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Sample records for polimeri utilizzati nei

  1. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  2. NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

  3. [Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen

    2002-01-01

    Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period. PMID:12015056

  4. Breaking it down, using modular services to improve the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Smith, J. S.; Joyce, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) developed by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is a framework providing real-time high performance data discovery, access, and visualization. Along with a ESRL's unique visualization client, TerraViz, this framework provides seamless visualization and integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. An enabling technology is the services behind the scenes. The NEIS team has continued research into improving the asynchronous, event driven architecture which supports and drives the performance of the framework. Services are continually evaluated and broken down into smaller, more modular, self contained components. The benefits have been numerous. Through this effort the NEIS team has improved many aspects of the overall framework including performance, fault tolerance, testing coverage, scalability, reliability, and agility. This modular service approach provides the capability to monitor and pinpoint bottlenecks within the framework. Depending on the impact, the service can either be improved or scaled up to meet the requirements. Additionally, the modular nature reduces coupling between various components of the framework allowing individual services to be upgraded without taking down the entire system, decreasing the overall time to respond and fix to problems. This talk will focus on our approach to developing these services to support the NEIS framework and TerraViz, along with discussion on findings, challenges, and future research.

  5. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  6. Vaccine Potential and Diversity of the Putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) Protein of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Humbert, María Victoria; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Phillips, Renee; Akoto, Charlene; Hill, Alison; Tan, Wei-Ming; Heckels, John Edward; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-01-01

    The cbf gene from Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58 encoding the putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) protein was cloned into the pRSETA system and a ~36-kDa recombinant (r)CBF protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal affinity chromatography. High titres of rCBF antibodies were induced in mice following immunization with rCBF-saline, rCBF-Al(OH)3, rCBF-Liposomes or rCBF-Zwittergent (Zw) 3-14 micelles, both with and without incorporated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant. Anti-rCBF sera reacted in western blots of meningococcal lysates with a single protein band of molecular mass ~29.5 kDa, indicative of mature CBF protein, but did not react with a lysate of a Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-), demonstrating specificity of the murine immune responses. CBF protein was produced by all strains of meningococci studied thus far and the protein was present on the surface of MC58 (CBF+) bacteria, but absent on Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-) bacteria, as judged by FACS reactivity of anti-rCBF sera. Analysis of the NEIS1825 amino acid sequences from 6644 N. meningitidis isolates with defined Alleles in the pubmlst.org/Neisseria database showed that there were 141 ST types represented and there were 136 different allelic loci encoding 49 non-redundant protein sequences. Only 6/6644 (<0.1%) of N. meningitidis isolates lacked the nmb0345 gene. Amongst serogroup B isolates worldwide, ~68% and ~20% expressed CBF encoded by Allele 1 and 18 respectively, with the proteins sharing >99% amino acid identity. Murine antisera to rCBF in Zw 3-14 micelles + MPLA induced significant serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against homologous Allele 1 and heterologous Allele 18 strains, using both baby rabbit serum complement and human serum complement (h)SBA assays, but did not kill strains expressing heterologous protein encoded by Alelle 2 or 3. Furthermore, variable bactericidal activity was induced by murine antisera against different meningococcal strains in the h

  7. Vaccine Potential and Diversity of the Putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) Protein of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Akoto, Charlene; Hill, Alison; Tan, Wei-Ming; Heckels, John Edward; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-01-01

    The cbf gene from Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58 encoding the putative Cell Binding Factor (CBF, NMB0345/NEIS1825) protein was cloned into the pRSETA system and a ~36-kDa recombinant (r)CBF protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal affinity chromatography. High titres of rCBF antibodies were induced in mice following immunization with rCBF-saline, rCBF-Al(OH)3, rCBF-Liposomes or rCBF-Zwittergent (Zw) 3–14 micelles, both with and without incorporated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant. Anti-rCBF sera reacted in western blots of meningococcal lysates with a single protein band of molecular mass ~29.5 kDa, indicative of mature CBF protein, but did not react with a lysate of a Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-), demonstrating specificity of the murine immune responses. CBF protein was produced by all strains of meningococci studied thus far and the protein was present on the surface of MC58 (CBF+) bacteria, but absent on Δnmb0345 mutant (CBF-) bacteria, as judged by FACS reactivity of anti-rCBF sera. Analysis of the NEIS1825 amino acid sequences from 6644 N. meningitidis isolates with defined Alleles in the pubmlst.org/Neisseria database showed that there were 141 ST types represented and there were 136 different allelic loci encoding 49 non-redundant protein sequences. Only 6/6644 (<0.1%) of N. meningitidis isolates lacked the nmb0345 gene. Amongst serogroup B isolates worldwide, ~68% and ~20% expressed CBF encoded by Allele 1 and 18 respectively, with the proteins sharing >99% amino acid identity. Murine antisera to rCBF in Zw 3–14 micelles + MPLA induced significant serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against homologous Allele 1 and heterologous Allele 18 strains, using both baby rabbit serum complement and human serum complement (h)SBA assays, but did not kill strains expressing heterologous protein encoded by Alelle 2 or 3. Furthermore, variable bactericidal activity was induced by murine antisera against different meningococcal strains in the h

  8. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the "Upper Red" beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the "Upper Red" of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the "Upper Red" is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. PMID:27227833

  9. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the “Upper Red” beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the “Upper Red” of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the “Upper Red” is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. PMID:27227833

  10. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  11. NEI for Kids: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Astigmatism (uh-STIG-muh-tiz-um) occurs when light is bent differently depending on where it strikes ... of your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. D Diabetes ( ...

  12. A Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/07_BC) Among Heterosexuals in Nei Monggoi Autonomous Region in China.

    PubMed

    An, Minghui; Han, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Shang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Increasing second-generation recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/07_BC) have been detected in China recently. Here, we isolated a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC second-generation recombinant form in HIV-1-positive Nei Monggoi's heterosexuals with one CRF07_BC inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. Polygenetic analyses showed that the CRF01_AE region was grouped with the previously reported cluster 5 lineage, which spreads among the sexual population in north of China, inferring that this recombinant event occurred through heterosexual contact in the north of China possibly. The growing emergence of recombinant forms means coexistence of multiple strains and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic, which reminds us of the urgent necessity to focus the HIV surveillance among the high-risk populations nationwide in China, particularly to enhance preventive measures in HIV-1 low-prevalence areas. PMID:27018546

  13. [Textual research on the engraved editions of Nei wai yan fang mi chuan (Secret Teaching of Proved Prescriptions for Internal and External Diseases)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Zhao Lian's book Nei wai yan fang mi chuan (Secret Teaching of Proved Prescriptions for Internal and External Diseases) was firstly engraved in the 21st year of Guangxu reign of the Qing dynasty. There are altogether four different engraved editions separately collected in the Library of Academy of Medical Sciences, Library of Zhenjiang City, Library of Changchun University of TCM, and Library of Shanghai University of TCM, printed in different times with different sizes of its contents. It is better to call all these editions the engraved versions of Guangxu reign. All of them are engraved and printed after the mother edition with some blocks hollowed-out and supplemented. Hence, the title "engraved edition of Yiyou or the 11th year of Guangxu reign (1885) of the Qing dynasty" carried in The General Catalogue of Ancient Books of TCM is wrong. PMID:26268259

  14. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial of Coadministration of RotaTeq, a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, and NeisVac-C, a Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Borrow, Ray; Kitchin, Nick; Baudin, Martine; Thomas, Stéphane; Fiquet, Anne

    2011-01-01

    RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc./Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that RotaTeq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenCC; NeisVac-C; Baxter Healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to MenCC. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative study conducted in Finland. The study was designed to assess concomitant versus sequential administration of RotaTeq and MenCC on the immune response to both vaccines. Healthy infants (n = 247), aged 6 to 7 weeks, were recruited. Coadministration of MenCC with RotaTeq was noninferior to sequential administration for the seroprotection rate against meningococcal serogroup C (the proportion of infants with a serum bactericidal antibody titer using baby rabbit complement of ≥8 was 100% in both groups). The other responses to MenCC (titer of ≥1:128, ≥4-fold increase in titer, and geometric mean titers [GMTs]) and the responses to RotaTeq (IgA and SNA response to G1 to G4 and P1A[8], GMTs, and ≥3-fold increase in titer) were comparable between groups, including a ≥3-fold IgA increase in >96% of the infants in both groups. Concomitant administration of the first doses of MenCC, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib), and RotaTeq was associated with a higher rate of vomiting and diarrhea than concomitant administration of MenCC and DTaP-IPV-Hib, but that was not observed after the second concomitant administration. The convenience of concomitant administration of RotaTeq and MenCC may, however, outweigh the additive effect of mostly mild adverse events reported after the individual administration of each vaccine. These results support the

  15. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  16. Neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) circuitry from neuron-glial interactions to function: Focus on gender and HPA-HPG interactions on early programming of the NEI system.

    PubMed

    Morale, M C; Gallo, F; Tirolo, C; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Marletta, N; Spina-Purrello, V; Avola, R; Caucci, F; Tomasi, P; Delitala, G; Barden, N; Marchetti, B

    2001-08-01

    Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems during ontogeny plays a pivotal role in programming the development of neuroendocrine and immune responses in adult life. Signals generated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (i.e. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH, and sex steroids), and by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (glucocorticoids (GC)), are major players coordinating the development of immune system function. Conversely, products generated by immune system activation exert a powerful and long-lasting regulation on neuroendocrine axes activity. The neuroendocrine-immune system is very sensitive to preperinatal experiences, including hormonal manipulations and immune challenges, which may influence the future predisposition to several disease entities. We review our work on the ongoing mutual regulation of neuroendocrine and immune cell activities, both at a cellular and molecular level. In the central nervous system, one chief compartment is represented by the astroglial cell and its mediators. Hence, neuron-glial signalling cascades dictate major changes in response to hormonal manipulations and pro-inflammatory triggers. The interplay between LHRH, sex steroids, GC and pro-inflammatory mediators in some physiological and pathological states, together with the potential clinical implications of these findings, are summarized. The overall study highlights the plasticity of this intersystem cross-talk for pharmacological targeting with drugs acting at the neuroendocrine-immune interface. PMID:11488988

  17. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because—whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative—this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs. PMID:26664809

  18. The first dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation of Nei Mongol, China.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Michael; Pei, Rui; Tan, Qingwei; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The first dromaeosaurid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Bayan Gobi Formation is identified based on an incompletely preserved partially-articulated left leg, increasing the known diversity of its understudied ecosystem. The leg belongs to specimen IVPP V22530 and includes a typical deinonychosaurian pedal phalanx II-2 with a distinct constriction between the enlarged proximal end and the distal condyle as well as a typical deinonychosaurian enlarged pedal phalanx II-3. It possesses a symmetric metatarsus and a slender and long MT V that together suggest it is a dromaeosaurid. Two anatomical traits suggest the leg is microraptorine-like, but a more precise taxonomic referral was not possible: metatarsals II, III and IV are closely appressed distally and the ventral margin of the medial ligament pit of phalanx II-2 is close to the centre of the rounded distal condyle. This taxonomic status invites future efforts to discover additional specimens at the study locality because-whether it is a microraptorine or a close relative-this animal is expected to make important contributions to our understanding of dromaeosaurid evolution and biology. IVPP V22530 also comprises of an isolated dromaeosaurid manual ungual, a proximal portion of a right theropod anterior dorsal rib and an indeterminate bone mass that includes a collection of ribs. Neither the rib fragment nor the bone mass can be confidently referred to Dromaeosauridae, although they may very well belong to the same individual to whom the left leg belongs. PMID:26664809

  19. Essays of Peripheral Mind: Nei4 Meng2gu3, Zhong1 Guo2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inner Mongolia, China is the site of the 2008 International Rangeland Congress. There are over 500 million acres of grasslands in northern China. This is one of the largest remaining areas in the world still predominately used for livestock grazing. Over 20% of these grasslands occur in Inner Mon...

  20. A CR-hydro-NEI model of the structure and broadband emission from Tycho's supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, P.; Patnaude, D. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Nagataki, S.; Ellison, D. C.; Hughes, J. P.; Eriksen, K. A.; Castro, D. E-mail: dpatnaude@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: shigehiro.nagataki@riken.jp E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: castro@mit.edu

    2014-03-01

    Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is well-established as a source of particle acceleration to very high energies. Constraints from numerous studies indicate that the observed γ-ray emission results primarily from hadronic processes, providing direct evidence of highly relativistic ions that have been accelerated by the SNR. Here we present an investigation of the dynamical and spectral evolution of Tycho's SNR by carrying out hydrodynamical simulations that include diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the amplified magnetic field at the forward shock of the SNR. Our simulations provide a consistent view of the shock positions, the nonthermal emission, the thermal X-ray emission from the forward shock, and the brightness profiles of the radio and X-ray emission. We compare these with the observed properties of Tycho to determine the density of the ambient material, the particle acceleration efficiency and maximum energy, the accelerated electron-to-proton ratio, and the properties of the shocked gas downstream of the expanding SNR shell. We find that evolution of a typical Type Ia supernova in a low ambient density (n {sub 0} ∼ 0.3 cm{sup –3}), with an upstream magnetic field of ∼5 μG, and with ∼16% of the SNR kinetic energy being converted into relativistic electrons and ions through diffusive shock acceleration, reproduces the observed properties of Tycho. Under such a scenario, the bulk of observed γ-ray emission at high energies is produced by π{sup 0}-decay resulting from the collisions of energetic hadrons, while inverse-Compton emission is significant at lower energies, comprising roughly half of the flux between 1 and 10 GeV.

  1. [The influence of Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's inner classic) on Shuo wen jie zi (the origin of Chinese characters)].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-10-01

    It is very likely that The Origin of Chinese Characters is influenced by Huang Di's Inner Classic after investigating the author of The Origin of Chinese Characters and identifying the publishing times of them. The following conclusions are reached through comparing and analyzing thinking modes, philosophical conception, and knowledge of human anatomy, disease and treatment in them: the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contained in The Origin of Chinese Characters is in direct line of succession with the Inner Classic; the universe and ecomedical thinking modes of "heaven-earth-human being" in The Origin of Chinese Characters and the Inner Classic respectively are cut from the same cloth; the theories of qi, yin-yang, and the five phases, the theoretical foundation of the Inner Classic, can be traced back to their sources through The Origin of Chinese Characters; The Origin of Chinese Characters traces back to characters' origin and original meanings through analyzing their structures, therefore, the book is important for us to study and read the Inner Classic, and to probe into the origin of TCM as well. PMID:17533693

  2. [First discrimination of the meanings of the seven words relevant with acupuncture in Huangdi Nei- jing (Yellow Emnerors Internal Classic)].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Fu, Haiyan; Ju, Baozhao

    2015-10-01

    Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic) is the earliest medical classic work existing at present in Chinese medical treasures and is the foundation of TCM. It not only contains rich medical words, but also supplements the new meanings of seven words, i. e. Wang, Xiu, Yuan, Fang, Xu, Jiu and Bian for removing needle, retaining needling, reinforcing technique, reducing technique, slow needling, moxibustion and stone-needle puncturing, respectively. PMID:26790230

  3. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide - K-Grade 5. [Ah-Nei, The Special Classroom Environmental Education Study Area].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Billings, MT.

    This is a curriculum guide for environmental education designed for use in grades K-5. While the guide is designed to be used in a Montana environmental education study area, most activities can be used directly in other locations; others can be adapted. Included are: (1) a discussion of ecological terms, (2) a list of vocabulary words, (3)…

  4. A CR-HYDRO-NEI MODEL OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM THE VELA JR. SUPERNOVA REMNANT (SNR RX J0852.0-4622)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Slane, Patrick O.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Ellison, Donald C. E-mail: nagataki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: dpatnaude@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-04-10

    Based largely on energy budget considerations and the observed cosmic-ray (CR) ionic composition, supernova remnant (SNR) blast waves are the most likely sources of CR ions with energies at least up to the 'knee' near 10{sup 15} eV. Shocks in young shell-type TeV-bright SNRs are surely producing TeV particles, but the emission could be dominated by ions producing {pi}{sup 0}-decay emission or electrons producing inverse Compton gamma rays. Unambiguously identifying the GeV-TeV emission process in a particular SNR will not only help pin down the origin of CRs, it will also add significantly to our understanding of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism and improve our understanding of supernovae and the impact SNRs have on the circumstellar medium. In this study, we investigate the Vela Jr. SNR, an example of TeV-bright non-thermal SNRs. We perform hydrodynamic simulations coupled with nonlinear DSA and non-equilibrium ionization near the forward shock to confront currently available multi-wavelength data. We find, with an analysis similar to that used earlier for SNR RX J1713.7-3946, that self-consistently modeling the thermal X-ray line emission with the non-thermal continuum in our one-dimensional model strongly constrains the fitting parameters, and this leads convincingly to a leptonic origin for the GeV-TeV emission for Vela Jr. This conclusion is further supported by applying additional constraints from observation, including the radial brightness profiles of the SNR shell in TeV gamma rays, and the spatial variation of the X-ray synchrotron spectral index. We will discuss implications of our models on future observations by the next-generation telescopes.

  5. Development of the GAINS-KOREA Base Year Emission Inventory for Criteria Air Pollutants: Issues in Linking the Korea NEI to the GAINS Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y. H.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the era of air pollution and climate change, we should have reliable outlooks of national air pollutant and GHGs emission, which are also important components of international environmental policy negotiation. The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model has been developed as a tool to identify reasonable emission forecast and mitigation strategies that achieve air quality and greenhouse gas related targets simultaneously at least cost. Recently, Konkuk University and IIASA has been jointly developing the GAINS-Korea Model by reflecting domestic emission activities and environmental conditions. One of the most important challenges for developing GAINS-Korea model is to reproduce CAPSS - the national emissions inventory of Korea- in the GAINS framework. Matching two different databases are not easy because of different sector classification schemes, estimation methods, and etc. In this study, we developed a base year emissions of the GAINS-Korea for the criteria air pollutants using CAPSS. A new set of methodologies to link national inventory to international framework (GAINS) were introduced so that the GAINS-Korea can produce realistic emission outlooks and test control alternatives. We will discuss several underlying issues, such as improvement of accuracy for mapping, conversion, for our base year emission inventory development in site.

  6. Consapevolezza pragmatica e comprensione delle storie nei bambini di eta prescolare (Pragmatic Awareness and Story Comprehension in Preschool-age Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study are presented in which 40 preschool children were given 5 tasks including a test of story comprehension (listening and responding to questions) and a test of pragmatic awareness divided into 4 parts (listening to a story, retelling it, judging what was strange in it, and explaining the consequences of the "strange" event).…

  7. Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in the elderly: a fatal triad?

    PubMed

    Monami, Matteo; Aleffi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    paradosso potrebbe essere spiegato dal fatto che spesso, in passato, per ottenere un miglioramento glicometabolico si sono utilizzati farmaci ipoglicemizzanti in grado di aumentare il rischio ipoglicemico, la variabilità glicemica ed il peso corporeo. In conclusione, il miglioramento del compenso glicemico, specie nel paziente anziano, dovrebbe essere ottenuto, quando possibile, con farmaci a basso rischio ipoglicemico e non inducenti aumenti di peso, per evitare gli effetti negativi di ipoglicemie e eccessive fluttuazioni della glicemia che di per sé costituiscono dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari al pari dell'iperglicemia. In questo articolo, si esplorerà l'ipotesi che iperglicemia, ipoglicemia e variabilità glicemica costituiscano una triade fatale in grado di aumentare morbilità e mortalità nei pazienti affetti da diabete mellito. PMID:27374040

  8. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI ...

  9. Diagram of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  10. Vitreous Detachment

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  11. Facts about Behçet's Disease of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  12. Eye Disease Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  13. Macular Pucker

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  14. Facts about Floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  15. Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  16. Facts about Blepharospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  17. Retinoblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National ...

  18. Ernest Borgnine Lays it on the Line Hollywood Hero Focuses on Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photo courtesy of NIH/NEI Actor Ernest Borgnine stars in an NEI video that informs Americans about ... doesn't slow the Oscar winner and longtime star of television's "McHale's Navy," as he recently told ...

  19. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  20. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M ... Map Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency ...

  1. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M ... Map Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency ...

  2. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  3. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  4. L'Immaginario Bambino: The Educational Experiences of Pistoia City Council in the Drawings and Graphics by Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999 = L'immaginario bambino: Le esperienze educative del Comune di Pistoia nei disegni e nella grafica di Andrea Rauch, 1979-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galardini, Annalia, Ed.; Giovannini, Donatella, Ed.; Iozzelli, Sonia, Ed.

    Pistoia City, Italy, has an articulated and complex system of services and educational opportunities for young children. The major tenet underlying the system is the development of a "child-friendly" city project, an educational project rooted in community and giving children a sense of belonging, and promoting the identity of the project through…

  5. 77 FR 27784 - Announcement of National Eye Institute Participation in PA-11-347, “NINDS SBIR Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...-11- 347, ``NINDS SBIR Technology Transfer (SBIR-TT )'' This notice is intended to inform potential applicants that the National Eye Institute (NEI) is participating in PA-11-347, ``NINDS SBIR Technology Transfer (SBIR-TT ).'' The NEI seeks SBIR applications for projects to transfer technologies out of the...

  6. Effect of Endometrial Injury on Secretion of Endometrial Cytokines and IVF Outcomes in Women with Unexplained Subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Han, Junyan; Jia, Chanwei; Ma, Yanmin; Lan, Yonglian; Li, Ying; Wang, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of endometrial injury (EI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in women with unexplained subfertility and explore the relationship between EI and endometrial inflammatory cytokines, 66 women with unexplained subfertility undergoing IVF treatment were recruited. 38 patients in the EI group underwent EI in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle and 28 patients in the non-EI (NEI) group. According to the pregnancy outcome, the NEI and EI groups were divided into NEI-nonpregnant (NEI-NP), NEI-pregnant (NEI-P), EI-NP, and EI-P. All patients underwent aspiration of endometrial secretions immediately before embryo transfer. The concentrations of ten mediators were measured using Milliplex Magnetic Bead assay. The clinical pregnancy was significantly higher in the EI than in the NEI group. The concentrations of interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, interferon- (IFN-) γ, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-) 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly higher in the EI than the NEI group. The expression of IFN-γ and VEGF in the EI-P was significantly increased compared to the EI-NP group. These findings suggest that, in women with unexplained subfertility, endometrial injury might be a potential method to improve clinical pregnancy rates by promoting the expression of IFN-γ and VEGF. PMID:26586929

  7. 75 FR 6064 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making available for comment an Emergency Action Level (EAL) frequently asked question (FAQ). This EALFAQ will be used to provide clarification of endorsed Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guidance related to the development of security related EALs. This EALFAQ was developed by the NRC at the request of NEI. The NRC is publishing this preliminary......

  8. NASA Explorer Institutes: Exploring the Possibilities for Collaboration with the Informal Education Community. Report of the NASA Explorer Institutes--Focus Groups and Pilot Workshops, September 2004-March 2005; Planning and Evaluation Meeting, March 14-17, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Debbie; Freeman, Jason; Walker, Gretchen; Davis, Hilarie

    2005-01-01

    This report contains summary information and conclusions from the pilot workshops, focus groups, and the NEI (NASA Explorer Institutes) Planning and Evaluation Conference which united representatives of the workshops, focus groups, and NASA education. The culmination of these NEI pilot initiatives resulted in the identification of strategies that…

  9. The National Eye Institute Annual Report: FY 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Eye Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an annual report of research and supported by the National Eye Institute (NEI) during the 1974 fiscal year. It is explained that the purpose of NEI research programs is to develop scientific knowledge which can be applied to the improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of visual disorders. The section on extramural and…

  10. Nutrition Education Initiative: A School-Based Program to Promote Healthy Eating Practices of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Bonnie; Ralston, Penny A.; Young-Clark, Iris; Cornille, Tom; Brown, Linda Lockett; Davis, Kimberly E.; Salley, Tihesha J.; Goehrig, Marianne Henderson; Mullins, Amy Piper; Gaskins, Dykibra J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the Nutrition Education Initiative (NEI), a project to promote the adoption of healthy eating practices by middle school students in North Florida, included the development of the "NEI Resource Guide" and pilot study outcomes. Eight schools in North Florida participated in the pilot project. Food recall data from 331 and 768…

  11. Facts about Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Search form Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L ... brain are created during this period of growth and development. Scientists are exploring whether treatment for amblyopia in ...

  12. Structural Investigation of a Viral Ortholog of Human NEIL2/3 DNA Glycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Averill, April M.; Imamura, Kayo; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2.04 Å resolution. The C-terminal region of the MvNei2 enzyme comprises two conserved DNA binding motifs: the helix-two-turns-helix (H2TH) motif and a C-H-C-C type zinc-finger similar to that of human NEIL2. The N-terminal region of MvNei2 is most closely related to NEIL3. Like NEIL3, MvNei2 bears a valine at position 2 instead of the usual proline and it lacks two of the three conserved void-filling residues present in other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Mutational analysis of the only conserved void-filling residue methionine 72 to alanine yields an MvNei2 variant with impaired glycosylase activity. Mutation of the adjacent His73 causes the enzyme to be more productive thereby suggesting a plausible role for this residue in the DNA lesion search process. PMID:24120312

  13. Psychometric properties of the national eye institute refractive error correction quality-of-life questionnaire among Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Saffari, Mohsen; Labiris, Georgios; Fridlund, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the national Eye Institute refractive error correction quality of life questionnaire (NEI-RQL-42) among Iranian patients with refractive errors. Materials and Methods: Two samples of patients (n1 = 296, n2 = 95) were consecutively selected from the eye clinic of the Boo-Ali Hospital, Qazvin. A forward-backward procedure was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42. A homogeneity, stability, and reliability test was conducted for the first sample after a two-week interval. Convergent validity was computed using the correlation between the NEI-RQL-42 subscale scores, National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Furthermore, Known-group analysis was performed, to determine the discriminant validity between the subgroups of patients with hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. Responsiveness to clinical change was tested by administering NEI-RQL-42 on the second sample that was scheduled for surgery. Results: Homogeneity was satisfactory with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging between 0.70 and 0.92. The 13 subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 showed a considerable stability in intra-class-correlation (ICC) ranging between 0.70 and 0.89. Positive correlation coefficients were found among all subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 and the other quality-of-life instruments (NEI-VFQ-25 and SF-36). The NEI-VFQ-25 displayed excellent discriminant validity to differentiate the subgroups of patients, and was found to be responsive to change after the surgical correction at three months. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess refractive error correction quality-of-life in Iranian patients. Moreover this questionnaire can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in patients with refractive errors. PMID:23772124

  14. Impacts of updated emission inventories on source apportionment of fine particle and ozone over the southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Wei; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Wang, Kai; Minoura, Hiroaki; Wang, Zifa

    2014-05-01

    As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency updates the National Emission Inventory (NEI), the source contributions (SC) of major source sectors to major pollutants based on source apportionment techniques should be periodically reassessed to reflect changes in SCs due to changes in emissions. This work assesses emission updates from the 1999 NEI version 2 (NEI99v2) and the 2005 NEI (NEI05) and the resulting differences in SCs using the two inventories. Large differences exist in the emissions of nitrogen oxide, formaldehyde, ammonia, terpene, and primary PM2.5 between NEI99v2 and NEI05. Differences in emissions lead to differences in model performance and source appointment. SCs of ten major source categories to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system with the Brute Force Method (CMAQ/BFM) andNEI05and compared with those obtained previously using CMAQ/BFM with NEI99v2. In January, compared to CMAQ/BFM (NEI99v2), CMAQ/BFM (NEI05) shows that miscellaneous areas, biomass burning, and coal combustion remain the top three contributors to PM2.5 but with different ranking and higher SCs (17.7%, 16.0%, and 14.1% for NEI05 vs. 11.8%, 13.7%, and 10.8% for NEI99v2, respectively). In July, coal combustion, miscellaneous areas, and industrial processes remain the top three with higher SCs (41.9%, 14.1%, and 8.8% for NEI05 vs.30.8%, 8.9%, and 6.9% for NEI99v2, respectively). Those changes in SCs are attributed to increased primary PM2.5 (PPM) emissions in NEI05 and increases in relative contributions of miscellaneous areas and coal combustion to the emissions of PPM, NH3, and SO2.SCs from diesel and gasoline vehicles decrease in both months, due to decreased contributions of gasoline vehicles to SO2 and NH3 emissions and those of diesel vehicles to NOx and PPM emissions. Compared with CMAQ/BFM (NEI99v2), SCs from other combustion and biomass burning are higher in Florida, due to substantial increases in

  15. Structural Characterization of Viral Ortholog of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Bound to Thymine Glycol or 5-Hydroxyuracil-containing DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kayo; Averill, April; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Thymine glycol (Tg) and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) are common oxidized products of pyrimidines, which are recognized and cleaved by two DNA glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway, endonuclease III (Nth) and endonuclease VIII (Nei). Although there are several structures of Nei enzymes unliganded or bound to an abasic (apurinic or apyrimidinic) site, until now there was no structure of an Nei bound to a DNA lesion. Mimivirus Nei1 (MvNei1) is an ortholog of human NEIL1, which was previously crystallized bound to DNA containing an apurinic site (Imamura, K., Wallace, S. S., and Doublié, S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 26174–26183). Here, we present two crystal structures of MvNei1 bound to two oxidized pyrimidines, Tg and 5-OHU. Both lesions are flipped out from the DNA helix. Tg is in the anti conformation, whereas 5-OHU adopts both anti and syn conformations in the glycosylase active site. Only two protein side chains (Glu-6 and Tyr-253) are within hydrogen-bonding contact with either damaged base, and mutating these residues did not markedly affect the glycosylase activity. This finding suggests that lesion recognition by Nei occurs before the damaged base flips into the glycosylase active site. PMID:22170059

  16. About the Eye

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... questions and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... questions and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  18. New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Age-related Macular Degeneration New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD ... Eye Institute Photo Courtesy of: NEI In a new study of nearly 650 people with age-related ...

  19. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  20. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  1. 78 FR 56905 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Career Development and Pathways...

  2. 77 FR 43097 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Epidemiology Applications. Date: August 13... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  3. 76 FR 71350 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Pediatric Vision Science Grant Applications... Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite...

  4. 77 FR 64525 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Career Development and Conference Grant... Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of...

  5. 75 FR 46951 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Institutional Training Grant Applications...: Anne E. Schaffner, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National...

  6. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  7. Talking to Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding your doctor’s responses is essential to good communication. Here are a few more tips: If you ... and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  8. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  9. You Have Diabetes. How Can You Avoid Serious Eye Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You have diabetes. How can you avoid serious eye diseases? Did you know that diabetic retinopathy, an eye ... loss and other health problems associated with the disease. The National Eye Institute (NEI) offers a guide so you can “ ...

  10. Development of a landscape unit delineation framework for ecoy-hydrologic models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A spatially distributed representation of basin hydrology and transport processes in eco-hydrological models facilitates the identification of critical source areas and the placement of management and conservation measures. Especially floodplains are critical landscape features that differ from nei...

  11. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... laboratories is one way the NEI is expanding genetic testing of eye diseases. Photo courtesy of National ...

  12. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  13. Leading Cause of Eye Injuries in School-Aged Children are Sports-Related

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanent vision loss. The NEI also states that baseball is the sport responsible for the greatest number ... eye injuries cost $175-200 million every year. · Baseball is a leading cause of eye injuries in ...

  14. Simulation of atmospheric oxidation capacity in Houston, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality model simulations are performed and evaluated for Houston using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulations use two different emissions estimates: the EPA 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality ...

  15. Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Changes in Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ricardo Y.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between rates of change on frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry and longitudinal changes in quality of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Methods One hundred fifty-two subjects (127 glaucoma and 25 healthy) followed for an average of 3.2 ± 1.1 years. All subjects were evaluated with National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), FDT and standard automated perimetry (SAP). Glaucoma patients had a median of 3 NEI VFQ-25, 8 FDT and 8 SAP tests during follow up. Mean sensitivities of the integrated binocular visual fields were estimated for FDT and SAP and used to calculate rates of change. A joint longitudinal multivariable mixed model was used to investigate the association between change in binocular mean sensitivities and change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between change in binocular mean sensitivity for FDT and change in NEI VFQ-25 scores during follow-up in the glaucoma group. In multivariable analysis with the confounding factors, each 1dB/year change in binocular FDT mean sensitivity corresponded to a change of 0.8 units per year in the NEI VFQ-25 scores (P = 0.001). For binocular SAP mean sensitivity, each 1 dB/year change was associated with 2.4 units per year change in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P < 0.001). The multivariable model containing baseline and rate of change information from SAP had stronger ability to predict change in NEI VFQ-25 scores compared to the equivalent model for FDT (R2 of 50% and 30%, respectively; P = 0.001). Conclusion SAP performed significantly better than FDT in predicting change in NEI VFQ-25 scores in our population, suggesting that it may still be the preferable perimetric technique for predicting risk of disability from the disease. PMID:25868760

  16. Three key imperatives

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Joe F.

    2004-06-01

    This article is an excerpt from a speech given by Joe F. Colvin, president and CEO, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) at NEI's Nuclear Energy Assembly on May 13, 2004 in New Orleans. Three areas were highlighted in the excerpt as critical to the industry: finalizing a regulatory framework that is safety-focused; ensuring a stable and reliable reactor fuel supply; and, finishing the job of securing an operating used fuel repository at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Quality of Life and Rates of Progressive Visual Field Loss in Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Felipe A.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Boer, Erwin R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Rosen, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between longitudinal changes in quality of life and rates of progressive visual field loss in glaucoma. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Participants 322 eyes of 161 patients with glaucomatous visual field loss recruited from the Diagnostic Innovations Glaucoma Study (DIGS) followed for an average of 3.5 ± 0.7 years. Methods All subjects had NEI VFQ-25 performed annually and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at 6-month intervals. Subjects were included if they had a minimum of 2 NEI VFQ-25 and at least 5 standard automated perimetry (SAP) during follow up. Evaluation of rates of visual field change was performed using the mean sensitivity (MS) of the integrated binocular visual field. Rasch analysis was performed to obtain final scores of disability as measured by the NEI VFQ-25. A joint longitudinal multivariate mixed model was used to investigate the association between change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores and change in binocular visual field sensitivity. Potentially confounding socio-economic and clinical variables were also analyzed. Main outcome measures The relationship between change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores and change in binocular SAP MS. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between change in the NEI VFQ-25 Rasch scores during follow-up and change in binocular SAP sensitivity. Each 1db change in binocular SAP MS per year was associated with a change of 2.9 units per year in the NEI VFQ-25 Rasch scores during the follow-up period (R2=26%; P<0.001). Eyes with more severe disease at baseline were also more likely to have a decrease in NEI VFQ-25 scores during follow-up (P<0.001). For subjects with the same amount of change in SAP sensitivity, those with shorter follow-up times had larger changes in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P=0.005). A multivariable model containing baseline and rate of change in binocular MS had an adjusted-R2 of 50% in predicting change in NEI VFQ-25

  18. Effects of graded LBNP on MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; MacLean, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) leads to an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In this study, we examined the relationship between MSNA and interstitial norepinephrine (NE(i)) concentrations during LBNP. Twelve healthy volunteers were studied (26 +/- 6 yr). Simultaneous MSNA and microdialysis data were collected in six of these subjects. Measurements of MSNA (microneurography) and NE(i) (microdialysis, vastus lateralis) were performed at rest and then during an incremental LBNP paradigm (-10, -30, and -50 mmHg). MSNA rose as a function of LBNP (P < 0.001, n = 12). The plasma norepinephrine (NE(p)) concentration was 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/l at rest (n = 12). NE(i) measured in six subjects rose from 5.2 +/- 0.8 nmol/l at rest to 17.0 +/- 1.7 nmol/l at -50 mmHg (P < 0.001). Of note, the rise in NE(p) with LBNP was considerably less compared with the changes in NE(i) (Delta21 +/- 6% vs. Delta197 +/- 52%, n = 6, P < 0.015). MSNA and NE(i) showed a significant linear relationship (r = 0.721, P < 0.004). Activation of the SNS increased MSNA and NE(i) levels. The magnitude of the NE(i) increase was far greater than that seen for NE(p) suggesting that NE movement into the circulation decreases with baroreceptor unloading.

  19. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates. PMID:26161912

  20. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Guido, William

    2016-03-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration. PMID:26990163

  1. Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for age-related macular degeneration and vision-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Maiko; Arakawa, Akira; Yamane, Shin; Kadonosono, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess visual function and vision-related quality of life after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) using a pro re nata regimen for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Methods A prospective study of 54 eyes in 54 patients scheduled to undergo IVR for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration was performed. A self-administered, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was completed before and 3 and 12 months after the initial IVR treatment. We evaluated logMAR visual acuity and NEI VFQ-25 scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Further, associations between the changes in NEI VFQ-25 scores and patient characteristics were investigated at 12 months. Results Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly when compared with the preoperative visual acuity throughout the 12-month period (P<0.05 at 3 and 12 months, respectively). On the other hand, IVR treatment significantly improved the postoperative NEI VFQ-25 mean composite score at both 3 and 12 months (P<0.05, respectively). Better visual acuity at 12 months was associated with a greater improvement in NEI VFQ-25 score at 12 months (P<0.05). Conclusion IVR was well tolerated and improved vision in these patients with age-related macular degeneration, as evaluated at one-year follow-up examinations. IVR also enabled good subjective perception, as indicated by higher composite NEI VFQ-25 scores. Maintaining good visual acuity may be an important factor for improving vision-related quality of life. PMID:25228787

  2. Using Net Energy Intake models to predict and evaluate the benefits of stream restoration to improve juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwes, N.; Wall, C. E.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S.; Jordan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration is often targeted to improve fish habitat. However, predictions or evaluations of habitat or fish population responses to these actions are rarely assessed or more often assumed. Model predictions that describe both physical and biological effects from different types of restorations can help test hypotheses to improve our understanding of fish habitat requirements, especially if restoration is treated as an experiment. In addition, models can help synthesize data to determine project effectiveness to link fish responses to physical habitat responses, promoting a mechanistic understanding that is transferrable to other systems. We are applying a mechanistic model to estimate net energy intake (NEI) potential for juvenile steelhead throughout a stream reach. NEI modeling approaches attempt to describe the quantity of food a fish can ingest at a particular site (as a function of food availability, temperature, and fish size) and the energetic costs of living there (as a function of flow patterns, temperature, and fish size). The collection of NEI estimates can be used to help understand the site's overall energetic profitability for fish and to generate an estimate of carrying capacity. We collected topographic information to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of a stream channel along with drifting invertebrates, temperature, discharge, and substrate type, before and after the addition of large wood in the Asotin watershed. This information was used to create hydraulic models to estimate water velocities and flow direction which were then used to predict delivery rates of drift, swimming costs to fish, and ultimately NEI potential throughout the reach. The model was used to predict restoration benefits based on expected geomorphic responses to large wood. In addition, the model was used to translate modest observed changes in topography from the restoration to increases in NEI and carrying capacity of the stream reach. We believe the NEI

  3. Christoph Scheiner's life between 1633 and 1650. (German Title: Christoph Scheiners Lebensjahre zwischen 1633 und 1650)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz

    In 1636, Christoph Scheiner left Rome where the trial of Galilei had taken place, and went to Vienna. The financing of his main work ``Rosa Ursina'' had to be clarified. Until 1636, Scheiner was not in office From 1636 onward, he was alternatively living in Neiße -- today Nysa (Silesia, Poland) -- and Vienna, from 1637 onward, he took his permanent residence in Neiße. Here, Scheiner worked as an advisor of the rector and as father confessor, in addition he gave religious lectures and looked after the garden.

  4. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  5. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  6. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  7. 3 CFR - Maximizing the Effectiveness of Federal Programs and Functions Supporting Trade and Investment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... job growth. Creating good, high-paying jobs in the United States and ensuring sustainable economic... the development and implementation of the National Export Initiative (NEI) to improve conditions that... sustainable economic growth through trade and foreign investment, and to ensure the effective and...

  8. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... representatives of the NRC staff, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and other interested persons regarding this... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  9. Development of a Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory by Combining Satellite and Ground-based Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2005 biomass burning (wildfire, prescribed, and agricultural) emission inventory has been developed for the contiguous United States using a newly developed simplified method of combining information from multiple sources for use in the US EPA’s national Emission Inventory (NEI...

  10. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  11. 76 FR 58311 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05; Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... request from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the NRC is extending the public comment period until... period and public meeting. SUMMARY: On August 24, 2011, in the Federal Register (76 FR 52995), the U.S... availability was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35510). The NRC staff...

  12. 75 FR 10444 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) (the petitioner). The petitioner requested that the NRC amend the compliance date for specific requirements in the NRC's regulations. The NRC decided to deny PRM-73-14 for the reasons stated in this...

  13. 76 FR 44865 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... proposed guidance document were published in the Federal Register on May 17, 2011 (76 FR 28336), for public comment and an administrative correction to 76 FR 28336 was published in the Federal Register on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31507). The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), in a letter dated June 21, 2011, requested...

  14. 78 FR 23684 - Personnel Access Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI or the petitioner) on January 25, 2013. The petition was... the organization responsible for establishing unified industry policy on matters affecting the nuclear energy industry, including the regulatory aspects of generic operational and technical issues.''...

  15. 76 FR 28192 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute AGENCY: Nuclear... rulemaking (PRM) submitted by Anthony R. Pietrangelo, on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the...-mail: timothy.reed@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 22, 2010, (75 FR 65249), the...

  16. 75 FR 63725 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will consider five of the issues raised in a petition submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and is denying the remaining four issues of the petition. The petition requests the NRC amend its regulations to clarify existing event reporting requirements based on experience gained since the requirements were...

  17. 75 FR 51986 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ..., 2010 from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), stating that the breadth and number of topics on which... INFORMATION: On July 27, 2010, the DOE published an NOI in the Federal Register (75 FR 43945) on the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... request from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the NRC is extending the public comment period until...: On November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69292) the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the... Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35510). The NRC staff has determined that existing guidance in the...

  19. Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Trace Elements across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM 2.5 emissions in ...

  20. 75 FR 3946 - License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI...'' (56 FR 18997). The NRC is treating the petitioner's request pursuant to 10 CFR 2.206, ``Requests for... COMMISSION License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear...

  1. Benefits of using enhanced air quality information in human health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of four (4) enhancements of gridded PM2.5 concentrations derived from observations and air quality models to detect the relative risk of long-term exposure to PM2.5 are evaluated with a simulation study. The four enhancements include nearest-nei...

  2. 77 FR 73666 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical Trial Applications. Date: January 30...: Brian Hoshaw, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, ivision of Extramural Research, National Eye...

  3. 75 FR 8971 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI K99 Grant Applications. Date: March 1, 2010... Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300,...

  4. 78 FR 46593 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI K99 Review. Date: July 31, 2013. Time: 1:00 p..., Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Division...

  5. 78 FR 15021 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Pathways to Independence (K99) Applications... Person: Brian Hoshaw, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National...

  6. 75 FR 52762 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Institutional Training Grant Applications II... Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC...

  7. 75 FR 16818 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Training Grants. Date: April 21-22, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. ] Place: National Eye...

  8. 78 FR 9403 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Core Grant (P30) Applications and Training..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  9. 78 FR 62639 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical and Cooperative Agreement Grant..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Division...

  10. 77 FR 12318 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Anterior Eye Disease. Date: March 19, 2012... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  11. 77 FR 71428 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical Applications--Retinal and Pediatric... Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers ] Lane, Suite...

  12. 76 FR 24498 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Loan Repayment Program Applications. Date: May... Person: Daniel R. Kenshalo, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National...

  13. 76 FR 13197 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Clinical Applications II. Date: April 11, 2011.... Schaffner, PhD, Chief, Scientific Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye...

  14. 77 FR 22581 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Loan Repayment Program. Date: April 26-27...: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, ] Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  15. 76 FR 39406 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Research Program Grant Applications II. Date..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  16. 77 FR 40367 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Translational Grant Applications Review. Date.... Kenshalo, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health,...

  17. 78 FR 37556 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Epidemiology and Genetics. Date: July 10, 2013... E. Schaffner, Ph.D., Chief, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National...

  18. 76 FR 10041 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Clinical Applications I. Date: March 10, 2011...: National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852. (Telephone Conference Call.) Contact...

  19. 77 FR 24727 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical Trials. Date: April 27, 2012. Time..., Scientific Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes...

  20. 76 FR 66732 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Genomic Research Grant R01 Applications on... Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health,...

  1. 75 FR 26968 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Loan Repayment Grants. Date: May 18-19, 2010. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National...

  2. 75 FR 33628 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Translational Research Program Grant Review.... Contact Person: Daniel R. Kenshalo, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Eye Institute,...

  3. 76 FR 46822 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Research Grant Applications II. Date: August..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  4. 75 FR 10489 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical Grant Applications and Cooperative..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, Msc 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301)...

  5. 77 FR 63845 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI-RFA Stem Cell Approaches to Developing New... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-...

  6. 78 FR 62640 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Bioinformatics, Genetics and Genetic..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301)...

  7. Developing a Coherent Research Agenda: Lessons from the REL Northeast & Islands Research Agenda Workshops. REL 2014-014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Carey, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the approach that REL Northeast and Islands (REL-NEI) used to guide its eight research alliances toward collaboratively identifying a shared research agenda. A key feature of their approach was a two-workshop series, during which alliance members created a set of research questions on a shared topic of education policy and/or…

  8. Northeast and Islands Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the deliberations of the Northeast and Islands (NEI) Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established by the U.S. Department of Education to solicit information about the educational needs of state and local educators, school officials, business leaders, state education agencies, parents, local communities, and…

  9. Take Steps to Keep Your Sight | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The leading causes of blindness are cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. That’s a message that Dr. ... eye health. “Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration affect millions of Americans,” says NEI Director Paul ...

  10. Supplementary Schooling and the Law of Unanticipated Consequences: A Review Essay of Stuart Schoenfeld's "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2010-01-01

    Stuart Schoenfeld's (1987) essay "Folk Judaism, Elite Judaism and the Role of Bar Mitzvah in the Development of the Synagogue and Jewish School in America" recounts how, in the 1930s and 40s, rabbis and Jewish educators banded together to impose attendance requirements on families that wanted to celebrate their sons' b'nei mitzvah in synagogues.…

  11. 75 FR 37756 - Request for Public Comment To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... organizations submitting comments to the Federal Register (FR) notice on the TPCC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Export Strategy to Support the NEI (FR Doc. 2010-12982), comments received in response to that... and implementation of U.S. trade policy. See FR notices at...

  12. AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS TRENDS REPORTS - TRENDS REPORT FOR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity involves data analysis of air quality and emissions data from AIRS, CASNET, IMPROVE, NEI and other data bases. This activity is well founded within the air program (with the first report being prepared in the late 1970's) and uses a collection of government experts...

  13. Changes in Quality of Life in Visually Impaired Patients after Low-Vision Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renieri, Giulia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred E.; Zwerenz, Rudiger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of low-vision aids on quality of life. Interviews included a modified version of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (Modified German NEI VFQ-25), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination Blind, and Indicators of the Rehabilitation…

  14. Evaluation of a U.S. National Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reff, A.; Bhave, P.; Zubrow, A.; Rao, V.

    2012-12-01

    This work explores the potential of speciating PM2.5 emissions to evaluate inventories against ambient pollutant measurements. Previously developed (Reff et al., Environ. Sci Technol., 2009, vol. 43, 5790-5796) source profiles of PM2.5 trace elements, carbon, and ions are applied to the U.S. EPA's 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) to create a database of emissions disaggregated by species, source category, location, and time period (annual and monthly). These emissions are then "diluted" to produce projected ambient concentrations, which can be directly compared to measurements from monitoring networks. Dilution is performed by multiplying emissions against ratios of elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to EC emissions from a CMAQ modeling run that employed the same version of the NEI. After emissions dilution and spatial aggregation to the Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) level, various statistical and graphical comparisons of ambient measurements to emissions in each of the four dimensions above are then performed to diagnose gross errors in the 2005 PM2.5 NEI. Results are anticpated to be highly useful for developing future versions of the NEI, since they will allow developers to focus their efforts on the regions of the inventory that are most in need of improvement.

  15. 78 FR 58415 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: Reconsideration of Certain Provisions of New Source Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Advancement Act of 1995 NEI National Emissions Inventory NEMS National Energy Modeling System NESHAP National... proposed on April 12, 2012 [78 FR 22126]. Specifically, this final rule action amends aspects of the 2012... determined by the methods and dates specified in this final rule). We amended this language in response...

  16. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Eye Institute (NEI) Unit on Ocular & Stem Cell Translational Research. Bharti leads efforts to grow and transplant a ... to develop a treatment for AMD. He leads research using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, where cells are genetically reprogrammed to an ...

  17. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  18. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this

  19. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  20. Measured and modeled CO and NOy in DISCOVER-AQ: An evaluation of emissions and chemistry over the eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel C.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Diskin, Glenn; Weinheimer, Andrew; Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Worden, Helen M.; Fried, Alan; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-10-01

    Data collected during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore Washington region were used to evaluate CO and NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The average emissions ratio for the region was seen to be 11.2 ± 1.2 mol CO/mol NOx, 21% higher than that predicted by the NEI. Comparisons between in situ and remote observations and CMAQ model output show agreement in CO emissions of 15 ± 11% while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70% in Maryland. Satellite observations of CO by MOPITT show agreement with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model within 3% over most of the eastern United States. CMAQ NOy mixing ratios were a factor of two higher than observations and result from a combination of errors in emissions and PAN and alkyl nitrate chemistry, as shown by comparison of three CMAQ model runs. Point source NOx emissions are monitored and agree with modeled emissions within 1% on a monthly basis. Because of this accuracy and the NEI assertion that approximately 3/4 of emissions in the Baltimore Washington region are from mobile sources, the MOVES model's treatment of emissions from aging vehicles should be investigated; the NEI overestimate of NOx emissions could indicate that engines produce less NOx and catalytic converters degrade more slowly than assumed by MOVES2010. The recently released 2011 NEI has an even lower CO/NOx emissions ratio than the projection used in this study; it overestimates NOx emissions by an even larger margin. The implications of these findings for US air quality policy are that NOx concentrations near areas of heavy traffic are overestimated and ozone production rates in these locations are slower than models indicate. Results also indicate that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx emissions controls but additional sources may need to be targeted for reductions.

  1. Association Between Progressive Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss and Longitudinal Change in Quality of Life in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Rosen, Peter N.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Boer, Erwin R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Evaluation of structural optic nerve damage is a fundamental part of diagnosis and management of glaucoma. However, the relationship between structural measurements and disability associated with the disease is not well characterized. Quantification of this relationship may help validate structural measurements as markers directly relevant to quality of life. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between rates of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss and longitudinal changes in quality of life in glaucoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational cohort study including 260 eyes of 130 patients with glaucoma followed up for a mean (SD) of 3.5 (0.7) years. All patients had repeatable visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) at baseline. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was performed annually, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and SAP were performed at 6-month intervals. A joint model was used to investigate the association between change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores and change in RNFL thickness, adjusting for confounding socioeconomic and clinical variables. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Association between change in binocular RNFL thickness (RNFL thickness in the better eye at each point) and change in NEI VFQ-25 scores. RESULTS Progressive binocular RNFL thickness loss was associated with worsening of NEI VFQ-25 scores over time. In a multivariable model adjusting for baseline disease severity and the rate of change in binocular SAP sensitivity, each 1-μm-per-year loss of RNFL thickness was associated with a decrease of 1.3 units (95% CI, 1.02–1.56) per year in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P < .001). After adjusting for the contribution from SAP, 26% (95% CI, 12%–39%) of the variability of change in NEI VFQ-25 scores was associated uniquely with change in binocular RNFL thickness. The P value remained less than .001 after adjusting for potential confounding factors

  2. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  3. Analysis of Power Plant NOx Emission Changes and Their Impact on Ozone in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G.; Kim, S.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E. Y.; Trainer, M.; Peckham, S.; Grell, G.

    2005-12-01

    Changes in NOx emissions from electric power generation plants due to the implementation of pollution controls are measured by Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and compiled by the EPA. Eastern US power plant NOx emissions decreased between 1999 and 2004 by about 50 percent during the summer ozone season (May - September). CEMS data for the 1999 - 2004 period are analyzed to understand the extent of these emission changes and their temporal and spatial variability. CEMS data are used to construct a nationwide 2004 update to the power plant portion of the EPA's NEI 1999, the most recent final emission inventory available for air quality models. O3 concentrations during the 2004 ozone season are simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, with a base emission scenario using the NEI 1999 and a perturbation scenario using the updated 2004 inventory. The impact of these NOx emission trends on O3 in the Eastern US is described.

  4. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  5. Molecular phylogenetic trees - On the validity of the Goodman-Moore augmentation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    A response is made to the reply of Nei and Tateno (1979) to the letter of Holmquist (1978) supporting the validity of the augmentation algorithm of Moore (1977) in reconstructions of nucleotide substitutions by means of the maximum parsimony principle. It is argued that the overestimation of the augmented numbers of nucleotide substitutions (augmented distances) found by Tateno and Nei (1978) is due to an unrepresentative data sample and that it is only necessary that evolution be stochastically uniform in different regions of the phylogenetic network for the augmentation method to be useful. The importance of the average value of the true distance over all links is explained, and the relative variances of the true and augmented distances are calculated to be almost identical. The effects of topological changes in the phylogenetic tree on the augmented distance and the question of the correctness of ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony are also clarified.

  6. Meningitis C vaccine (North American vaccine).

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Maria; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    North American Vaccine Inc (NAVI) has launched a conjugate polysaccharide vaccinefor the prevention of meningitis caused by group C meningococcal bacteria [433475]. The vaccine is based upon conjugate technology, incorporating the serogroup C polysaccharide (CPS) of all three major serogroups. Antibody-dependent, complement-mediated activity was demonstrated in mice and non-human primates, with no detectable adverse effects [277193]. Approval was filed for in the UK in January 2000 [353305]. In July 2000, Baxter received approval for NeisVac-C in the UK, and by September 2000 the vaccine was expected to be incorporated into the NHS's immunization campaign against meningitis C [381225]. NeisVac-C will initially appear labeled from NAVI; Baxter completed its acquisition of NAVI in June 2000 [375389]. Baxter estimates the worldwide global market for the vaccine at US $600 million per year [376204]. PMID:12054072

  7. Y-STR haplotypes and the genetic structure from eight Chinese ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Tian-Xiao, Zhang; Li, Yang; Sheng-Bin, Li

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the genetic structure of 8 Chinese ethnic populations, haplotype data of 9 short tandem repeats (STR) loci on non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) from 1816 individuals of 12 populations was obtained from the Database of Genome Diversity and Variation for Chinese Populations (HGD-Chn), unpublished data from Key Laboratory of Forensic Sciences and the prior literature. No specific Chinese population groups could be identified through the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on Y-chromosomal STRs from these samples. Pairwising F(ST) and Nei's genetic distance values were calculated and significant heterogeneity among these populations were observed. The phylogenetic trees were attained based on both the Nei's genetic and pairwising F(ST) values, and pairwising F(ST) based multidimensional scaling plot was also obtained. Several genetic features were observed through the analysis above, and it indicated some further cultural, religious and geographic significance. PMID:19346150

  8. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  9. 75 FR 65249 - Anthony R. Pietrangelo on Behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute; Receipt of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is publishing for public comment a notice of receipt of a petition for rulemaking, dated September 3, 2010, which was filed with the NRC by Anthony R. Pietrangelo on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The petition was docketed by the NRC on September 13, 2010, and has been assigned Docket No. PRM-26-5. The petitioner requests that the NRC......

  10. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is making available for comment a proposed revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency Action Levels for Non-Passive Reactors,'' dated September 2012. This document is intended to be used by the industry in the development of an emergency action level (EAL) scheme. The NRC......

  11. Suzaku Observations of Thermal and Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission from the Middle-Aged Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We present results from X-ray analysis of a Galactic middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) G156.2+5.7 which is bright and largely extended in X-ray wavelengths, showing a clear circular shape (radius approx.50'). Using the Suzaku satellite, we observed this SNR in three pointings; partially covering the northwestern (NW) rim, the eastern (E) rim, and the central portion of this SNR. In the NW rim and the central portion, we confirm that the X-ray spectra consist of soft and hard-tail emission, while in the E rim we find no significant hard-tail emission. The soft emission is well fitted by either a one-component or two-component non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) model. In the NW and E rims, a one-component (the swept-up interstellar medium) NEI model well represents the soft emission. On the other hand, in the central portion, a two-component (the interstellar medium and the metal-rich ejecta) NEI model fits the soft emission better than the one-component NEI model from a statistical point of view. The relative abundances in the ejecta component suggest that G156.2+5.7 is a remnant from a core-collapse SN explosion whose progenitor mass is less than 15 Solar Mass. The origin of the hard-tail emission detected in the NW rim and the central portion of the SNR is highly likely non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. In the NW rim, the relativistic electrons seems to be accelerated by a forward shock with a slow velocity of APPROX.500 km/sec.

  12. 77 FR 10785 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... proprietary, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4)] 10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.: Source Terms for Small Modular Reactors... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) regarding the development of source terms for small modular reactors. 1:15... FR 64126-64127). Thursday, March 8, 2012, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  13. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  14. Psychometric Characteristics of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure on Ego-Integrity and Despair among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Gitta; Post, Lenneke; Witte, Birgit I.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire (the Northwestern Ego-integrity Scale (NEIS)) on ego-integrity (the experience of wholeness and meaning in life, even in spite of negative experiences) and despair (the experience of regret about the life one has led, and feelings of sadness, failure and hopelessness) among cancer patients. Methods Cancer patients (n = 164) completed patient reported outcome measures on ego-integrity and despair (NEIS), psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer survivors, n = 57) or EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (advanced cancer patients, n = 107)). Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Convergent validity was tested based on a priori defined hypotheses: a higher level of ego-integrity was expected to be related to a higher level of quality of life, and lower levels of distress, depression and anxiety; a higher level of despair was expected to be related to a lower level of quality of life, and higher levels of distress, depression and anxiety. Results The majority of all items (94.5%) of the NEIS were completed by patients and single item missing rate was below 2%. The two subscales, labeled as Ego-integrity (5 items) and Despair (4 items) had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha .72 and .61, respectively). The Ego-integrity subscale was not significantly associated with quality of life, distress, anxiety, or depression. The Despair subscale correlated significantly (p <.001) with quality of life (r = -.29), distress (r = .44), anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .32). Conclusion The NEIS has good psychometric characteristics to assess ego-integrity and despair among cancer patients. PMID:27195750

  15. Suzaku spectra of a Type-II supernova remnant, Kes 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tamotsu; Koyama, Katsuji; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on results of a Suzaku observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 79 (G33.6+0.1). The X-ray spectrum is best fitted by a two-temperature model: a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma and a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma. The NEI plasma is spatially confined within the inner radio shell with kT ˜ 0.8 keV, while the CIE plasma is found in more spatially extended regions associated with the outer radio shell with kT ˜0.2 keV and solar abundance. Therefore, the NEI plasma is attributable to the SN ejecta, and the CIE plasma is the forward shocked interstellar medium. In the NEI plasma, we discovered K-shell lines of Al, Ar, and Ca for the first time. The abundance pattern and estimated mass of the ejecta are consistent with a core-collapse supernova explosion of a ˜30-40M⊙ progenitor star. An Fe line with a center energy of ˜6.4 keV is also found in the southeast (SE) portion of the SNR, a close peripheral region around dense molecular clouds. One possibility is that the line is associated with the ejecta. However, the centroid energy of ˜6.4 keV and the spatial distribution of enhancement near the SE peripheral do not favor this scenario. Since the ˜6.4 keV emitting region coincides with the molecular clouds, we propose another possibility, that the Fe line is due to K-shell ionization of neutral Fe by the interaction of locally accelerated protons (LECRp) with the surrounding molecular cloud. Both of these possibilities, heated ejecta or LECRp origin, are discussed based on the observational facts.

  16. Airborne measurements of the atmospheric emissions from a fuel ethanol refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Aikin, K. C.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T.; Holloway, J. S.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lerner, B. M.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Min, K.-E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol made from corn now constitutes approximately 10% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles in the U.S. The ethanol is produced in over 200 fuel ethanol refineries across the nation. We report airborne measurements downwind from Decatur, Illinois, where the third largest fuel ethanol refinery in the U.S. is located. Estimated emissions are compared with the total point source emissions in Decatur according to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-2011), in which the fuel ethanol refinery represents 68.0% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 50.5% of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), 67.2% of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 95.9% of ethanol emissions. Emissions of SO2 and NOx from Decatur agreed with NEI-2011, but emissions of several VOCs were underestimated by factors of 5 (total VOCs) to 30 (ethanol). By combining the NEI-2011 with fuel ethanol production numbers from the Renewable Fuels Association, we calculate emission intensities, defined as the emissions per ethanol mass produced. Emission intensities of SO2 and NOx are higher for plants that use coal as an energy source, including the refinery in Decatur. By comparing with fuel-based emission factors, we find that fuel ethanol refineries have lower NOx, similar VOC, and higher SO2 emissions than from the use of this fuel in vehicles. The VOC emissions from refining could be higher than from vehicles, if the underestimated emissions in NEI-2011 downwind from Decatur extend to other fuel ethanol refineries. Finally, chemical transformations of the emissions from Decatur were observed, including formation of new particles, nitric acid, peroxyacyl nitrates, aldehydes, ozone, and sulfate aerosol.

  17. Temperature and precipitation changes in the north-east India and their future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Sharma, Neha; Pattnayak, K. C.; Gao, X. J.; Shi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North East India (NEI), which comprise eight states, is very vulnerable to global changes and yet it was least studied so far. In this study, the present-day climatic conditions prevailing in NEI are examined based on actual observations at the meteorological stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) in the region and on the gridded data. Further, Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is also used to examine the projected changes in climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation in NEI under the IPCC A1B scenario. First of all, the model simulations in the present era spanning 1971-2005 are compared with the IMD gridded datasets to validate the model performance. It is found that RegCM3 is able to simulate the trends in annual mean temperature for the period 1971-2005 correctly. However, there is overestimation of rainfall simulated by the model. Major parts of NEI show a wet bias in the model precipitation. The simulated annual mean temperatures for the region show a good correlation with the gridded temperature values. Based on the IMD gridded datasets, the extreme temperature events of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are also examined in this study. Results indicate that during the years 1971-2005, the occurrence of warm nights in summer months was more frequent than the warm days. The simulations to the future years indicate rise in the annual mean temperature as well as mean rainfall. Projections based on RegCM3 simulations further indicate more frequent warm events than the cold events.

  18. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  19. License renewal demonstration program: NRC observations and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, R.J.; Kuo, P.T.; Newberry, S.F.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s observations and lessons learned from the five License Renewal Demonstration Program (LRDP) site visits performed by the staff from March 25, 1996, through August 16, 1996. The LRDP was a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) program intended to assess the effectiveness of the guidance provided by NEI 95-10, Revision 0, {open_quotes}Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule,{close_quotes} to implement the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), {open_quotes}Requirements for Renewal of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Power Plants.{close_quotes} In general, NEI 95-10 appeared to contain the basic guidance needed for scoping, screening, identifying aging effects, developing aging management programs, and performing time-limited aging analyses. However, inconsistent implementation of this guidance in some areas was an indication that clarification of existing guidance and/or the inclusion-of some new guidance may be needed for applicants to develop a license renewal program that is consistent with the intent of the rule.

  20. SWIR HgCdTe 256x256 focal plane array technology at BAE Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, A.; Tobin, S. P.; Hutchins, M.; Marciniec, J.; Mullarkey, J.; Norton, P.; Gurnee, M.; Reine, M. B.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports new performance data for SWIR HgCdTe 256x256 hybrid Focal Plane Arrays with cutoff wavelengths of 2.6-2.7 μm, operating at temperatures of 190 K to 220 K. The unit cell size is 30x30 μm2. Back-illuminated SWIR HgCdTe P-on-n photodiode arrays were fabricated from two-layer LPE films grown on CdZnTe substrates. Response uniformity is excellent, with σ/μ=3-4%, and response operabilities are better than 99.9%. At a temperature of 190 K and a background photon flux of 6.8x10 11 ph/cm2-s, the median NEI is 1.1x10 9 ph/cm2-s, which is 1.4 times the BLIP NEI. NEI operabilities are better than 98.8%. Quantum efficiencies for large-area test diodes are 69% to 78%, close to the 79% upper limit imposed by reflection from the non-antireflection-coated CdZnTe substrate.

  1. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  2. Modeling Ozone in the Eastern United States Using a Fuel-Based Mobile Source Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    A fuel-based mobile source emissions inventory of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) is developed for the continental US. Emissions are mapped for the year 2013, including emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles, and off-road engines. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 (NEI11) are 50-60% higher than results from this study; mobile sources contribute around half of total US anthropogenic NOx emissions. We model chemistry and transport of emissions from the NEI11 and our fuel-based inventory during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study period in the summer of 2013, using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In the Eastern US, there is a consistent over-prediction of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels when simulating emissions from the NEI11, with the largest biases located in the Southeastern US. Using our fuel-based inventory, we test O3 sensitivity to lower NOx emissions. We highlight results in the Southeast, a region with significant interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors. Model results of NOy, CO, and O3 are compared with aircraft measurements made during SENEX.

  3. Source attribution of air pollutant concentrations and trends in the southeastern aerosol research and characterization (SEARCH) network.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Charles L; Tanenbaum, Shelley; Hidy, George M

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for determining the contributions of emission sources to trends in concentrations of particulate matter and gases is developed using the chemical mass balance (CMB) method and the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI). The method extends our earlier analysis by using temporally varying emission profiles and includes accounting of primary and secondary particulate organic carbon with an empirical regression calculation. The model offers a potentially important tool for verifying that annual emission reductions by major source category have yielded changes in ambient pollutant concentrations. Using long-term measurements from well-instrumented monitoring sites, observed trends in ambient pollutant concentrations at urban and rural locations can be attributed to emission changes. Trends apportionment is conducted on 2000-2011 ambient monitoring data from the SEARCH network with NEI emissions data adjusted to improve interinventory consistency. The application accounts for major source category influences in southeastern U.S. regional trends; local anomalies are noted. In the SEARCH region, open burning is important as a source of CO and carbonaceous particles. Improved agreement between predicted and measured particulate carbon is obtained by increasing mobile diesel exhaust and area-source particulate carbon emissions by 1 and 20%, respectively, compared with NEI values. The method is general and is applicable to data from any monitoring site that is instrumented for criteria air pollutants, associated gases, and particle composition. PMID:24180677

  4. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  5. A socio-economic method for estimating future air pollutant emissions—Chicago case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhining; Williams, Allen; Donaghy, Kieran; Hewings, Geoffrey

    This paper presents the development of an econometric-emission model to formulate future anthropogenic emission inventories for different societal and climate change scenarios. Our approach is to formulate the emission projections for a given scenario into growth factors that can be used to project forward the 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI99). The process involves (1) mapping NEI99 source classification code (SCC)-based emissions into the sector or standard industrial classification (SIC)-based representation used by the econometric model, (2) developing a sectoral emission intensity (EMI) defined as the sector emissions per unit of sector economic output and the mechanism to consider EMI variations over time, (3) using the resulting EMI with econometric models and future emission activities to project future emissions, (4) and then mapping the emissions back to the original NEI99 format. As a case study, we apply the model to project emissions in the Chicago metropolitan area. The results show that the model is a fast, flexible, yet reasonable tool to produce a wide range of emission scenarios that are specific to regions, and would prove valuable for future air quality and other impact studies.

  6. Medication adherence and quality of life among the elderly with diabetic retinopathy 1

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Cintra, Fernanda Aparecida; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors related to medication adherence and its relation to Health- Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in elderly people with diabetic retinopathy. METHOD: one hundred (n=100) elderly outpatients with diabetic retinopathy taking antihypertensives and/or oral antidiabetics/insulin were interviewed. Adherence was evaluated by the adherence proportion and its association with the care taken in administrating medications and by the Morisky Scale. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was used to evaluate HRQoL. RESULTS: most (58%) reported the use of 80% or more of the prescribed dose and care in utilizing the medication. The item "stopping the drug when experiencing an adverse event", from the Morisky Scale, explained 12.8% and 13.5% of the variability of adherence proportion to antihypertensives and oral antidiabetics/insulin, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was better HRQoL in the Color Vision, Driving and Social Functioning domains of the NEI VFQ-25. Individuals with lower scores on the NEI VFQ-25 and higher scores on the Morisky Scale presented greater chance to be nonadherent to the pharmacological treatment of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25591084

  7. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  8. Single Qdot-labeled glycosylase molecules use a wedge amino acid to probe for lesions while scanning along DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Andrew R.; Kad, Neil M.; Nelson, Shane R.; Warshaw, David M.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Within the base excision repair (BER) pathway, the DNA N-glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of oxidative base damages. Endonuclease III (Nth), formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of two glycosylase families: the helix–hairpin–helix (HhH) superfamily and the Fpg/Nei family. The search mechanisms employed by these two families of glycosylases were examined using a single molecule assay to image quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled glycosylases interacting with YOYO-1 stained λ-DNA molecules suspended between 5 µm silica beads. The HhH and Fpg/Nei families were found to have a similar diffusive search mechanism described as a continuum of motion, in keeping with rotational diffusion along the DNA molecule ranging from slow, sub-diffusive to faster, unrestricted diffusion. The search mechanism for an Fpg variant, F111A, lacking a phenylalanine wedge residue no longer displayed slow, sub-diffusive motion compared to wild type, suggesting that Fpg base interrogation may be accomplished by Phe111 insertion. PMID:21666255

  9. Emissions inventory of PM2.5 trace elements across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Reff; Prakash V. Bhave; Heather Simon; Thompson G. Pace; George A. Pouliot; J. David Mobley; Marc Houyoux

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM2.5 emissions in the NEI were organized and aggregated into a set of 84 source categories for which chemical speciation profiles are available (e.g., Unpaved Road Dust, Agricultural Soil, Wildfires). Emission estimates for ten metals classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) were refined using data from a recent HAP NEI. All emissions were spatially gridded, and U.S. emissions maps for dozens of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Ti) are presented for the first time. Nationally, the trace elements emitted in the highest quantities are silicon (3.8 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), aluminium (1.4 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), and calcium (1.3 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr). Our chemical characterization of the PM2.5 inventory shows that most of the previously unspeciated emissions are comprised of crustal elements, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and metal-bound oxygen. Coal combustion is the largest source of S, Se, Sr, Hg and primary sulfates. This work also reveals that the largest PM2.5 sources lacking specific speciation data are off-road diesel-powered mobile equipment, road construction dust, marine vessels, gasoline-powered boats, and railroad locomotives. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-01

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively. PMID:25705922

  11. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  12. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  13. Biological responses to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in pigs of two genetic populations.

    PubMed

    Petry, D B; Holl, J W; Weber, J S; Doster, A R; Osorio, F A; Johnson, R K

    2005-07-01

    One hundred pigs from the NE Index Line (NEI) and 100 Hampshire-Duroc cross pigs (HD) were inoculated intranasally with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV 97-7895 strain) at 26 d of age to determine whether genetic variation in response to PRRSV exists. An uninfected littermate to each infected pig served as a control. Pigs were from 163 dams and 83 sires. Body weight and rectal temperature were recorded, and blood samples were drawn from each pig on d 0 before inoculation and on d 4, 7, and 14 after inoculation. Pigs were sacrificed on d 14. Lung and bronchial lymph nodes were collected, placed in optimal cutting temperature compound, and frozen at -80 degrees C. The presence of PRRSV in serum and in lung tissue and bronchial lymph nodes was determined by isolation in cell culture. The presence of antibodies in serum collected on d 14 was determined by a commercial ELISA test. Lung tissue was examined microscopically and scored for incidence and severity of lesions (score of 1 to 3; 1 = no or few lesions, and 3 = severe interstitial pneumonia). Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included random sire and dam effects. The interaction of line x treatment was significant (P < 0.001) for weight change and rectal temperature. Un-infected HD pigs gained 0.67 kg more from d 0 to 14 and averaged 0.32 degrees C higher rectal temperature than uninfected NEI pigs (P < 0.001), whereas infected NEI pigs gained 0.34 kg more and had -0.54 degrees C lower temperature than infected HD pigs (P < 0.001). Viremic titer (cell culture infectious dose 50%/mL) was greater (P < 0.05) in HD than NEI at d 4 (10(4.52) vs. 10(4.22)), 7 (10(4.47) vs. 10(3.99)), and 14 (10(3.49) vs. 10(3.23)). Viral titer loads in lung (P = 0.11) and bronchial lymph nodes tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in HD than NEI pigs. Antibody signal-to-positive (S/P) ELISA ratios in infected pigs ranged from 0.18 to 3.38, and 88% had levels > or = 0.40, which is the positive threshold for

  14. Emissions of C6-C8 aromatic compounds in the United States: Constraints from tall tower and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu; Millet, Dylan B.; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Griffis, Timothy J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Marshall, Julian D.; Reinhart, Wesley F.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Wisthaler, Armin; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost

    2015-01-01

    present two full years of continuous C6-C8 aromatic compound measurements by PTR-MS at the KCMP tall tower (Minnesota, US) and employ GEOS-Chem nested grid simulations in a Bayesian inversion to interpret the data in terms of new constraints on US aromatic emissions. Based on the tall tower data, we find that the RETRO inventory (year-2000) overestimates US C6-C8 aromatic emissions by factors of 2.0-4.5 during 2010-2011, likely due in part to post-2000 reductions. Likewise, our implementation of the US EPA's NEI08 overestimates the toluene flux by threefold, reflecting an inventory bias in non-road emissions plus uncertainties associated with species lumping. Our annual top-down emission estimates for benzene and C8 aromatics agree with the NEI08 bottom-up values, as does the inferred contribution from non-road sources. However, the NEI08 appears to underestimate on-road emissions of these compounds by twofold during the warm season. The implied aromatic sources upwind of North America are more than double the prior estimates, suggesting a substantial underestimate of East Asian emissions, or large increases there since 2000. Long-range transport exerts an important influence on ambient benzene over the US: on average 43% of its wintertime abundance in the US Upper Midwest is due to sources outside North America. Independent aircraft measurements show that the inventory biases found here for C6-C8 aromatics also apply to other parts of the US, with notable exceptions for toluene in California and Houston, Texas. Our best estimates of year-2011 contiguous US emissions are 206 (benzene), 408 (toluene), and 822 (C8 aromatics) GgC.

  15. Quality of life in idiopathic intracranial hypertension at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; McDermott, Michael P.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Wall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study purpose was to examine vision-specific and overall health-related quality of life (QOL) at baseline in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial patients who were newly diagnosed and had mild visual loss. We also sought to determine the associations between vision-specific QOL scores and visual symptoms, visual function, pain, headache-related disability, and obesity. Methods: We assessed QOL using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire–25 (NEI-VFQ-25), and 10-Item NEI-VFQ-25 Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement. We compared these results with those of previously reported idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) QOL studies. We assessed relationships between QOL and other clinical characteristics. Results: Among 165 participants with IIH (161 women and 4 men with a mean age ± SD of 29.2 ± 7.5 years), vision-specific QOL scores were reduced compared with published values for disease-free controls. Scores of participants were comparable to published results for patients with multiple sclerosis and a history of optic neuritis. A multiple linear regression model for the NEI-VFQ-25 composite score found that perimetric mean deviation in the best eye, visual acuity in the worst eye, visual symptoms, and pain symptoms (headache, neck pain), but not obesity, were independently associated with QOL. Conclusions: IIH affects QOL at time of diagnosis even in patients with mild visual impairment. Vision-specific QOL in patients with newly diagnosed IIH may be as decreased as that for patients with other neuro-ophthalmic disorders. IIH treatment should target visual loss and other symptoms of increased intracranial pressure associated with reduced QOL. Reduced QOL does not simply reflect obesity, an underlying IIH risk factor. PMID:25995055

  16. Impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy on blurring strength

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Sideroudi, Haris; Angelonias, Dimitris; Georgantzoglou, Kimonas; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on blurring strength. Methods A total of 63 patients with keratoconus were recruited for this study, and two study groups were formed according to the therapeutic intervention: corneal collagen cross-linking (CxL) group (33 patients) received corneal cross-linking according to the Dresden protocol, while the rest additionally received topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (tCxL). The impact of surgical procedure on blurring strength was assessed by power vector analysis. Potential association between blurring strength and vision-specific quality of life was assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 25 instrument. Results Blurring strength presented excellent correlation with NEI-VFQ scores both preoperatively and postoperatively (all P<0.01). Both groups demonstrated nonsignificant changes in best-corrected visual acuity; however, only the tCxL group had significant reduction in blurring strength (13.48+10.86 [preoperative], 4.26+7.99 [postoperative], P=0.042). Conclusion Only the combined treatment (tCxL) resulted in significant reduction in blurring strength. Moreover, the excellent correlation of blurring strength with NEI-VFQ scores indicates its reliability as an index of self-reported quality of life in keratoconus, since it seems to address the nonsignificant changes in best-corrected visual acuity following CxL treatments that are conceived as subjective improvement by the patient. PMID:27099464

  17. Airborne Measurements of the Atmospheric Emissions from a Fuel Ethanol Refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouw, J. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Aikin, K. C.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J. S.; Lerner, B. M.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Min, K. E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol made from corn now constitutes approximately 10% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles in the United States. The ethanol is produced in over 200 fuel ethanol refineries across the country. In this work, we report measurements of the atmospheric emissions from the third largest fuel ethanol refinery in the U.S. located in Decatur, Illinois. Measurements were made from the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign in the summer of 2013, which was part of the larger Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) agreed with reported emissions in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-2011). In contrast, emissions of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including ethanol, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were underestimated by an order of magnitude in the NEI-2011. By combining data from the NEI-2011 and fuel ethanol production numbers from the Renewable Fuels Association, we calculate emission intensities for SO2, NOx and VOCs, defined as the emissions per volume of fuel produced. These emission intensities can be readily compared to fuel-based emission factors from gasoline vehicles and the relative contributions made by fuel refining and fuel use to overall emissions will be quantified. Emission intensities of SO2 and NOx are particularly high for those fuel ethanol refineries that use coal as an energy source, including the plant in Decatur studied in this work. Finally, by comparing the measurements at different distances downwind, chemical transformation of the emissions could be observed, including the formation of new particles, peroxyacyl nitrates, ozone and sulfate aerosol.

  18. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Inactive HLA-B27–Associated-Spectrum Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (AU). The study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen. We included AU patients who were HLA-B27 positive and/or were diagnosed by a rheumatologist with an HLA-B27 associated systemic disease. Sixty-one of 123 (50%) adult patients participated. All patients filled-out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), social support lists and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL scores and their associations with various general patient and ocular characteristics. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score was 88.9±8.8, which is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 47.4±20.8, which is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases. Patients with a systemic disease scored significantly lower on general health and VR-QOL, compared to patients without a systemic disease. Patients with a depression (6/59 (10%)) frequently had ankylosing spondylitis (5/6 patients) and they scored significantly worse on VR-QOL. We concluded that patients with HLA-B27 associated AU have a relatively high VR-QOL. However, the presence of a systemic disease is associated with lower VR-QOL and general health scores. In addition, depression is associated with a lower VR-QOL. PMID:26808922

  19. Constraints on carbon monoxide emissions based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Youn; Millet, Dylan B; Hu, Lu; Mohr, Michael J; Griffis, Tim J; Wen, Deyong; Lin, John C; Miller, Scot M; Longo, Marcos

    2013-08-01

    We interpret a full year of high-frequency CO measurements from a tall tower in the U.S. Upper Midwest with a time-reversed Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (STILT LPDM) and an Eulerian chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) to develop top-down constraints on U.S. CO sources in 2009. Our best estimate is that anthropogenic CO emissions in the U.S. Upper Midwest in 2009 were 2.9 Tg, 61% lower (a posteriori scale factor of 0.39) than our a priori prediction based on the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory for 2005 (NEI 2005). If the same bias applies across the contiguous U.S., the inferred CO emissions are 26 Tg/y, compared to the a priori estimate of 66 Tg/y. This discrepancy is significantly greater than would be expected based solely on emission decreases between 2005 and 2009 (EPA estimate: 23% decrease). Model transport error is an important source of uncertainty in the analysis, and we employ an ensemble of sensitivity runs using multiple meteorological data sets and model configurations to assess its impact on our results. A posteriori scale factors for the U.S. anthropogenic CO source from these sensitivity runs range from 0.22 to 0.64, corresponding to emissions of 1.6-4.8 Tg/y for the U.S. Upper Midwest and 15-42 Tg/y for the contiguous U.S. The data have limited sensitivity for constraining biomass + biofuel burning emissions and photochemical CO production from precursor organic compounds. Our finding of a NEI 2005 overestimate of CO emissions is consistent with recent assessments for individual cities and with earlier analyses based on the NEI 1999, implying the need for a better mechanism for refining such bottom-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. PMID:23844675

  20. Measuring noise equivalent irradiance of a digital short-wave infrared imaging system using a broadband source to simulate the night spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John R.; Robinson, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in developing helmet-mounted digital imaging systems (HMDIS) for integration into military aircraft cockpits. This interest stems from the multiple advantages of digital vs. analog imaging such as image fusion from multiple sensors, data processing to enhance the image contrast, superposition of non-imaging data over the image, and sending images to remote location for analysis. There are several properties an HMDIS must have in order to aid the pilot during night operations. In addition to the resolution, image refresh rate, dynamic range, and sensor uniformity over the entire Focal Plane Array (FPA); the imaging system must have the sensitivity to detect the limited night light available filtered through cockpit transparencies. Digital sensor sensitivity is generally measured monochromatically using a laser with a wavelength near the peak detector quantum efficiency, and is generally reported as either the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) or Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI). This paper proposes a test system that measures NEI of Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) digital imaging systems using a broadband source that simulates the night spectrum. This method has a few advantages over a monochromatic method. Namely, the test conditions provide spectrum closer to what is experienced by the end-user, and the resulting NEI may be compared directly to modeled night glow irradiance calculation. This comparison may be used to assess the Technology Readiness Level of the imaging system for the application. The test system is being developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  1. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Inactive HLA-B27-Associated-Spectrum Anterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (AU). The study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen. We included AU patients who were HLA-B27 positive and/or were diagnosed by a rheumatologist with an HLA-B27 associated systemic disease. Sixty-one of 123 (50%) adult patients participated. All patients filled-out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), social support lists and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL scores and their associations with various general patient and ocular characteristics. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score was 88.9±8.8, which is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 47.4±20.8, which is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases. Patients with a systemic disease scored significantly lower on general health and VR-QOL, compared to patients without a systemic disease. Patients with a depression (6/59 (10%)) frequently had ankylosing spondylitis (5/6 patients) and they scored significantly worse on VR-QOL. We concluded that patients with HLA-B27 associated AU have a relatively high VR-QOL. However, the presence of a systemic disease is associated with lower VR-QOL and general health scores. In addition, depression is associated with a lower VR-QOL. PMID:26808922

  2. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    progettuale e realizzativa dei parametri e de lle prestazioni strumentali; in generale infatti non solo sarà necessario mantenere le dimensioni, il peso, i consumi elettrici ed il data-volume entro i requisiti disponibili del satellite ma anche ottimizzare i disegni ottici, meccanici ed elettronici al fine di ottenere le massime prestazioni possibili in funzione della natura del target osservato e dei parametri orbitali della missione. Questa tesi descrive i metodi utilizzati per caratterizzare il funzionamento di spettrometri ad immagine per l’esplorazione planetaria. L’attività svolta ha riguardato sia la misura in laboratorio dei parametri strumentali fondamentali sia l’analisi dei dati in volo su cui verificarne ed eventualmente correggerne la risposta. Il funzionamento degli strumenti e la metodologia di calibrazione vengono descritti nelle due parti principali e nelle appendici di questa tesi per gli esperimenti Cassini-VIMS-V e Rosetta-VIRTIS-M. La prima parte è dedicata all’esperimento VIMS-V sul satellite Cassini, il cui disegno ottico, originariamente proposto da Francis Reininger, verrà successivamente riutilizzato e perfezionato su VIRTIS-M (Reininger et al., 1994; Miller et al., 1996). Il capitolo 1 contiene una descrizione dei parametri ottici, strutturali, termici ed elettronici di VIMS-V mettendone in risalto gli aspetti più innovativi del progetto. Vengono inoltre descritti la collocazione dell’esperimento sul satellite Cassini, il coallineamento con gli altri strumenti di remote sensing, i possibili modi operativi ed il formato dei dati scientifici. Il capitolo 2 riguarda il processo di calibrazione ed analisi dei dati in volo di VIMS-V. La procedura eseguita per calibrare radiometricamente lo strumento utilizzando i dati della superficie della Luna e per stimare il flat-field mediante i dati dell’atmosfera di Venere viene dettagliatamente descritta assieme agli algoritmi utilizzati per la rimozione di diversi effetti strumentali (read

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Warm Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis.

    PubMed

    Keepers, Kyle; Martin, Andrew P; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-07-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Warm Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis. The genomic DNA of a single female individual was extracted and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. It contains 16,499 bp and a total of 37 genes, divided into 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes. It exhibits 94% sequence similarity with the other published mitochondrion in its genus, C. rubrofluviatilis. A Tamura-Nei maximum-likelihood tree constructed from mitochondrial sequences shows expected phylogenetic relationships between C. nevadensis and sister taxa. PMID:26061336

  4. [Acupoint Selection Laws for Massage Therapy of Infantile Anorexia: an Analysis Based on Data Mining].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wang Jie; Wang, Yan-guo

    2016-06-01

    Massage prescriptions for treating infantile anorexia in Chinese Academic Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, 1979-2012), Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal Full-Text Database (VIP, 1989-2012) and Wanfang Database (1990-2012) were collected. By using Chinese Medicine Inheritance Auxiliary Platform (Version 2.0) Software, 286 massage prescriptions for treatment of infantile anorexia were screened involved 76 acupoints, 20 commonly used acupoints, and 57 core acupoint combinations. Infantile Tuina specific points were used as main acupoints in massage therapy for infantile anorexia, and core acupoints covered Jizhu, Pi meridian, abdomen, Nei-Bagua, Zusanli (ST36), and Ban-men. PMID:27491238

  5. Genetic differentiation among cottontails from isolated playa basins.

    PubMed

    Van den Bussche, R A; Hamilton, M J; Chesser, R K; Scribner, K T

    1987-11-30

    Protein variation in 182 Sylvilagus floridanus from 19 playa basins in Castro Co., Texas was examined using starch-gel electrophoresis. Heterozygote deficiencies were noted for all populations. This heterozygote deficiency may be due to differential selection against heterozygous individuals over the winter months. Results of F-statistics indicated a significant degree of population differentiation at six loci. Nei's genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.20 to 0.388 and a significant association between genetic distance and linear geographic distance among playas was found. These results suggest that genetic exchange and long-distance dispersal may be hindered by expanses of unsuitable habitat. PMID:3504804

  6. (π−1) → (π−1), (π−1) emission spectra of chlorofluorobenzene cations in the gaseous phase and their lifetimes in the (0o) states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, John Paul; Marthaler, O.; Mohraz, Manijeh; Shiley, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative decay of seventeen electronically excited chlorofluorobenzene cations in the gaseous phase has been detected. The reported emission spectra, which have been obtained using low energy electron beam excitation, are assigned to the B(??-1 ??? X(??-1 electronic transitions of these cations on the basis of their Ne(I) photoelectron spectra. In another sixteen chloroflourobenzene cations, the B ??? X radiative decay could not be detected, from which is inferred that the B states are now associated with Cl 3p(??-1 ionisation processes. The lifetimes of the studied cations in the lowest vibrational levels of the B(??-1 state have been measured. ?? 1980.

  7. GOODS-Herschel: the impact of galaxy-galaxy interactions on the far-infrared properties of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.; Le Borgne, D.; Buat, V.; Magdis, G. E.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Coia, D.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dasyra, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leiton, R.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We study the impact of galaxy-galaxy interactions on the far-infrared properties of galaxies and its evolution at 0 < z < 1.2. Methods: Using the high-z galaxies in the fields of Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) observed by the Herschel Space Observatory in the framework of the GOODS-Herschel key program and the local IRAS or AKARI-selected galaxies in the field of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we investigate the dependence of galaxy properties on the morphology of and the distance to the nearest neighbor galaxy. Results: We find that the star-formation rates (SFRs) and the specific SFRs (SSFRs) of galaxies on average depend on the morphology of and the distance to the nearest neighbor galaxy in this redshift range. When a late-type galaxy has a close neighbor galaxy, the SFR and the SSFR increase as it approaches a late-type neighbor, which is supported by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) and Monte Carlo (MC) tests with a significance level of >99%. However, the SFR and the SSFR decrease or do not change much as the galaxy approaches an early-type neighbor. The bifurcations of SFRs and SSFRs depending on the neighbor's morphology seem to occur at Rn ≈ 0.5rvir,nei (virial radius of the neighbor), which is supported by K-S and MC tests with a significance level of >98%. For all redshift bins, the SSFRs of late-type galaxies interacting with late-type neighbors are increased by factors of about 1.8 ± 0.7 and 4.0 ± 1.2 compared to those of non-interacting galaxies when the pair separation is smaller than 0.5rvir,nei and 0.1rvir,nei, respectively. The dust temperature of both local and high-z late-type galaxies that strongly interact with late-type neighbors (i.e. Rn ≤ 0.1rvir,nei) appears to be higher than that of non-interacting galaxies with a significance level of 96-99%. However, the dust temperature of local late-type galaxies that strongly interact with early-type neighbors seems to be lower than or similar to that of non

  8. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Holmes, S A Stacie A

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatments to depression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2009-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of more than 5,000 years and it has the earliest medicine book in the world: Yellow Emperor's Canon: Internal Medicine (Huang Ti Nei Jing), by the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC) (Lin , 1988; Shampo and Kyle, 1989; Wang, 1999). However the combinational and systemic recipes that bring TCM high efficiency also block the promotion of TCM treatment to various diseases, including depression. In this short comment we firstly give some theoretical basis for TCM treatment to depression, then some clinical reports on efficiency; we also present some possible explanations on TCM treatments to depression. PMID:19300379

  10. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  11. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  12. Psychological distress is associated with vision-related but not with generic quality of life in patients with visual field defects after cerebral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Carolin; Mueller, Iris; Franke, Gabriele H.; Sabel, Bernhard A.

    2012-01-01

    Considerably diminished quality of life (QoL) is observed in patients with visual field defects after lesions affecting the visual pathway. But little is known to what extent vision-and health-related QoL impairments are associated with psychological distress. In 24 patients with chronic visual field defects (mean age=56.17±12.36) the National Eye Institute-visual functioning questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) for vision-related QoL, the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) for generic QoL and the revised Symptom-Checklist (SCL-90-R) were administered. Cases with clinically relevant SCL-90-R symptoms were defined. Demographic, QoL and visual field parameters were correlated with SCL-90-R scales. About 40% of the investigated patients met the criteria for the definition of psychiatric caseness. 8/12 NEI-VFQ scales correlated significantly with SCL-90-R phobic anxiety (r-range −0.41 to −0.64, P<0.05), 5/12 NEI-VFQ scales correlated with SCL-90-R interpersonal sensitivity (−0.43 to −0.50), and 3/12 with SCL-90-R depression (−0.51 to −0.57) and obsessive-compulsiveness (−0.41 to −0.43). In contrast, only 1/8 SF-36 scales correlated significantly with SCL-90-R depression, phobic anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity (−0.41 to −0.54). No substantial correlations were observed between visual field parameters and SCL-90-R scales. Significant correlations of SCL-90-R with NEI-VFQ but not with SF-36 suggest that self-rated psychological distress is the result of diminished vision-related QoL as a consequence of visual field loss. The extent of visual field loss itself did not influence the rating of psychological distress directly, since SCL-90-R symptoms were only reported when diminished vision-related QoL was present. Patients with reduced vision-related QoL due to persisting visual field defects should therefore be offered additional neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive psychotherapeutic interventions even years after the lesion. PMID:25478113

  13. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  14. Clinical Trials: More than an Assessment of Treatment Effect – LXV Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To review the development of clinical trials and demonstrate their value beyond the assessment of the treatment effect. Design Retrospective literature review Methods Retrospective literature review Results There has been a rapid increase in the number of clinical trials in ophthalmology as assessed by the number of ophthalmic publications and the number of ongoing National Eye Institute (NEI) sponsored clinical trials over the last four decades. The public health significance of the results of these NEI clinical trials goes beyond the demonstration of treatment effects and side effects. From these trials we learn about the clinical course and risk factors of disease allowing us to better determine who and when to treat. Furthermore, the collaboration of investigators, as they develop and carry out protocols, facilitates incorporation of new ideas into the practice of medicine. Conclusions The practice of medicine is increasingly dependent on the results of carefully designed clinical trials. The determination as to whether a new treatment is safe and effective is important, but the additional information we can obtain regarding natural history, risk factors, and patient satisfaction adds immeasurably to our ability to care for our patients. PMID:19100353

  15. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  16. Allozyme differentiation of two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 (Teleostei, Loricariidae) from the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reusing, Ana Flávia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fábio F; Zawadzki, Cláudio H

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei's expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei's genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids. PMID:21931525

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.- a potential medicinal legume tree.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Jehan, Tabassum; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Three molecular marker systems, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) were employed to investigate the genetic structure and diversity among the 14 natural populations of Butea monosperma collected from different geographical regions of India. Detected by 17 RAPD, 15 ISSR and 11 SRAP primer combinations, the proportions of polymorphic bands were 84.2 %, 77.2 % and 91.9 %, respectively, and the mean Nei's genetic distances among the populations were 0.13, 0.10 and 0.13, respectively. Partitioning of genetic variability by Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the high genetic diversity was distributed within the populations. AMOVA also revealed that the coefficient of gene differentiation among populations based on FST was very high irrespective of markers used. The overall gene flow among populations (Nm) was very low. Cophenetic correlation coefficients of Nei's distance values and clustering pattern by Mental test were statistically significant for all three marker systems used but poor fit for ISSR data than for RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers. For all markers, a high similarity in dendrogram topologies was obtained, although some differences were observed with ISSR. The dendrogram obtained by RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers reflect relationship of most of the populations according to their geographic distribution. PMID:24431507

  18. Suzaku study on the ejecta of the supernova remnant G272.2-3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Koji; Katsuda, Satoru; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We report reanalyses of the Suzaku observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G272.2-3.2, for which previous studies were limited below 3 keV. With careful data reduction and background subtraction, we discover the K-shell lines of Ar, Ca, and Fe above 3 keV. The X-ray spectrum of G272.2-3.2 consists of two components, a low-temperature collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma (kTe ˜ 0.2 keV) and a high-temperature non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma (kTe = 0.6-3 keV). The CIE plasma has solar abundances over the entire area, hence it originates from the interstellar medium. On the other hand, the abundances of the NEI plasma increase toward the inner region, suggesting ejecta origin. The line center energy of the Fe K-shell emission (˜6.4 keV) suggests that the ejecta are recently heated by reverse shock, a common feature in Type Ia SNRs.

  19. Length variations of i-type low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in diploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Huang, Z; Wei, Y-M; Yan, Z-H; Ma, Z-C; Zheng, Y-L

    2008-04-01

    Allelic variation of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) is associated with the significant differences of dough quality in bread and durum wheat, and has been widely evaluated at protein level in wheat and its relatives. In this study, a PCR primer set, targeting the high variable repetitive domains, was employed to assay the length variation of i-type LMW-GS genes in the A-genomes of diploid wheats, the diploid progenitors of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A total of 71 accessions of diploid wheats, belonging to two wild and one cultivated species, were investigated. The higher variations of repetitive length in i-type LMW-GS genes were found in diploid wheats with Nei's genetic variation index (H) of 0.834. The two wild species, T. boeoticum and T. urartu, were found to possess the similar degree of variability, with the Nei's genetic variation index of 0.806 and 0.783, respectively. Less variations were detected in T. monococcum (H = 0.680), a cultivated species domesticated from T. boeoticum. The sufficient variations found in this study could be used as valuable sources for the enrichment of the genetic variations and the alteration of flour-processing properties of the cultivated wheat. To our knowledge, it was the first time that an analysis of length variation targeting a particular group of genes of LMW-GS complex multigene families was conducted. PMID:18666554

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life Following Blind Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L.; Grubbs, Hartley E.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L.; Fuhr, Patti S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients’ vision targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. Methods The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at two and six months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11–109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Results Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of eleven NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both 2- and 6-month post-rehab intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Conclusions Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients’ self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem, and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL. PMID:18392688

  1. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs. PMID:26214437

  2. The National Eye Health Education Program: increasing awareness of diabetic eye disease among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Silver, Karen; Williams, Meredith; Macario, Everly

    2006-01-01

    With the highest prevalence of diabetes in the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives are at greatest risk for diabetic eye disease (DED), a leading cause of blindness. The National Eye institute (NEI) conducted formative research to understand DED-related knowledge, identify approaches to managing this disease, and design a communication plan to increase awareness and reduce DED among these populations. The NEI conducted qualitative research at five locations in indian country with representatives from national organizations, tribal members, and healthcare providers. While diabetes ranked high on their list of primary community health issues in need of attention, study participants had only a basic level of diabetes-related knowledge, acknowledged the need for DED education, and underscored the importance of the use of interpersonal and culturally appropriate communication strategies. This is the first exploratory qualitative research study to examine the status of diabetic eye disease among American indians and Alaska Natives whose primary purpose was to inform the design of a national DED communication campaign. PMID:17061747

  3. Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Singh, Choba K; Awasthi, Aravind K; Kumar, Vikas; Rao, Guruprasad C; Prakash, N B Vijaya

    2011-07-01

    Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei's genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R(2) = 0.71) and geographic distance (R(2) = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei's gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D('2)IS exceeded D('2)ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool. PMID:21931526

  4. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  5. National Eye Institute Visual Function Scale in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Sezen; Düzova, Sinay; Şahin, Özlem; Kazokoğlu, Haluk; Bavbek, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To examine subscale and total scores of NEI-VFQ questionnaire of type 2 diabetes patients at different diabetic retinopathy (DRP) stages. Methods. A total number of 201 patients have been included. Prior to ophthalmological examination all patients participated in the NEI-VFQ questionnaire. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale (ICDRS). Results. The diabetes duration in general health scores (p = 0.029); the stage (p = 0.011); and clinically significant macular edema (CSME) (p = 0.019) in general vision were found to be the most efficient factors. In near vision activities the most efficient factors were near vision acuity (NVA) (p = 0.0001) and DRP stage (p = 0.020). EDTRS visual acuity was found to be the most efficient factor in vision specific role difficulties (p = 0.034) and dependency (p = 0.011) whereas Snellen visual acuity was found to be among the most effective factors in distance activities (DA) (p = 0.014) and total scores (p = 0.026). Discussion. Difference was based not on the diabetes duration, clinically significant cataract (CSCat), CSME presence, and DRP stage but on the visual acuity levels of the better seeing eye of the patients. PMID:26998350

  6. RAPD and ISSR marker mediated genetic polymorphism of two mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Heritiera fomes from Indian Sundarbans in relation to their sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nirjhar; Nandy, Paramita; Sengupta, Chandan; Das, Sauren

    2015-07-01

    Increased salinity distresses some key species severely in Indian Sundarbans. Geomorphic characteristics coupled with demographic obligations have proven to be pivotal factor towards the prevalence of elevated salinity in this zone. Better adaptation to rapid changes in microclimate demands wide range of genetic polymorphism as well. RAPD and ISSR molecular markers were used for this genetic diversity study. Degree of polymorphism was found relatively higher in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (26.43 % in RAPD and 24.36 % in ISSR) than the other taxa, Heritiera fomes (14.43 and 12.76 % respectively) in case of RAPD and ISSR. Dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix showed that for H. fomes, least saline and highest saline zones are positioned in the same clade; whereas in B. gymnorrhiza the higher saline areas were clustered together. Nei's gene diversity (h) as revealed from RAPD and ISSR analysis were found to be 0.0821, 0.0785 and 0.0647, 0.0592 in B. gymnorrhiza and H. fomes respectively. The higher degree of polymorphism as revealed from UPGMA Dendrogram and Nei's genetic diversity might be attributed towards the comfortable growth of B. gymnorrhiza all along the Indian Sundarbans. On the other hand the relatively lesser degree of genetic polymorphism of H. fomes might be attributed towards their precarious status in present days elevated salinity in Indian Sundarbans. PMID:26261402

  7. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

  8. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  9. A GENERALIZED MODEL OF NONLINEAR DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION COUPLED TO AN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ellison, Donald C. E-mail: nagataki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-05-10

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position-dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum- and space-dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification; (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs, as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Our generalized code combines these elements and describes the interplay between CR production and SNR evolution, including the nonlinear coupling of efficient diffusive shock acceleration, based mainly on the work of P. Blasi and coworkers, and a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) calculation of thermal X-ray line emission. We believe that our generalized model will provide a consistent modeling platform for SNRs, including those interacting with molecular clouds, and improve the interpretation of current and future observations, including the high-quality spectra expected from Astro-H. SNR RX J1713.7-3946 is modeled as an example.

  10. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  11. Postoperative Vision-Related Quality of Life in Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Patients and Its Relation to Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Hoeksema, Lisette; Wanders, Wouter; Nolte, Ilja M.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) after surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in relation to visual acuity, contrast acuity, and color vision. Methods In a prospective observational study, we included 55 patients with a macula-off RRD. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color vision (saturated and desaturated color confusion indices (CCI)) and contrast acuity were measured at 12 months postoperatively in both the RRD eye and the fellow control eye, and the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was filled out. Results Operated and fellow control eyes differed significantly in mean LogMAR BCVA (P<0.0001), median Log contrast acuity (P<0.0001), saturated CCI (P = 0.009), and desaturated CCI (P = 0.016). Significant correlations were observed between the NEI VFQ-25 overall composite score and postoperative LogMAR BCVA (R = −0.551, P<0.0001), contrast acuity (R = 0.472, P<0.0001), saturated CCI (R = −0.315, P = 0.023), and desaturated CCI (R = −0.283, P = 0.044). Conclusions A lower VR-QOL was highly correlated to a worse postoperative BCVA and contrast acuity and to a lesser extent to color vision disturbances. PMID:25460011

  12. [Genetic aspects of species structure of the compost worm Eisenia foetida (Sav.) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)].

    PubMed

    Bolotetskiĭ, N M; Kodolova, O P

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of frequencies alleles of polymorphous loci of peroxidase (Pox), leucineaminopeptidase (Lap), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and octanoldehydrogenase (Odh) were studied by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in 22 local samples of Esenia foetida in Russia (European part), Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. The samples form two spatial groups--"northern" and "southern", distinguished by set of alleles in every studied locus. The "northern" groups is formed by local populations of European Russia from Murmansk region on the north to Smolensk region on the south, and also by cultivated population of selection line "red California hybrid". The "southern" group is formed by local populations on the territory of Russia from middle Volga to the North Caucasus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, cultivated populations from Kirghizia and Portugal. High degree of genetic difference between samples and independence of alleles frequencies distribution from geographical location and habitat allows to consider almost all studied groups as separate populations. Statistical processing of Nei genetic distances (Nei, 1972) revealed reliable differences between averages of within- and intergroup distances. Besides, discrete differences between intervals of significance of genetic distances were revealed. The results indicate that on the studied territory E. foetida has hierarchical two level structure. The first level is formed by local populations differed by frequency of the same alleles. The second level is formed by local populations, united into spatial groups, that are qualitatively distinguished by the set of alleles in the same loci. PMID:11881211

  13. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  14. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Salama, Ahmed A; Israel, Marina E; Elhawary, Ghada A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Elgayar, Mohamed M; EL Nakhal, Tamer M; Elkhateb, Islam T; Hashem, Heba A; Embaby, Doha K; Elabd, Amira A; Elwy, Reem K; Yacoub, Magdi S; Salem, Hamdy; Abdel-Baqy, Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). METHODS NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA. RESULTS We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79). CONCLUSION ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination. PMID:25349812

  15. Model dissection from earthquake time series: A comparative analysis using modern non-linear forecasting and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-02-01

    This study utilizes two non-linear approaches to characterize model behavior of earthquake dynamics in the crucial tectonic regions of Northeast India (NEI). In particular, we have applied a (i) non-linear forecasting technique to assess the dimensionality of the earthquake-generating mechanism using the monthly frequency earthquake time series (magnitude ⩾4) obtained from NOAA and USGS catalogues for the period 1960-2003 and (ii) artificial neural network (ANN) methods—based on the back-propagation algorithm (BPA) to construct the neural network model of the same data set for comparing the two. We have constructed a multilayered feed forward ANN model with an optimum input set configuration specially designed to take advantage of more completely on the intrinsic relationships among the input and retrieved variables and arrive at the feasible model for earthquake prediction. The comparative analyses show that the results obtained by the two methods are stable and in good agreement and signify that the optimal embedding dimension obtained from the non-linear forecasting analysis compares well with the optimal number of inputs used for the neural networks. The constructed model suggests that the earthquake dynamics in the NEI region can be characterized by a high-dimensional chaotic plane. Evidence of high-dimensional chaos appears to be associated with "stochastic seasonal" bias in these regions and would provide some useful constraints for testing the model and criteria to assess earthquake hazards on a more rigorous and quantitative basis.

  16. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  17. Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, C.; Lavoue, D.; Davis, A.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for area sources such as biomass burning have uncertainties in temporal variability due to temporal averaging of the final inventories. The Fire Inventory of NCAR (FINN) provides detailed emissions estimates of gaseous and aerosol emissions from individual wildland, prescribed, and open fires over North America. In an effort to improve PM2.5 source impact estimates from fire activity over Southeastern U.S., the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and source impacts for fires during May of 2012. In this work, FINN emissions estimates replace NEI fire emissions estimates for more precise estimation of fire impact on air quality. Modeled results are evaluated using observations from monitoring networks such as the Chemical Speciation Network and the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization network. Aircraft measurements from the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) flight campaign and the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) are also used to evaluate modeled simulations of aerosol concentrations.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Tear Film Break up Modes and Fluorescent Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Javed; Braun, Richard; Begley, Carolyn; Winkeler, Adam; King-Smith, Peter E.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical model for variables of interest in tear film break up (TBU) to compare with experimental images of TBU to better predict local values of tear film osmolarity and fluorescence during and following the TBU. Models are developed for local changes tear film thickness, insoluble surfactant concentration as well as osmolarity and fluorescein concentration inside the tear film. Fluorescence concentration was converted to fluorescent intensity using the expression involving film thickness and the full range of fluorescence as described by Nichols et al. (IOVS 2012). The fluorescent intensity response is a primary tool for visualizing the tear film thickness, and it is qualitatively different in the dilute vs concentrated regimes. Computed results over a wide range of fluorescein concentrations show that elevated surfactant concentration or evaporation rate led to thinner regions where TBU first occurs. The model predicts locally elevated concentration of osmolarity within areas of TBU and fluorescence intensity patterns very similar to computed thickness and the observed experimental results. The osmolarity may increase from 50 % to 1300 % of the isosmolar value, depending sensitively on the corneal permeability. Supported by Simons Foundation Grant 281839 (JIS), NSF Grant 1022706, NEI Grant 1RO1EY021794 (Begley), and NEI Grant RO1EY17951 (King-Smith).

  19. Contribution of Monthly and Regional Rainfall to the Strength of Indian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ali, M.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR: June-September) has both temporal and spatial variability causing floods/droughts in different seasons/locations leading to a strong or weak monsoon. Here, we present the contribution of all-India monthly, seasonal and regional rainfall to the ISMR, with special reference to the strong and weak monsoons. For this purpose, rainfall data provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD: http://www.imd.gov.in/section/nhac/dynamic/Monsoon_frame.htm) for 1901-2013 have been used. The IMD divided the Indian sub-continent into four homogeneous regions of northwest India (NWI), northeast India (NEI), central India (CI), and south peninsula India (SPIN). Rainfall during July-August contributes the most to the total seasonal rainfall, whether it is a strong or weak monsoon. Although the NEI has the maximum area-weighted rainfall, its contribution is the least toward a strong or weak monsoon. The rainfall in the remaining three regions (NWI, CI, and SPIN) controls whether an ISMR is strong or weak. Compared to the monthly rainfall, the regional rainfall dominates the strong or weak rainfall periods.

  20. Early detection of cataract and response to pantethine therapy with non-invasive static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Seeberger, Teri; Clark, John I.

    2003-07-01

    Cataractogenesis is a risk factor for space travelers. Here on earth, half of all blindness is due to cataracts. At this time, the only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. In this paper, we present static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of early onset of cataract before it has any effect on vision and to test the effectiveness of pantethine as an anticataract agent in reversing cataracts. In this preliminary study, experiments were conducted on 12 rodents. Static measurements were performed by scanning the animal eye (cornea to retina) at a laser power of 80 microwatts to collect photons or scattered intensity in steps of 10 microns. The rodents studied were control, selenite injected, and selenite plus pantethine injected. Selenite was used to induce cataracts. Static and dynamic changes (increase in light scatter and crystalline size) in the lenses are quantitatively measured as early as 1 day post selenite injections. Scattering intensity and DLS measurements from lenses of animals administered pantethine resembled controls. These subtle molecular changes are not noticeable when the animals are examined with conventional ophthalmic instruments because their lenses remain transparent. Acknowledgements: Technical support from C.Ganders, University of Washington, Seattle, NEI research grant EY04542 (JIC) and support under a NASA-NEI/NIH interagency agreement (RRA) are greatly appreciated. JFK works for QSS Inc. at NASA GRC.

  1. A Chinese Mind-Body Exercise Improves Self-Control of Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Siu, Nicolson Y.; Lau, Eliza M.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2013-01-01

    Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants’ self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants’ brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org. PMID:23874533

  2. A Proposed Framework for Synthesis Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, A.; Berliner, M.; Braverman, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data refers to the “meta-integration” of many sources of GHG emissions data (beyond the standardization of related data required for a data assimilation system). This includes integration of various data types such as, but not limited to: data from multiple data assimilation systems; data from standardized economic-based emissions inventories such as the UNFCCC National Emissions Inventories (NEI) from various Annex I countries; data from non-NEI emissions inventories for sectors specified by UNFCCC as excluded; and ancillary data available from other sources. The term data integration refers to meaningful comparisons between different data sets and associated uncertainties but does not necessarily imply reduction to a single value or set of values. This analysis intends to develop a preliminary framework for development and assessment of the quality and impact of policies and decisions based on Bayesian statistical methods. It will also identify some likely data sources that will need to be synthesized for greenhouse gas emission discussions and policy products. Uncertainties and uncertainty methodologies are explored, along with suggestions for improving reporting of emissions quantities and associated uncertainties to better facilitate future data comparison.

  3. Impact of strabismus on the quality of life of Chinese Han teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Changsen; Ye, Liang; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yuwen; Li, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL) of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers. Methods The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus. Results The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning. Conclusion Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. PMID:27354771

  4. Radiation protection during space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, E.E.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of space radiation hazards and shielding requirements is discussed. The proton and electron exposures encountered in earth orbit from the earth radiation belts and solar-flare activity are calculated as functions of orbital altitude and inclination, and the probabilities of exceeding a given dose equivalent are given in tables for missions of varying duration. The Galactic space radiation is characterized and shown to be significant only beyond the earth's vicinity. The Radiation Shielding Design Criteria approved by the USSR Ministry of Health are discussed, and the need for a more heavily shielded shelter module to be used whenever solar-flare activity is detected is indicated. The shielding of interplanetary spacecraft is considered, and it is shown that much heavier shielding is needed for missions longer than about 2 yrs during solar minimum or 3 yrs during solar maximum, or for spacecraft with nuclear energy installations (NEI). A typical shielding thickness requirement is 20 g/sq cm for the radiation shelter of a spacecraft powered by liquid propellant or by a nuclear rocket engine (but without an NEI) on a 600-d interplanetary flight. 7 references.

  5. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  6. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale

  7. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Evan, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J.; Brown, S. S.; Nowak, J. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Oda, T.; Trainer, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% in LA County and by 37% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% in LA County and by 27% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% in LA County but decreased by 4% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, a gridded CARB inventory and the posterior

  8. Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions over California in Spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Bowman, K. W.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) belongs to the regulated 'six common air pollutants' by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), due to its adverse impacts on the human respiratory system. It is also often used as the indicator for the highly reactive group of gases nitrogen oxides (NOx), the important ozone precursors. We model California air quality during the NOAA CalNex field campaign period in May 2010 using the STEM chemical transport model on a 12 km horizontal resolution grid. Three different anthropogenic emission inventories were used in the simulations: 1) 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI 2005); 2) daily-varying emissions recently developed by California Air Resources Board (CARB); and 3) NEI 2008. The model-simulated NO2 were compared with the measurements by aircraft and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board of the Aura satellite. We further conduct NO2 emission inversion using the four-dimensional variational approach [Chai et al., 2009] and the OMI NO2 column data. The inversion generated grid-based emission scaling factors on the NEI 2005, and the resulting NOx fields were 'cross-validated' by comparing with aircraft NO2 measurements. The adjustment on original emissions was then compared with 1) the CARB-documented NOx emission trends, 2) other 'top-down' estimates of California NOx emissions using aircraft measurements [Brioude et al., 2013], and 3) the space-observed NO2 column trends [Russell et al., 2012]. References Chai, T., Carmichael, G., Tang, Y., and Sandu, A., Regional NO2 emission inversion through four-dimensional variational approach using Sciamachy tropospheric column observations, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5046-5055, 2009. Brioude, J., Angevine, W. M., Ahmadov, R., Kim, S.-W., Evan, S., McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., Frost, G. J., Neuman, J. A., Pollack, I. B., Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J., Brown, S. S., Nowak, J. B., Roberts, J. M., Wofsy, S. C., Santoni, G. W., Oda, T., and Trainer, M.: Top-down estimate of surface

  9. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Evan, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J.; Brown, S. S.; Nowak, J. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Trainer, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% ± 6% in LA County and by 37% ± 10% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% ± 10% in LA County and by 27% ± 15% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 ± 18 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% ± 14% in LA County but decreased by 4% ± 10% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, CARB 2010 and the posterior inventories derived in

  10. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, Jerome; Angevine, Wayne; Ahmadov, Ravan; Kim, Si Wan; Evan, Stephanie; McKeen, Stuart; Hsie, Eirh Yu; Frost, Greg; Neuman, Andy; Pollack, Ilana; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Tom; Holloway, John; Brown, Steeve; Nowak, John; Roberts, Jim; Wofsy, Steeve; Santoni, Greg; Trainer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% ± 6% in LA County and by 37% ± 10% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% ± 10% in LA County and by 27% ± 15% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 ± 18 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% ± 14% in LA County but decreased by 4% ± 10% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, CARB 2010 and the posterior inventories derived in

  11. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil- and natural gas-producing region of the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional-scale air quality model (WRF-Chem) to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high-resolution meteorological simulations are able qualitatively to reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and the accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on estimates of methane (CH4) emissions derived from in situ aircraft measurements and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than in the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. The model simulation using the top-down emission case captures the buildup and afternoon peaks observed during high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx

  12. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2012-11-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e. 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipments were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2 and NO2 concentrations, suggesting that the various controls on SO2 and NOx emissions implemented over the last two decades are

  13. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, F. K.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-07-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting - Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50 %-70 % higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60 % higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC

  14. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2013-08-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2

  15. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%-70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC emissions

  16. Constraining ammonia dairy emissions during NASA DISCOVER-AQ California: surface and airborne observation comparisons with CMAQ simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Liu, Z.; Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Nowak, J. B.; Bambha, R.; Michelsen, H. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain in current bottom-up inventories. Ammonium nitrate is a dominant component of fine aerosols in agricultural regions such as the Central Valley of California, especially during winter. Recent high resolution regional modeling efforts in this region have found significant ammonium nitrate and gas-phase NH3 biases during summer. We compare spatially-resolved surface and boundary layer gas-phase NH3 observations during NASA DISCOVER-AQ California with Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model simulations driven by the EPA NEI 2008 inventory to constrain wintertime NH3 model biases. We evaluate model performance with respect to aerosol partitioning, mixing and deposition to constrain contributions to modeled NH3 concentration biases in the Central Valley Tulare dairy region. Ammonia measurements performed with an open-path mobile platform on a vehicle are gridded to 4 km resolution hourly background concentrations. A peak detection algorithm is applied to remove local feedlot emission peaks. Aircraft NH3, NH4+ and NO3- observations are also compared with simulations extracted along the flight tracks. We find NH3 background concentrations in the dairy region are underestimated by three to five times during winter and NH3 simulations are moderately correlated with observations (r = 0.36). Although model simulations capture NH3 enhancements in the dairy region, these simulations are biased low by 30-60 ppbv NH3. Aerosol NH4+ and NO3- are also biased low in CMAQ by three and four times respectively. Unlike gas-phase NH3, CMAQ simulations do not capture typical NH4+ or NO3- enhancements observed in the dairy region. In contrast, boundary layer height simulations agree well with observations within 13%. We also address observational constraints on simulated NH3 deposition fluxes. These comparisons suggest that NEI 2008 wintertime dairy emissions are underestimated by a factor of three to five. We test

  17. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  18. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  19. Molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.; Giri, P.R.; O'Brien, J.O.

    1987-05-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans.

  20. Chemometrics Optimized Extraction Procedures, Phytosynergistic Blending and in vitro Screening of Natural Enzyme Inhibitors Amongst Leaves of Tulsi, Banyan and Jamun

    PubMed Central

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Singla, Rajeev K.; Katakam, Prakash; Samanta, Tanmoy; Kushwaha, Dilip Kumar; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. Objective: Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun. Materials and Methods: The extraction process parameters of the leaves of three plant species (Ficus benghalensis, Syzigium cumini and Ocimum sanctum) were optimized by rotatable central composite design of chemometrics so as to get maximal yield of bio-actives. Phyto-blends of three species were prepared so as to achieve synergistic antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials and the ratios were optimized by chemometrics. Next, for in vitro screening of natural enzyme inhibitors the individual leaf extracts as well as composite blends were subjected to assay procedures to see their inhibitory potentials against the enzymes pathogenic in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potentials were also estimated by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP and Dot Blot assay. Results: Considering response surface methodology studies and from the solutions obtained using desirability function, it was found that hydro-ethanolic or methanolic solvent ratio of 52.46 ± 1.6 and at a temperature of 20.17 ± 0.6 gave an optimum yield of polyphenols with minimal chlorophyll leaching. The species also showed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, and saponins. Composites in the ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:1:2 gave synergistic effects in terms of polyphenol yield and anti-oxidant potentials. All composites (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2) showed synergistic anti

  1. Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants: Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes.

  2. Observation of autoionization in O 2 by an electron-electron coincidence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, J. P.; Yang, J.; Cooper, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    A strong transition to an autoionizing stata has been observed in O 2 at 16.83 ± 0.11 eV by means of a new electron-electron conincidence method. The method uses the fact that electrons arising from autoionizing states appear at a constant energy loss corresponding to the excitation energy of the autoionizing state rather than at a constant ionization potential as do electrons produced by direct ionization. Comparison of the present data with previous photoionization studies suggests that the autoionizing O 2 state is the same state deduced to be responsible for abnormal vibrational intensities in the O 2+X 2Πg ground state when 16.85 eV Ne(I) photons are used. These electron-electron coincidence experiments provide a direct new method for the study of autoionization produced by electron impact.

  3. Two glycosylase families diffusively scan DNA using a wedge residue to probe for and identify oxidatively damaged bases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shane R.; Dunn, Andrew R.; Kathe, Scott D.; Warshaw, David M.; Wallace, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    DNA glycosylases are enzymes that perform the initial steps of base excision repair, the principal repair mechanism that identifies and removes endogenous damages that occur in an organism’s DNA. We characterized the motion of single molecules of three bacterial glycosylases that recognize oxidized bases, Fpg, Nei, and Nth, as they scan for damages on tightropes of λ DNA. We find that all three enzymes use a key “wedge residue” to scan for damage because mutation of this residue to an alanine results in faster diffusion. Moreover, all three enzymes bind longer and diffuse more slowly on DNA that contains the damages they recognize and remove. Using a sliding window approach to measure diffusion constants and a simple chemomechanical simulation, we demonstrate that these enzymes diffuse along DNA, pausing momentarily to interrogate random bases, and when a damaged base is recognized, they stop to evert and excise it. PMID:24799677

  4. Systematic X-ray Mapping of Metal-Rich Ejecta in Bright Supernova Remnants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, Andrew; Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant; Post, Seth; Alan, Neslihan; Abualfoul, Mujahed

    2015-01-01

    We apply our adaptive mesh technique coupled with simple automated NEI spectral modelings for archival Chandra data of several bright supernova remnants (SNRs) DEML71, N132D, E0102-72.3, G292.0+1.8, G299.2-2.9, Kepler, and Tycho. Based on the chi-square distributions of these model fits, we identify regions in which metal elements are enhanced compared to the circumstellar/interstellar abundances, and thus map over-abundant ejecta regions throughout these SNRs. With these maps we also reveal spatial structures of the individual ejecta elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. We find that this simple chi-square mapping is effective to study spatial distributions of ejecta elements without performing extensive spectral model fits for individual sub-regions in SNRs. These ejecta maps may also be useful to reveal global structures such as the contact discontinuity. We present our preliminary results demonstrating the utility of this method.

  5. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action. PMID:25062484

  6. Study of rust resistance genes in wheat germplasm with DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Gulzar, Tahsin; Rahman, Mahmood ur; Jalal, Fatima; Sattar, Summera; Ehsan, Beenish; Iqbal, Zafar; Younas, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is a vital dietary component for human health and widely consumed in the world. Wheat rusts are dangerous pathogens and contribute serious threat to its production. In present study, PCR-Based DNA Markers were employed to check the rust resistance genes among 20 wheat genotypes and 22 markers were amplified. NTSYS-pc 2.2 was used to calculate genetic diversity and Nei and Li's coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.95. Cluster analysis was obtained using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Average) algorithm. Maximum no. of genes (23) was amplified from TW-760010 genotype whereas minimum no of genes (14) were amplified from TW-76005 genotype. The data gained from present study open up new ways to produce new varieties by breeding rust resistant germplasm to avoid the economic and food loss and varieties with improved characteristics. PMID:25097381

  7. [Alternative Ways of Pinus sylvestris L. Migration from Southern Siberia to Europe and Asia Minor].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Egorov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Allozyme analysis of the parameters of the Nei genetic distances and gene flow between the populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. along two hypothetical alternative ways of their migrations in the Miocene-Pliocene from Southern Siberia to the Balkans, Central Europe, and Asia Minor was used; a lower probability of their settlement on the southern shores of the East Paratethys than on the northern ones was identified. It is suggested that the Middle Araks Strait of Paratethys in the Miocene and extreme aridity of the climate in the Pliocene headed the migration of the populations on the southern way, while on the northern way there were no essential water and mountain barriers for pine dispersal. PMID:26638233

  8. Genetic structure of the carnivorous plant Pinguicula moranensis (Lentibulariaceae) on the transvolcanic Mexican belt.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Raúl E; Domínguez, César A

    2012-06-01

    Most species of Pinguicula present a montane distribution with populations located at high altitudes. In this context, we proposed that populations of Pinguicula species could be genetically differentiated even at a local scale. This study supported that prediction, as a RAPD-based analysis of molecular variance revealed a high degree of genetic structure (Φ (st) = 0.157, P = 0.001) and low gene flow (Nm = 1.0) among four central populations of Pinguicula moranensis in Mexico, with a maximum geographic separation of about 140 km. The four populations also exhibited high levels of genetic diversity (mean Nei's genetic diversity = 0.3716; % polymorphism = 95.45%). The evolutionary implications of the genetic structure found in P. moranensis for other species in the genus are discussed in the context of the naturally fragmented distribution and a set of life history traits shared by most Pinguicula species that could promote geographic isolation and limited gene flow. PMID:22179845

  9. Use of RAPD fingerprinting for delineating populations of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Brahmane, M P; Das, M K; Sinha, M R; Sugunan, V V; Mukherjee, A; Singh, S N; Prakash, S; Maurye, P; Hajra, A

    2006-01-01

    RAPD was used to delineate the hilsa populations sampled from the Ganga, Yamuna, Hooghly, and Narmada Rivers at six different locations. Six degenerate primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. All primers were highly polymorphic and generated high numbers of amplification products. Nei's genetic distances were calculated between locations. The overall average genetic distance among all the six locations was 0.295. The Fst value within the Ganga was 0.469 and within the Hooghly it was 0.546. The overall Fst value for the six populations analyzed was 0.590. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered the hilsa into two distinct clusters: Ganga and Yamuna populations and the Hooghly and Narmada populations. PMID:17183476

  10. The use of contact lenses to treat visually symptomatic congenital nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Biousse, V; Tusa, R J; Russell, B; Azran, M S; Das, V; Schubert, M S; Ward, M; Newman, N J

    2004-02-01

    It has been suggested that contact lens wear improves the visual function of patients with visual loss from congenital nystagmus. In this study, four patients with congenital nystagmus had two evaluations separated by at least one week (one with spectacles, one with contact lenses) including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, oscillopsia scale, quality of life questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), and eye movement recording with an infrared tracking system. All patients subjectively preferred contact lenses to spectacles. Their contrast sensitivity and VFQ-25 scores were improved with contact lenses compared with spectacles alone. Several parameters of nystagmus showed no change in two patients, worsening in one patient and improvement in one patient. This suggests that much of the clinical improvement observed in our patients may result from a better optical correction of their refractive error with contact lenses than with spectacles, rather than from a true damping effect of the nystagmus by contact lenses. PMID:14742616