify disincentives to…

  4. Debates, dialectic, and rhetoric: an approach to teaching radiology residents health economics, policy, and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh

    2013-06-01

    Arguing is an art and essential to the functioning of our political and legal system. Moderated debates between residents are a useful educational vehicle to teach residents health economics and health policy. Articulating the opposing arguments leads to greater mutual understanding, an appreciation of the limits of knowledge and improved advocacy. PMID:23545491

  5. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  6. AIR POLLUTION, HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE POLICY ANDFUTURE TECHNOLOGIES: AN INTEGRATED MODEL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes of this research will include: 1) Developing modeling capability to facilitate better understanding of the interplay between human activities, air pollution and regulatory requirements, climate policy, and human health and large-scale economic factors at local to g...

  7. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  8. Smoke-Free Multiunit Housing Policy: Caretakers’ Perspectives on Economic and Personal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Rachel E.; Stein, Anna H.; Pinzon, Elena M.; Ahmed, Osub S.; McNair, Obie S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Multiunit housing (MUH) operators may be motivated to adopt smoke-free policies to achieve cost savings. MUH caretakers provide a unique perspective for understanding the implications of smoke-free policies because of their role in property maintenance. We examine MUH caretakers’ perceptions regarding the economic and personal impact of smoke-free policies at their properties. Methods: We conducted and analyzed qualitative interviews with 20 multiunit housing caretakers from two large property management companies in the southeastern United States that had implemented smoke-free policies. Results: For non-smoking units, caretakers reported shortened turnover times, in addition to reduction in the need for turnover supplies and capital replacements. Caretakers reported an improvement in their work environments due to reduced workload and exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free policies. Conclusion: The potential for cost savings exists for MUH operators who enact smoke-free policies because of decreased labor, supplies, and capital costs. Smoke-free policies may also improve the work environment of caretakers and other frontline MUH employees. These are important findings for MUH companies seeking to lower their operation costs and improve their employees’ working conditions, as well as for smoke-free advocates seeking to promote policy change. PMID:26184274

  9. Energy efficiency and the economists: The case for a policy based on economic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.

    1995-11-01

    People interested in energy policy, whether in business, finance, government, or the environmental movement, should welcome and support an approach based on economic principles for three reasons. By solving the financing problem and encouraging innovation and cost-efficiency, the economic-efficiency approach will enable all countries to meet energy demands. By giving proper weight to the development and use of low-polluting technologies this approach will enable reduction of local and, over the long-term global pollution as energy demands grow. And in developing countries especially, an economic approach will enable the industry to play its part in raising living standards for the population at large. Given good policies, there is no reason at all why developing countries, like the industrial countries before them, should not enjoy the benefits of much higher levels of energy consumption than they do today.

  10. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  11. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  12. Cooperative Arrangements; Between Private and Public Colleges. A Report on Current Practice and Recommendations for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeefery, William J.

    Cooperative arrangements between public and private higher education institutions are examined through a review of the relevant literature and survey of various campus programs. Three types of private-public cooperative groupings were identified. Type A is the informal partnership of two or three institutions in geographical proximity. A total of…

  13. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Federal Register on February 28, 2012, at 77 FR 11178. The original comment period was scheduled to end on... Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY... Grants and Cooperative Agreements; cost principles and administrative requirements (including...

  14. On Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Analysis of National Policies for Internationalisation of Higher Education in Seven Western European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luijten-Lub, Anneke; Van der Wende, Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on a comparison of the national policies for internationalisation in seven Western European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). In this comparison, it will be shown that the trend suggested in previous research of increasing economical rationales for…

  15. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  16. Living on the Leading Edge. State Policy Issues for Education and Economic Dvelopment in a Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Three papers presented to The Task Force on Education and Economic Development of The National Conference of Lieutenant Governors are as follows: "Education and American Resurgence" (Frank Newman); "State Economic Development and Education: A Framework for Policy Development" (Mark S. Tucker); and "State Policy on Partnerships Between Higher…

  17. Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC); What Does It Mean for Education Towards A New International Economic Order (N.I.E.O.)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsch, Gerhard

    In this paper, one of a series of Unesco technical reports, the author examines the idea of "technical cooperation among developing countries" (TCDC) and how it might lead to a "new international economic order" (NIEO). The first part of the paper contains a short history of TCDC. TCDC is seen by many as a self-help cooperative venture restricted…

  18. Effects of cooperative learning plus inquiry method on student learning and attitudes: a comparative study for engineering economic classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-03-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this paper proposes a combination of cooperative learning and inquiry method. The method is implemented by grouping students in a way that the learning procedure is done in non-official class sessions by each group, while the inquiry method is done in the regular programmed class sessions. The study is performed in Islamic Azad University and the methods are implemented in two engineering economic classes with different numbers of students in each working group. The results are compared with a control class in which traditional teaching style is implemented. The results of analysis show simultaneous improvement of learning and behavioural attitudes of the students with cooperative learning plus inquiry method in the classroom with a fewer number of students in each working group.

  19. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions.

    PubMed

    Boskin, M J

    1987-07-01

    Changing demographic and economic conditions in the US require that attention be given to some of the intergenerational equity features of government policy. In particular, social insurance programs and public debt leave public liabilities to future generations. Taken in the aggregate, the effects of rapidly rising public debt and especially social insurance programs are transferring substantial amounts of resources from younger working generations to the expanding generation of retirees. The most crucial element in evaluating the desirability of intergenerational wealth distribution in the long run is the rate of economic growth. A society's monetary, fiscal, tax, and regulatory policies can be more or less conducive to the generation of capital formation, technical change, and economic growth. Policies that influence growth and interest rates will combine with the national deficit to determine how rapidly the debt grows or shrinks. Present accounting procedures are insufficient to provide quantitative answers to the question of what is the impact of a given program on the age-specific distributions of resources. It is important to reconsider the desirability and efficiency of intergenerational redistributions of wealth in the US. It is likely that current policies are not in line with the principles of efficiency, equity, target effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:12314851

  20. 76 FR 48202 - Trade Policy Staff Committee; Public Comments on the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Trade Policy Staff Committee; Public Comments on the Caribbean Basin Economic... States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Trade Policy.... trade policy goals as set forth in the CBTPA. The following countries are both CBERA and...

  1. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  2. National healthcare spending in the U.S. and Japan: national economic policy and implications for neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bean, James R

    2005-01-01

    Growth of national healthcare spending is a problem confronting national governments of all industrially advanced countries. Healthcare spending in the U.S. reached 13.9% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2003, compared to only 8% in Japan. In the U.S., health insurance is voluntary, with 15% of the population uninsured. In Japan, health insurance is mandatory and virtually universal, with growth in national health costs about half the rate of growth in the U.S. U.S. healthcare costs are projected to reach 18.4% of GDP 2013. The predicted growth in health care costs is expected to cause strain on the federal budget and a growing inability of employers and employees to pay for private insurance. Different national policies are the reason for different national health care costs in the U.S. and Japan. The U.S. has higher healthcare prices for salaries, equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals as compared to Japan. Higher prices, higher service intensity and volume during hospitalization create higher total cost in the U.S. Price controls in Japan kept medical inflation low at 0.46%/yr from 1980-2000. Market-pricing mechanisms in the U.S. have proven ineffective in controlling national healthcare costs, while Japan's national fee and price control policies have kept national costs among the lowest within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. To guide insurance coverage policy, neurosurgery and other highly technical specialties should better define the comparative health benefit of high price technical services by prospective outcome studies. PMID:15699616

  3. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  4. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money. PMID:12344312

  5. Comparison of two water pricing policies in hydro-economic modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Pulido Velazquez, M.; Doulgeris, C.; Sturm, V.; Jensen, R.; Møller, F.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2012-04-01

    A study is presented comparing two different water pricing policies that are applied to wholesale water users throughout a river basin. The purpose of the study is to test policies that meet some of the water pricing objectives of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the first policy, a single volumetric water price is applied to all wholesale water users throughout a case study river basin located in northern Greece. The same price is applied consistently to all surface water and groundwater users regardless of water use type and does not vary in space or time. In the second policy surface water is priced at a uniform volumetric price, while groundwater is priced using the price of energy as a surrogate for a volumetric water price. The policies are compared using a hydro-economic modeling approach in which wholesale water users are assumed to respond to water price changes according to microeconomic theory. A hydrological model of the case study river basin is used to estimate the impact of water use changes on river flow patterns, which are then used to assess the ecological status of the basin. WFD ecological status requirements are imposed as a constraint in the model, and an optimization approach is used to identify prices that meet the WFD requirements while minimizing opportunity costs (in terms of total welfare losses). Model results suggest that there is little difference between the two approaches in terms of the total opportunity costs of meeting the ecological status requirements of the WFD. However, the distribution of opportunity costs is different, with the second approach reducing the economic impact on producers of low value crops and small urban/domestic users. Because growers of low value crops will suffer the most from water price increases, the second policy offers the advantage of reducing this burden. In addition, because of difficulties associated with monitoring groundwater use, the second policy may be easier to

  6. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. PMID:26597373

  7. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. Insufficient... Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule; request for comments. SUMMARY... Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface of the water to...

  8. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  9. Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D. E.

    1981-12-01

    Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule on a solar industrial process heat system is given.

  10. Education Standards for the 21st Century: Opening Statements of Ministers at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Ministerial, August 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    While the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have many differences in culture, history, and level of economic development, all APEC representatives who attended this ministerial agreed on the importance of establishing education standards and examination systems to meet the needs of their people in the 21st century.…

  11. Japanese space policy during the 1980s: A balance between autonomy and international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotaka

    2011-04-01

    In the mid-1980s, Japan decided not only to invest in a totally domestic rocket, "H-II," to acquire its independent access to space, but also to participate in the U.S. Space Station program to promote international space cooperation. Not until then did Japan try to achieve simultaneously both autonomy and international cooperation. This paper reexamines how Japan achieved a balance between autonomy and international cooperation in its space activities during the 1980s, from the perspective of Japan-U.S. diplomatic history. Against the background of the Japan-U.S. relations of those days, the similarities and differences between the two big space programs made it possible for Japan to decide them at the same time of the mid-1980s.

  12. The economic burden of blindness in Pakistan: a socio-economic and policy imperative for poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Awan, Haroon; Malik, Sadia Mariam; Khan, Niaz Ullah

    2012-01-01

    State and nonstate health programs in developing countries are often influenced by priorities that are defined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the wake of recessionary pressures, policy makers in the health sector are often seen to divert significant budgets to some specific health programs and make only token allocations for other health problems that are important but do not fall under the traditional MDG box of health priorities. This paper illustrates the economic argument for investment in one such program: The eye health program and employs a country case study of Pakistan to demonstrate that there are significant economic gains that are being foregone by not addressing the needs of the blind in poverty reduction strategies. By applying appropriate growth and discounting factors and using the average wage rate, the paper estimates the total productivity gains that are realizable over a period of 10 years if the blind population in Pakistan is rehabilitated and their carers released to participate in the mainstream economic activity. Our findings indicate that significant productivity gains accumulated over 10 years, range from Rs. 61 billion (US$ 709 million) to Rs. 421 billion (US$ 4.9 billion) depending upon whether the entire blind population or only those affected by a specific cause are rehabilitated. The per annum productivity gains of rehabilitating the entire blind population represents 0.74% of the current gross domestic product of Pakistan, which is higher than the total public spending on health. In order to reap these benefits, the subsequent absorption of the rehabilitated blind and their carers into mainstream economic activity is as important as their effective rehabilitation. PMID:22944742

  13. Charting the Unknown: Delphi and Policy Delphi Strategies for International Co-Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    This article defines Delphi and Policy Delphi research techniques; determines when either or both techniques might be appropriate as an organizational information-seeking strategy; identifies advantages and disadvantages associated with implementation; and identifies steps in planning a Delphi or Policy Delphi. (CT)

  14. International Cooperation in Energy Policy: Impacts on Development in Third World Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preda, Michael A.; Hudspeth, Ernest M., Jr.

    Arranged into four parts, the paper discusses the importance of international and institutional cooperation and the appropriate use of technology in the search for new and renewable energy sources. The first part of the paper discusses the inevitable depletion of the world's oil supply, the increasing interdependency of nations, the implications…

  15. Cooperation and Tolerance: Restoring Our Economic System. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Onko; Falk, Ian

    This paper argues that present institutional settings in rural Australia are inadequate for bringing about a culture that is fair and inclusive. A vision for rural Australia based predominantly on a market economy and its attendant policies and institutions allows the "means" (the market) to determine the ends and may lead to an undesirable type…

  16. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  17. Socio-economic fertility theories and their relevance to population policy.

    PubMed

    Leibenstein, H

    1974-01-01

    A theory of fertility is necessary to assess the justification for family planning and to understand the effectiveness of the programs. 3 possibilities for uses of a theory of fertility are discussed: 1) assessment of population projections, 2) indications of what can be expected from family planning, and 3) assessment of population control projects. Birthrates are high, but fertility rates in developing countries are between 40% and 60% below the maximum possible. Social and cultural elements and economic incentives and constraints play a role in keeping the birthrates high. Economic development is frequently accompanied by a drop in fertility, but economic development implies other simultaneous changes which influence fertility rates. Gary Becker's fertility theory holds that with higher income people would purchase more children, the people behaving as they would in purchasing consumer durables. However, higher income groups frequently have fewer children. Becker says that higher income families want high-quality children who are more expensive. A pure economic theory does not explain all of the fertility variations; it is necessary to take account of the socioeconomic processes that result from economic development. Family planning policies that influence people's motivations should be developed. PMID:12307190

  18. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  19. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  20. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  1. Dynamic economic analysis on invasive species management: some policy implications of catchability.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    The problem of controlling invasive species has emerged as a global issue. In response to invasive species threats, governments often propose eradication. This article challenges the eradication view by studying optimal strategies for controlling invasive species in a simple dynamic model. The analysis mainly focuses on deriving policy implications of catchability in a situation where a series of controlling actions incurs operational costs that derive from the fact that catchability depends on the current stock size of invasive species. We analytically demonstrate that the optimal policy changes drastically, depending on the sensitivity of catchability in response to a change in the stock size, as well as on the initial stock. If the sensitivity of catchability is sufficiently high, the constant escapement policy with some interior target level is optimal. In contrast, if the sensitivity of catchability is sufficiently low, there could exist a threshold of the initial stock which differentiates the optimal action between immediate eradication and giving-up without any control. In the intermediate range, immediate eradication, giving-up without any control, or more complex policies may be optimal. Numerical analysis is employed to present economic intuitions and insights in both analytically tractable and intractable cases. PMID:19376137

  2. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market

  3. Economic crisis, restrictive policies, and the population's health and health care: the Greek case.

    PubMed

    Kondilis, Elias; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population's well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health's total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece's population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

  4. Reductions in nitrogen oxides over Europe driven by environmental policy and economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Patricia; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2012-01-01

    Fuel combustion is a significant source of numerous air pollutants, which reduce local air quality, and affect global tropospheric chemistry. Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide, emitted by combustion processes, allow for robust monitoring of atmospheric concentrations at high spatial resolution on continental scales. Here we evaluate changes in tropospheric NO2 concentrations over Europe between 2004 and 2010. We isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in the daily NO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using a spectral analysis. In 2010, we find substantial reductions in NO2 concentrations of at least 20% throughout Europe. These reductions are as much the result of temporary reductions prompted by the 2008–2009 global economic recession, as of European NOx emission controls. Our results demonstrate that realistic concentration pathways of NO2 do not follow simple linear trends, but reflect a compilation of environmental policy and economic activity. PMID:22355777

  5. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  6. Economic Crisis, Restrictive Policies, and the Population’s Health and Health Care: The Greek Case

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Gavana, Magda; Ierodiakonou, Ioanna; Waitzkin, Howard; Benos, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis has affected the Greek economy with unprecedented severity, making Greece an important test of the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and a population’s well-being. Suicide and homicide mortality rates among men increased by 22.7% and 27.6%, respectively, between 2007 and 2009, and mental disorders, substance abuse, and infectious disease morbidity showed deteriorating trends during 2010 and 2011. Utilization of public inpatient and primary care services rose by 6.2% and 21.9%, respectively, between 2010 and 2011, while the Ministry of Health’s total expenditures fell by 23.7% between 2009 and 2011. In a time of economic turmoil, rising health care needs and increasing demand for public services collide with austerity and privatization policies, exposing Greece’s population health to further risks. PMID:23597358

  7. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  8. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authorities. This policy statement sets forth the analytical framework employed by the Commission and its..., in the case of a violation involving a business organization, by notifying members of management not... management—together with any existing or proposed safeguards based upon the individual's...

  9. Leveraging University Research to Serve Economic Development: An Analysis of Policy Dynamics in and across Three US States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshaw, Jarrett B.; Hearn, James C.

    2014-01-01

    As economic competition becomes more global and knowledge-based, US states have independently pursued initiatives in research and development (R&D) and science and technology (S&T). Policy efforts often entwine government, universities, and industry, aiming to stimulate socially optimal levels of innovation and economic growth.…

  10. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  11. International cooperation and health policy implementation in a post-conflict situation: the case of East Timor.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo; Almeida, Celia

    2015-01-01

    This study centers on relationships among national and international actors in preparation of the first health policy document for East Timor, under the United Nations transitional administration, between 1999 and 2002. International cooperation support for the health system rehabilitation process during the post-conflict period is analyzed as part of reconstruction of the State in parallel with construction of the country's political and institutional framework. Knowledge, ideas, "ways of doing," and induced and accepted practices permeate an interplay of power relationships that condition both national political alliance-building and the architecture of international aid, pointing to input to a discussion of how these mechanisms interact at different conjunctures and times in different negotiating frameworks. PMID:25742102

  12. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  13. Education Policy Analysis 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume is the companion to the 1997 collection of international education indicators from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education at a Glance--OECD Indicators." It aims to deepen the analysis of current policy issues and facilitate interpretation of data using selected indicators of particular relevance to…

  14. Economic and public policy implications of energy pricing in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoin, L.

    1986-01-01

    The methods used in examining the role of pricing in energy policy development may apply to many oil-importing countries with foreign exchange constraints. Data are developed by economic sectors on output plus on real factor inputs and factor wages for capital (by a perpetual inventory method), labor and useful energy (adjusted for efficiencies). A constant elasticity of substitution production model using 1965-1982 aggregate energy and nonenergy inputs is used to demonstrate the energy-economy linkages in Costa Rica. Estimates are from the best linear unbiased estimator and from the nonlinear system (structural form) of simultaneous equations jointly estimated by GLS multivariate methods. The elasticity of substitution is 0.98 using only energy source costs and about 0.87-0.89 using energy system costs. The macroeconomic impacts of energy taxation or subsidization in Costa Rica for the range of likely values of the elasticity of substitution suggest that a small energy tax would result in a net national economic gain. Eight energy policy proposals demand management interventions and supply-side enhancements) are formulated for Costa Rica and qualified for five broad criteria according to their likelihood of success. These are chosen since they are believed to promote socioeconomic efficiency, to be politically feasible, and to be administratively implementable; the anticipated degree of popular acceptance and the size of the impact vary.

  15. Politics, economics, and nursing shortages: a critical look at United States government policies.

    PubMed

    Elgie, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The economic concept that the independent actions of buyers and sellers tend to move the market toward equilibrium where there is no shortage or surplus is basic in the classic and current literature of economics. The problem with subsidies is that nurses who receive subsidized educations are able to provide nursing services for less compensation because they paid less or nothing for their educations. Subsidies may be politically appealing, but they override market forces of supply and demand. The demand for nurses and nursing instructors can be met and maintained for generations to come with policies that expand roles and reimbursement for APNs and encourage the nurse and nursing instructor labor markets to correct themselves by providing fair compensation under Magnet status working conditions. Politics and policies meant to correct the nursing shortage should focus less on how to reduce the cost of producing nurses, and more on how to afford to compensate nurses with wages and benefits that achieve market equilibrium. PMID:18080625

  16. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Health Care Reform in the United States.

    PubMed

    McCanne, Don R

    2009-01-01

    Among OECD nations, the United States is an outlier in having the highest per capita health care costs in a system that unnecessarily exposes many individuals to financial hardship, physical suffering, and even death. President Obama and Congress are currently involved in a process to reform the flawed health care system. The OECD has contributed to that process by releasing a paper, "Health Care Reform in the United States," which describes some of the problems that must be addressed, but then provides proposed solutions that omit consideration of a more equitable and efficient universal public insurance program. The same omission is taking place in Washington, DC. By reinforcing proposals that support the private insurance industry, the source of much of the waste and inequities in health care, the authors of the OECD paper have failed in their responsibility to inform on policies rather than politics. PMID:19927410

  17. Urbanization in developing countries: an overview of the economic and policy issues in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C

    1995-12-01

    Cedric Pugh argues that past efforts to tackle rapid urbanization and its related problems and constraints have been inadequate, and that the rate and scale of likely urbanization over the next couple of decades pose challenges which require very different and innovative approaches. The bulk of his paper describes the evolution of policy over the past 30 years within the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the UN Development Program, and the UN Center for Human Settlements, the leading international lending and development agencies concerned with Third World economic and urban policy issues. Pugh argues that these institutions have learned much from their own experience and that far more flexible and realistic policy changes have been adopted since the late 1980s. They move away from orthodox neoliberalism and give greater attention to social programs, and emphasize public-private partnerships and the creation of an enabling environment rather than direct state involvement. Pugh criticizes a considerable number of academic writers for being unduly ideologically driven in advocating statism along socialist lines or a quasi-Western welfare state. He declares himself an advocate of the New Political Economy, discusses this school of thought, and considers experiences in the Asian NICs, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. PMID:12319994

  18. The ?new? economics of education: Towards a ?unified? macro/micro-educational planning policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Richard H.; Nakib, Yasser

    1991-09-01

    What has become the "classical" theory of the economics of education, first systematically laid down in the 1960s, is based on analysis of measurable variables. The concept of investment in human capital supposes that higher funding for education will increase productivity and income. Estimates of cost-effectiveness and returns to investment based on notional income foregone, have been features of this approach. Now, with a growing realization of the failure of the classical theory to deal with "realities" in the education market and to offer effective policy recommendations, other ideologies have again become more visible. The lack of attention given to the labor demand side of the education-earnings equation, and the inability of theoretical models to capture all complex variables in all sectors of the labor market, have been criticized. Also, it has again been recognized that education has a socialization role. The phenomena of undereducation and over-education have been investigated, and attention has been given to the implications of social conflicts and structural changes in the labor market. If human competences are to be developed, it is necessary to look beyond the classical model of the economics of education to microeconomic analysis and to economic and social conditions which will act as incentives.

  19. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  20. Cooperative Learning in a Macroeconomics Course: A Team Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Cheryl L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment in cooperative learning, in which economics students were grouped into learning teams and given a computer simulation package to learn the effects of fiscal/monetary policy on various economic variables. Results included thorough coverage of course material, greater student interest, better discussion, higher…

  1. PHYTOTOX DATABASE EVALUATION OF SURROGATE PLANT SPECIES RECOMMENDED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have recommended or are considering recommendations for phytotoxicity testing. A study was conducted to determine the amount of quantitative data published on the species suggested in those tests. Also, the s...

  2. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  3. Policies, economic incentives and the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2015-07-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  4. America's Basic Research: Prosperity Through Discovery. A Policy Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This policy statement looks at America's basic research enterprise and lays out the processes and systematic reforms needed to meet emerging risks to the outcomes from investments in basic research. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) undertook this project in the belief that significant progress with many of society's problems and new…

  5. [International cooperation and affirmative action policies: the role of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    PubMed

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da

    2010-07-01

    The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration. PMID:20694349

  6. The Changing Role of International Cooperation in Developing Countries (as They Develop): A Case Study of Skills Development Policies in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A focus on the changes in the relationship between international cooperation and local actors in the skills development field in Peru as the country strengthened its financial position in the last two decades allows us to examine the role of the economic factor in these changes. The paper argues that indeed there is an association between the two.…

  7. Economic impact of alternative policy responses to prolonged and severe drought in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, James F.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Ward, Frank A.

    2005-02-01

    In the Rio Grande Basin, water is overallocated, demands are growing, and river flows and uses are vulnerable to drought and climate change. Currently, the basin is in the third year of severe drought; irrigation and municipal water diversions have been severely curtailed; extensive diversions threaten endangered species, and reservoir volumes are nearly depleted. A central challenge is development of policies that efficiently and equitably allocate the basin's water resources among competing uses across political and institutional jurisdictions. A basin-wide, nonlinear programming model optimizes resource allocations and water use levels for the upper part of the Rio Grande Basin to test whether institutional adjustments can reduce damages caused by drought. Compared to existing institutions, we find that future drought damages could be reduced by 20 and 33% per year through intracompact and interstate water markets, respectively, that would allow water transfers across water management jurisdictions. Results reveal economic tradeoffs among water uses, regions, and drought control strategies.

  8. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  9. Public-Private Partnership. An Opportunity for Urban Communities. A Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    In this era of constrained resources, the public and private sectors must join forces to revitalize their local urban communities. Public-private partnership means cooperation among individuals and organizations in the public and private sectors for mutual benefit. Such cooperation has two dimensions--the policy dimension and the operational…

  10. Economic and Time-Sensitive Issues Surrounding CCS: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Vijay; Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Glynn, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Are the existing global policies on combating global warming via the carbon capture and storage (CCS) method significant enough to curtail the temperature rise on time? We argue that it is already too late to have any reliance on CCS. The current status of CCS is that it is plagued by technical uncertainties, infrastructure, financial, and regulatory issues. The technology is far from maturity and, hence, commercialization. Simulations conducted in this work suggest that the relevance of CCS is completely defied if the annual emission growth rate is in excess of 2% between the years of 2015 and 2040. At such a growth rate, the annual emissions reduction between 2040 and 2100 will need to be in the vicinity of 5.5% by the year 2100. Considering an average annual emissions growth rate of 2.5% over the past decade, it seems unlikely that the emissions could be contained to a 2% growth level. CCS in its current shape and form is at odds with the economics of its implementation and the time in hand with which to play a significant role in a carbon mitigation strategy. There is an urgent need to rethink policies and strategies to combat global warming to at least some degree. PMID:26114417

  11. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  12. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

  13. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  14. Policies designed for self-interested citizens may undermine "the moral sentiments": evidence from economic experiments.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Samuel

    2008-06-20

    High-performance organizations and economies work on the basis not only of material interests but also of Adam Smith's "moral sentiments." Well-designed laws and public policies can harness self-interest for the common good. However, incentives that appeal to self-interest may fail when they undermine the moral values that lead people to act altruistically or in other public-spirited ways. Behavioral experiments reviewed here suggest that economic incentives may be counterproductive when they signal that selfishness is an appropriate response; constitute a learning environment through which over time people come to adopt more self-interested motivations; compromise the individual's sense of self-determination and thereby degrade intrinsic motivations; or convey a message of distrust, disrespect, and unfair intent. Many of these unintended effects of incentives occur because people act not only to acquire economic goods and services but also to constitute themselves as dignified, autonomous, and moral individuals. Good organizational and institutional design can channel the material interests for the achievement of social goals while also enhancing the contribution of the moral sentiments to the same ends. PMID:18566278

  15. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  16. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  17. Reductions in nitrogen oxides over Europe driven by environmental policy and economic recession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010 over Europe. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from poorly quantified NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method. Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe using a time-series separation technique. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain). In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. Thus by the end of 2010, we find substantial reductions in NO2 concentrations of at least 20% throughout Europe. These reductions are as much the result of temporary reductions prompted by the 2008-2009 global economic recession, as of European NOx emission controls. Our results demonstrate that realistic concentration pathways of NO2 do not follow simple linear trends, but reflect a compilation of environmental policy and economic activity.

  18. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  19. The Felbertauern landslide of 2013: Traffic disruption, regional economic consequences and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Genovese, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The Felbertauern landslide of May 2013 caused the total destruction of approximately 100 meters of road including an avalanche gallery, generating several direct and indirect impacts on the regional-economy. The Felbertauern road, an important traffic arteria for the whole NUTS-3 region East-Tyrol (Austria), was totally blocked for several weeks. Short after the event, regional decision makers were hardly in need for an estimation of the regional-economic impacts of the road blockage to opt for alternatives to reopen the road. So, two weeks after the event, an analysis of the possible effects was carried out using only scattered information and statistical data. The analysis is based on a three-month interruption scenario. Retrospectively the road blockage was only two months. Due to the fact that short after the event no up-to-date data on regional-economics at necessary scales was available, impacts on tourism by analysing overnight stays, additional transportation costs and time losses for the local companies were calculated. Using these numbers, a cost-benefit-analysis was carried out for a projected bypass, a mid-term 1.5 kilometer long route as an alternative to the destroyed road. Finally, the impacts on the local companies were severe, due to additional transportation costs of approx. Euro 1.4 million and Euro 76 000 additional time costs using an alternative approach. The impacts on regional tourism were calculated with Euro 7.7 to 10.7 million - that means 0.6 to 0.8% of the total economic output of the region. The study shows the strong impact of indirect and business interruption costs on regional economies and describes the major problems faced during the study - in particular the low availability of input data. The results of consistent cost assessment are critical for decision makers who are responsible for the development of policies to prevent the impacts on societies.

  20. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  1. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives With over 1 million children served by the U.S. Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of decision-analytic modeling to advance Child Welfare policy and practice. Methods The review included 19 repositories of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed “gray” literatures, including items in English published before November, 2009. Original research articles were included if they evaluated interventions based on costs and outcomes. Review articles were included to assess the relevance of these techniques over time and to highlight the increasing discussion of methods needed to undertake such research. Items were categorized by their focus on: interventions for the U.S. Child Welfare system; primary prevention of entry into the system; and use of models to make long-term projections of costs and outcomes. Results Searches identified 2,640 articles, with 49 ultimately included (19 reviews and 30 original research articles). Between 1988 and 2009, reviews consistently advocated economic evaluation and increasingly provided methodological guidance. 21 of the original research articles focused on Child Welfare, while 9 focused on child mental health. Of the 21 Child Welfare articles, 81% (17) focused on the U.S. system. 47% (8/17) focused exclusively on primary prevention, though 83% of the U.S. system, peer-reviewed articles focused exclusively on prevention (5/6). 9 of the 17 articles included empirical follow-up (mean sample size: 264 individuals; mean follow-up: 3.8 years). 10 of the 17 articles used modeling to project longer-term outcomes, but 80% of the articles using modeling were not peer-reviewed. Although 60% of modeling studies included interventions for children in the system, all peer-reviewed modeling

  2. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  3. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  4. Overview of regulatory/policy/economic issues related to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Dennis; Verolme, Hans J H; Hunt, William F

    2003-06-01

    This is an overview of Session 2c dealing with the regulatory, policy and economic issues related to carbon dioxide and its impact on global climate change. The information is taken from the two papers presented in this session (the U.S. Perspective by Dennis Leaf and the European Perspective by Hans J.H. Verolme) and from the panel discussion that took place at the end of the session. The overview focuses primarily on the policy responses of both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) to changes in global atmospheric pollution. To a lesser extent, the progress of policy responses to these changes is discussed. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been signed and ratified by over 180 countries. The UNFCCC contained no binding targets or timetables for emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol [United Nations. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNEP.IUC/99/10. Chatlelaine, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme's Information Unit for Conventions, for the Climate Change Secretariat, 1997] to the UNFCCC did contain targets and timetables for reductions of greenhouse gases on the part of developed countries. The US has signed but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The US has experienced some movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the part of various levels of government, as well as the private sector. The UK's commitment to reducing green house gases is laid down in the UK Climate Change Programme 2000. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU). In this context, an example of EU-wide progress, the voluntary agreement with car manufacturers to reduce CO(2) emissions in new vehicles, will be discussed. In addition, there will be some discussion on the UK CO(2) trading scheme that created the first market in the world in April 2001. Overall, the policy process is constantly informed by scientific research. In the case of climate change, much of this work is carried

  5. Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in East Asia: Country Experiences. Policy Forum on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, N. V., Ed.

    This volume contains 8 papers presented at the January 2001 United Nations Policy Forum. The first paper provides an overview of major changes in the higher education sector in the selected countries consequent upon the economic crisis in the region. The subsequent papers analyze the crisis and its impact on higher education in individual…

  6. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R

    2013-10-15

    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  7. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  8. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  9. Tapping State College Research and Development Capacity in Support of State Economic Development. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Applied research and development activities at regional state colleges and universities bolster their primary mission of undergraduate education as well as contribute to local and statewide economic growth. As states boost efforts to fund and stimulate research as part of an integrated economic development strategy, they should seek to fully…

  10. Xylo-Oligosaccharide Process Development, Composition, and Techno-Economic Analysis. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-483

    SciTech Connect

    Shekiro, Joe; Elander, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this cooperative work agreement between General Mills Inc. (GMI) and NREL is to determine the feasibility of producing a valuable food ingredient (xylo-oligosaccharides or XOS), a highly soluble fiber material, from agricultural waste streams, at an advantaged cost level relative to similar existing ingredients. The scope of the project includes pilot-scale process development (Task 1), compositional analysis (Task 2), and techno-economic analysis (Task 3).

  11. Effects of Cooperative Learning Plus Inquiry Method on Student Learning and Attitudes: A Comparative Study for Engineering Economic Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-01-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this…

  12. The Value of Scenario Development in Environmental and Socio-economic Policy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M. I.; Gupta, H. V.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing scarcity, growing demand, and a burdened water supply have generated concerns about the sustainability of the southwest's regional water infrastructure. This necessitates the adoption of improved water management practices and policies better suited to contemporary water resource dilemmas. Scenarios introduce an innovative aspect to strategic long-term planning that is currently absent from current decision- making and resource management activities. For the purpose of assessing future water resources management and sustainability needs within the region, the formal approach to scenario development adopted by scientists and researchers at the University of Arizona's SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) center is adopted. Through workshops and meetings with regional and state stakeholders, several dominant themes of interest for water resources management emerged. A historical analysis of several key variables associated with these major themes provided insight on the future uncertainty in projections and assumptions adopted in early examples of future planning in the southwest. Analysis of these key variables indicates that historical assumptions and projections in the dimensions of the environment, climate, and socio-economics lacked the dynamic planning foresight that tools such as scenarios can provide.

  13. [Relationships among demographic, social and economic variables and their policy implications in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lin, R S

    1986-06-01

    With the industrialization and urbanization of the last 30 years, Taiwan's social structure and image have changed. There are population and socioeconomic problems and difficulties associated with uneven population distribution. In developed nations, population growth and socio-economic development are mutually complementary. In many developing countries, they are compatible, while in others they are mutually exclusive. Based on the 1980 census and related demographic data from Taiwan, this study analyzes the relationships between demographic parameters and socioeconomic development, and their extent. 3 factors are emphasized: 1) demographic process and socioeconomic development, 2) population growth and socioeconomic burden, and 3) marital maladjustment and secondary industry. This study demonstrated phenomena and problems of different regions, such as population growth, population distribution, urbanization, aging, women working, marital maladjustment, socioeconomic development and socioeconomic burden, and the differences between city and country and between regions. In general, the cities and urban areas with industrial and other resources are populated by productive people. Although overcrowding in the cities causes problems, their industry, commerce and service sectors flourish, and women play a significant role in jobs and professions. However, the population of the rural and mountain areas is not so productive. The numerous women, children, and senior citizens increase the socioeconomic burden. These phenomena have raised concern about better policy-making regarding population, social welfare, agriculture and rural and mountain areas. PMID:12222425

  14. Ice Roads in the Northwest Territories: The Intersection of Climate, Economics, and Transportation Policy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Sturm, M.; Goldstein, M.; Douglas, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice roads would seem to be an obvious, and potentially sensitive, point of interaction between climate and human activity. An interdisciplinary study of ice roads in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, suggests that the real story is more complex. The feasibility of ice roads clearly has basic climatic requirements: there has to be enough cold weather to form enough ice to support vehicles. Beyond that basic requirement, though, lie a host of technical innovations in the construction and management of ice roads, extending the “natural” life of ice roads and providing more reliable and consistent transportation than climate alone would allow. In addition, the use of ice roads involves on economic need (for example, in re-supplying diamond mines), public policy (for example, providing access to remote communities), and funding (roads may cost thousands of dollars per kilometer, each year). In this paper, we explore the various factors that affect ice road viability, identifying key variables for monitoring and modeling to provide researchers and ice road managers with information to help determine optimal courses of action in a variable and changing climate.

  15. Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-12-01

    The market for small wind systems in the United States, often defined as systems less than or equal to 100 kW that produce power on the customer side of the meter, is small but growing steadily. The installed capacity of domestic small wind systems in 2002 was reportedly 15-18 MW, though the market is estimated to be growing by as much as 40 percent annually (AWEA, 2002). This growth is driven in part by recent technology advancements and cost improvements and, perhaps more importantly, by favorable policy incentives targeted at small wind systems that are offered in several states. Currently, over half of all states have incentive policies for which residential small wind installations are eligible. These incentives range from low-interest loan programs and various forms of tax advantages to cash rebates that cover as much as 60 percent of the total system cost for turbines 10 kW or smaller installed in residential applications. Most of these incentives were developed to support a ran ge of emerging renewable technologies (most notably photovoltaic systems), and were therefore not specifically designed with small wind systems in mind. As such, the question remains as to which incentive types provide the greatest benefit to small wind systems, and how states might appropriately set the level and type of incentives in the future. Furthermore, given differences in incentive types and levels across states, as well as variations in retail electricity rates and other relevant factors, it is not immediately obvious which states offer the most promising markets for small wind turbine manufacturers and installers, as well as potential residential system owners. This paper presents results from a Berkeley Lab analysis of the impact of existing and proposed state and federal incentives on the economics of grid-connected, residential small wind systems. Berkeley Lab has designed the Small Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT) to compare system economics under current incentive structures

  16. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  17. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  18. From policy coherence to 21st century convergence: a whole-of-society paradigm of human and economic development.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Addy, Nii A; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick

    2014-12-01

    The 20th century saw accelerated human and economic development, with increased convergence in income, wealth, and living standards around the world. For a large part, owing to the well-entrenched Western-centric linear and siloed industrialization pattern, this positive transformation has also been associated with complex societal challenges at the nexus of agricultural, industrial, and health sectors. Efforts at cross-sectoral policy coherence have been deployed with limited success. To go beyond what has been possible thus far, the whole-of-society (WoS) paradigm for human and economic development proposes a 21st century convergence where, instead of the rest (of the world) converging with the West, sectoral and cross-sectoral efforts converge in their single and collective policy and action on a common target of human and economic development. In this paper, we first review and discuss contributions and limitations of policy coherence approaches. We then elaborate the institutional foundation of the WoS paradigm, taking as an anchor the well-established model of polycentric governance that views individuals, and state, market, and community, forming society as part of the same complex adaptive system. Actors within such systems self-organize into nested hierarchies that operate at multiple scales and move toward 21st century convergence of human and economic development. PMID:25146105

  19. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier. Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care. A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills. Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will require workplace innovation

  20. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier.Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care.A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills.Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will require workplace innovation

  1. Aerosol composition, oxidative properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidative properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA = sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosols (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary OA (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary OA (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation degrees during the aging

  2. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  3. Aerosol composition, oxidation properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA: sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary organic aerosol (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass-burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation

  4. Technical Cooperation with Iran: A Case Study of Opportunities and Policy Implications for the United States. Report to the Agency for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report concerns aspects of the United States' changing policies for providing economic and technical assistance to developing nations. Of primary importance in a review of relationships with those rapidly developing nations no longer eligible for concessional assistance from the Agency for International Development (AID) are the possible…

  5. Complementarity and conflict among population and other policies: specifying an economic-demographic model for a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mariano, R S

    1993-01-01

    The demographic and economic model illustrates the links between demographic and socioeconomic factors and government policy for developing countries. The operating model attempts to balance practical realities with manageability. The Philippines was used to show how the model operates. Demographic planners should be involved in the early development stages of policy development. The sociodemographic and economic framework by Orbeta has identified population outcomes affecting the economic system and the population system (fertility, mortality, and migration), both of which affect economic outcomes. The Economic system is comprised of consumption, investments, fiscal budgets, money supply, international trade and finance, labor use, and land use, which interact with private and public expenditures, employment, educational status, health status, housing, and environmental quality. A two way interrelationship exists between the demographic and socioeconomic variables. The model assumes that development outcomes affect the number, composition, and location of individuals. The application of the model to the Philippines used ordinary least squares and two stage least squares for estimation pertaining to the real sector, the fiscal sector, the financial sector, the external sector, and the price-wage-employment sector. The model combines classical, Keynesian, structuralist, and monetarist approaches. Domestic production is composed of agriculture, industry, and services in supply and demand equations. Expenditures are composed of personal consumption, gross domestic capital formation, exports, imports, and government expenditures. Further details of the model are described by Klein et al. and Mariano and Constantino. PMID:12290518

  6. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. Objective The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Methods Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. Results The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who

  7. Role of hydrology and economics in water management policy under increasing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, A.; Adamson, D.; Mallawaarachchi, T.

    2014-10-01

    Well-designed public policy stimulates social progress. However, when governments translate political vision into programmes for social change, the complexity of issues can overwhelm the policy-making process, creating disappointment and suboptimal outcomes. In this paper we examine why evidence-based policy-making approaches often fail to provide policy-makers with credible, consistent and clear outcomes matching broad social interest. The need for public policy primarily arises from a lack of perfect knowledge, which causes individuals and agencies to behave in ways that counter social interest. We therefore suggest that effective public policy formulation involves: determining what evidence is available, relevant and useful; as well as identifying critical gaps to making public policy necessary and meaningful. Murray-Darling Basin case examples highlight key stages in effective natural resource policy formulation, and sources of difficulties that need to be managed to maximize scientific contributions. These examples show that effective public policy decisions can still be made and information asymmetry managed via strong evidence, expert analysis to verify that evidence, and an understanding of knowledge gaps such that critical interventions can be agreed upon and objectives achieved in view of how they will be managed and resourced. Finally, we draw attention to the opportunities available and challenges that exist for hydrologists, economists and other social scientists to work together in assisting the policy process, and in particular to minimize the burden of information constraints in making effective water resource policy.

  8. Government participation in physician negotiations in German economic policy as applied to universal health care coverage in the United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, F D

    1994-01-01

    Systems of universal health care coverage in western industrial societies have usually established some form of government participation in negotiations over physician payment as a means of controlling costs. In the Federal Republic of Germany, a mixed private and public body. Concerted Action in Health Care sets a 'target' for physician and 'sickness fund' negotiators. This indirect form of government participation is effective in 'linking' fees with utilization during negotiations, avoiding inflationary trends inherent in fee-for-service systems. This target-setting factor is a necessary complement to negotiation of a 'pool' of money, wage level and technological adjustment factors, as contained in a model of German economic health care policy. These four elements of economic policy are recommended as cost control measures for office-based physician payments under conditions of universal health care coverage in the United States. Indirect government participation through setting 'targets' for negotiations is seen as consistent with established American institutional practices. PMID:8146713

  9. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    additional constraints. User-defined annual water saving profiles are used for DM schemes so that water conservation 'yields' can follow observed patterns. A two-stage optimization procedure is applied to deal with network infeasibilities which appear in large applications. We apply the model to a regional system of seven water companies in the South East of England, the driest part of the UK with its largest and fastest growing population. The model's spatial units are water supply zones, i.e. interconnected zones of equal supply reliability; each company contains between 3 and 8 of these. Economic benefits of greater sharing of resources among water companies (regional water transfers) are evaluated by considering bi-directional interconnections between all neighboring supply zones. Next we describe an extension of the model to investigate how current regulations incentivize companies to invest in an attempt to understand how better regulations can incentivize more water transfers. Finally, an attempt is made to change from the current model assumption of perfect cooperation between companies to one that represents the fact that each company is a private company seeking to maximize its own benefits. Limitations and advantages of the formulations are discussed and recommendations for capacity expansion modeling are made.

  10. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... properties to facilitate economic readjustment. Interim outleasing of excess real property is authorized to lessen the economic impact on the local community, caused by an installation inactivation, closure...

  11. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  12. Comments on "Complementarity and Conflict among Population and Other Policies: Specifying an Economic-Demographic Model for a Developing Country".

    PubMed

    Khan, A H

    1993-01-01

    The critique of Mariano's economic-demographic model of population and other policies for developing countries cites the value of such a detailed model for developing a family planning policy within the context of macroeconomic government policies. The model points out the impact on fertility of effective family planning policies and increased educational expenditures. Work force participation and reduced fertility is also affected by increased female educational levels, which in combination with increasing health expenditures for children reduces infant mortality as a means of further reducing fertility. Savings and investment increase with reduced fertility and reduce population growth. Per capital income increases with higher investment and lower population growth; the effect is to increase resource availability for improvements in health and education. Rural-urban migration must be balanced by policies in urban areas supporting industrial investment and policies in rural areas for increased educational and health expenditures. Changes in the structure of demand affect the structure of the economy, which in turn affects exports. The paper contributes to a model of simultaneous equations for estimating the linkages between demography and economics factors already known. The model combines the Chicago-Columbia model and the Pennsylvania model but ignores biological variables such as those identified by Behrman and Wolfe as women's health status, breast feeding, and nutritional level. International migration may be important for some countries such as the Philippines and Thailand. Extended families may be an important variable excluded from the model. Criticism is directed to the measure of rural-urban migration which does not separate out by age those migrating between countries. The assumption is that international migrants only come from urban areas. In Bangladesh the man-land ratio was found to be important. Changing definitions of literacy may impact on the

  13. Too Eager to Comply? OECD Education Policies and the Finnish Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Risto; Kallo, Johanna; Hokka, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has strongly influenced European education policy and the entire global neo-liberally toned discourse that nowadays prevails in the implementation of national education policy and educational reforms. The educational policy governance of the OECD is based on overall and supranational…

  14. The reactions to macro-economic crises in Nordic health system policies: Denmark, Finland and Sweden, 1980-2013.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Juhani; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Winblad, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have experienced two major recessions during the last 25 years. The adjustments to the earlier crisis in the late 1980s (Denmark) and early 1990s (Finland and Sweden) resembled the policies in many other European countries during the present crisis. The analysis of relationship of deep economic crises and growth period between them to the health system policies and institutions in the three countries from the 1980s to 2013 is based on a categorisation of reactions to external shocks as path conforming or path breaking. The results of the empirical long-term trends show that the reactions to deep recessions have been mainly temporary adjustments and acceleration of changes already prepared before economic crisis. The economic crisis in the three countries has not been 'good enough' to enable paradigmatic changes in the Nordic public, decentralised and equity-oriented health systems. Changes such as the slow privatisation in care funding and production and the adoption of new management practices indicate an ongoing paradigmatic change related to longer-term societal, ideological and political developments rather than directly to economic crises or growth. PMID:25662197

  15. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  16. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  17. Design and application of a technologically explicit hybrid energy-economy policy model with micro and macro economic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataille, Christopher G. F.

    2005-11-01

    Are further energy efficiency gains, or more recently greenhouse gas reductions, expensive or cheap? Analysts provide conflicting advice to policy makers based on divergent modelling perspectives, a 'top-down/bottom-up debate' in which economists use equation based models that equilibrate markets by maximizing consumer welfare, and technologists use technology simulation models that minimize the financial cost of providing energy services. This thesis summarizes a long term research project to find a middle ground between these two positions that is more useful to policy makers. Starting with the individual components of a behaviourally realistic and technologically explicit simulation model (ISTUM---Inter Sectoral Technology Use Model), or "hybrid", the individual sectors of the economy are linked using a framework of micro and macro economic feedbacks. These feedbacks are taken from the economic theory that informs the computable general equilibrium (CGE) family of models. Speaking in the languages of both economists and engineers, the resulting "physical" equilibrium model of Canada (CIMS---Canadian Integrated Modeling System), equilibrates energy and end-product markets, including imports and exports, for seven regions and 15 economic sectors, including primary industry, manufacturing, transportation, commerce, residences, governmental infrastructure and the energy supply sectors. Several different policy experiments demonstrate the value-added of the model and how its results compare to top-down and bottom-up practice. In general, the results show that technical adjustments make up about half the response to simulated energy policy, and macroeconomic demand adjustments the other half. Induced technical adjustments predominate with minor policies, while the importance of macroeconomic demand adjustment increases with the strength of the policy. Results are also shown for an experiment to derive estimates of future elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and

  18. Comparing Maternal Services Utilization and Expense Reimbursement before and after the Adjustment of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme Policy in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    You, Hua; Gu, Hai; Ning, Weiqing; Zhou, Hua; Dong, Hengjin

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) includes a maternal care benefits package that is associated with increasing maternal health services. The local compensation policies have been frequently adjusted in recent years. This study examined the association between the NCMS maternal-services policy adjustment and expense reimbursement in Yuyao, China. Methods Two household surveys were conducted in Yuyao in 2008 and 2011 (before and after the NCMS policy adjustment, respectively). Local women (N = 154) who had delivery history in the past three years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to collect information about delivery history, maternal health services utilization (prenatal care, postnatal care, and the grade of delivery institutions), NCMS participation, and reimbursement status. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict the association between policy adjustment and maternal health utilization and the association between policy adjustment and out-of-pocket proportion. Next, t-tests and covariance analyses adjusting for household income were used to compare the out-of-pocket proportion between 2008 and 2011. Results Results revealed that compensation policy adjustment was associated with an increase in postnatal visits (adjusted OR = 3.32, p = 0.009) and the use of second level or above institutions for delivery (adjusted OR = 2.32, p = 0.03) among participants. In 2008, only 9.1% of pregnant women received reimbursement from the NCMS; however, this rate increased to 36.8% in 2011. After policy adjustment, there were no significant changes in the proportion of out-of-pocket expenses shared in delivery fee (F = 0.24, p = 0.63) and in household income (F = 0.46, p = 0.50). Conclusions Financial compensation increase improved maternal health services utilization; however, this effect was limited. Although the reimbursement rate was raised, the out-of-pocket proportion was not significant changed; therefore, the compensation design

  19. Research and Policy in Education: Evidence, Ideology and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tells us that 90 per cent of education reforms are not properly evaluated. So it seems that governments have not lived up to their own ideals of evidence-informed policymaking. "Research and Policy in Education" argues that education policy is as often driven by political…

  20. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  1. Minority Business Development and Economic Development Policy in New York. Implications for Black Entrepreneurs and Communities. Report of the Subcommittee on Economic Development. Volume 5, Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    New York State should develop a comprehensive justification for its involvement in minority business development and each State program should be closely associated with that rationale. Minority business development programs are often short-sighted, potentially conflicting, and yield unimpressive results. Development of Economic Development Zones…

  2. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  3. School Choice: Economic and Fiscal Perspectives. Policy Report PR-B12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael

    This paper applies economic concepts to several school choice issues, identifying various market and public school choice proposals as alternative mechanisms for generating and distributing the economic benefits of education. Private benefits redound directly to those educated or their parents; external, or public, benefits redound to other…

  4. The Nigerian State and Global Economic Crises: Socio-Political Implications and Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaopa, O. R.; Ogundari, I. O.; Akindele, S. T.; Hassan, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how economic reforms, as a reaction to the effects of the global financial crises, have intensified popular unrests and redefined the composition, interests, and socio-economic and political attitudes of Nigeria's increasingly complex social strata. We relied basically on secondary data to analyze some of the fundamental…

  5. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  6. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 9 - Conservation, economics, and policy; Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The book examines the topics of waste utilization, conservation, and energy economics and policy. Energy supply and demand, energy economics and planning, and energy strategies and policies are reviewed. Papers are presented on the contributions to the energy supply of the industrialized countries from nuclear energy and regenerative energy flows, a method for estimating escalation and interest during construction, and a comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production between the United States and Japan.

  7. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  8. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  9. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    PubMed

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  10. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  11. Where health disparities begin: the role of social and economic determinants--and why current policies may make matters worse.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steven H; Braveman, Paula

    2011-10-01

    Health disparities by racial or ethnic group or by income or education are only partly explained by disparities in medical care. Inadequate education and living conditions-ranging from low income to the unhealthy characteristics of neighborhoods and communities-can harm health through complex pathways. Meaningful progress in narrowing health disparities is unlikely without addressing these root causes. Policies on education, child care, jobs, community and economic revitalization, housing, transportation, and land use bear on these root causes and have implications for health and medical spending. A shortsighted political focus on reducing spending in these areas could actually increase medical costs by magnifying disease burden and widening health disparities. PMID:21976326

  12. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    PubMed Central

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention. PMID

  13. Conducting economic evaluations of screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking: Methods and evidence to date for informing policy

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Bray, Jeremy W.; Mills, Michael J.; Hinde, Jesse M.

    2010-01-01

    Issues Many policy review articles have concluded that alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is both cost-effective and cost-beneficial. Yet a recent cost-effectiveness review for the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that these conclusions may be premature. Approach This article offers a brief synopsis of the various types of economic analyses that may be applied to SBI, including cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and other types of economic evaluation. A brief overview of methodological issues is provided, and examples from the SBI evaluation literature are provided. Key Findings, Implications, and Conclusions The current evidence base is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the cost, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit of SBI and about the impact of SBI on health care utilisation. PMID:20973847

  14. Universities and the Entrepreneurial State: Politics and Policy and a New Wave of State-Based Economic Initiatives. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.14.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2006-01-01

    The convergence of US federal science and economic policy that began in earnest in the Reagan administration formed the first stage in an emerging post-Cold War drive toward technological innovation. A frenzy of new state-based initiatives now forms the Second Stage, further promoting universities as decisive tools for economic competitiveness.…

  15. Brazil Vocational Education. Aspects of Economic Policy & Planning. Proceedings of the Conference at Northeastern University (Boston, Massachusetts, June 11-12, 1984). CIHED Conference Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Gustav, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of the following eight papers: "Vocational Training in Brazil--Aspects of Economic Policy and Planning," by Gustav Schachter "Economic Stabilization and Medium Term Development Strategy in Brazil," by Peter T. Knight; "Training and Development," by Manuel Zymelman; "The Organization of the Brazilian System," by Morris A.…

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Vocational Training in Africa (based on the "African Economic Outlook 2008"), OECD Development Centre Policy Insights, No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingombe, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on economic growth and poverty reduction in African countries is unknown. Without such knowledge, however, countries and donors cannot formulate appropriate policies. Even the 35 countries surveyed in the 2008 "African Economic Outlook" can only supply approximate data. More and better data are needed to monitor…

  17. The Growing Supranational Impacts of the OECD and the EU on National Educational Policies, and the Case of Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The trends of globalisation have had unavoidable impacts in steering and guiding the decisions of national policy-makers and the direction of national education policies. In the obscuring processes of supranational homogenisation of education and educational policy, supranational regimes, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  18. Canadians pay for harsh economic policies with their health, physicians warn.

    PubMed

    OReilly, M

    1995-12-01

    Canada's fiscal policies are damaging the health of Canadians, two physicians told a conference that examined globalization's impact on the country. Near-record unemployment levels and the recent recession have forced 41% of families in which the parents are 30 or younger to live below the poverty level; more than 21% of Canadian children are also considered to live in poverty. The impact tight fiscal policies have on health and well-being are enormous, say the dean of medicine at the University of Western Ontario and the chair of the Canadian Institute of Child Health. PMID:7489558

  19. 28 CFR 0.64-5 - Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294, effective October 11, 1996. 0.64-5 Section 0... Division § 0.64-5 Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L... the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 (the “EEA”) (18 U.S.C. 1831 et seq.), or use a violation...

  20. 28 CFR 0.64-5 - Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-294, effective October 11, 1996. 0.64-5 Section 0... Division § 0.64-5 Policy with regard to bringing charges under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L... the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 (the “EEA”) (18 U.S.C. 1831 et seq.), or use a violation...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 4280.2 Section 4280.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 4280.2 Section 4280.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant...

  3. 7 CFR 4280.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 4280.2 Section 4280.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 4280.2 Section 4280.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant...

  5. Career Guidance Policy: An International Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, and the European Commission have conducted reviews of the career guidance policies and practices in 37 countries. The 37 country studies, together with the 3 synthesis reports and a number of other commissioned papers, constitute the largest database on career guidance…

  6. Hungarian Innovation Policy: What's the Best Way Forward? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 445

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Hungarian government has recently been focusing on innovation policy as part of a wider campaign to improve the business environment. This paper first underscores the importance of a good general business climate in encouraging both formal and informal R&D activity as well as ensuring Hungary benefits from the international diffusion of…

  7. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  8. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research and…

  9. Debtor States and the World Market: Explaining Mexican and Brazilian Foreign Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John

    The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…

  10. The Policy Determinants of Investment in Tertiary Education. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 576

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Joaquim Oliveira; Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine; Saadi, Clarice

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses how policies and institutions affect private returns to invest in tertiary human capital, the ability of individuals to finance this investment and the institutional characteristics of tertiary education systems. Focusing on core tertiary education services, the paper presents new measures of private returns to tertiary…

  11. The Evolution of Charter School Quality. Research Briefs in Economic Policy, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baude, Patrick; Casey, Marcus; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    The role of charter schools in improving academic achievement is controversial, and existing evidence has led to contrasting conclusions about appropriate future policies. Past incongruous findings provide support for both advocates and opponents of charter schools. For a deeper understanding of charters as a market-oriented reform, it is…

  12. Integrating Ethical and Economic Interests. Suggested Policy and Practice for the Post-Industrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Robert H.

    Current academic policy and practice for supplemental income are analyzed in this speech. It is concluded that the traditional missions of an academic institution (e.g., teaching, scholarship and creative work, and public service) are lacking today. It is felt that commitment to income-producing sources may lead to unconscious compromise of…

  13. Economic Choices for Educational Policy in Africa. Research Publication No. 88.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Phillip

    In many countries in Africa today formal education is in a state of crisis. While curricular reform continues to serve as an ongoing source of public policy debate, African leaders are confronting increasing difficulty in allotting educational resources to meet present and future levels of demand. The paralysis that has been unfolding is one…

  14. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. PMID:25139708

  15. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise - administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management field. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  16. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  17. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis. PMID:26777302

  18. Integrated agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis of BMPs to support decision making and policy design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroy, E.; Rousseau, A. N.; Hallema, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    With recent efforts and increasing control over point source pollution of freshwater, agricultural non-point pollution sources have become responsible for most of sediment and nutrient loads in North American water systems. Environmental and agricultural agencies have recognised the need for reducing eutrophication and have developed various policies to compel or encourage producers to best management practices (BMPs). Addressing diffuse pollution is challenging considering the complex and cumulative nature of transport processes, high variability in space and time, and prohibitive costs of distributed water quality monitoring. Many policy options exist to push producers to adopt environmentally desirable behaviour while keeping their activity viable, and ensure equitable costs to consumers and tax payers. On the one hand, economic instruments (subsidies, taxes, water quality markets) are designed to maximize cost-effectiveness, so that farmers optimize their production for maximum profit while implementing BMPs. On the other hand, emission standards or regulation of inputs are often easier and less costly to implement. To study economic and environmental impacts of such policies, a distributed modelling approach is needed to deal with the complexity of the system and the large environmental and socio-economic data requirements. Our objective is to integrate agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis to support decision and policy making processes of BMP implementation. The integrated modelling system GIBSI was developed in an earlier study within the Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of BMPs) to evaluate the influence of BMPs on water quality. The case study involved 30 and 15 year records of discharge and water quality measurements respectively, in the Beaurivage River watershed (Quebec, Canada). GIBSI provided a risk-based overview of the impact of BMPs (including vegetated riparian buffer strips, precision slurry application, conversion to

  19. The Impact of State AIDS Drug Assistance Policies on Clinical and Economic Outcomes of People With HIV.

    PubMed

    Snider, Julia Thornton; Goldman, Dana P; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Seekins, Daniel; Juday, Timothy; Sanchez, Yuri; Wu, Yanyu; Peneva, Desi; Romley, John A

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of changes to state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) policies, which govern access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), on clinical and economic outcomes among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS. Retrospective analyses of ART access were conducted on state ADAP policies, using data from ADAP Monitoring Reports and Kaiser Family Foundation from 2006 to 2010. We found stricter eligibility requirements reduce the number of HIV-positive individuals with ART access through ADAP, and decreased ART use increases mortality by 2.67 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per beneficiary. If the ADAP income eligibility cutoff were decreased by 50 percentage points in each state, 4,626 individuals would lose ART access nationwide. Based on a $22,143 cost/QALY, this policy would save $274 million in health care expenditures (2012 dollars), but result in 12,352 QALYs lost, valued at $1.2 billion. Therefore, states should exercise caution in restricting programs that increase ART access for low-income people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26537525

  20. The Author as Agent of Information Policy: The Relationship between Economic and Moral Rights in Copyright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Gerolami, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    A historical and theoretical analysis of the copyright environment demonstrates that both the economic rights associated with copyright and the moral rights often associated with copyright perform social functions. The latter have not been as universally embraced or adopted as the former. The lack of enthusiasm for moral rights is argued to be…

  1. Resources and development: Natural resource policies and economic development in an interdependent world

    SciTech Connect

    Dorner, P.; El-Shafie, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides an integration of the studies and discussions of the seminar that OAPEC cosponsored at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1977-78. The authors offer a multidisciplinary perspective of the economic, legal, social, political, and technological issues inherent in this complex and controversial subject.

  2. 75 FR 42813 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory.... Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Room 1107, Washington, DC. The meeting will be hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and...

  3. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and measurement of…

  4. Higher Education and Economic Development in the OECD: Policy Lessons for Other Countries and Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy

    2016-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…

  5. Building Skills, Increasing Economic Vitality: A Handbook of Innovative State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Radha Roy; Mills, Jack; Prince, Heath

    2005-01-01

    In their 2004 State of the State speeches, the nation's governors cited many issues competing for their attention and their states' resources, including health care, education, crime, and security (Nodine 2004). Among the most compelling challenges were those related to economic development and the ability of a state's workforce to meet the needs…

  6. Economic Incentives in Content-Centric Networking: Implications for Protocol Design and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyapong, Parick Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Content-centric networking (CCN) has emerged as a dominant paradigm for future Internet architecture design due to its efficient support for content dissemination, which currently dominates Internet use. This dissertation shows how economic and social welfare analysis can be used to inform the design of a CCN architecture that provides network…

  7. Global Employment and Economic Justice: The Policy Challenge. Worldwatch Paper 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Kathleen

    Employment potential in developed and developing nations is analyzed from an economic viewpoint. Estimates by the International Labor Office are that the global labor force will grow by about 900 million people from 1980 to 2000. It is projected that these 900 million people will join the current labor force including approximately 50 million…

  8. Economic Wellbeing: Critical Reflections upon Policy and Practice in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Economic wellbeing has become a collective term used by British governments to signal their concern for levels of materiality where there is childhood poverty; for the need to prepare pupils for employment by teaching them relevant competences and appropriate attitudes; and for the necessity to develop skills for "personal financial capability" in…

  9. Economic Shocks and Children's Dropout from Primary School: Implications for Education Policy in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Hagos, Adiam

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of idiosyncratic and covariate economic shocks, on the likelihood of children dropping out of primary school. In this endeavour, an Accelerated Failure Time Hazard model was estimated using data from the Young Lives study of childhood poverty. The estimated results indicate that both idiosyncratic shocks and…

  10. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: With over 1 million children served by the US Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of…

  11. A HANDBOOK OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS MAY USE THIS EXPERIMENTAL HANDBOOK IN DEVELOPING COURSES TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS AND ADULTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL JOBS SUCH AS CHILD CARE WORKERS, ALTERERS, SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS, SEAMSTRESSES, FLORAL DESIGNERS, AND FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS AND STATE…

  12. Energy policy and economic development in the Philippines, 1973-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bensel, T.G.; Harriss, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews energy policy and energy-economy interactions in the Philippines since 1973 and presents projections of energy development and use to the year 2000. Dependent on imported oil for over 90 percent of its commercial energy requirements in 1973, the Philippines initiated one of the most aggressive energy development and conservation programs in the developing world. Energy and oil intensities of the economy were reduced, and domestic coal, hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass resources were developed to meet nearly half of commercial energy requirements by 1985. Low world oil prices and domestic political developments combined to reverse trends in the energy sector after 1985. Imported oil dependence grew again to 70 percent by 1992, and an electric power crisis became the focus of government energy policy. An innovative private power development program has helped reduce power shortages and is expected to account for the bulk of needed capacity expansion into the next century.

  13. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  14. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-10-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

  15. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Economic policy for industrial mobilization in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Chester, C.V.; Hardy, B.H.; Horwich, G.; Sullivan, P.J.; Trumble, D.A. ); Brinkerhoff, J.R. ); Gutmanis, I. )

    1989-12-01

    Does the US possess the economic capability to produce conventional weapons in sufficient quantity and quality to compensate for the impending reduced strategic nuclear deterrent Have changing economic conditions -- domestic and worldwide -- changed this ability Are there policies that would enhance this ability in the face of economic change In each case, the simple answer appears to be yes -- but there is a much more complex story to tell. The capability to produce conventional weaponry today is more important than in the past. Nuclear parity and arms limitations agreements have and will continue to place additional reliance on conventional weaponry as a deterrent to major conflicts. It is also more difficult to produce conventional weapons than in the past. Modern non-nuclea: weaponry is increasingly sophisticated, evolves rapidly, and becomes obsolete rapidly. Current strategy calls for continued modernization rather than maintenance of large weapon inventories. The nation implicitly relies on the ability to surge and/or mobilize production to meet the needs of a military buildup. 39 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Power Policy 21 Century: Growth of the Population, Economics, Ecology and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    but energy consumed by a man will be a limiting factor. Obtained values of changing in the quantity of population as well as of the consumed fuel quantity in the 21 century have been analysed. The period was defined (2005-2085) when energy hungry is possible due to a higher rate of a human reproduction comparing to the rates of energy consumption. From new position, the laws of the Earth population growth are analysed, based on the equality of the quantity of dying people to the quantity of those bornyears ago, whereis life expectancy. investigated on the base of Second law of thermodynamics. The equation of money exchange dY = (V/p)dM in going from quantity real GNP Y to consumption fuel equivalent E=pd Y takes the form: dE =VdM. General correlation between S and M is proposed: dS = (HV/T)dM, where H is enthalpy; V is velocity of money; T is temperature; p is total prices,is capacity of manufacture resources. This equation shows direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of general law Universe. The original equation of removing from information to matter equation enables to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control of activities for the restoration wrecked nature.This equation shows the direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of a general Universal law. into account value of expenditure on ecology as part of price and overstated price indexes. The criterions allow to discover numerical values of a stock of money, ecology part of price, velocity of money, value of the taxes, which ensure sustainable development. These equations enable to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control activities for the restoration of wrecked nature.

  17. Social Class, Economic Inequality, and the Convergence of Policy Preferences: Evidence from 24 Modern Democracies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert; Curtis, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Using data from the World Values Survey and national-level indicators for 24 modern democracies, we assess the influence of social class and economic inequality on preferences for government responsibility. We improve on previous research by using multilevel models that account for differences in attitudes both within (i.e., over time) and across countries. Our findings are consistent with the economic self-interest hypothesis. Specifically, working class individuals, who tend to gain the most from government intervention because of their low and often more precarious economic position, are more likely than others to support government intervention. We also find a positive relationship between national-level income inequality and support for government intervention. As income inequality rises, its social ills tend to be more pervasive, resulting in public opinion becoming more supportive of governments taking responsibility for their citizens. We further demonstrate that inequality moderates the relationship between social class and attitudes. Although the effect of income inequality is positive for all social classes, attitudes across social classes become more similar as inequality rises. PMID:26286958

  18. Economic considerations for social distancing and behavioral based policies during an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.

    2013-01-01

    Public policies intended to induce behavioral change, specifically incentives to reduce interpersonal contacts or to “social distance,” increasingly play a prominent role in public disease response strategies as governments plan for and respond to major epidemics. I compare social distancing incentives and outcomes under decentralized, full control social planner, and constrained social planner, without health class specific control, decision making scenarios. Constrained social planner decision making, based on non-health class specific controls, can in some instances make society worse off than decentralized decision making (i.e. no intervention). The oft neglected behavior of recovered and immune individuals is important for welfare and health outcomes. PMID:23419635

  19. Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy, and Structural Strategies.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-02-12

    Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities. PMID:26916848

  20. Study on improving the method of analyzing the economic incident effects caused by public investment policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Hino, Seiichi; Koike, Atsushi; Nakano, Takeshi; Fujii, Satoshi

    A nationwide micro-econometric model was established to estimate changes in the national gross product based on road-related investment amounts. And by considering the supply-demand balance during inflationary and deflationary times and the price adjustment mechanism, this model was then used to examine issues with the current micro-econometric model in light of the present economic circumstances. The results showed that during deflationary times issuing government bonds is less likely to have a crowding-out effect and public investments tend to be more effective than during inflationary times.

  1. Economic Impact of Oklahoma's Smoke-Free Air Policies on Restaurants.

    PubMed

    Laux, Fritz

    2015-11-01

    A comparison of sales tax and employment data from before and after the new statewide secondhand smoke laws took effect on March 1, 2006, finds that both revenue and employment levels have increased for Oklahoma restaurants since imposition of the new rules. Furthermore, comparing revenue and employment levels across states, with Kansas, and controlling for changes in overall economic activity, shows that Oklahoma has done relatively better than Kansas, since imposition of the new law. Kansas had no similar change to its restaurant smoking rules, which still largely permitted smoking, during the study timeframe. PMID:26817063

  2. Economic design of an inventory policy for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, K. V.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) based model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments is proposed. This model aids in minimizing the total inventory cost by finding an optimal replenishment policy. In this model shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The backlogging rate is variable and dependent on the waiting time for the next replenishment. Some useful theorems have been framed to characterize the optimal solutions. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions are also provided. An algorithm is designed to find the optimal replenishment cycle time and order quantity under various circumstances. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the theoretical results. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the system has been carried out and the implications are discussed in detail. In the discussions, suggestions are given to minimize the total cost of the inventory system.

  3. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992

  4. A review of public desert land lease policies for concentrated solar power plants and the impact on their economic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrnakis, Christos; Phocas-Cosmetatos, Alex; Kynigalakis, Kostantinos

    2016-05-01

    Large scale Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants need large plots of land with very high solar resource and thus are often deployed in desert areas which are usually owned by the state or a municipal authority. This study discusses the implication and practices of land lease policies with regards to CSP development. The strategy followed on a land lease is examined by definition on a case-specific basis and this text is by no means exhaustive with regards to its content. The study also discusses the pricing of land in various cases, presents the governing types of land lease and their effect on the economic performance of hypothetical CSP projects under various cases.

  5. Partners in Growth: Business-Higher Education Development Strategies. Education-Economic Development Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter H.; Brisson, Candice

    Strategies to facilitate better cooperation between business and higher education institutions are explored with a focus on policies that colleges, businesses, and public policy makers can implement to utilize educational resources for economic development. Consideration is given to: developing informal university-industry networks, universities…

  6. Economic Goals, Quality Discourse and the Narrowing of European State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Quality management theory pervades education policy across Europe. In this article its prevalence is examined through analysis of policy texts drawn from 16 different state systems in Europe, as well as from the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The article argues that Quality discourse has…

  7. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

  8. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pindilli, Emily; Casey, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  9. The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Dooley, J; Held, H; Edenhofer, O

    2005-01-31

    The costs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6-75/t CO{sub 2}. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning-by-doing until these disincentives for the free venting of CO{sub 2} are in place. By far, the largest current fraction of these costs is capture (including compression and dehydration), commonly estimated at $25-60/t CO{sub 2} for power plant applications followed by CO{sub 2} transport and storage, estimated at $0-15/t CO{sub 2}. Of the storage costs, only a small fraction of the cost will go to accurate geological characterization. These one-time costs are probably on the order of $0.1/t CO{sub 2} or less as these costs are spread out over the many millions of tons likely to be injected into a field over many decades. Geologic assessments include information central to capacity prediction, risk estimation for the target intervals, and development facilities engineering. Since assessment costs are roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than capture costs, and assessment products carry other tangible societal benefits such as improved accuracy in fossil fuel and ground water reserves estimates, government or joint private/public funding of major assessment initiatives should underpin early policy choices regarding CO{sub 2} storage deployment and should serve as a point of entry for policy makers and regulators. Early assessment is also likely to improve the knowledge base upon which the first commercial CCS deployments will rest.d

  10. The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implication

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S. J.; Dooley, James J.; Held, Herman; Ottmar, Edenhofer

    2006-08-31

    The costs for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6–75/t CO2. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning by doing until these disincentives for the free venting of CO2 are in place. By far, the largest current fraction of these costs is capture (including compression and dehydration), commonly estimated at $25–60/t CO2 for power plant applications, followed byCO2 transport and storage, estimated at $0–15/tCO2.Of the storage costs, only a small fraction of the cost will go to accurate geological characterization. These one time costs are probably on the order of $0.1/t CO2 or less as these costs are spread out over the many millions of tons likely to be injected into a field over many decades. Geologic assessments include information central to capacity prediction, risk estimation for the target intervals and development facilities engineering. Since assessment costs are roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than capture costs, and assessment products carry other tangible societal benefits, such as improved accuracy in fossil fuel and ground water reserves estimates, government or joint private–public funding of major assessment initiatives should underpin early policy choices regarding CO2 storage deployment and should serve as a point of entry for policy makers and regulators. Early assessment is also likely to improve the knowledge base upon which the first commercial CCS deployments will rest.

  11. Cooperation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Bow, Amadou-Mahtar

    1976-01-01

    International economic relations are discussed in terms of cultural, educational, and communications development globally. It is emphasized that global cooperation and development are necessary for development of people and societies. (ND)

  12. A Detailed Hydro-Economic Model for Assessing the Effects of Alternative Surface Water and Groundwater Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M.; Torres, M.; Wallender, W.; Vosti, S.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers, managers of water use associations, and many others in developing countries are considering policy actions that will directly or indirectly increase the costs of groundwater and surface water for agricultural users. While in many cases such actions may bring about welcomed increases in water use efficiency, little is known about the likely effects of increases in irrigation costs on farmer behavior or on farmer incomes in the short or long runs, and virtually nothing is known about the detailed immediate or knock-on effects on hydrological resources that these policy changes might cause. This new research begins to fill these large scientific gaps by developing a linked hydrologic and economic model of agriculture in the context of a small agricultural watershed in Brazil. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A CES production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. This production function allows the elasticity of substitution between the non-water-related inputs and water-related inputs to differ. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MOD-HMS is a comprehensive physics-based 3D watershed model that simulates the effects of agricultural activity on the hydrologic system using flexible boundary conditions such as a) application of water at the surface, b) soil

  13. Renovating Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheams, Patricia A.; Saint, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Identifies work force development needs that can be met by community colleges through the use of cooperative education programs. Suggests modifications to current cooperative education programs to achieve desired work force and economic outcomes (e.g., employee recruitment, retention, and technical training). (DMM)

  14. Issues for SME Credit Information DB Institutionsand Expectations for the Econophysics ---Scientific Economic Policies for Avoiding Moral Hazard---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, T.

    The CRD database, which has been accumulating financial data on SMEsover the ten years since its founding, and has gathered approximately 12 million records for around 2 million SMEs, approximately 3 million records for somewhere around 900,000 sole proprietors, also collected default data on these companies and sole proprietors. The CRD database's weakness is anonymity. Going forward, therefore, it appears the CRD Association is faced with questions concerning how it will enhance the attractiveness of its database whether new knowledge should be gained by using econophysics or other research approaches. We have already seen several examples of knowledge gained through econophysical analyses using the CRD database, and I would like to express my hope that we will eventually see greater application of the SME credit information database and econophysical analysis for the development of Japans SME policies which are scientific economic policies for avoiding moral hazard, and will expect elucidating risk scenarios for the global financial, natural disaster, and other shocks expected to happen with greater frequency. Therefore, the role played by econophysics will become increasingly important, and we have high expectations for the role to be played by the field of econophysics.

  15. A cardiovascular disease policy model: part 2—preparing for economic evaluation and to assess health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K D; Lewsey, J D; Ford, I; Fox, K; Ritchie, L D; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Watt, G C M; Woodward, M; Kent, S; Neilson, M; Briggs, A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is the second of the two papers introducing a cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model. The first paper described the structure and statistical underpinning of the state-transition model, demonstrating how life expectancy estimates are generated for individuals defined by ASSIGN risk factors. This second paper describes how the model is prepared to undertake economic evaluation. Design To generate quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), the Scottish Health Survey was used to estimate background morbidity (health utilities) and the impact of CVD events (utility decrements). The SF-6D algorithm generated utilities and decrements were modelled using ordinary least squares (OLS). To generate lifetime hospital costs, the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC) was linked to the Scottish morbidity and death records (SMR) to cost each continuous inpatient stay (CIS). OLS and restricted cubic splines estimated annual costs before and after each of the first four events. A Kaplan-Meier sample average (KMSA) estimator was then used to weight expected health-related quality of life and costs by the probability of survival. Results The policy model predicts the change in QALE and lifetime hospital costs as a result of an intervention(s) modifying risk factors. Cost-effectiveness analysis and a full uncertainty analysis can be undertaken, including probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Notably, the impacts according to socioeconomic deprivation status can be made. Conclusions The policy model can conduct cost-effectiveness analysis and decision analysis to inform approaches to primary prevention, including individually targeted and population interventions, and to assess impacts on health inequalities. PMID:27335653

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession – a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the public payer in Portugal – on utilization of, as a proxy for access to, antipsychotic medicines. Methodology We obtained monthly IMS Health sales data in standard units of antipsychotic medicines in Portugal and Finland for the period January 2007 to December 2011. We used an interrupted time series design to estimate changes in overall use and generic market shares by comparing pre-policy and post-policy levels and trends. Results Both countries’ policy approaches were associated with slight, likely unintended, decreases in overall use of antipsychotic medicines and with increases in generic market shares of major antipsychotic products. In Finland, quetiapine and risperidone generic market shares increased substantially (estimates one year post-policy compared to before, quetiapine: 6.80% [3.92%, 9.68%]; risperidone: 11.13% [6.79%, 15.48%]. The policy interventions in Portugal resulted in a substantially increased generic market share for amisulpride (estimate one year post-policy compared to before: 22.95% [21.01%, 24.90%]; generic risperidone already dominated the market prior to the policy interventions. Conclusions Different policy approaches to contain pharmaceutical expenditures in times of the economic recession in Finland and Portugal had intended – increased use of generics – and likely unintended – slightly decreased overall sales, possibly consistent with decreased access to needed medicines – impacts. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring and evaluating the effects of pharmaceutical policy interventions on use of medicines and health outcomes. PMID:25062657

  17. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  18. Economic policy optimization based on both one stochastic model and the parametric control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashimov, Abdykappar; Borovskiy, Yuriy; Onalbekov, Mukhit

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinear dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with financial frictions is developed to describe two interacting national economies in the environment of the rest of the world. Parameters of nonlinear model are estimated based on its log-linearization by the Bayesian approach. The nonlinear model is verified by retroprognosis, estimation of stability indicators of mappings specified by the model, and estimation the degree of coincidence for results of internal and external shocks' effects on macroeconomic indicators on the basis of the estimated nonlinear model and its log-linearization. On the base of the nonlinear model, the parametric control problems of economic growth and volatility of macroeconomic indicators of Kazakhstan are formulated and solved for two exchange rate regimes (free floating and managed floating exchange rates)

  19. Challenges for health systems in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, J.

    2000-01-01

    For reasons of equity most OECD countries have chosen to base their funding of health care mainly on public sources. There is an almost universal problem of affordability in the health systems of these countries, arising from the tension between the willingness of populations to pay taxes and the eagerness of patients to use health services where these are free or heavily subsidized at the point of use. These tensions are likely to be exacerbated by a surge of new medical technologies adding to demands for health care. Some observers have predicted the breakdown of publicly funded systems of health care under new spending pressures. However, governments can deploy a range of policies for handling new demands. They can also take comfort from the fact that many of them have already coped with successive waves of technological change in health care without abandoning their core commitment to the public funding of health systems. Furthermore, if standards of living continue to rise, public and private insurers should find it easier to obtain the revenues needed to pay for the improved health care expected by consumers. PMID:10916912

  20. Preschool as an Arena of Gender Policies: The Examples of Sweden and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    As many countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development have developed more universal provision for early childhood education during the last decades, preschool increasingly has become a central policy arena. Gender politics, especially with an aim to promote female labour market participation, but also policies addressing…

  1. Starting Strong: Policy Implications for Early Childhood Education and Care in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Michelle J.; Bennett, John

    2001-01-01

    Reviews comparative study of early childhood education policy and services in 12 countries produced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Discusses seven major cross-national issues and key elements of successful early childhood education policies. Draws implications for the United States. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  2. Building Public Awareness of Development: Communicators, Educators and Evaluation. Policy Brief No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette; McDonnell, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Using evaluation to improve performance has become a priority for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) policy makers and practitioners in the field of public information/communication and education about development. This Policy Brief is an introduction to evaluation, with proposals on how official donors and civil society…

  3. Putting the Young in Business: Policy Challenges for Youth Entrepreneurship. Territorial Development. LEED Notebook No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Robert

    Policies and practices promoting youth entrepreneurship in Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) member countries were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following issues: youth unemployment; contrasting employment situations and policy approaches in individual OECD countries; a definition of self-employment; and the…

  4. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Tertiary Education and Employment. Education and Training Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the transition of young adults with disabilities from school to tertiary education and work. It analyses the policy experiences of several OECD [Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development] countries and identifies recent trends in access to education and employment as well as best transition policies and practices.…

  5. Using the National Environmental Policy Act to facilitate the transfer of federal lands for economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Ladino, A.G.

    1997-06-01

    In order to evaluate the transfer of certain Federal lands at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the US Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the proposed action had the potential to result in environmental impacts and required the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The specific proposed action evaluated by DOE with support from LANL was the transfer of approximately 28 contiguous acres of underutilized Federal land to the County. This tract was locally referred to as the DP Road tract. Although the land was underutilized, it functioned as part of a larger buffer area between potentially hazardous operations at LANL and the general public. The tract was covered with scrub vegetation. There were no government buildings located on the site. The tract of land had two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) located within the tract boundary as well as a buried but active liquid radioactive waste pipeline that crossed the site. The tract of land was adjacent to several other DOE SWMUs as well as a public road. In addition, there were ownership issues pertaining to the transfer of the land to persons and agencies other than the County. This particular tract of land was being considered for transfer to the County at the same time DOE and LANL began evaluating another large Federal land tract for lease to the County to be developed as a private research park.

  6. Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

    2012-04-01

    Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate

  7. The economics of medicines optimization: policy developments, remaining challenges and research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Rita; Barbieri, Marco; Light, Kate; Elliott, Rachel A.; Sculpher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background This review scopes the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to improve suboptimal use of medicines in order to determine the evidence gaps and help inform research priorities. Sources of data Systematic searches of the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Areas of agreement The majority of the studies evaluated interventions to improve adherence, inappropriate prescribing and prescribing errors. Areas of controversy Interventions tend to be specific to a particular stage of the pathway and/or to a particular disease and have mostly been evaluated for their effect on intermediate or process outcomes. Growing points Medicines optimization offers an opportunity to improve health outcomes and efficiency of healthcare. Areas timely for developing research The available evidence is insufficient to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to address suboptimal medicine use in the UK NHS. Decision modelling, evidence synthesis and elicitation have the potential to address the evidence gaps and help prioritize research. PMID:25190760

  8. Three essays of economics and policy on renewable energy and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuxi

    In face of the crisis in energy security, environmental contamination, and climate change, energy saving and carbon emission reduction have become the top concerns of the whole human world. To address those concerns, renewable energy and energy efficiency are the two fields that many countries are paying attention to, which are also my research focus. The dissertation consists of three papers, including the innovation behavior of renewable energy producers, the impact of renewable energy policy on renewable innovation, and the market feedback to energy efficient building benchmarking ordinance. Here are the main conclusions I have reached in this dissertation. First, through the study on foreign patenting intention with the case study of Chinese solar PV industry, I looked at the patenting behaviors of 15 non-Chinese solar PV producers in solar PV technologies in China, and pointed out that foreign firms may file patents in the home country or production base of their competitors in order to earn the competitive edge in the global market. The second study is about the "Innovation by Generating" process. I specifically focused on Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in the United States and the innovation performance within each state, and found out that wind power generation in RPS states has developed rapidly after the adoption of RPS, while the "Innovating by Generating" effect is more significant in solar PV technologies. In general, the innovations of the two technology groups are not prominently encouraged by RPS. My last study is about the benchmarking law and market response in the scenario of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law. By comparing the rental rate of LEED/EnergyStar buildings and ordinary buildings in the city of Philadelphia before and after the adoption of the building energy efficiency benchmarking law, I believe that the passage of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law may be helpful in improving the public awareness and understanding of energy efficiency

  9. Competition in the natural gas pipeline industry: An economic policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) currently regulates the price at which natural gas can be sold by regulated interstate natural gas pipelines. Whether pipelines should be deregulated depends, to an important extent, on the competitive nature of the market. The key question is whether pipelines can successfully raise price (i.e., the transport fee) and reduce output if the market is deregulated. In most natural gas pipeline markets, there are a small number of current suppliers. Opponents of deregulation argue that the unrestrained market power of pipelines in many local markets will introduce inefficiencies in the sale of natural gas. Implicit in their arguments is a narrow view of competition: the number of current suppliers. The competitive effect of potential entry is largely ignored. These commentators would argue that without potential entry, it may be true that the net social cost of deregulation exceeds the costs of maintaining present regulation. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which potential entry might constrain the exercise of market power by natural gas pipelines if price and entry regulation is removed. Potential entrants are defined in the context of antitrust markets. That is, these markets are consistent with the Department of Justice (DOJ) Merger Guidelines. The study attempts to quantify the effects of potential entry on the market power of current suppliers. The selection of potential entrants therefore considers a number of factors (such as the size of the nearby supplier and the distance to the market) that are expected to affect the likelihood of collision in a deregulated market. The policy implications of the study are reviewed.

  10. Cooperation with the World of Work in Technical and Vocational Education: A. The Policy Level--Studies from Hungary, Romania, and Sweden and B-- The Institution Level--A Study from the Russian Federation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    This document contains a synthesis paper and four case studies of cooperation with the world of work in vocational and technical education (VTE) in Hungary, Romania, Russia, and Sweden. "Synthesis" (R. Barry Hobart) considers the common social and economic variables affecting VTE in the four study countries. The three case studies focusing on…

  11. Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Nancy K.

    This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

  12. OVERCOMING BROWNFIELD BARRIERS TO URBAN MANUFACTURING: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POLICY NETWORKS AND CHANGING LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES IN FOUR U.S. CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study suggests that growing optimism in the U.S. manufacturing’s recovery, coupled with evolving structures and functions of social (policy) networks involving diverse groups of local stakeholders concerned with brownfields, economic development, smart growth, environm...

  13. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  14. Black Economic Advancement in the New Millennium: Globalization, Education, and Technology. Special Report: National Policy Institute (8th, Washington, DC, January 20-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This special issue presents, in capsule form, presentations from workshops at the Eighth National Policy Institute. The conference theme of black economic advancement in the new century focused on globalization, education, and technology. Ten workshops were the core of the conference, and their topics were: (1) overcoming the 2000 Census…

  15. Research, Education, and Economics Information System: An Engine for Strategic Planning and Information Policy Development at the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a strategic information policy audit as a key component in the development of the Research, Education, and Economics Information System (REEIS) at the Department of Agriculture that helps analyze the organization's infrastructure. Discusses the process as a generalized systems model for organizational research.…

  16. Public Policy and Economic Efficiency in Ontario's Electricity Market: 2002 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Derek E. H.

    A competitive wholesale electricity market began operation in Ontario in 2002. The institutional features and development process are described, and the outcomes associated with certain features are assessed. First, a six-equation model of the market is specified and estimated. The results are used to undertake analysis of the province's renewable energy program. The impacts of the program on consumers' and producers' surplus, as well as the resulting degree of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission-abatement, are estimated. These results are used to infer the per-unit cost of CO 2 abatement resulting from the program. Under the assumption that the renewable-fuelled energy displaces coal-fuelled energy from the market, the estimated cost is approximately 93/tonne of CO2; under the alternative assumption that natural gas-fuelled generation is displaced, the estimated cost is 207/tonne of CO2. Comparison to costs observed in other markets and jurisdictions reveals the program to cost approximately one order of magnitude greater than elsewhere. It is concluded that Ontario pays substantially more for emission abatement than is necessary or, alternatively, that Ontario achieves substantially less abatement than is feasible for each dollar of economic resources expended. Second, the market model is also used to assess the treatment of electricity exports with respect to the so-called global adjustment charge. The analysis reveals that the current practise of exempting exports from the charge is not socially optimal from a total surplus-maximisation standpoint. That objective would be achieved if global adjustment was allocated to exports at approximately 32% of the rate at which it is applied to Ontario-based consumers, a result consistent with a Ramsey-type inverse elasticity rule. Third, the forward market unbiasedness hypothesis is assessed in the context of the market for financial transmission rights (FTR). Issues related to left-censoring of payouts at $0 and overlapping

  17. Cooperative Game Theoretic Models for Decision-Making in Contexts of Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of Cooperative Economic Game Theory, followed by a summary of specific measures identified by Nash, Shapley, and Harsanyi. Reviews contexts in which negotiation and cooperation among libraries is of special economic importance, and for two of these contexts-cooperative acquisitions and cooperative automation-illustrates…

  18. Analysis of Three Frameworks for Quality Assurance in Sino-Foreign Cooperation for Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaocheng, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    As economic globalization sweeps across the world, cross-border higher education cooperation has witnessed remarkable achievements. Quality improvements, however, have not stepped up accordingly due to reasons including imperfect and distorted policies, incomplete governance structures, and the absence of an effective internal quality assessment…

  19. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pelayo, F. )

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  1. The economic implications of changing regulations for deep sea fishing under the European Common Fisheries Policy: UK case study.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Kenny, Andrew; Readdy, Lisa; Posen, Paulette; Ribeiro-Santos, Ana; Neat, Francis C; Burns, Finlay

    2016-08-15

    Economic impact assessment methodology was applied to UK fisheries data to better understand the implications of European Commission proposal for regulations to fishing for deep-sea stocks in the North-East Atlantic (EC COM 371 Final 2012) under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The aim was to inform the on-going debate to develop the EC proposal, and to assist the UK fishing industry and Government in evaluating the most effective options to manage deep sea fish stocks. Results indicate that enforcing the EC proposal as originally drafted results in a number of implications for the UK fleet. Because of the proposed changes to the list of species defined as being deep sea species, and a new definition of what constitutes a vessel targeting deep sea species, a total of 695 active UK fishing vessels would need a permit to fish for deep sea species. However, due to existing and capped capacity limits many vessels would potentially not be able to obtain such a permit. The economic impact of these changes from the status quo reveals that in the short term, landings would decrease by 6540 tonnes, reducing gross value added by £3.3 million. Alternative options were also assessed that provide mitigation measures to offset the impacts of the proposed regulations whilst at the same time providing more effective protection of deep sea Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). The options include setting a 400m depth rule that identifies a depth beyond which vessels would potentially be classified as fishing for deep sea species and designating 'core areas' for deep sea fishing at depths>400m to minimise the risk of further impacts of bottom fishing gear on deep sea habitats. Applying a 400m depth limit and 'core fishing' area approach deeper than 400m, the impact of the EC proposal would essentially be reduced to zero, that is, on average no vessels (using the status quo capacity baseline) would be impacted by the proposal. PMID:27100006

  2. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation. PMID:20976980

  3. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications. PMID:16556480

  4. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  5. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  6. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  7. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  9. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  10. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  11. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  14. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  15. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  16. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  17. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  18. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  19. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  1. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  2. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  3. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  4. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  5. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  6. Comparative Performance Measures, Globalising Strategies and Literacy Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores one example of an international comparison -- the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) -- in order to investigate the power of numbers in both the shaping and the legitimisation of adult literacy policy using Scotland as a case study. It is argued that policy…

  7. Towards a Sociology of Measurement in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has developed impressive machinery to produce international comparative data across more than 70 systems of education and these data have come to be used extensively in policy circles around the world. In many countries, national and international comparative data are used as the…

  8. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management. PMID:25082500

  9. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  10. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  11. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44 %, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23 %, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced, followed by industrial manufacturing and solvent utilization. Reductions of these three sources were responsible for 50, 26, and 16 % of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, and contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important

  12. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were

  13. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.…

  14. NRC policy on State Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The purchase by New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant in February 1989 as well as the June 1989 agreement between Pennsylvania and PECO on the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant both required the acquiescence and approval of the NRC. In both instances, the NRC, perhaps without choice, appeared to acknowledge and accommodate the political demands with which New York and Pennsylvania were confronted for additional involvement in the control of the radiological hazards associated with the two nuclear plants. With respect to the Shoreham plant, the NRC repeatedly has expressed the view that it is not authorized, in the absence of unusual circumstances, to require LILCO to operate the nuclear plant that the NRC already has licensed. With respect to the Peach Bottom plant, the NRC has approved an agreement under which the utility is committed to numerous initiatives that are intended to contribute to the safe operation of the nuclear plant but that are not NRC requirements. The role of the NRC in the licensing and operation of these two nuclear power plants is discussed.

  15. Research Issues in the Economics of Education and Growth. Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis: Paper No. 409.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; And Others

    This report discusses diverse economic issues involved in educational reforms aimed at improving economic growth. The focus is on elementary and secondary education in the southeastern United States. After a general overview of the economics of educational reform, section I discusses the issues involved in modeling and estimating the linkages…

  16. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: will decision makers get quality information? : a critical review of published Korean economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Sei; Brouwer, Werner B F; Lee, Sang-Il; Koo, Hye-Won

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) is considering making it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to submit the results of an economic evaluation when demanding reimbursement of new pharmaceuticals. The usefulness of the results of economic evaluations depends highly on the quality of the studies. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to provide a critical review of economic evaluations of healthcare technologies published in the Korean context. Our results show that many studies did not meet international standards. Study designs were suboptimal, study perspectives and types were often stated incompletely, time periods were often too short, and outcome measures were often less than ideal. In addition, some articles did not distinguish between measurement and valuation of resource use. Capital, overhead and productivity costs were often omitted. Only half of the studies performed sensitivity analyses. In order to further rationalise resource allocation in the Korean healthcare sector, the quality of the information provided through economic evaluations needs to improve. Developing clear guidelines and educating and training researchers in performing economic evaluations is necessary. PMID:15987227

  17. Science policy considerations for responsible nanotechnology decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeff; Willis, Jim; de Martinis, Domenico; Hansen, Bjorn; Laursen, Henrik; Sintes, Juan Riego; Kearns, Peter; Gonzalez, Mar

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing literature on the use of science to inform decisions on the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but little has been published by those who make such decisions. Here, as officials of the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, we discuss the types of decision facing government regulators, the new considerations nanotechnology brings to decision-making, the role of science in informing decisions, how regulators cooperate internationally on policy issues, and the challenges that lie ahead.

  18. Diversified Cooperative Training. Diversified Cooperative Health Occupations. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective diversified cooperative training (DCT) and diversified cooperative health occupations (DCHO) programs. Chapter I describes DCT/DCHO programs, their structure, types of program…

  19. Cooperative medical schemes in contemporary rural China.

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Tang, S; Bloom, G; Segall, M; Gu, Y

    1995-10-01

    Improvements in rural health care in China in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s were largely due to the development of cooperative medical schemes (CMSs) and the establishment of a three-tier rural health network. Since the economic reforms were instituted in the late 1970s, the financing and delivery of rural health services have seen many changes, some positive, others not. Most CMSs have collapsed. In the absence of CMSs, the rural population has to pay for health care out-of-pocket and poor families have greater difficulty in getting access to essential health care. In the meantime, emphases of health services have tended to shift from lower to higher levels, from preventive to curative services, and from planning and management to market forces. This paper outlines the evolution of CMSs, reasons for their collapse, and their likely impact on rural health services. The main focus is on the development of a new generation of rural cooperative health care schemes, given their importance in the process of consolidating the rural three-tier health network after the impact of the economic reforms: the characteristics of some schemes, the apparent conditions for success, and government policy towards the development of cooperative health care financing are presented. PMID:8578334

  20. Rapid Change without Transformation: The Dominance of a National Policy Paradigm over International Influences on ECEC Development in Ireland 1995-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Toby; O'Donoghue-Hynes, Bernie; Hayes, Nóirín

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity of change in Irish early childhood policy over the last 20 years is clear to observers (OECD Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland. "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development," Paris, 2004). What may be debated is how significant the changes are. In this paper, we analyse…

  1. "Comfortably British" to "Fundamentally Economic"? The Effects of Language Policies on Year 12 Language Candidature in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to explore how various language policies may have impacted Year 12 language candidature in Victoria. Australian Federal and Victorian State Government language policies are but one of the influences yet, it may be argued, the most significant influence. These stand alongside waves of immigration, global events and conflicts, and…

  2. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

  3. Between Policy and a Hard Pedagogical Place: The Emotional Geographies of Teaching for Citizenship in Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosalyn

    2015-01-01

    Reflecting an international trend, Australian education policy increasingly charges schools with fostering active citizens who have the will and capacity to improve the democratic fabric and drive needed social change. This policy prescription also resonates with some teachers' critical commitments to pedagogical practices that encourage young…

  4. Charting Teacher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland with Particular Reference to the Impact of Economic Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marie; Killeavy, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teacher education is an area of concern both in the policy and practice domains in both international and national contexts. Internationally, there are a wide range teacher education programmes and there is also considerable diversity with reference to policy approaches that operationalise such provision. Purpose: This paper focuses on…

  5. Education and the Market: Which Parts of the Neo Liberal Solution Are Correct? Innocenti Occasional Papers. Special Subseries "Fiscal Policy and the Poor," Economic Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher

    This paper examines the argument that education systems in development countries should be financed more directly by private households. It finds that cost-recovery policies are likely to be harmful to efficiency and equity if significant resources were to be generated by these means. User fees at primary and secondary levels would increase…

  6. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  7. New Technologies in the 1990s: A Socio-economic Strategy. Report of a Group of Experts on the Social Aspects of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The world needs a socioeconomic strategy--a set of interrelated policies that recognize that social and institutional changes at all levels of society are necessary to realize fully the technical and economic potential of new technologies. An assessment and dissemination of how different countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and…

  8. Cooperative Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Pam

    1989-01-01

    Describes "cooperative poetry," a group poetry-writing exercise combining brainstorming, rehearsing, choral reading, assisted reading, memorization, sequencing, and vocabulary development, as well as providing an opportunity for group cooperation. (MM)

  9. The Employer's Role in Linking School and Work: A Policy Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY.

    This document, which is addressed to employers and others wishing to foster school-to-career programs, reflects the views of the Committee for Economic Development regarding employers' role in linking school and work. The following topics are among those discussed in chapters 1-3: youth and careers (present versus past labor markets, causes of…

  10. Trial by False Fire: Education's Role in U.S. "Economic Decline." Policy Brief Issue Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA. Inst. on Education and Training.

    A review of long-term international economic trends and the literature linking education and training (ET) to economic performance reveals no evidence of deindustrialization or falling labor productivity in the United States. Over the last 40 years, the nation has experienced lower growth rates in gross domestic product and productivity but…

  11. Teaching Geography Using Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Larry

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that promotes the positive interaction of children in small, heterogeneous groups. Each group contain three or four students of varying achievement levels, backgrounds, socio-economic status, and sex. Cooperative learning processes promote student motivation, build group skills, foster social and…

  12. Report Calls for U.S. National Sustainability Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The White House should issue an executive order establishing a U.S. national sustainability policy, according to a new report by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. The 28 June report found that sustainability issues inherently involve connections among environmental, economic, and social issues and that the U.S. federal government "is generally not organized or operated to deal with this complexity." The report calls for a sustainability policy to address intertwined environmental, economic, and societal issues that require interagency cooperation.

  13. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered...

  14. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative...

  15. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  16. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  19. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  20. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  1. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  2. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  4. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  5. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  6. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  7. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  9. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  10. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  11. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  12. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  15. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide...

  16. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  17. 43 CFR 24.6 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.6 Cooperative agreements. (a) By reason of the Congressional policy (e.g., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1956) of State-Federal cooperation and coordination in the area of fish and wildlife conservation, State and Federal agencies have...

  18. 43 CFR 24.6 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.6 Cooperative agreements. (a) By reason of the Congressional policy (e.g., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1956) of State-Federal cooperation and coordination in the area of fish and wildlife conservation, State and Federal agencies have...

  19. 43 CFR 24.6 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.6 Cooperative agreements. (a) By reason of the Congressional policy (e.g., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1956) of State-Federal cooperation and coordination in the area of fish and wildlife conservation, State and Federal agencies have...

  20. 43 CFR 24.6 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.6 Cooperative agreements. (a) By reason of the Congressional policy (e.g., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1956) of State-Federal cooperation and coordination in the area of fish and wildlife conservation, State and Federal agencies have...