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Sample records for polished tapered stem

  1. Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Polished Tapered Cemented Stem in Hereditary Multiple Exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man underwent right total hip arthroplasty for hereditary multiple exostosis. At first presentation, he had suffered from coxalgia for a long time. On radiographic images, there was a gigantic femoral head, increased shaft angle, and large diameter of the femoral neck. He had also developed coxarthrosis and severe pain of the hip joint. The transformation of the proximal femur bone causes difficulty in setting a cementless total hip prosthesis. Therefore, total hip arthroplasty using a cemented polished tapered stem was performed via a direct lateral approach. Using a cemented polished tapered stem allowed us to deal with the femoral bone transformation and bone substance defectiveness due to exostosis and also minimized the invasiveness of the operation. PMID:27127668

  2. Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Polished Tapered Cemented Stem in Hereditary Multiple Exostosis.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man underwent right total hip arthroplasty for hereditary multiple exostosis. At first presentation, he had suffered from coxalgia for a long time. On radiographic images, there was a gigantic femoral head, increased shaft angle, and large diameter of the femoral neck. He had also developed coxarthrosis and severe pain of the hip joint. The transformation of the proximal femur bone causes difficulty in setting a cementless total hip prosthesis. Therefore, total hip arthroplasty using a cemented polished tapered stem was performed via a direct lateral approach. Using a cemented polished tapered stem allowed us to deal with the femoral bone transformation and bone substance defectiveness due to exostosis and also minimized the invasiveness of the operation. PMID:27127668

  3. Substantially higher prevalence of postoperative peri­prosthetic fractures in octogenarians with hip fractures operated with a cemented, polished tapered stem rather than an anatomic stem

    PubMed Central

    Mukka, Sebastian; Mellner, Carl; Knutsson, Björn; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Recent studies have demonstrated a high incidence of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPF) in elderly patients treated with 2 commonly used cemented, polished tapered stems. We compared the prevalence and incidence rate of PPF in a consecutive cohort of octagenerians with femoral neck fractures (FNFs) treated with either a collarless, polished tapered (CPT) stem or an anatomic matte stem (Lubinus SP2). Patients and methods In a multicenter, prospective cohort study, we included 979 hips in patients aged 80 years and above (72% females, median age 86 (80–102) years) with a femoral neck fracture as indication for surgery. 69% of the patients were classified as ASA class 3 or 4. Hip-related complications and repeat surgery were assessed at a median follow-up of 20 (0–24) months postoperatively. Results 22 hips (2.2%) sustained a PPF at a median of 7 (0–22) months postoperatively; 14 (64%) were Vancouver B2 fractures. 7 of the 22 surgically treated fractures required revision surgery, mainly due to deep infection. The cumulative incidence of PPFs was 3.8% in the CPT group, as compared with 0.2% in the SP2 group (p < 0.001). The risk ratio (RR) was 16 (95% CI: 2–120) using the SP2 group as denominator. Interpretation The CPT stem was associated with a higher risk of PPF than the SP2 stem. We suggest that the tapered CPT stem should not be used for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in patients over 80 years. PMID:27045318

  4. Substantially higher prevalence of postoperative peri-prosthetic fractures in octogenarians with hip fractures operated with a cemented, polished tapered stem rather than an anatomic stem.

    PubMed

    Mukka, Sebastian; Mellner, Carl; Knutsson, Björn; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Recent studies have demonstrated a high incidence of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPF) in elderly patients treated with 2 commonly used cemented, polished tapered stems. We compared the prevalence and incidence rate of PPF in a consecutive cohort of octagenerians with femoral neck fractures (FNFs) treated with either a collarless, polished tapered (CPT) stem or an anatomic matte stem (Lubinus SP2). Patients and methods - In a multicenter, prospective cohort study, we included 979 hips in patients aged 80 years and above (72% females, median age 86 (80-102) years) with a femoral neck fracture as indication for surgery. 69% of the patients were classified as ASA class 3 or 4. Hip-related complications and repeat surgery were assessed at a median follow-up of 20 (0-24) months postoperatively. Results - 22 hips (2.2%) sustained a PPF at a median of 7 (0-22) months postoperatively; 14 (64%) were Vancouver B2 fractures. 7 of the 22 surgically treated fractures required revision surgery, mainly due to deep infection. The cumulative incidence of PPFs was 3.8% in the CPT group, as compared with 0.2% in the SP2 group (p < 0.001). The risk ratio (RR) was 16 (95% CI: 2-120) using the SP2 group as denominator. Interpretation - The CPT stem was associated with a higher risk of PPF than the SP2 stem. We suggest that the tapered CPT stem should not be used for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in patients over 80 years. PMID:27045318

  5. The Effect of Taper Angle and Spline Geometry on the Initial Stability of Tapered, Splined Modular Titanium Stems.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jeffery L; Small, Scott R; Rodriguez, Jose A; Kang, Michael N; Glassman, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    Design parameters affecting initial mechanical stability of tapered, splined modular titanium stems (TSMTSs) are not well understood. Furthermore, there is considerable variability in contemporary designs. We asked if spline geometry and stem taper angle could be optimized in TSMTS to improve mechanical stability to resist axial subsidence and increase torsional stability. Initial stability was quantified with stems of varied taper angle and spline geometry implanted in a foam model replicating 2cm diaphyseal engagement. Increased taper angle and a broad spline geometry exhibited significantly greater axial stability (+21%-269%) than other design combinations. Neither taper angle nor spline geometry significantly altered initial torsional stability. PMID:25754255

  6. Morphometric examination of straight, tapered titanium stems: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Böhm, G; Lintner, F; Auterith, A; Lester, D K; Zweymüller, K A

    2001-12-01

    Cementless straight, tapered rectangular cross section titanium stems have been used by the senior author since 1979. Thirty-four stems retrieved postmortem, after between 10 days and 15.2 years in situ, were studied morphometrically and histologically. Nineteen stems were first generation (1979-1986), with an incomplete sagittal taper and a mean surface roughness of 1 microm (Ra 1.23 +/- 0.3 microm); 15 stems were second generation after 1986, with a full biplane taper and a mean surface roughness of 4 microm (Ra 4.14 +/- 0.36 microm). Implant surface bony coverage was determined morphometrically in 10 segments of the stems, and expressed as a bone implant contact index. Histologically, there were no differences between implants with different levels of roughness. Morphometrically, the first-generation stems showed significant differences in coverage (distal > proximal); second-generation stems had a more uniform pattern. Stems retrieved early after arthroplasty had a mean bone implant contact index of 10%. The mean bone implant contact index showed attainment of maximum coverage by 5 years after arthroplasty, without additional apposition or loss thereafter. Patients younger than 65 years at arthroplasty had similar bone implant contact indices to patients 65 years or older; coverage in the six patients 80 years of age at retrieval did not differ from the rates in the other patients. Morphometry was able to provide objective evidence of design change effects. No differences in coverage were found in terms of times in situ, patient age at arthroplasty and at retrieval, and degree of stem surface roughness. PMID:11764342

  7. Does Taper Angle Clearance Influence Fretting and Corrosion Damage at the Head-Stem Interface? A Matched Cohort Retrieval Study

    PubMed Central

    Kocagöz, Sevi B.; Underwood, Richard J.; Sivan, Shiril; Gilbert, Jeremy L.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Day, Judd S.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have speculated that modular taper design may have an effect on the corrosion and material loss at the taper surfaces. We present a novel method to measure taper angle for retrieved head taper and stem trunnions using a roundness machine (Talyrond 585, Taylor Hobson, UK). We also investigated the relationship between taper angle clearance and visual fretting-corrosion score at the taper-trunnion junction using a matched cohort study of 50 ceramic and 50 metal head-stem pairs. In this study, no correlation was observed between the taper angle clearance and the visual fretting-corrosion scores in either the ceramic or the metal cohorts. PMID:24610994

  8. Development and verification of a cementless novel tapered wedge stem for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Ahmad; Wuestemann, Thies; Nevelos, Jim; Bastian, Adam C; Collopy, Dermot

    2015-02-01

    Most current tapered wedge hip stems were designed based upon the original Mueller straight stem design introduced in 1977. These stems were designed to have a single medial curvature and grew laterally to accommodate different sizes. In this preclinical study, the design and verification of a tapered wedge stem using computed tomography scans of 556 patients are presented. The computer simulation demonstrated that the novel stem, designed for proximal engagement, allowed for reduced distal fixation, particularly in the 40-60 year male population. Moreover, the physical micromotion testing and finite element analysis demonstrated that the novel stem allowed for reduced micromotion. In summary, preclinical data suggest that the computed tomography based stem design described here may offer enhanced implant fit and reduced micromotion. PMID:25449589

  9. Quantification of the Contact Area at the Head-Stem Taper Interface of Modular Hip Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Witt, Florian; Gührs, Julian; Morlock, Michael M; Bishop, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of modular taper junctions of hip implants may be associated with clinical failure. Taper design parameters, as well as the intraoperatively applied assembly forces, have been proposed to affect corrosion. Fretting corrosion is related to relative interface shear motion and fluid ingress, which may vary with contact force and area. It was hypothesised in this study that assembly forces modify the extent and distribution of the surface contact area at the taper interface between a cobalt chrome head and titanium stem taper with a standard threaded surface profile. Local abrasion of a thin gold coating applied to the stem taper prior to assembly was used to determine the contact area after disassembly. Profilometry was then used to assess permanent deformation of the stem taper surface profile. With increasing assembly force (500 N, 2000 N, 4000 N and 8000 N) the number of stem taper surface profile ridges in contact with the head taper was found to increase (9.2±9.3%, 65.4±10.8%, 92.8±6.0% and 100%) and the overall taper area in contact was also found to increase (0.6±0.7%, 5.5±1.0%, 9.9±1.1% and 16.1±0.9%). Contact was inconsistently distributed over the length of the taper. An increase in plastic radial deformation of the surface ridges (-0.05±0.14 μm, 0.1±0.14 μm, 0.21±0.22 μm and 0.96±0.25 μm) was also observed with increasing assembly force. The limited contact of the taper surface ridges at lower assembly forces may influence corrosion rates, suggesting that the magnitude of the assembly force may affect clinical outcome. The method presented provides a simple and practical assessment of the contact area at the taper interface. PMID:26280914

  10. Quantification of the Contact Area at the Head-Stem Taper Interface of Modular Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Florian; Gührs, Julian; Morlock, Michael M.; Bishop, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of modular taper junctions of hip implants may be associated with clinical failure. Taper design parameters, as well as the intraoperatively applied assembly forces, have been proposed to affect corrosion. Fretting corrosion is related to relative interface shear motion and fluid ingress, which may vary with contact force and area. It was hypothesised in this study that assembly forces modify the extent and distribution of the surface contact area at the taper interface between a cobalt chrome head and titanium stem taper with a standard threaded surface profile. Local abrasion of a thin gold coating applied to the stem taper prior to assembly was used to determine the contact area after disassembly. Profilometry was then used to assess permanent deformation of the stem taper surface profile. With increasing assembly force (500 N, 2000 N, 4000 N and 8000 N) the number of stem taper surface profile ridges in contact with the head taper was found to increase (9.2±9.3%, 65.4±10.8%, 92.8±6.0% and 100%) and the overall taper area in contact was also found to increase (0.6±0.7%, 5.5±1.0%, 9.9±1.1% and 16.1±0.9%). Contact was inconsistently distributed over the length of the taper. An increase in plastic radial deformation of the surface ridges (-0.05±0.14 μm, 0.1±0.14 μm, 0.21±0.22 μm and 0.96±0.25 μm) was also observed with increasing assembly force. The limited contact of the taper surface ridges at lower assembly forces may influence corrosion rates, suggesting that the magnitude of the assembly force may affect clinical outcome. The method presented provides a simple and practical assessment of the contact area at the taper interface. PMID:26280914

  11. Efficacy of immune suppression tapering in treating relapse after reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kekre, Natasha; Kim, Haesook T.; Thanarajasingam, Gita; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H.; Cutler, Corey; Nikiforow, Sarah; Ho, Vincent T.; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    For patients who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation while still on immune suppression, there is anecdotal evidence that tapering the immune suppression may result in graft-versus-tumor activity. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with documented histological or radiographic disease recurrence within 1 year of stem cell transplantation while on immune suppression at our institution. The median time to relapse was 110 days (range, 18–311) after transplant. Among 123 patients with relapse treated with immune suppression tapering without chemotherapy, radiation, or donor lymphocyte infusion, 34 responded (33/101 reduced intensity conditioning transplant and 1/22 myeloablative conditioning transplant, 32.7% and 4.5% respectively; P=0.007). The median time to response after initiation of immune suppression tapering was 82 days (range, 16–189). Thirty-three patients (97.1%) had development or progression of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease as a consequence of immune suppression tapering, at a median time of 39 days (range, 16–98). Six patients subsequently relapsed late after initial response to immune suppression tapering at a median time of 2 years (range, 0.9–3.8). The median overall survival from immune suppression tapering for responders was 5.1 years (range, 1.9-not estimable). When clinically feasible, immune suppression tapering alone in patients who relapse early after reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation can produce durable remissions, but is almost always associated with graft-versus-host disease. PMID:26088931

  12. Effects of Prosthesis Stem Tapers on Stress Distribution of Cemented Hip Arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Nor, Mohd Asri Mohd; Saman, Alias Mohd; Tamin, Mohd Nasir; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2010-10-15

    Aseptic loosening effects are critical issues in encouraging long term stability of cemented hip arthroplasty. Stress shielding is believed to be an important factor that contributes to the aseptic loosening problems. The numerous changes in the prosthesis stem design are intended to minimize the stress shielding and aseptic loosening problems and to improve the long term performance of the implants. In this study, the stress distribution in cemented hip arthroplasty is established using finite element method. The taper of the prosthesis is designed to be 3 deg. at anterior/posterior, 3 deg. at medial/lateral and 10 deg. from wide lateral to narrow medial. Major muscle loads and contact forces are simulated for walking (toe-off phase) and stair climbing load cases. Effects of prosthesis stem tapers on the resulting stress distribution are investigated. Results show that compressive stress dominates in the medial plane while tensile stress in the lateral plane of the femur. The corresponding stress levels of intact femur for walking and stair-climbing load cases are 22 and 29 MPa, respectively. The magnitude of Tresca stress for the THA femur in stair-climbing load case remains higher in the region of 85 MPa while the walking load case induces around 40 MPa. The stress range in the straight and single taper stem prosthesis is lower than 260 MPa, while localized Tresca stress is in the order of the yield strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for double and triple taper stem design.

  13. Effects of Prosthesis Stem Tapers on Stress Distribution of Cemented Hip Arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Nor, Mohd Asri Mohd; Saman, Alias Mohd; Tamin, Mohd Nasir; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2010-10-01

    Aseptic loosening effects are critical issues in encouraging long term stability of cemented hip arthroplasty. Stress shielding is believed to be an important factor that contributes to the aseptic loosening problems. The numerous changes in the prosthesis stem design are intended to minimize the stress shielding and aseptic loosening problems and to improve the long term performance of the implants. In this study, the stress distribution in cemented hip arthroplasty is established using finite element method. The taper of the prosthesis is designed to be 3° at anterior/posterior, 3° at medial/lateral and 10° from wide lateral to narrow medial. Major muscle loads and contact forces are simulated for walking (toe-off phase) and stair climbing load cases. Effects of prosthesis stem tapers on the resulting stress distribution are investigated. Results show that compressive stress dominates in the medial plane while tensile stress in the lateral plane of the femur. The corresponding stress levels of intact femur for walking and stair-climbing load cases are 22 and 29 MPa, respectively. The magnitude of Tresca stress for the THA femur in stair-climbing load case remains higher in the region of 85 MPa while the walking load case induces around 40 MPa. The stress range in the straight and single taper stem prosthesis is lower than 260 MPa, while localized Tresca stress is in the order of the yield strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for double and triple taper stem design.

  14. Second-Generation Versus First-Generation Cementless Tapered Wedge Femoral Stems.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Jauregui, Julio J; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Elmallah, Randa K; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Clinical outcomes of a new second-generation proximally coated, tapered wedge cementless stem were compared with those of its predecessor regarding (1) all-cause implant survivorship; (2) objective and subjective outcomes; (3) complications; and (4) radiographic features. Patients who underwent a primary total hip arthroplasty with the second-generation stem (68 hips) were compared with those who received the first-generation stem (136 hips) at a mean follow-up of 3.5 years. Although the first-generation stem was designed in the traditional manner, the second-generation stem was shortened to accommodate all surgical approaches and designed using a computed tomography scan-based database to enhance fit. The second-generation stem had survivorship, functional, and subjective outcomes similar to those of the first-generation stem. PMID:26375526

  15. Modeling of stem taper models for Chamaecyparis obtusa in Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SungCheol, Jung; YeonOk, Seo; Roscinto ian, Lumbres; SeongYoun, Lee; ChanSoo, Kim

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to fit the different commonly used stem taper models in predicting the diameter over bark at any given height (d) and total volume of Chamaecyparis obtusa in Jeju Island, Korea. The performance of the stem taper models were evaluated using four fit statistics and these were standard error of estimate (SEE), mean bias ( PIC ), absolute mean difference (AMD), and coefficient of determination (R2). Lack-of-fit statistics were also determine and in this study, SEE, AMD and PIC of the different models in predicting d in the different relative height classes and in predicting the total volume in the different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes were calculated. Results showed that the Kozak model 02 stem taper had the best performance in all fit statistics with SEE of 1.3327, PIC of 0.0020 cm, AMD of 0.9970 cm and R2of 0.9958. Based on the lack of fit statistics, this model also showed a good performance in predicting d in most of the relative height classes and in estimating the total volume in the different DBH classes. The result of this study could help forest managers to determine the d, merchantable stem volumes and total stem volumes of Chamaecyparis obtusa in Jeju Island, Korea.

  16. Evaluation of the Painful Dual Taper Modular Neck Stem Total Hip Arthroplasty: Do They All Require Revision?

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    Although dual taper modular-neck total hip arthroplasty (THA) design with additional neck-stem modularity has the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters by facilitating adjustments of leg length, femoral neck version and offset, there is increasing concern regarding this stem design as a result of the growing numbers of adverse local tissue reactions due to fretting and corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. Implant factors such as taper cone angle, taper surface roughness, taper contact area, modular neck taper metallurgy, and femoral head size play important roles in influencing extent of taper corrosion. There should be a low threshold to conduct a systematic clinical evaluation of patients with dual-taper modular-neck stem THA using systematic risk stratification algorithms as early recognition and diagnosis will ensure prompt and appropriate treatment. Although specialized tests such as metal ion analysis and cross-sectional imaging modalities such as metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI) are useful in optimizing clinical decision-making, overreliance on any single investigative tool in the clinical decision-making process for revision surgery should be avoided. PMID:27118353

  17. Revision arthroplasty for periprosthetic femoral fracture using an uncemented modular tapered conical stem.

    PubMed

    da Assunção, R E; Pollard, T C B; Hrycaiczuk, A; Curry, J; Glyn-Jones, S; Taylor, A

    2015-08-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) is a potentially devastating complication after total hip arthroplasty, with historically high rates of complication and failure because of the technical challenges of surgery, as well as the prevalence of advanced age and comorbidity in the patients at risk. This study describes the short-term outcome after revision arthroplasty using a modular, titanium, tapered, conical stem for PFF in a series of 38 fractures in 37 patients. The mean age of the cohort was 77 years (47 to 96). A total of 27 patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologists grade of at least 3. At a mean follow-up of 35 months (4 to 66) the mean Oxford Hip Score (OHS) was 35 (15 to 48) and comorbidity was significantly associated with a poorer OHS. All fractures united and no stem needed to be revised. Three hips in three patients required further surgery for infection, recurrent PFF and recurrent dislocation and three other patients required closed manipulation for a single dislocation. One stem subsided more than 5 mm but then stabilised and required no further intervention. In this series, a modular, tapered, conical stem provided a versatile reconstruction solution with a low rate of complications. PMID:26224817

  18. Fitting and Calibrating a Multilevel Mixed-Effects Stem Taper Model for Maritime Pine in NW Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Rodil, Manuel; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Cámara-Obregón, Asunción; Diéguez-Aranda, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stem taper data are usually hierarchical (several measurements per tree, and several trees per plot), making application of a multilevel mixed-effects modelling approach essential. However, correlation between trees in the same plot/stand has often been ignored in previous studies. Fitting and calibration of a variable-exponent stem taper function were conducted using data from 420 trees felled in even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in NW Spain. In the fitting step, the tree level explained much more variability than the plot level, and therefore calibration at plot level was omitted. Several stem heights were evaluated for measurement of the additional diameter needed for calibration at tree level. Calibration with an additional diameter measured at between 40 and 60% of total tree height showed the greatest improvement in volume and diameter predictions. If additional diameter measurement is not available, the fixed-effects model fitted by the ordinary least squares technique should be used. Finally, we also evaluated how the expansion of parameters with random effects affects the stem taper prediction, as we consider this a key question when applying the mixed-effects modelling approach to taper equations. The results showed that correlation between random effects should be taken into account when assessing the influence of random effects in stem taper prediction. PMID:26630156

  19. Fitting and Calibrating a Multilevel Mixed-Effects Stem Taper Model for Maritime Pine in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Arias-Rodil, Manuel; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Cámara-Obregón, Asunción; Diéguez-Aranda, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stem taper data are usually hierarchical (several measurements per tree, and several trees per plot), making application of a multilevel mixed-effects modelling approach essential. However, correlation between trees in the same plot/stand has often been ignored in previous studies. Fitting and calibration of a variable-exponent stem taper function were conducted using data from 420 trees felled in even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in NW Spain. In the fitting step, the tree level explained much more variability than the plot level, and therefore calibration at plot level was omitted. Several stem heights were evaluated for measurement of the additional diameter needed for calibration at tree level. Calibration with an additional diameter measured at between 40 and 60% of total tree height showed the greatest improvement in volume and diameter predictions. If additional diameter measurement is not available, the fixed-effects model fitted by the ordinary least squares technique should be used. Finally, we also evaluated how the expansion of parameters with random effects affects the stem taper prediction, as we consider this a key question when applying the mixed-effects modelling approach to taper equations. The results showed that correlation between random effects should be taken into account when assessing the influence of random effects in stem taper prediction. PMID:26630156

  20. Development of a stem taper equation and modelling the effect of stand density on taper for Chinese fir plantations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sensen; Zhang, Xiongqing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is the most important commercial tree species in southern China. The objective of this study was to develop a variable taper equation for Chinese fir, and to quantify the effects of stand planting density on stem taper in Chinese fir. Five equations were fitted or evaluated using the diameter-height data from 293 Chinese fir trees sampled from stands with four different densities in Fenyi County, Jiangxi Province, in southern China. A total of 183 trees were randomly selected for the model development, with the remaining 110 trees used for model evaluation. The results show that the Kozak’s, Sharma/Oderwald, Sharma/Zhang and modified Brink’s equations are superior to the Pain/Boyer equation in terms of the fitting and validation statistics, and the modified Brink’s and Sharma/Zhang equations should be recommended for use as taper equations for Chinese fir because of their high accuracy and variable exponent. The relationships between some parameters of the three selected equations and stand planting densities can be built by adopting some simple mathematical functions to examine the effects of stand planting density on tree taper. The modelling and prediction precision of the three taper equations were compared with or without incorporation of the stand density variable. The predictive accuracy of the model was improved by including the stand density variable and the mean absolute bias of the modified Brink’s and Sharma/Zhang equations with a stand density variable were all below 1.0 cm in the study area. The modelling results showed that the trees have larger butt diameters and more taper when stand density was lower than at higher stand density. PMID:27168964

  1. Cement-in-cement femoral revisions using a specially designed polished short revision stem; 24 consecutive stems followed for five to seven years.

    PubMed

    te Stroet, Martijn A J; Moret-Wever, Sander G; de Kam, Daniël C J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Schreurs, B Willem

    2014-01-01

    Femoral cement-in-cement revisions are attractive if the cement bone mantle is well fixed. However, most available cemented stems are too long to fit in the existing cement mantle. We evaluated the medium-term outcomes of the 125 mm short tapered polished stem (Exeter Short Revision Stem (SRS)) with a 44 mm offset specifically designed to facilitate cement-in-cement revisions of hip arthroplasties. The Exeter SRS was clinically and radiographically evaluated in 24 consecutive femoral cement-in-cement revisions (11 men, 13 women) between July 2005 and February 2008 after a mean follow-up of six years (5-7). The mean age at operation was 67 years (54-83). No hip was lost to follow-up, but two patients (two hips) died. None of the deaths were related to the surgery. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed. Four femoral components (17%) were removed for septic loosening after a mean of 2.4 years (0.8-4.9). Three of these hips were revised again in a two-stage revision, and one was converted to a permanent excision arthroplasty. The probability of survival with re-revision for any reason was 82% (95% CI: 58-93) and survivorship with aseptic loosening as the endpoint was 100% at six years. There were no additional radiological failures. The Exeter Short Revision Stem is a valuable option for simplifying cement-in-cement revisions. Despite the short stem length, at mid-term there were no signs of instability or aseptic loosening. PMID:24970322

  2. Evaluation of surgical impaction technique and how it affects locking strength of the head-stem taper junction.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Laura; Schmidig, Gregg; Faizan, Ahmad; TenHuisen, Kevor; Nevelos, Jim

    2016-07-01

    Cases of fretting and corrosion at the taper junction have been reported in large metal-on-metal bearing combinations, and more recently, this concern has included metal-on-polyethylene bearing combinations. Many of these patients have been revised due to adverse local tissue reaction secondary to taper corrosion. This taper corrosion-related adverse local tissue reaction seems to be a multifactorial issue and difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to look at one potential variable, the impaction behavior (impaction force, number of blows, etc.) of orthopedic surgeons, and understand how this can affect the locking strength of tapers. A group of experienced orthopedic surgeons were asked to use their typical surgical approach to impact a femoral head onto a hip femoral stem using an Operating Room (OR)-simulated test setup. Impaction parameters such as impaction force, velocity, and energy, as well as the number of impacts, were characterized and applied in a bench-top study used to evaluate the effect of these parameters on the initial stability of the taper junction. High variation was found in the surgical impaction parameters, but overall it was determined that increased impaction force correlated to superior stability of the taper junction. PMID:27107031

  3. Long-term Outcome of Polished Stems in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Han, Hong-Joon; Baik, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and radiologic findings of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using cemented polished femoral stems. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 hips (91 patients) that had undergone primary THA with cemented polished femoral stems who were followed for at least 10 years. The mean age at surgery was 57 years (47-75 years). Mean follow up period was 12.8 years (10.1-14.0 years). Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used for clinical evaluation. Radiologic evaluation was focused on cementing technique including subsidence within the cement mantle, radiolucent lines at the cement-bone or cement-stem interface, cortical hypertrophy, and calcar resorption. Results The average HHS was 55.2 points before the surgery that improved to an average of 93.2 points at the final follow-up. According to Barrack classification, there were 50, 32, and 9 cases in A, B, and C grades, respectively. Subsidence of femoral stem was less than 2 mm except in one patient. There were no progressing radiolucent line or loosening of the femoral stem. Conclusion In this study, THA using cemented polished femoral stems was found to have favorable outcomes in long term follow-up.

  4. Results of revision total hip arthroplasty with modular, titanium-tapered femoral stems in severe proximal metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Brian T; Morrison, Kurt L; Baumgarten, Adam S; Stein, Mathew I; Haidukewych, George J; Bernasek, Thomas L

    2013-04-01

    Evidence supporting modular, tapered stems for severe proximal metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss is limited. We report our clinical experience with its use for severely deficient femurs. Of 211 revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs), 18 tapered, modular titanium stems were implanted in Paprosky type III and IV femurs. Clinical data were reviewed for function, stability, structural failure and revision surgery at a mean follow-up of 4.5years. The overall survival rate was 94%. One required revision due to infection and subsidence. The mean subsidence was 3.5mm and the mean pre- and post-operative Harris Hip score was 56 and 79, respectively. In surviving cases, patients achieved satisfactory function and there were no mechanical failures. Modular, tapered stems demonstrated acceptable outcomes for management of severe proximal metaphyseal and diaphyseal defects. PMID:23273565

  5. Plasmon modes of a silver thin film taper probed with STEM-EELS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Hohenau, Andreas; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

    2015-12-01

    By focusing propagating surface plasmons, electromagnetic energy can be delivered to nanoscale volumes. In this context, we employ electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to characterize the full plasmonic mode spectrum of a silver thin film tapered to a sharp tip. We show that the plasmon modes can be ordered in film and edge modes and corroborate our assignment through supplementary numerical simulations. In particular, we find that the focused plasmon field at the taper tip is fueled by edge modes. PMID:26625078

  6. Assembly force and taper angle difference influence the relative motion at the stem-neck interface of bi-modular hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Henning; Jauch-Matt, Sabrina Y; Sellenschloh, Kay; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M

    2016-07-01

    Bi-modular hip arthroplasty prostheses allow adaptation to the individual patient anatomy and the combination of different materials but introduce an additional interface, which was related lately to current clinical issues. Relative motion at the additional taper interface might increase the overall risk of fretting, corrosion, metallic debris and early failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the assembly force influences the relative motion and seating behaviour at the stem-neck interface of a bi-modular hip prosthesis (Metha(®); Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) and whether this relation is influenced by the taper angle difference between male and female taper angles. Neck adapters made of titanium (Ti6Al4V) and CoCr (CoCr29Mo) were assembled with a titanium stem using varying assembly forces and mechanically loaded. A contactless eddy current measurement system was used to record the relative motion between prosthesis stem and neck adapter. Higher relative motion was observed for Ti neck adapters compared to the CoCr ones (p < 0.001). Higher assembly forces caused increased seating distances (p < 0.001) and led to significantly reduced relative motion (p = 0.019). Independent of neck material type, prostheses with larger taper angle difference between male and female taper angles exhibited decreased relative motion (p < 0.001). Surgeons should carefully use assembly forces above 4 kN to decrease the amount of relative motion within the taper interface. Maximum assembly forces, however, should be limited to prevent periprosthetic fractures. Manufacturers should optimize taper angle differences to increase the resistance against relative motion. PMID:27170535

  7. The use of hydroxyapatite on press-fit tapered femoral stems.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditya V; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2008-09-01

    The advantage of an HA coating includes superior proximal femoral osteointegration and reduced thigh pain, reduced subsidence risk, reduced distal wear particle migration, and better preservation of periprosthetic bone quality. Furthermore, the survivorship and clinical outcomes are at least comparable to cemented and uncoated uncemented systems without any substantial deleterious effect of the HA coating like third-body wear or late failures. In our opinion, these advantages justify the increased cost. With over 20 years of favorable cumulative data, the continued use of HA can be recommended as an effective and reliable adjunct to cementless tapered femoral fixation in primary THA. PMID:18814599

  8. Outline of Polish Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.

    This volume, one of a series of concise but relatively exhaustive descriptions of the grammatical structures of the principal standard Slavic languages, contains an outline of Polish morphology. The four major sections are morphophonemics, nominal inflection, the Polish verb (Part 1--stem alternation and conjugation, and the Polish verb (Part…

  9. Progressive femoral cortical and cancellous bone density loss after uncemented tapered-design stem fixation

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Tobias E; Haeberle, Lothar; Mueller, Lars P; Kress, Alexander; Voelk, Michael; Pfander, David; Forst, Raimund; Schmidt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Aseptic implant loosening and periprosthetic bone loss are major problems after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We present an in vivo method of computed tomography (CT) assisted osteodensitometry after THA that differentiates between cortical and cancellous bone density (BD) and area around the femoral component. Method Cortical and cancellous periprosthetic femoral BD (mg CaHA/mL), area (mm2) and contact area between the prothesis and cortical bone were determined prospectively in 31 patients 10 days, 1 year, and 6 years after uncemented THA (mean age at implantation: 55 years) using CT-osteodensitometry. Results 6 years postoperatively, cancellous BD had decreased by as much as 41% and cortical BD by up to 27% at the metaphyseal portion of the femur; this decrease was progressive between the 1-year and 6-year examinations. Mild cortical hypertrophy was observed along the entire length of the diaphysis. No statistically significant changes in cortical BD were observed along the diaphysis of the stem. Interpretation Periprosthetic CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the technical ability to discriminate between cortical and cancellous bone structures with respect to strain-adapted remodeling. Continuous loss of cortical and cancellous BD at the femoral metaphysis, a homeostatic cortical strain configuration, and mild cortical hypertrophy along the diaphysis suggest a diaphyseal fixation of the implanted stem. CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the potential to become an effective instrument for quality control in THA by means of in vivo determination of periprosthetic BD, which may be a causal factor in implant loosening after THA. PMID:20180716

  10. In vivo oxide-induced stress corrosion cracking of Ti-6Al-4V in a neck-stem modular taper: Emergent behavior in a new mechanism of in vivo corrosion.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Mali, Sachin; Urban, Robert M; Silverton, Craig D; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2012-02-01

    In vivo modular taper corrosion in orthopedic total joint replacements has been documented to occur for head-neck tapers, modular-body tapers, and neck-stem tapers. While the fretting corrosion mechanism by which this corrosion occurs has been described in the literature, this report shows new and as yet unreported mechanisms at play. A retrieved Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V neck-stem taper interface, implanted for 6 years is subjected to failure analysis to document taper corrosion processes that lead to oxide driven crack formation on the medial side of the taper. Metallurgical sectioning techniques and scanning electron microscopy analysis are used to document the taper corrosion processes. The results show large penetrating pitting attack of both sides of the taper interface where corrosion selectively attacks the beta phase of the microstructure and eventually consumes the alpha phase. The pitting attack evolves into plunging pits that ultimately develop into cracks where the crack propagation process is one of corrosion resulting in oxide formation and subsequent reorganization. This process drives open the crack and advances the front by a combination of oxide-driven crack opening stresses and corrosion attack at the tip. The oxide that forms has a complex evolving structure including a network of transport channels that provide access of fluid to the crack tip. This emergent behavior does not appear to require continued fretting corrosion to propagate the pitting and cracking. This new mechanism is similar to stress corrosion cracking where the crack tip stresses arise from the oxide formation in the crack and not externally applied tensile stresses. PMID:22113876

  11. Long-term results of cementless primary total hip arthroplasty with a threaded cup and a tapered, rectangular titanium stem in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zwartele, Rob; Peters, Anil; Brouwers, Johannes; Olsthoorn, Paul; Brand, Ronald; Doets, Cornelis

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of primary cementless total hip arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis patients and to compare the results with osteoarthritis patients. Sixty-four patients (77 hips) with rheumatoid arthritis and 120 patients (135 hips) with osteoarthritis had a conical-shaped Zweymueller threaded cup and a tapered, rectangular Zweymueller stem implanted and were assessed after an average of 12.5 years. The endpoints for survival analysis were failure of one or both components due to radiographic loosening or revision. Revision was defined as exchange of cup, stem or both. When the PE-insert or the ceramic ball head were exchanged leaving cup and stem in place, e.g. for PE-wear or dislocation, this was not considered a revision but a re-intervention. No differences were found in survival rates; however, in the rheumatoid arthritis group there was an increased rate of malposition of the cup, avulsions of the greater trochanter, and increased bone resorption in the trochanteric region. This study shows that despite altered biomechanical properties of rheumatoid bone, mechanical stability and osseous integration of cementless prosthesis are not compromised and, although a higher complication rate did occur, long-term survival is excellent. PMID:17609955

  12. Laser polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmler, A.; Willenborg, E.; Wissenbach, K.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to polish metallic freeform surfaces is polishing by means of laser radiation. In this technology a thin surface layer is molten and the surface tension leads to a material flow from the peaks to the valleys. No material is removed but reallocated while molten. As the typical processing time is 1 min/cm2 laser polishing is up to 30 times faster than manual polishing. Reducing the roughness by laser polishing is achieved for several different materials such as hot work steels for the die and molding industries or titanium alloys for medical engineering. Enhancing the appearance of design surfaces is achieved by creating a dual-gloss effect by selective laser polishing (SLP). In comparison to conventional polishing processes laser polishing opens up the possibility of selective processing of small areas (< 0.1 mm2). A dual-gloss effect is based on a space-resolved change in surface roughness. In comparison to the initial surface the roughness of the laser polished surface is reduced significantly up to spatial wavelengths of 80 microns and therefore the gloss is raised considerably. The surface roughness is investigated by a spectral analysis which is achieved by a discrete convolution of the surface profile with a Gaussian loaded function. The surfaces roughness is split into discrete wavelength intervals and can be evaluated and optimized. Laser polishing is carried out by using a special tailored five-axis mechanical handling system, combined with a three axis laser scanning system and a fibre laser.

  13. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively. PMID:26747129

  14. Parabolic tapers for overmoded waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Doane, J.L.

    1983-11-25

    A waveguide taper with a parabolic profile, in which the distance along the taper axis varies as the square of the tapered dimension, provides less mode conversion than equal length linear tapers and is easier to fabricate than other non-linear tapers.

  15. Tapered structure construction

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Eric D.; Takata, Rosalind K.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Nayfeh, Samir A.

    2016-04-05

    Feeding stock used to form a tapered structure into a curving device such that each point on the stock undergoes rotational motion about a peak location of the tapered structure; and the stock meets a predecessor portion of stock along one or more adjacent edges.

  16. Tapered fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Stephen D.; Stamnitz, Timothy C.

    1990-07-01

    A tapered optical fiber amplifier is designed to provide for long-distance, un-repeatered fiber optic communications. Two single-mode fiber portions are tapered to efficiently intensify and couple an information signal from a laser diode and a pump signal at a shorter wavelength into a fused, tapered single-mode fiber optic coupler. The concentrated information signal and concentrated pump signal are combined via the coupler which is coupled to a several-kilometer length of a relatively small core diametered single-mode fiber to create nonlinear optical effect (stimulated Raman scattering) (SRS). The SRS causes Raman shift of the pump light into the small core diametered single-mode fiber length, thereby generating SRS to result in a signal amplification and an efficient extraction of the amplified signal via the tapered output fiber portion or pigtail.

  17. Cementless total hip arthroplasty using a threaded cup and a rectangular tapered stem. Follow-up for ten to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Pospischill, M; Knahr, K

    2005-09-01

    We carried out a clinical and radiological review of 103 cementless primary hip arthroplasties with a tapered rectangular grit-blasted titanium press-fit femoral component and a threaded conical titanium acetabular component at a mean follow-up of 14.4 years (10.2 to 17.1). The mean Harris hip score at the last follow-up was 89.2 (32 to 100). No early loosening and no fracture of the implant were found. One patient needed revision surgery because of a late deep infection. In 11 hips (10.7%), the reason for revision was progressive wear of the polyethylene liner. Exchange of the acetabular component because of aseptic loosening without detectable liner wear was carried out in three hips (2.9%). After 15 years the survivorship with aseptic loosening as the definition for failure was 95.6% for the acetabular component and 100% for the femoral component. PMID:16129743

  18. Ultrasonic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  19. Wear patterns of taper connections in retrieved large diameter metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Nicholas; Witt, Florian; Pourzal, Robin; Fischer, Alfons; Rütschi, Marcel; Michel, Markus; Morlock, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Wear of the modular taper between head and shaft has been related to clinical failure resulting from adverse reactions to metallic debris. The problem has become pronounced in large metal-on-metal bearings, but the mechanism has not yet been fully understood. We analyzed retrieved components from five patients revised with various diagnoses. Two distinct wear patterns were observed for the head tapers. Three samples demonstrated "asymmetric" wear towards the inner end of the head taper. The other two showed "axisymmetric" radial wear (up to 65 µm) presenting the largest wear volumes (up to 20 mm(3)). Stem tapers demonstrated relatively little wear, and the fine thread on the stem taper surface was observed to be imprinted on the taper inside of the head. Our findings demonstrate that the cobalt-chrome head wears preferentially to the titanium stem taper. "asymmetric" wear suggests toggling due to the offset of the joint force vector from the taper. In contrast, samples with "axisymmetric" radial wear and a threaded imprint suggested that corrosion led to head subsidence onto the stem taper with gradual rotation. PMID:23440943

  20. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve is described to serve as the flexible foundation for a spacesuit limb covering. The tube has a large end and a small end with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end. A requisite number of warp yarns extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel, heated in an oven, and then attached to the arm or other limb of the spacesuit.

  1. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve as set forth. It has a large end 12 and a small end 14 with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end 12. A requisite number of warp yarns 16 extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns exemplified at 18, 22, 26, 28, 30 and 32 extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn 40 which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel 42, heated in an oven 44 and is thereafter placed on the arm or other limb of a space suit exemplified at 50.

  2. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  3. Convergent tapering of xylem conduits in different woody species.

    PubMed

    Anfodillo, Tommaso; Carraro, Vinicio; Carrer, Marco; Fior, Claudio; Rossi, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    A recent theoretical model (the West, Brown and Enquist, WBE model) hypothesized that plants have evolved a network of xylem conduits with a tapered structure (narrower conduits distally) which should minimize the cost of water transport from roots to leaves. Specific measurements are required to test the model predictions. We sampled both angiosperms and gymnosperms (50 trees) growing in different environments with heights ranging from 0.5 to 44.4 m, measuring variations of the xylem-conduit diameter from tree top to stem base. In all trees measured, mean hydraulically weighted conduit diameters (Dh) at the tree top were narrower than those at the stem base. In actively growing trees, the longitudinal variation of Dh showed a degree of tapering in agreement with WBE predictions, while trees close to their maximum height showed slightly lower conduit tapering. Comparing different species, a very good correlation was observed between degree of xylem tapering and tree height (r2 = 0.88; P < 0.0001) independently of any other variable (age, site, altitude, etc.). As predicted by WBE, sampled trees seemed to converge towards similar xylem conduit tapering. However, trees approaching their maximum height had a nonoptimal tapering which appeared insufficient to compensate for the progressive increase in tree height. PMID:16411931

  4. Tapered capillary optics

    DOEpatents

    Hirsch, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  5. Use of an anatomic long-stemmed component in femoral impaction grafting.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Richard W; Timperley, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a challenging femoral revision for aseptic loosening in a relatively young and active man. The femur had gross osteolysis, an absent calcar and a cortical diaphyseal defect at the level of the isthmus (Paprosky 3b defect). The cortical defects were repaired and the whole femur then restored with Femoral Impaction Grafting (FIG) using custom-made impaction instruments and an anatomic shaped collarless, polished, tapered femoral component.In the active adult, bone restoring revision techniques such as impaction grafting should be considered to give a realistic prospect of host bone augmentation rather than simply aiming for a distally fixed stem in a patulous femoral canal. PMID:26692247

  6. Taper junction failure in large-diameter metal-on-metal bearings

    PubMed Central

    Langton, D. J.; Sidaginamale, R.; Lord, J. K.; Nargol, A. V. F.; Joyce, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An ongoing prospective study to investigate failing metal-on-metal hip prostheses was commenced at our centre in 2008. We report on the results of the analysis of the first consecutive 126 failed mated total hip prostheses from a single manufacturer. Methods Analysis was carried out using highly accurate coordinate measuring to calculate volumetric and linear rates of the articular bearing surfaces and also the surfaces of the taper junctions. The relationship between taper wear rates and a number of variables, including bearing diameter and orientation of the acetabular component, was investigated. Results The measured rates of wear and distribution of material loss from the taper surfaces appeared to show that the primary factor leading to taper failure is the increased lever arm acting on this junction in contemporary large-diameter metal-on-metal hip replacements. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that varus stems, laterally engaging taper systems and larger head diameters all contribute to taper failure. PMID:23610672

  7. Artificial Intelligence Procedures for Tree Taper Estimation within a Complex Vegetation Mosaic in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Matheus Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Tree stem form in native tropical forests is very irregular, posing a challenge to establishing taper equations that can accurately predict the diameter at any height along the stem and subsequently merchantable volume. Artificial intelligence approaches can be useful techniques in minimizing estimation errors within complex variations of vegetation. We evaluated the performance of Random Forest® regression tree and Artificial Neural Network procedures in modelling stem taper. Diameters and volume outside bark were compared to a traditional taper-based equation across a tropical Brazilian savanna, a seasonal semi-deciduous forest and a rainforest. Neural network models were found to be more accurate than the traditional taper equation. Random forest showed trends in the residuals from the diameter prediction and provided the least precise and accurate estimations for all forest types. This study provides insights into the superiority of a neural network, which provided advantages regarding the handling of local effects. PMID:27187074

  8. Artificial Intelligence Procedures for Tree Taper Estimation within a Complex Vegetation Mosaic in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus Henrique; Görgens, Eric Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Tree stem form in native tropical forests is very irregular, posing a challenge to establishing taper equations that can accurately predict the diameter at any height along the stem and subsequently merchantable volume. Artificial intelligence approaches can be useful techniques in minimizing estimation errors within complex variations of vegetation. We evaluated the performance of Random Forest® regression tree and Artificial Neural Network procedures in modelling stem taper. Diameters and volume outside bark were compared to a traditional taper-based equation across a tropical Brazilian savanna, a seasonal semi-deciduous forest and a rainforest. Neural network models were found to be more accurate than the traditional taper equation. Random forest showed trends in the residuals from the diameter prediction and provided the least precise and accurate estimations for all forest types. This study provides insights into the superiority of a neural network, which provided advantages regarding the handling of local effects. PMID:27187074

  9. Mechanical effects of stem cement interface characteristics in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Verdonschot, N; Huiskes, R

    1996-08-01

    Stem cement debonding is 1 of the most common forms of fixation failure and is thought to be a prelude to gross loosening of a total hip reconstruction. However, the immediate consequences of debonding remains a matter of controversy. The dynamic effects of stem cement debonding in total hip reconstruction were analyzed using 3-dimensional finite element techniques. Stem cement interface conditions were assumed as completely bonded or unbonded, with or without friction. The dynamic effects were accounted for, as presented by the stance and swing phases of the gait cycle. It was found that both cyclic micromotions at the stem cement interface and stresses in the cement mantle were effectively reduced by friction. The friction cases produced failure probabilities of the cement mantle that were relatively close to the one generated by the bonded stem. The probability of mechanical failure of the cement bone interface decreased after debonding and decreased more with reduced stem cement friction. These results show that, although a firm and lasting bond between stem and cement may be desirable for preventing cement failure, the mechanical effects of a debonded stem are less detrimental than were assumed earlier. For straight tapered stem shapes subjected to the loading conditions described, a polished stem may be desirable for the cement bone interface mechanics. PMID:8769468

  10. TAPERED DEFINING SLOT

    DOEpatents

    Pressey, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    An improvement is reported in the shape and formation of the slot or opening in the collimating slot member which forms part of an ion source of the type wherein a vapor of the material to be ionized is bombarded by electrons in a magnetic field to strike an arc-producing ionization. The defining slot is formed so as to have a substantial taper away from the cathode, causing the electron bombardment from the cathode to be dispersed over a greater area reducing its temperature and at the same time bringing the principal concentration of heat from the electron bombardment nearer the anode side of the slot, thus reducing deterioration and prolonging the life of the slot member during operation.

  11. Head-Neck Taper Corrosion in Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hussenbocus, S.; Kosuge, D.; Solomon, L. B.; Howie, D. W.; Oskouei, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Modularity at the head-neck junction of the femoral component in THA became popular as a design feature with advantages of decreasing implant inventory and allowing adjustment of leg length, offset, and soft tissue balancing through different head options. The introduction of a new modular interface to femoral stems that were previously monoblock, or nonmodular, comes with the potential for corrosion at the taper junction through mechanically assisted crevice corrosion. The incidence of revision hip arthroplasty is on the rise and along with improved wear properties of polyethylene and ceramic, use of larger femoral head sizes is becoming increasingly popular. Taper corrosion appears to be related to all of its geometric parameters, material combinations, and femoral head size. This review article discusses the pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical assessment, and management of taper corrosion at the head-neck junction. PMID:25954757

  12. Tapered undulator for SASE FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M.; Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwang-Je; Vinokurov, Nikolai A.

    2001-09-14

    We discuss the use of tapered undulators to enhance the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) based upon self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), where the radiation tends to have a relatively broad bandwidth, limited temporal phase coherence, and large amplitude fluctuations. Using the polychromatic FEL simulation code GINGER, we numerically demonstrate the effectiveness of a tapered undulator for parameters corresponding to the existing Argonne low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL. We also study possible tapering options for proposed x-ray FELs such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  13. Tapered undulators for SASE FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawley, William M.; Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwang-Je; Vinokurov, Nikolai A.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss the use of tapered undulators to enhance the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) based upon self-amplified spontaneous emission, where the radiation tends to have a relatively broad bandwidth and limited temporal coherence. Using the polychromatic FEL simulation code GINGER, we numerically demonstrate the effectiveness of tapered undulators for parameters corresponding to the Argonne low-energy undulator test line FEL and the proposed linac coherent light source.

  14. Mode profile imaging and loss measurement for uniform and tapered single-mode 3D waveguides in diffusive photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chunfang; Kamysiak, Keith T; Sullivan, Amy C; McLeod, Robert R

    2012-03-12

    We demonstrate single-mode uniform and parabolically tapered three-dimensional waveguides fabricated via direct-write lithography in diffusion-based photopolymers. Modulation of the writing power is shown to compensate Beer-Lambert absorption in the single-photon initiator and to provide precise control of modal tapers. A laminated sample preparation is introduced to enable full 3D characterization of these modal tapers without the need for sample polishing which is difficult for this class of polymer. The accuracy and repeatability of this modal characterization is shown to allow precise measurement of propagation loss from single samples. These testing procedures are used to demonstrate single-mode waveguides with 0.147 dB/cm excess propagation loss and symmetrical tapers up to 1:2.5 using 1.5 microwatts of continuous write power. PMID:22418540

  15. Rediscovery of Polish meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    The total number of Polish registered meteorites (by July 2016) including the meteoritical artifacts as Czestochowa Raków I and II is 22. Most of them are described by the pioneer of Polish Meteoritics Jerzy Pokrzywnicki who also identified the meteorite fall locations. In recent years prospectors found impressive specimens of known Polish meteorites such as Morasko: 34 kg, 50 kg, 164 kg, 174 kg and 261 kg or Pultusk: 1578 g, 1576 g, 1510 g, 610 g and 580 g expanding and determining precisely the known meteorite strewn fields.

  16. Polished polymide substrate

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John; Sudarshanam, Venkatapuram S.

    2003-05-13

    Polymer substrates, in particular polyimide substrates, and polymer laminates for optical applications are described. Polyimide substrates are polished on one or both sides depending on their thickness, and single-layer or multi-layer waveguide structures are deposited on the polished polyimide substrates. Optical waveguide devices are machined by laser ablation using a combination of IR and UV lasers. A waveguide-fiber coupler with a laser-machined groove for retaining the fiber is also disclosed.

  17. Tapered laser rods as a means of minimizing the path length of trapped barrel mode rays

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.; Mercer, Ian; Perry, Michael D.

    2005-08-30

    By tapering the diameter of a flanged barrel laser rod over its length, the maximum trapped path length of a barrel mode can be dramatically reduced, thereby reducing the ability of the trapped spontaneous emission to negatively impact laser performance through amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Laser rods with polished barrels and flanged end caps have found increasing application in diode array end-pumped laser systems. The polished barrel of the rod serves to confine diode array pump light within the rod. In systems utilizing an end-pumping geometry and such polished barrel laser rods, the pump light that is introduced into one or both ends of the laser rod, is ducted down the length of the rod via the total internal reflections (TIRs) that occur when the light strikes the rod's barrel. A disadvantage of using polished barrel laser rods is that such rods are very susceptible to barrel mode paths that can trap spontaneous emission over long path lengths. This trapped spontaneous emission can then be amplified through stimulated emission resulting in a situation where the stored energy available to the desired lasing mode is effectively depleted, which then negatively impacts the laser's performance, a result that is effectively reduced by introducing a taper onto the laser rod.

  18. The tapered press fit total hip arthroplasty: a European alternative.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Todd V

    2005-06-01

    The tapered rectangular press fit femoral component design of Karl Zweymüller remains highly successful since its inception in 1979. The longitudinal taper and rectangular cross-section provide unequaled primary stability, which promotes consistent secondary osseointegration to the grit-blasted titanium surface, even in osteoporotic bone. The "fit without fill" concept provides for bone conservation and preservation of the intraosseous blood supply by compaction, rather than removal, of the metaphyseal cancellous bone. The surgical technique is simple and forgiving, allowing for infinite adjustability in stem height and anteversion. Numerous long-term studies report excellent clinical results with a negligible incidence of loosening, thigh pain, osteolysis, or significant stress shielding and survivorships approaching 100% at 10 years. PMID:15991133

  19. Thread gauge for tapered threads

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1994-01-11

    The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads. 13 figures.

  20. Thread gauge for tapered threads

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1994-01-11

    The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads.

  1. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  2. Theory and Simulations of Tapered Diblock Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lisa M.; Seo, Youngmi; Brown, Jonathan R.

    We study tapered block polymers, AB diblock polymers with a gradient region inserted between the pure A and B blocks such that composition smoothly transitions from A to B (or B to A in the case of inverse tapers). Phase diagrams were created using self consistent field theory (SCFT), and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study polymer conformations and diffusion, including diffusion of monomer-sized penetrants preferentially dissolved in one of the phases. As has been observed experimentally, we find that tapering makes the A and B blocks more miscible, decreasing domain spacing and shifting the order to disorder transition to lower temperatures. We predict a widening of the bicontinuous double gyroid region of the phase diagram for moderate length normal tapers versus diblocks, suggesting taper length can be used as a control parameter to obtain network phases even at high molecular weight, as may be desirable in transport applications. Additionally, in some inverse tapered systems, SCFT predicts phases not present in the standard AB diblock phase diagram, and MD simulations show how the chains fold back and forth across the interface. In these inverse tapered polymers, as segregation strength is increased, the competing effects of folding and stretching produces lamellae that have domain spacing nearly independent of temperature. We also find that diffusion of penetrants in normal tapers is significantly faster than that in inverse tapers, which is likely related to their unusual conformations. This material is based upon work supported by DOE Grant SC0014209.

  3. Calculation of tapered monoplane wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amstutz, E

    1930-01-01

    The tapered wing shape increases the lift in the middle of the wing and thus reduces the bending moment of the lifting forces in the plane of symmetry. Since this portion of the wing is the thickest, the stresses of the wing material are reduced and desirable space is provided for stowing the loads in the wing. This statically excellent form of construction, however, has aerodynamic disadvantages which must be carefully weighed, if failures are to be avoided. This treatise is devoted to the consideration of these problems.

  4. Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Grogan, Michael D W; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Williams, Rhys; England, Richard; Wadsworth, Willam J; Birks, Tim A

    2009-09-15

    We have embedded thin tapered fibers (with diameters down to 1 microm) in silica aerogel with low loss. The aerogel is rigid but behaves refractively like air, protecting the taper without disturbing light propagation along it. This enables a new class of fiber devices exploiting volume evanescent interactions with the aerogel itself or with dopants or gases in the pores. PMID:19756084

  5. Circular tapered tape fabrication: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, D.A.

    1988-04-01

    A new approach to producing tapered tapes has been developed involving generating a tapered tape in a circular configuration on a lathe rather than a mill. This approach is more cost-effective and the redesigned slot configuration induced less stress on the tapes during installation and removal.

  6. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  7. Frequency coded sensors incorporating tapers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a piezoelectric substrate on which is formed a transducer that generates acoustic waves on the surface of the substrate from electrical waves received by the transducer. The waves are carried along an acoustic track to either a second transducer or a reflector. The transducers or transducer and reflector are formed of subsections that are constructed to operate at mutually different frequencies. The subsections of at least one of the transducers or transducer and reflector are out of alignment with respect to one another relative to the transverse of the propagation direction. The out of aligned subsections provide not only a frequency component but also a time to the signal output signal. Frequency response characteristics are improved. An alternative embodiment provides that the transducers and/or reflectors are continuously tapered instead of having discrete frequency subsections.

  8. Endfire tapered slot antennas on dielectric substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Schaubert, D. H.; Korzeniowski, T. L.; Kollberg, E. L.; Thungren, T.

    1985-01-01

    Endfire-tapered slot antennas are suitable for many integrated circuit applications, imaging and phased arrays. An investigation of single elements of such antennas, including slots which are exponentially tapered (Vivaldi), linearly tapered, and constant width. For antennas of all types, a good general agreement is obtained for curves of beamwidth-versus-length, normalized to wavelength, when one compares the data with that for traveling-wave antennas published by Zucker (1961). An important condition for this agreement is that the effective dielectric thickness, defined in the text, is in a certain optimum range. This condition is qualitatively explained in terms of the theory for traveling-wave antennas.

  9. Endfire tapered slot antennas on dielectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Schaubert, D. H.; Korzeniowski, T. L.; Kollberg, E. L.; Thungren, T.

    1985-12-01

    Endfire-tapered slot antennas are suitable for many integrated circuit applications, imaging and phased arrays. An investigation of single elements of such antennas, including slots which are exponentially tapered (Vivaldi), linearly tapered, and constant width. For antennas of all types, a good general agreement is obtained for curves of beamwidth-versus-length, normalized to wavelength, when one compares the data with that for traveling-wave antennas published by Zucker (1961). An important condition for this agreement is that the effective dielectric thickness, defined in the text, is in a certain optimum range. This condition is qualitatively explained in terms of the theory for traveling-wave antennas.

  10. Cyclic fatigue resistance of two variable-taper rotary file systems: ProTaper universal and V-Taper.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Sterling J; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C; Rutledge, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    The cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and V-Taper (Guidance Endo, Albuquerque, NM) files was measured while rotating files around a 5-mm radius curve with 90 degrees of maximum flexure. The files were rotated at 250 rpm with a continuous axial oscillation of 4 mm at 1 Hz. The number of cycles to failure was calculated and analyzed by using univariate analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD posthoc test with results confirmed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests with a Bonferroni correction. The fracture faces of representative files were imaged with a scanning electron microscope to confirm cyclic fatigue as the mode of fracture. For the instruments tested, the ProTaper files appeared to resist fracture better than the V-Taper files. At each tip size tested, the ProTaper files either outperformed or were not statistically different than V-Taper files. PMID:19345804

  11. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  12. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  13. Tapered fiber based high power random laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwei; Du, Xueyuan; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel high power random fiber laser (RFL) based on tapered fiber. It can overcome the power scaling limitation of RFL while maintaining good beam quality to a certain extent. An output power of 26.5 W has been achieved in a half-open cavity with one kilometer long tapered fiber whose core diameter gradually changes from 8 μm to 20 μm. The steady-state light propagation equations have been modified by taking into account the effective core area to demonstrate the tapered RFL through numerical calculations. The numerical model effectively describes the power characteristics of the tapered fiber based RFL, and both the calculating and experimental results show higher power exporting potential compared with the conventional single mode RFL. PMID:27137338

  14. The Exeter femoral stem continues to migrate during its first decade after implantation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to its collarless, double-tapered polished design, the Exeter femoral stem is known to migrate distally in the first 5 years after implantation. However, its long-term migration pattern has not been investigated. Patients and methods 39 consecutive patients (41 total hip arthroplasties) received a cemented Exeter stem and had prospective clinical and RSA follow-up. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks, and annually thereafter. Short-term results have been reported. In this study, the mean length of follow-up was 9.4 years (SD 3.2 years). No patients were lost to follow-up. 15 patients died during follow-up. Results No stems were revised. In 4 stems, fractures of the cement mantle were noted within the first 3 postoperative years. In 3 stems, this resulted in a complete circumferential cement mantle discontinuity. For the 37 well-performing stems, continuous but small migration was measured between 2 and 12 years of follow-up. Continued subsidence of 0.08 mm/year (95% CI: 0.05–0.12, p < 0.001) was seen in combination with continued rotation in retroversion of 0.07°/year (95% CI: 0.02–0.12, p = 0.01). At 10 years of follow-up, mean subsidence was 2.1 (SD 1.2) mm and mean retroversion was 1.8° (SD 2.0). Two-thirds of this occurred during the first 2 postoperative years. In the 3 stems with a complete circumferential cement fracture, a sudden and disproportionately high increase in subsidence was measured in the time period of occurrence. Interpretation The Exeter femoral stem continues to migrate during the first decade after implantation. Absolute stability is not required for good long-term survival if this is compatible with the design of the implant. PMID:22401676

  15. Determination of the characteristics of tapered wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Raymond F

    1937-01-01

    This report presents tables and charts for use in determining the characteristics of tapered wings. Theoretical factors are given from which the following characteristics of tapered wings may be found: the span lift distribution, the induced-angle-of attack distribution, the lift-curve slope, the angle of zero lift, the induced drag, the aerodynamic-center position, and the pitching moment about the aerodynamic center.

  16. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  17. Workplace for manufacturing devices based on optical fiber tapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, Tomáš; Honzátko, Pavel; Kaňka, Jiři; Novotný, Karel

    2007-04-01

    Many important optical fiber components are based on tapered optical fibers. A taper made from a single-mode optical fiber can be used, e.g., as a chemical sensor, bio-chemical sensor, or beam expander. A fused pair of tapers can be used as a fiber directional coupler. Fiber tapers can be fabricated in several simple ways. However, a tapering apparatus is required for more sophisticated fabrication of fiber tapers. The paper deals with fabrication and characterization of fiber tapers made from a single-mode optical fiber. A tapering apparatus was built for producing devices based on fiber tapers. The apparatus is universal and enables one to taper optical fibers of different types by a method utilizing stretching a flame-heated section of a silica fiber. Fiber tapers with constant waist length and different waist diameters were fabricated. The transition region of each fiber taper monotonically decreased in diameter along its length from the untapered fiber to the taper waist. The fiber tapers were fabricated with a constant drawing velocity, while the central zone of the original single-mode fiber was heated along a constant length. The spectral transmissions of the manufactured fiber tapers with different parameters were measured by the cut-back method.

  18. Tapered plug foam spray apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A two-component foam spray gun is readily disassembled for cleaning. It includes a body (1) with reactant (12, 14) and purge gas (16) inlet ports. A moldable valve packing (32) inside the body has a tapered conical interior surface (142), and apertures which match the reactant ports. A valve/tip (40) has a conical outer surface (48) which mates with the valve packing (32). The valve/tip (40) is held in place by a moldable packing washer (34), held at non-constant pressure by a screw (36, 38). The interior of the valve/tip (40) houses a removable mixing chamber (50). The mixing chamber (50) has direct flow orifices (60) and an auxiliary flow path (58, 60) which ameliorate pressure surges. The spray gun can be disassembled for cleaning without disturbing the seal, by removing the valve/tip (40) to the rear, thereby breaking it free of the conical packing. Rotation of the valve/tip (40) relative to the body (1) shuts off the reactant flow, and starts the purge gas flow.

  19. Stubby stems: good things come in small packages.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Ng, Vincent Y

    2011-09-01

    Standard-length porous-coated tapered femoral stems perform exceedingly well in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) at long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, there are multiple reasons to strongly consider the relatively new concept of short tapered stems. First, there is already a wide variation in the lengths of "standard" components and the ideal length is unknown. The goal of tapered stems is to load the proximal femur, and shortened stems accomplish this task. Second, while the distal extension may help prevent varus, unlike cemented stems, which are failure-prone with varus alignment, tapered designs are not. Additionally, elimination of the distal extension may reduce potential stress shielding. Third, short stems obviate problems with proximal-distal mismatch, excessive femoral bowing, diaphyseal deformities, and preexisting hardware. Fourth, implantation of smaller components requires less violation of bone and soft tissue, facilitating less invasive surgical approaches and favorable revision settings if necessary. Fifth, in comparison to hip resurfacing and other unconventional short-stem designs, tapered stems are familiar to most orthopedic surgeons and do not incur a steep learning curve. Finally, our early experience with this implant in 1750 THAs since 2006 has been excellent. In a series of >650 THA, compared to standard-length tapered stems, the short stem had equivalent clinical outcome scores, significantly fewer femoral fractures (12/389 [3.1%] vs 1/269 [0.4%]), and only 1 (1/269 [0.4%]) femoral revision (infection) at 2-year follow-up. Short stems represent the logical progression of a proven precedent in standard-length tapered stems. PMID:21902132

  20. Assessing the material loss of the modular taper interface in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Paul J.; Racasan, R.; Tessier, P.; Blunt, L. A.

    2015-06-01

    Measuring the amount of material loss in the case of revised hip replacements is considered to be a prerequisite of understanding and assessing the true in vivo performance of the implant. This paper outlines a method developed by the authors for quantifying taper material loss as well as more general taper interface parameters. Previous studies have mostly relied on visual inspection to assess the material loss at the taper interface, whereas this method aims to characterize any surface and form changes through the use of an out-of-roundness measurement machine. Along with assessing the volumetric wear, maximum linear penetration and taper contact length can also be determined. The method was applied to retrieved large head metal-on-metal femoral heads in order to quantify the material loss at this junction. Material loss from the female femoral head taper can be characterized as a localized area that is in contact with the stem taper surface. The study showed that this method has good repeatability and a low level of interoperability variation between operators.

  1. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  2. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Kuni H.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2015-12-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  3. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  4. Polishing gold and gold-alloy crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Sawed cross-section samples are rough polished at minimum pressure with 14 micron grit. After saw marks are polished away, polishing grit is changed to 0.05 micron. When smooth appearance is attained, surface is then chemically polished by hand in dust free room.

  5. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned. PMID:20665091

  6. Tooth polishing: The current status

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients’ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same. PMID:26392683

  7. [The Polish Medical Association, Londyn].

    PubMed

    Nowak, K

    1994-01-01

    The Polish Medical Association, founded in 1944 in London and celebrating its Golden Jubilee in 1944, is a unique organisation of doctors brought together by the shared experience of serving in the Polish armed forces on the fronts of the II World War. Preparing themselves for the return to a free Poland and later facing the realities of the emigré existence, they formed an association based on an identity with patriotic ideals and espousing a loyalty to the national cause, solidarity with the aspirations and goals of the expatriate community and commitment to the integrity in the performance of their professional duties. It was created against a background of the already existing Polish Medical Faculty at the University of Edinburgh and supported by strong lobbying on the part of the Polish Government and the favourable political climate. The need for a professional body of Polish doctors became evident. During the first few years the Association, originally called the Polish Medical Association in the British Empire, numbered over 700 doctors and achieved notable succeses for its members. The most significant were the endeavours which contributed to the inclusion of the so-called Clause 5 of the Polish Resettlement Act 1947, which in practice allowed Polish doctors serving in the Polish forces under British command to obtain full medical registration. Almost 800 doctors benefitted from this legislature and by coincidence, with the introduction of the National Health Service, they constituted the single most significant injection of non-British doctors into the British health care system. Throughout the years the Association, which originally comprised doctors with an Army background acquired more and more civilian members. The second generation followed, smaller waves of post-war emigration brought in new members from Poland. With time the administrative structure of the Association--initially comprising ten divisions in the UK and overseas--has changed; the

  8. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  9. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, Alan R.; Alberts, Alfred H.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip.

  10. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, A.R.; Alberts, A.H.

    1989-02-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip. 4 figs.

  11. Polish artificial heart program.

    PubMed

    El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

  12. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  13. Turbine airfoil fabricated from tapered extrusions

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2013-07-16

    An airfoil (30) and fabrication process for turbine blades with cooling channels (26). Tapered tubes (32A-32D) are bonded together in a parallel sequence, forming a leading edge (21), a trailing edge (22), and pressure and suction side walls (23, 24) connected by internal ribs (25). The tapered tubes may be extruded without camber to simplify the extrusion process, then bonded along matching surfaces (34), forming a non-cambered airfoil (28), which may be cambered in a hot forming process and cut (48) to length. The tubes may have tapered walls that are thinner at the blade tip (T1) than at the base (T2), reducing mass. A cap (50) may be attached to the blade tip. A mounting lug (58) may be forged (60) on the airfoil base and then machined, completing the blade for mounting in a turbine rotor disk.

  14. Tapered polysilicon core fibers for nonlinear photonics.

    PubMed

    Suhailin, Fariza H; Shen, Li; Healy, Noel; Xiao, Limin; Jones, Maxwell; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Gibson, Ursula J; Peacock, Anna C

    2016-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to obtaining small-core polysilicon waveguides from the silicon fiber platform. The fibers were fabricated via a conventional drawing tower method and, subsequently, tapered down to achieve silicon core diameters of ∼1  μm, the smallest optical cores for this class of fiber to date. Characterization of the material properties have shown that the taper process helps to improve the local crystallinity of the silicon core, resulting in a significant reduction in the material loss. By exploiting the combination of small cores and low losses, these tapered fibers have enabled the first observation of nonlinear transmission within a polycrystalline silicon waveguide of any type. As the fiber drawing method is highly scalable, it opens a route for the development of low-cost and flexible nonlinear silicon photonic systems. PMID:27192236

  15. Enhancing sensitivity of biconical tapered fiber sensors with multiple passes through the taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohoon, Gregory; Boyter, Chris; Errico, Michael; Vandervoort, Kurt; Salik, Ertan

    2010-03-01

    A single biconical fiber taper is a simple and low-cost yet powerful sensor. With a distinct strength in refractive index (RI) sensing, biconical tapered fiber sensors can find their place in handheld sensor platforms, especially as biosensors that are greatly needed in health care, environmental protection, food safety, and biodefense. We report doubling of sensitivity for these sensors with two passes through the tapered region, which becomes possible through the use of sensitive and high-dynamic-range photodetectors. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we measured transmission through the taper when it was immersed in isopropyl alcohol-water mixtures of varying concentrations, in which a thin gold layer at the tip of the fiber acted as a mirror enabling two passes through the tapered region. This improved the sensitivity from 0.43 dB/vol % in the single-pass case to 0.78 dB/vol % with two passes through the taper. The refractive index detection limit was estimated to be ~1.2×10-5 RI units (RIU) and ~0.6×10-5 RIU in the single- and double-pass schemes, respectively. We predict that further enhancement of sensitivity may be achieved with a higher number of passes through the taper.

  16. Simultaneous ion sputter polishing and deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, S.; Banks, B.; Brdar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments to study ion beam sputter polishing in conjunction with simultaneous deposition as a mean of polishing copper surfaces are presented. Two types of simultaneous ion sputter polishing and deposition were used in these experiments. The first type utilized sputter polishing simultaneous with vapor deposition, and the second type utilized sputter polishing simultaneous with sputter deposition. The etch and deposition rates of both techniques were studied, as well as the surface morphology and surface roughness.

  17. Stress intensity factor in a tapered specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    The general problem of a tapered specimen containing an edge crack is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. The equations are solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated for a compact and for a slender tapered specimen, the latter simulating the double cantilever beam. The results are obtained primarily for a pair of concentrated forces and for crack surface wedge forces. The stress intensity factors are also obtained for a long strip under uniform tension which contains inclined edge cracks.

  18. Apparatus for electrolytically tapered or contoured cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. A. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    An electrolytic machining apparatus for forming tapered or contoured cavities in an electrically conductive and electrochemically erodible piece is presented. It supports the workpiece and an electrode for movement relatively toward each other and has means for pumping an electrolyte between the workpiece and the electrode.

  19. Cutting a Tapered Edge on Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resilience and flexibility of felt, rubber, or other padding materials allow them to be clamped in form block, cut straight down, and then released to produce straight clean tapered edge. With material held in slanted position, edge can be cut straight down; hence cut depth is minimum.

  20. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  1. Efficient polishing of aspheric optics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.; Landram, C.S.; Ng, L.C.

    1997-04-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop, evaluate, and optimize novel designs for a polishing tool intended for ultra-precise figure corrections on aspheric optics with tolerances typical of those required for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. This work may lead to an enhanced US industrial capability for producing optics for EUV, x-ray and, other high precision applications. LLNL benefits from developments in computer-controlled polishing and the insertion of fluid mechanics modeling into the precision manufacturing area. Our accomplishments include the numerical estimation of the hydrodynamic shear stress distribution for a new polishing tool that directs and controls the interaction of an abrasive slurry with an optical surface. A key milestone is in establishing a correlation between the shear stress predicted using our fluid mechanics model and the observed removal footprint created by a prototype tool. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to remove 25 nm layers of optical glass in a manner qualitatively similar to macroscopic milling operations using a numerically- controlled machine tool. Other accomplishments include the development of computer control software for directing the polishing tool and the construction of a polishing testbed.

  2. Fiber Optic Connector Polishing Fixture Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Moszcziewski, Joseph Roch (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fiber optic connector polishing fixture assembly for sup- porting a terminus of a fiber optic cable before a polishing surface. The assembly comprises: a fiber optic polishing fixture adapted to support the terminus before the polishing surface; a fixture support connected to the fixture for sup- porting the fixture before the polishing surface; and an adjustable connection between the fixture and the fixture support having user accessible adjustment controls for allowing a user to operate the controls to shift the fixture and fixture support relative to one another for substantially eliminating an apex offset of the terminus with respect to the polishing surface.

  3. 2D constant-loss taper for mode conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horth, Alexandre; Kashyap, Raman; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.

    2015-03-01

    Proposed in this manuscript is a novel taper geometry, the constant-loss taper (CLT). This geometry is derived with 1D slabs of silicon embedded in silicon dioxide using coupled-mode theory (CMT). The efficiency of the CLT is compared to both linear and parabolic tapers using CMT and 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is shown that over a short 2D, 4.45 μm long taper the CLT's mode conversion efficiency is ~90% which is 10% and 18% more efficient than a 2D parabolic or linear taper, respectively.

  4. Migration and strains induced by different designs of force-closed stems for THA☆

    PubMed Central

    Griza, Sandro; Gomes, Luiz Sérgio Marcelino; Cervieri, André; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subtle differences in stem design can result in different mechanical responses of the total hip arthroplasty. Tests measuring migration of the stem relative to the femur, as well as the strains in the cement mantle and on the femur can detect different mechanical behavior between stems. Methods In this article, conical, double and triple tapered stems were implanted in composite femurs and subjected to static and cyclic loads. Stems differed mainly on taper angle, calcar radius and proximal stiffness. Stem migration and strains on the femur and in the cement mantle were achieved. Results Significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted in the permanent rotation between double and triple tapers, in the strains on the proximal medial femur between triple and both conical and double tapers, and in the strains on the lateral proximal femur between double tapers and both conical and triple tapers. Conclusion The proposed mechanical tests were able to detect significant differences in the behavior of these resembling stems. Stem proximal stiffness and the calcar radius of the stem influence its rotational stability and the strain transmission to the femur. PMID:27218081

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  7. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    This book of instructional materials for reading in Polish are intended for college-level students, and are designed to bring native English-speakers from an 0+ (Novice High) to a 1+ (Intermediate High) language proficiency level on the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Interagency Language Roundtable proficiency scale. The…

  10. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  11. Spatially resolved spectroscopy using tapered stripline NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijssen, Koen C. H.; Bart, Jacob; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Janssen, J. W. G. (Hans); Kentgens, Arno P. M.; van Bentum, P. Jan M.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic field B0 gradients are essential in modern Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Although RF/B1 gradients can be used to fulfill a similar role, this is not used in common practice because of practical limitations in the design of B1 gradient coils. Here we present a new method to create B1 gradients using stripline RF coils. The conductor-width of a stripline NMR chip and the strength of its radiofrequency field are correlated, so a stripline chip can be tapered to produce any arbitrary shaped B1 field gradient. Here we show the characterization of this tapered stripline configuration and demonstrate three applications: magnetic resonance imaging on samples with nL-μL volumes, reaction monitoring of fast chemical reactions (10-2-101 s) and the compensation of B0 field gradients to obtain high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

  12. Orthogonal feeding techniques for tapered slot antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1998-01-01

    For array of "brick" configuration there are electrical and mechanical advantages to feed the antenna with a feed on a substrate perpendicular to the antenna substrate. Different techniques have been proposed for exciting patch antennas using such a feed structure.Rncently, an aperture-coupled dielectric resonator antenna using a perpendicular feed substrate has been demonstrated to have very good power coupling efficiency. For a two-dimensional rectangular array with tapered slot antenna elements, a power combining network on perpendicular substrate is generally required to couple power to or from the array. In this paper, we will describe two aperture-coupled techniques for coupling microwave power from a linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) to a microstrip feed on a perpendicular substrate. In addition, we will present measured results for return losses and radiation patterns.

  13. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism.

  14. The Polish People: The Challenge of Sponsorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth; Johnson, Winston

    This report provides background information on Polish refugees that may be of use to sponsors involved in Polish refugee resettlement in the United States. The report discusses economic and social conditions in Poland; the social values and political attitudes of modern Polish refugees as opposed to those of Poles who settled in the United States…

  15. Design of Structurally Efficient Tapered Struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messinger, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the analytical study of two full-scale tapered composite struts. The analytical study resulted in the design of two structurally efficient carbon/epoxy struts in accordance with NASA-specified geometries and loading conditions. Detailed stress analysis was performed of the insert, end fitting, and strut body to obtain an optimized weight with positive margins. Two demonstration struts were fabricated based on a well-established design from a previous Space Shuttle strut development program.

  16. Experimental stiffness of tapered bore seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The stiffness of tapered-bore ring seals was measured with air as the sealed fluid. Static stiffness agreed fairly well with results of a previous analysis. Cross-coupled stiffness due to shaft rotation was much less than predicted. It is suggested that part of the disparity may be due to simplifying assumptions in the analysis; however, these do not appear to account for the entire difference observed.

  17. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  18. Nanostructured tapered optical fibers for paticle trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Mark; Truong, Viet Giang; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-05-01

    Optical micro- and nanofibers have recently gained popularity as tools in quantum engineering using laser-cooled, neutral atoms. In particular, atoms can be trapped around such optical fibers, and photons coupled into the fibers from the surrounding atoms could be used to transfer quantum state information within the system. It has also been demonstrated that such fibers can be used to manipulate and trap silica and polystyrene particles in the 1-3 μm range. We recently proposed using a focused ion beam nanostructured tapered optical fiber for improved atom trapping geometries1. Here, we present details on the design and fabrication of these nanostructured optical fibers and their integration into particle trapping platforms for the demonstration of submicron particle trapping. The optical fibers are tapered to approximately 1-2 μm waist diameters, using a custom-built, heat-and-pull fiber rig, prior to processing using a focused ion beam. Slots of about 300 nm in width and 10-20 μm in length are milled right though the waist regions of the tapered optical fibers. Details on the fabrication steeps necessary to ensure high optical transmission though the fiber post processing are included. Fiber transmissions of over 80% over a broad range of wavelengths, in the 700-11100 nm range, are attainable. We also present simulation results on the impact of varying the slot parameters on the trap depths achievable and milling multiple traps within a single tapered fiber. This work demonstrates even further the functionality of optical micro- and nanofibers as trapping devices across a range of regimes.

  19. Taper Angle Evolution in Taiwan Accretionary Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Chi, W.; Liu, C.

    2011-12-01

    Liwen Chena,b, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan The critical taper model, originally developed using onland Taiwan as an example, is governed by force balance of a horizontal compressional wedge. This model has been successfully applied to many mountainous regions around the world. Among them, Taiwan is located in an oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and the Chinese Passive margin. Previous critical taper angle studies of Taiwan are mainly focusing on utilizing land data. In this study we want to extend these studies to offshore region from the subduction zone to collision zone. Here we study the varying taper angles of the double-vergent wedge derived from 1,000 km of reflection seismic profiles in both the pro-wedge and retro-wedge locations. These profiles were collected in the last two decades. For the retro-wedge, the topography slope angle changes from 2 to 8.8 degrees; some of the steep slope suggests that some part of the retrowedge is currently in a super-critical angle state. Such dramatic changes in taper angle probably strongly affect regional sedimentary processes, including slumping, in addition to structural deformation. These complex processes might even help develop a mélange or re-open a closed basin. We are currently working on studying the taper angle evolution of the pro-wedge from subduction to arc-continent collision zone in the offshore region. Though further works are needed, our preliminary results show that the evolution of wedge angles and the geometry of the wedge are closely linked and inseparable. The structures of the subducting plate might have strong influence on the deformation style of the over-riding plate. It would be interesting to combine the angle variation with the structure interpretation of the accretionary wedge

  20. Finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Robert George

    The development of high power, high brightness semiconductor lasers is important for applications such as efficient pumping of fiber amplifiers and free space communication. The ability to couple directly into the core of a single-mode fiber can vastly increase the absorption of pump light. Further, the high mode-selectivity provided by unstable resonators accommodates single-mode operation to many times the threshold current level. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate a more efficient semiconductor-based unstable resonator design. The tapered unstable resonator laser consists of a single-mode ridge coupled to a tapered gain region. The ridge, aided by spoiling grooves, provides essential preparation of the fundamental mode, while the taper provides significant amplification and a large output mode. It is shown a laterally finite taper-side mirror (making the laser a "finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator laser") serves to significantly improve differential quantum efficiency. This results in the possibility for higher optical powers while still maintaining single-mode operation. Additionally, the advent of a detuned second order grating allows for a low divergent, quasicircular output beam emitted from the semiconductor surface, easing packaging tolerances, and making two dimensional integrated arrays possible. In this dissertation, theory, design, fabrication, and characterization are presented. Material theory is introduced, reviewing gain, carrier, and temperature effects on field propagation. Coupled-mode and coupled wave theory is reviewed to allow simulation of the passive grating. A numerical model is used to investigate laser design and optimization, and effects of finite-apertures are explored. A microfabrication method is introduced to create the FATURL in InAlGaAs/-InGaAsP/InP material emitting at about 1410 nm. Fabrication consists of photolithography, electron-beam lithography, wet etch and dry etching processes, metal and

  1. HyDRa: polishing with a vortex.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Erika; Ruiz, Elfego; Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Herrera, Joel

    2013-09-01

    We present a hydrodynamic, deterministic polishing tool (HyDRa) based on the fluid-jet polishing (FJP) principle. In contrast to other FJP methods, the polishing flux is accelerated with pressurized air and then expelled at high velocity, forming a radial, grazing abrasive pattern that exerts no net force of the tool on the surface to be polished, since the vacuum and thrust forces that are created at the tool's output balance each other out. The grazing effect minimizes microroughness, making it appropriate for finishing high-quality surfaces. The principle of operation as well as polishing results of a series of small etalon plates are presented. PMID:24085071

  2. Comparison between 50 W tapered laser arrays and tapered single emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Christian; Boucke, Konstantin; Poprawe, Reinhart; Keleman, Marc T.; Weber, Jürgen; Mikulla, Michael; Weimann, Günter

    2006-02-01

    During the last few years high power diode laser arrays have become well established for direct material processing due to their high efficiency of more than 50%. But standard broad-area waveguide designs are susceptible to modal instabilities and filamentations resulting in low beam qualities. The beam quality increases by more than a factor of four by using tapered laser arrays, but so far they suffer from lower efficiencies. Therefore tapered lasers are mainly used today as single emitters in external resonator configurations. With increased output power and lifetime, they will be much more attractive for material processing and for pumping of fiber amplifiers. High efficiency tapered mini bars emitting at a wavelength of 980 nm are developed, and in order to qualify the bars, the characteristics of single emitters and mini bars from the same wafer have been compared. The mini bars have a width of 6 mm with 12 emitters. The ridge waveguide tapered lasers consist of a 500 μm long ridge and a 2000 μm long tapered section. The results show very similar behavior of the electro-optical characteristics and the beam quality for single emitters and bars. Due to different junction temperatures, different slope efficiencies were measured: 0.8 W/A for passively cooled mini bars and 1.0 W/A for actively cooled mini-bars and single emitters. The threshold current of 0.7 A per emitter is the same for single emitters and emitter arrays. Output powers of more than 50 W in continuous wave mode for a mini bar with standard packaging demonstrates the increased power of tapered laser bars.

  3. Micro-taper as focusing or scattering optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, S. A.; Ustinov, A. V.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-04-01

    We consider micro-taper (narrow refractive axicon) as optical element which is focusing or scattering in dependence on axicon's cone angle. The diffraction of laser beam by micro-taper is simulated by two methods: multiply internal ray reflections using geometrical approach and Helmholtz equation solving using finite elements method. Based on ray optics we derive analytic formulas for conical angles values which provide focusing or scattering features of micro-taper. Numerical simulation by finite elements method verifies theoretical results.

  4. Increased efficacy of intermediate-dose cytarabine + G-CSF compared to DHAP + G-CSF for stem cell mobilization in patients with lymphoma: an analysis by the polish lymphoma research group.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Sebastian; Sadus-Wojciechowska, Maria; Halaburda, Kazimierz; Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Najda, Jacek; Mendrek, Wlodzimierz; Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka, Malgorzata; Nowicki, Mateusz; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Czerw, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Salvage regimens, like DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin) are frequently used for stem cell mobilization in lymphoma. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of DHAP + G-CSF with intermediate-dose cytarabine (ID-AraC) + G-CSF, recently proposed as an alternative schedule. Consecutive patients with Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had received at least 2 lines of chemotherapy, mobilized with either DHAP (n = 51) or ID-AraC (n = 50) + G-CSF were included in the analysis. AraC was administered at the dose of 400 mg/m [1] bid intravenously for 2 days followed by filgrastim starting from day 5. In the AraC group, 96 % of patients collected at least 2 × 10 [2] CD34(+) cells/kg compared to 71 % in the DHAP group (p = 0.0006). The CD34(+) cell yield was 9.3 (0-30.3) × 10 [2]/kg vs. 5.6 (0-24.8) × 10 [2]/kg, respectively (p = 0.006). A single apheresis was sufficient to achieve the threshold number of CD34(+) cells in 82 % of the cases after AraC compared to 45 % after DHAP (p = 0.001). We conclude that stem cell mobilization using ID-AraC is associated with a significantly higher efficacy than DHAP, allowing for collection of the transplant material in almost all patients with lymphoma. Our observation suggests that ID-AraC + G-CSF may be a preferable mobilization regimen in this setting. PMID:26611854

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  7. An acoustic vibration sensor based on tapered triple cladding fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Pang, Fufei; Zhao, Shiqi; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-05-01

    An acoustic vibration sensor is investigated and demonstrated by using a tapered triple cladding fiber (TCF). It is fabricated by tapering a length of 2 cm TCF which is spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The TCF consists of core, inner cladding, middle cladding and outer cladding. After the tapering process, this structure becomes a tapered coaxial fiber coupler which presents a periodic filtering transmission spectrum. The surrounding vibration perturbation can be directly demodulated by intensity detection of the transmission power at a particular wavelength. The experimental result shows that the maximum frequency response of 700 kHz is achieved.

  8. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 μm and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber. PMID:26479631

  9. Radiation pattern analysis of the tapered slot antenna, appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, Ramakrishna

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical model for the tapered slot antenna is presented. The model is valid for any smooth taper of the slot. The problem is solved by modeling the slot electric field and using the half plane Green's function to compute the far fields. The aperture field is obtained by affecting a stepped approximation to the continuous taper and utilizing the uniform wide slot line data. The uniform wide slot line is solved by the spectral Galerkin's technique and closed form experssions are developed for the slot wave length and the slot characteristic impedance. Numerous comparisons with measurement are made to demonstrate the versatility of the model in treating an arbitrary slot taper.

  10. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2008-07-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. The collaboration between optical- and mechanical designers at Astron led to new design philosophies and strategies. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness (~1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions.

  11. Improved Tennis Racquets Have Tapered Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Design concept for better performing tennis racquet. Essence of concept to taper strings in such way as to shift center of percussion (also called "sweet spot") toward the toe (outer end of racquet, farthest from player's hand). In addition to increasing power on serves, also improves player's control and feel of racquet in player's hand. Racquet less likely to twist in player's hand on off-center shots. Important element of better feel is better absorption of vibrations; especially for players having chronic arm problems. String material nylon, animal gut, or other naturally or artifically spun threads. String can be attached to conventional racquet frame.

  12. Window taper functions for subaperture processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the spectrum of a signal can be calculated with a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), where best resolution is achieved by processing the entire data set. However, in some situations it is advantageous to use a staged approach, where data is first processed within subapertures, and the results are then combined and further processed to a final result. An artifact of this approach is the creation of grating lobes in the final response. The nature of the grating lobes, including their amplitude and spacing, is an artifact of window taper functions, subaperture offsets, and subaperture processing parameters. We assess these factors and exemplify their effects.

  13. Single-mode tapered quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauter, Patrick; Menzel, Stefan; Gokden, B.; K. Goyal, Anish; Wang, Christine A.; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate tapered quantum cascade lasers monolithically integrated with a distributed Bragg reflector acting as both a wavelength-selective back mirror and a transverse mode filter. Each of the 14 devices operates at a different wavelength between 9.2 and 9.7 μm, where nine devices feature single-mode operation at peak powers between 0.3 and 1.6 W at room temperature. High output power and excellent beam quality with peak brightness values up to 1.6 MW cm-2 sr-1 render these two-terminal devices highly suitable for stand-off spectroscopy applications.

  14. The violin bow: taper, camber and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2011-12-01

    An analytic, small-deflection, simplified model of the modern violin bow is introduced to describe the bending profiles and related strengths of an initially straight, uniform cross-section, stick as a function of bow hair tension. A number of illustrative bending profiles (cambers) of the bow are considered, which demonstrate the strong dependence of the flexibility of the bow on longitudinal forces across the ends of the bent stick. Such forces are shown to be comparable in strength to critical buckling loads causing excessive sideways buckling unless the stick is very straight. Non-linear, large deformation, finite element computations extend the analysis to bow hair tensions comparable with and above the critical buckling strength of the straight stick. The geometric model assumes an expression for the taper of Tourte bows introduced by Vuillaume, which is re-examined and generalized to describe violin, viola and cello bows. A comparison is made with recently published measurements of the taper and bending profiles of a particularly fine bow by Kittel. PMID:22225065

  15. Side polished twin-core fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianbin; Yuan, Libo

    2015-07-01

    A novel optical fiber coupler was proposed and fabricated for coupling each core of a twin-core fiber (TCF) with a single-core fiber (SCF) core simultaneously and accessing independently both cores of the TCF. The coupler is mainly composed of two sides polished SCF and a side polished TCF. Each optical field launched from the TCF could be coupled into the side polished SCF. The coupler has a simple structure and less cross-talk between the two cores.

  16. Challenges to ART market: a Polish case.

    PubMed

    Alichniewicz, Anna; Michałowska, Monika

    2015-02-01

    In the paper we are analyzing the Polish ART market. It can be noticed that the lack of legal regulation has resulted in many discrepancies among the policies adopted by various ART agencies. The social acceptance of ART procedures available mostly in private clinics led to growing commercialization of the Polish ART market. Additionally, the language of gift and altruistic rhetoric that are overwhelmingly employed by ART agencies reveals hypocrisy of the Polish ART market. PMID:24889400

  17. 5 CFR 353.303 - Restoration rights of TAPER employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration rights of TAPER employees... REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.303 Restoration rights of TAPER employees. An employee serving in the competitive service under a...

  18. 5 CFR 353.303 - Restoration rights of TAPER employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration rights of TAPER employees... REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.303 Restoration rights of TAPER employees. An employee serving in the competitive service under a...

  19. 5 CFR 353.303 - Restoration rights of TAPER employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration rights of TAPER employees... REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.303 Restoration rights of TAPER employees. An employee serving in the competitive service under a...

  20. 5 CFR 353.303 - Restoration rights of TAPER employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration rights of TAPER employees... REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.303 Restoration rights of TAPER employees. An employee serving in the competitive service under a...

  1. 5 CFR 353.303 - Restoration rights of TAPER employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration rights of TAPER employees... REGULATIONS RESTORATION TO DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.303 Restoration rights of TAPER employees. An employee serving in the competitive service under a...

  2. Risk stratification algorithm for management of patients with dual modular taper total hip arthroplasty: consensus statement of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the Hip Society.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Min; Fehring, Thomas K; Lombardi, Adolph V; Barnes, C Lowry; Cabanela, Miguel E; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2014-11-01

    Although 'dual taper' modular stems with interchangeable modular necks have the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters, there is increasing concern regarding the occurrence of adverse local tissue reactions from mechanically assisted crevice corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. A systematic treatment approach (risk stratification algorithm) based on the currently available data is recommended to optimize patient management. While specialized tests such as metal ion analysis and MARS MRI are useful modalities in evaluating for adverse tissue reactions, over-reliance on any single investigative tool in the clinical decision-making process should be avoided. There should be a low threshold to perform a systematic evaluation of patients with dual taper stem total hip arthroplasty as early recognition and diagnosis will facilitate the initiation of appropriate treatment. PMID:25189673

  3. Laser polishing of niobium for SRF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Smooth interior surfaces are desired for niobium SRF cavities, now obtained by buffered chemical polish (BCP) and/or electropolish (EP). Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from chemistry and in-process inspection. Here we show that laser polishing can produce smooth topography with Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements similar to that obtained by EP. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damaging it. Computational modeling was used to simulate the surface temperature and explain the mechanism of laser polishing.

  4. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes. PMID:27464989

  5. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes. PMID:27464989

  6. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-07-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes.

  7. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  8. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  9. Functional significance of the taper of vertebrate cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are commonly distinguished based on the shape of their outer segments: those of cones taper, whereas the ones from rods do not. The functional advantages of cone taper, a common occurrence in vertebrate retinas, remain elusive. In this study, we investigate this topic using theoretical analyses aimed at revealing structure–function relationships in photoreceptors. Geometrical optics combined with spectrophotometric and morphological data are used to support the analyses and to test predictions. Three functions are considered for correlations between taper and functionality. The first function proposes that outer segment taper serves to compensate for self-screening of the visual pigment contained within. The second function links outer segment taper to compensation for a signal-to-noise ratio decline along the longitudinal dimension. Both functions are supported by the data: real cones taper more than required for these compensatory roles. The third function relates outer segment taper to the optical properties of the inner compartment whereby the primary determinant is the inner segment’s ability to concentrate light via its ellipsoid. In support of this idea, the rod/cone ratios of primarily diurnal animals are predicted based on a principle of equal light flux gathering between photoreceptors. In addition, ellipsoid concentration factor, a measure of ellipsoid ability to concentrate light onto the outer segment, correlates positively with outer segment taper expressed as a ratio of characteristic lengths, where critical taper is the yardstick. Depending on a light-funneling property and the presence of focusing organelles such as oil droplets, cone outer segments can be reduced in size to various degrees. We conclude that outer segment taper is but one component of a miniaturization process that reduces metabolic costs while improving signal detection. Compromise solutions in the various retinas and retinal regions occur between

  10. Tapering Practices of New Zealand's Elite Raw Powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Tod, David A; Barnes, Matthew J; Keogh, Justin W; McGuigan, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Pritchard, HJ, Tod, DA, Barnes, MJ, Keogh, JW, and McGuigan, MR. Tapering practices of New Zealand's elite raw powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1796-1804, 2016-The major aim of this study was to determine tapering strategies of elite powerlifters. Eleven New Zealand powerlifters (28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score of 431.9 ± 43.9 points) classified as elite were interviewed, using semistructured interviews, about their tapering strategies. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Total training volume peaked 5.2 ± 1.7 weeks from competition while average training intensity (of 1 repetition maximum) peaked 1.9 ± 0.8 weeks from competition. During tapering, volume was reduced by 58.9 ± 8.4% while intensity was maintained (or slightly reduced) and the final weight training session was performed 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Participants generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve full recovery; that accessory work was removed around 2 weeks out from competition; and deadlifting takes longer to recover from than other lifts. Typically participants stated that trial and error, and changes based on "feel" were the sources of tapering strategies; equipment used and movements performed during tapering are the same as in competition; nutrition was manipulated during the taper (for weight cutting or performance aims); and poor tapering occurred when too long (1 week or more) was taken off training. These results suggest that athletes may benefit from continuing to strength train before important events with reduced volume and maintained intensity. Only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain in the strength program during tapering, to assist with reductions in fatigue while maintaining/improving strength expression and performance. PMID:26670988

  11. Comparison of free-electron laser amplifiers based on a step-tapered optical klystron and a conventional tapered wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    Free-electron laser amplifiers have been operated at high efficiency at wavelengths from the microwave through the visible. Typically, these amplifiers require long tapered sections and produce spent beams with large energy spreads that are 4-5 times the electronic efficiency. In addition, while optical guiding during exponential growth in the uniform wiggler section confines the optical mode, the guiding disappears in the tapered wiggler section resulting in a relatively large optical mode at the wiggler exit. Optical klystrons consist of a Modulator wiggler that induces a velocity modulation on the electron beam followed by a magnetic dispersive section that enhances the velocity modulation prior to injection into a second, radiator wiggler. Optical klystrons have been operated over a broad spectral range; however, no optical klystron has been built with a tapered radiator wiggler. A comparison between a optical klystron with a step-tapered Radiator wiggler and a conventional tapered wiggler amplifier is analyzed in this paper. The purpose of the step taper is to both enhance the efficiency and to extend the range of the exponential gain and so preserve the optical guiding over a longer interaction length. The step-tapered optical klystron and a tapered wiggler amplifier are compared for a nominal set of parameters to determine the differences in the efficiency, interaction length, spent beam energy spread, and the size of the optical mode at the wiggler exit.

  12. Modelling the spindle-holder taper joint in machine tools: A tapered zero-thickness finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Weiwei; Mao, Kuanmin; Zhu, Ming; Li, Bin; Lei, Sheng; Pan, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a tapered zero-thickness finite element model together with its parameter identification method for modelling the spindle-holder taper joint in machine tools. In the presented model, the spindle and the holder are modelled as solid elements and the taper joint is modelled as a tapered zero-thickness finite element with stiffness and damping but without mass or thickness. The proposed model considers not only the coupling of adjacent degrees of freedom but also the radial, tangential and axial effects of the spindle-holder taper joint. Based on the inverse relationship between the dynamic matrix and frequency response function matrix of a multi-degree-of-freedom system, this study proposes a combined analytical-experimental method to identify the stiffness matrix and damping coefficient of the proposed tapered zero-thickness finite element. The method extracts those parameters from FRFs of an entire specimen that contains only the spindle-holder taper joint. The simulated FRF obtained from the proposed model matches the experimental FRF quite well, which indicates that the presented method provides high accuracy and is easy to implement in modelling the spindle-holder taper joint.

  13. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Tian, Hui; Corcoran, Sean

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  14. Design of Structurally Efficient Tapered Struts (SETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi; Benner, Harry; Vincent, Dawson; Olason, Eric; Harrison, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop mass efficient composite struts. A closed-form design methodology for composite struts was developed using well established analyses to predict Euler buckling, local wall buckling; compression strength, damage tolerance, and interlaminar shear at geometric gradients. The methodology was coded in a spreadsheet suitable for convenient and rapid sizing of tapered composite struts. This spreadsheet analysis was used to determine the influence of several variables such as material stiffness, strut diameter, and material allowables on strut weight for given loading conditions. The comparison showed that, while the Park Aerospace design method was well suited to preliminary sizing for a conservative design, the closed-form-analyses-based spreadsheet accounts for all possible failure modes and is a good optimum strut design tool. The report concludes with a set of recommendations for future work in analytical design and analysis methodology enhancements.

  15. Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Yerolatsitis, S; Gris-Sánchez, I; Birks, T A

    2014-01-13

    Simple all-fiber three-mode multiplexers were made by adiabatically merging three dissimilar single-mode cores into one multimode core. This was achieved by collapsing air holes in a photonic crystal fiber and (in a separate device) by fusing and tapering separate telecom fibers in a fluorine-doped silica capillary. In each case the LP01 mode and both LP11 modes were individually excited from three separate input cores, with losses below 0.3 and 0.7 dB respectively and mode purities exceeding 10 dB. Scaling to more modes is challenging, but would be assisted by using single-mode fibers with a smaller ratio of cladding to core diameter. PMID:24515021

  16. Hierarchical tapered bar elements undergoing axial deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, N.; Thampi, S. K.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described to model the dynamics of tapered axial bars of various cross sections based on the well-known Craig/Bampton component mode synthesis technique. This element is formed in terms of the static constraint modes and interface restrained normal modes. This is in contrast with the finite elements as implemented in NASTRAN where the interface restrained normal modes are neglected. These normal modes are in terms of Bessel functions. Restoration of a few of these modes leads to higher accuracy with fewer generalized coordinates. The proposed models are hierarchical so that all lower order element matrices are embedded in higher order element matrices. The advantages of this formulation compared to standard NASTRAN truss element formulation are demonstrated through simple numerical examples.

  17. Shorter, rough trunnion surfaces are associated with higher taper wear rates than longer, smooth trunnion surfaces in a contemporary large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty system.

    PubMed

    Brock, Timothy M; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra; Rushton, Steven; Nargol, Antoni V F; Bowsher, John G; Savisaar, Christina; Joyce, Tom J; Deehan, David J; Lord, James K; Langton, David J

    2015-12-01

    Taper wear at the head-neck junction is a possible cause of early failure in large head metal-on-metal (LH-MoM) hip replacements. We hypothesized that: (i) taper wear may be more pronounced in certain product designs; and (ii) an increased abductor moment arm may be protective. The tapers of 104 explanted LH-MoM hip replacements revised for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) from a single manufacturer were analyzed for linear and volumetric wear using a co-ordinate measuring machine. The mated stem was a shorter 12/14, threaded trunnion (n=72) or a longer, smooth 11/13 trunnion (n=32). The abductor moment arm was calculated from pre-revision radiographs. Independent predictors of linear and volumetric wear included taper angle, stem type, and the horizontal moment arm. Tapers mated with the threaded 12/14 trunnion had significantly higher rates of volumetric wear (0.402 mm3/yr vs. 0.123 mm3/yr [t=-2.145, p=0.035]). There was a trend to larger abductor moment arms being protective (p=0.055). Design variation appears to play an important role in taper-trunnion junction failure. We recommend that surgeons bear these findings in mind when considering the use of a short, threaded trunnion with a cobalt-chromium head. PMID:26135357

  18. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  19. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  20. BEGINNING POLISH, VOLUME ONE. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHENKER, ALEXANDER M.

    BASED ON A MODERN LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE POLISH LANGUAGE, THIS TWO-VOLUME TEXT IS APPROPRIATE FOR A ONE-YEAR INTENSIVE COURSE. VOLUME I INCLUDES 25 LESSONS, EACH DIVIDED INTO--SENTENCES (DIALOGS), GRAMMAR, EXERCISES, AND VOCABULARY LISTS. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS A BRIEF CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF POLISH AND RUSSIAN, AND THERE IS INCLUDED A…

  1. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  2. Supersonic Wave Drag of Sweptback Tapered Wings at Zero Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, Kenneth

    1947-01-01

    On the basis of a recently developed theory for sweptback wings at supersonic velocities, equations are derived for the wave drag of sweptback tapered wings with thin symmetrical double-wedge sections at zero lift. Calculations of section wave-drag distributions and wing wave drag are presented for families of tapered plan forms. Distributions of section wave drag along the span of tapered wings are, in general, very similar in shape to those of untapered plan forms. For a given taper ratio and aspect ratio, an appreciable reduction in wing wave-drag coefficient with increased sweepback is noted for the entire range of Mach number considered. For a given sweep and taper ratio, higher aspect ratios reduce the wing wave-drag coefficient at substantially subcritical supersonic Mach numbers. At Mach numbers approaching the critical value, that is, a value equal to the secant of the sweepback angle, the plan forms of low aspect ratio have lower drag coefficients. Calculations for wings of equal root bending stress (and hence different aspect ratio) indicate that tapering the wing reduces the wing wave-drag coefficient at Mach numbers considerably less than the critical value and a decrease of the drag coefficient with taper at Mach numbers near the critical value.

  3. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  4. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  5. Double-Gyroid Network Morphology in Tapered Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    R Roy; J Park; W Young; S Mastroianni; M Tureau; T Epps III

    2011-12-31

    We report the formation of a double-gyroid network morphology in normal-tapered poly(isoprene-b-isoprene/styrene-b-styrene) [P(I-IS-S)] and inverse-tapered poly(isoprene-b-styrene/isoprene-b-styrene) [P(I-SI-S)] diblock copolymers. Our tapered diblock copolymers with overall poly(styrene) volume fractions of 0.65 (normal-tapered) and 0.67 (inverse-tapered), and tapered regions comprising 30 vol % of the total polymer, were shown to self-assemble into the double-gyroid network morphology through a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization, where the tapered region between the pure poly(isoprene) and poly(styrene) blocks was generated using a semibatch feed with programmed syringe pumps. The overall composition of these tapered copolymers lies within the expected network-forming region for conventional poly(isoprene-b-styrene) [P(I-S)] diblock copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) clearly demonstrated that the order-disorder transition temperatures (T{sub ODT}'s) of the network-forming tapered block copolymers were depressed when compared to the T{sub ODT} of their nontapered counterpart, with the P(I-SI-S) showing the greater drop in T{sub ODT}. These results indicate that it is possible to manipulate the copolymer composition profile between blocks in a diblock copolymer, allowing significant control over the T{sub ODT}, while maintaining the ability to form complex network structures.

  6. Double-Gyroid Network Morphology in Tapered Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Raghunath; Park, Jong Keun; Young, Wen-Shiue; Mastroianni, Sarah E.; Tureau, Maeva S.; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2012-11-14

    We report the formation of a double-gyroid network morphology in normal-tapered poly(isoprene-b-isoprene/styrene-b-styrene) [P(I-IS-S)] and inverse-tapered poly(isoprene-b-styrene/isoprene-b-styrene) [P(I-SI-S)] diblock copolymers. Our tapered diblock copolymers with overall poly(styrene) volume fractions of 0.65 (normal-tapered) and 0.67 (inverse-tapered), and tapered regions comprising 30 vol % of the total polymer, were shown to self-assemble into the double-gyroid network morphology through a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization, where the tapered region between the pure poly(isoprene) and poly(styrene) blocks was generated using a semibatch feed with programmed syringe pumps. The overall composition of these tapered copolymers lies within the expected network-forming region for conventional poly(isoprene-b-styrene) [P(I-S)] diblock copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) clearly demonstrated that the order-disorder transition temperatures (T{sub ODT}'s) of the network-forming tapered block copolymers were depressed when compared to the T{sub ODT} of their nontapered counterpart, with the P(I-SI-S) showing the greater drop in T{sub ODT}. These results indicate that it is possible to manipulate the copolymer composition profile between blocks in a diblock copolymer, allowing significant control over the T{sub ODT}, while maintaining the ability to form complex network structures.

  7. Discontinuous Tapered Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides with Gap.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    We investigate characteristics of discontinuous tapered surface plasmon polariton waveguides with a gap (DTG-SPPWs) to control a guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) at a telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The DTG-SPPWs are composed of an input 2 μm-wide and 10 μm-long reverse tapered IMI-W (RT-IMI-W) and a 10 μm-long tapered and output 2 μm-wide IMI-W (T-IMI-W) with the 8 μm-long gap. The width and length of the tapered regions in the RT-IMI-W and the T-IMI-W were varied from 2 to 10 μm and 1 to 8 μm, respectively. Gold is used as the metal in the insulator-metal-insulator waveguides (IMI-Ws). The thickness of the gold strips is fixed with 20 nm. A low-loss polymer is used for the 30 μm-thick upper and lower cladding layers. The coupling losses of the DTG-SPPWs are less than 0.055 dB with an 8 μm-long gap and various taper widths up to 10 μm. The normalized transmissions (NTs) of the DTG-SPPWs are less than about -0.060 dB with various taper widths up to 10 μm. The NTs of the DTG-SPPWs are less than about -0.069 dB with various taper lengths up to 8 μm. The maximum NT of about -0.042 dB was obtained using the 6 μm-wide taper width and the 3 μm-long taper length in the DTG-SPPW. The DTG-SPPWs have potential as a new plasmonic modulation device via control of the guided SPP through interaction with an applied force in the gap. PMID:27427702

  8. Some novel features of an FEL oscillator with tapered undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    A one-dimensional analysis of an FEL oscillator with a linear undulator tapering is presented. Some principally novel results have been obtained. The origin of these results is in principal difference between the FEL oscillator and an FEL amplifier. In the case of the FEL amplifier the frequency of the amplified wave and all the other parameters are defined by an experimenter. Contrary to this, the case of the FEL oscillator with tapered undulator is more complicated. The lasing frequency is defined by the maximum of the small-signal gain and depends on the tapering depth in some complex way.

  9. Development of small bore, high speed tapered roller bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, F. R.; Gassel, S. S.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of four rolling bearing configurations for use on the input pinion shaft of a proposed commercial helicopter transmission was evaluated. The performance characteristics of a high speed tapered roller bearing operating under conditions comparable to those existing at this input pinion shaft were defined. The tapered roller bearing shaft support configuration was developed for the gearbox using commercially available bearing designings. The configuration was optimized and interactive thermomechanically system analyzed. Automotive pinion quality tapered roller bearings were found to be reliable under load and speed conditions in excess of those anticipated in the helicopter transmission. However, it is indicated that the elastohydrodynamic lubricant films are inadequate.

  10. Group delay and dispersion tailoring in nonadiabatic tapered fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Sara; Palací, Jesús; Martí, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The dispersion profile of a nonadiabatic tapered singlemode fiber is characterized and dynamically tuned. Its group delay and dispersion parameters are measured and compared to those of a standard singlemode fiber. The dispersion profile can be tuned by introducing a phase shift through mechanical stretching. Coarse tuning is also obtained by varying the surrounding medium of the tapered fiber. Dispersion values up to 700 ps/nm·km in nonadiabatic tapered fibers are obtained for the first time. Dynamic tuning exposed here can be very useful in applications such as nonlinearities or soliton generation.

  11. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S. M.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2009-02-15

    Subwavelength-diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  12. Quantification of material loss from the neck piece taper junctions of a bimodular primary hip prosthesis. A retrieval study from 27 failed Rejuvenate bimodular hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Buente, D; Huber, G; Bishop, N; Morlock, M

    2015-10-01

    The early failure and revision of bimodular primary total hip arthroplasty prostheses requires the identification of the risk factors for material loss and wear at the taper junctions through taper wear analysis. Deviations in taper geometries between revised and pristine modular neck tapers were determined using high resolution tactile measurements. A new algorithm was developed and validated to allow the quantitative analysis of material loss, complementing the standard visual inspection currently used. The algorithm was applied to a sample of 27 retrievals (in situ from 2.9 to 38.1 months) of the withdrawn Rejuvenate modular prosthesis. The mean wear volumes on the flat distal neck piece taper was 3.35 mm(3) (0.55 to 7.57), mainly occurring in a characteristic pattern in areas with high mechanical loading. Wear volume tended to increase with time to revision (r² = 0.423, p = 0.001). Implant and patient specific data (offset, stem size, patient's mass, age and body mass index) did not correlate with the amount of material loss observed (p > 0.078). Bilaterally revised implants showed higher amounts of combined total material loss and similar wear patterns on both sides. The consistent wear pattern found in this study has not been reported previously, suggesting that the device design and materials are associated with the failure of this prosthesis. PMID:26430009

  13. Free Vibration of a Rotating Tapered Composite Timoshenko Shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, W.; ARGENTO, A.; SCOTT, R. A.

    1999-09-01

    A mechanical model is developed of a tapered, filament-wound composite, Timoshenko shaft which is rotating at constant speed about its axis. The model represents an extended length cutting tool intended for use in high-speed operations. The effects of shaft tapering and the use of composite materials on the structure's free response are studied. The spatial solutions to the equations of motion are carried out using the general Galerkin method. It is found that by tapering, bending natural frequencies and stiffness can be significantly increased over those of uniform shafts having the same volume and made of the same material. The potential for designing a taper function to meet a particular cutting need is also discussed. Various composite laminate cases are treated and it is found that improvements of performance are possible over equivalent steel shafts.

  14. Ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers with minimal lengths.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ryutaro; Aoki, Takao

    2014-11-17

    We design and fabricate ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers (TOFs) with minimal lengths. We first optimize variations of the torch scan length using the flame-brush method for fabricating TOFs with taper angles that satisfy the adiabaticity criteria. We accordingly fabricate TOFs with optimal shapes and compare their transmission to TOFs with a constant taper angle and TOFs with an exponential shape. The highest transmission measured for TOFs with an optimal shape is in excess of 99.7% with a total TOF length of only 23 mm, whereas TOFs with a constant taper angle of 2 mrad reach 99.6% transmission for a 63 mm TOF length. PMID:25402084

  15. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.

    2016-01-01

    A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.

  16. A broadband tapered nanocavity for efficient nonclassical light emission.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Niels; McCutcheon, Dara P S; Mørk, Jesper; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien

    2016-09-01

    We present the design of a tapered nanocavity, obtained by sandwiching a photonic wire section between a planar gold reflector and a few-period Bragg mirror integrated into the tapered wire. Thanks to its ultrasmall mode volume (0.71 λ3/n3), this hybrid nanocavity largely enhances the spontaneous emission rate of an embedded quantum dot (Purcell factor: 6), while offering a wide operation bandwidth (full-width half-maximum: 20 nm). In addition, the top tapered section shapes the cavity far-field emission into a very directive output beam, with a Gaussian spatial profile. For realistic taper dimensions, a total outcoupling efficiency to a Gaussian beam of 0.8 is predicted. Envisioned applications include bright sources of non-classical states of light, such as widely tunable sources of indistinguishable single photons and polarization-entangled photon pairs. PMID:27607694

  17. Tapered fluorotellurite microstructured fibers for broadband supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Kangkang; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Zhixu; Wang, Shunbin; Wu, Changfeng; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Fluorotellurite microstructured fibers (MFs) based on TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 glasses are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Tapered fluorotellurite MFs with varied transition region lengths are prepared by employing an elongation machine. By using a tapered fluorotellurite MF with a transition region length of ∼3.3  cm as the nonlinear medium and a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser as the pump source, broadband supercontinuum generation covering from 470 to 2770 nm is obtained. The effects of the transition region length of the tapered fluorotellurite MF on supercontinuum generation are also investigated. Our results show that tapered fluorotellurite MFs are promising nonlinear media for generating broadband supercontinuum light expanding from visible to mid-infrared spectral region. PMID:26907442

  18. Multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romańczuk, Patryk; Pietrzycki, Marcin; Źmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-09-01

    In the article the multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems was investigated. Based on tree light emitting diodes at the wavelength of 460 nm (blue), 528 nm (green) and 631 nm (red) possibility of white light emission on the output surface of the tapered light pipe was submitted. Influence of optical power of LEDs on the colour coordinates (CIE-1931) has been investigated.

  19. Antenna phase center locations in tapered aperture subarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.; Bickel, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Antenna apertures are often parsed into subapertures for Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. However, when the overall aperture is tapered for sidelobe control, the locations of phase centers for the individual subapertures are shifted due to the local taper of individual subapertures. Furthermore, individual subaperture gains are also affected. These non-uniform perturbations complicate DOA calculations. Techniques are presented to calculate subaperture phase center locations, and algorithms are given for equalizing subapertures' gains.

  20. Compact optical fiber curvature sensor based on concatenating two tapers.

    PubMed

    Monzon-Hernandez, D; Martinez-Rios, A; Torres-Gomez, I; Salceda-Delgado, G

    2011-11-15

    A low-loss, compact, and highly sensitive optical fiber curvature sensor is presented. The device consists of two identical low-loss fused fiber tapers in tandem separated by a distance L. When the optical fiber is kept straight and fixed, no interference pattern appears in the transmitted spectrum. However, when the device is bent, the symmetry of the straight taper is lost and the first taper couples light into the cladding modes. In the second taper, a fraction of the total light guided by the cladding modes will be coupled back to the fundamental mode, producing an interference pattern in the transmitted spectrum. As the fiber device is bent, visibility of the interference fringes grows, reaching values close to 1. The dynamic range of the device can be tailored by the proper selection of taper diameter and separation between tapers. The effects of temperature and refractive index of the external medium on the response of the curvature sensor is also discussed. PMID:22089570

  1. Mean Scatterer Spacing Estimation Using Multi-Taper Coherence

    PubMed Central

    Rubert, Nicholas; Varghese, Tomy

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that estimates of mean scatterer spacing are useful indicators for pathological changes to the liver. A commonly employed estimator of the mean scatterer spacing is the location of the maximum of the collapsed average of coherence of the ultrasound radio-frequency signal. To date, in ultrasound, estimators for this quantity have been calculated with a single taper. Using frequency-domain Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that multi-taper estimates of coherence are superior to single-taper estimates for predicting mean scatterer spacing. Scattering distributions were modeled with Gamma-distributed scatterers for fractional standard deviations in scatterer spacings of 5, 10, and 15% at a mean scatterer spacing of 1 mm. Additionally, we demonstrate that we can distinguish between ablated liver tissue and unablated liver tissue based on signal coherence. We find that, on the average, signal coherence is elevated in the liver relative to signal coherence of received echoes from thermally ablated tissue. Additionally, our analysis indicates that a tissue classifier utilizing the multi-taper estimate of coherence has the potential to distinguish between ablated and unablated tissue types better than a single-taper estimate of coherence. For a gate length of 5 mm, we achieved an error rate of only 8.7% when sorting 23 ablated and 23 unablated regions of interest (ROIs) into classes based on multi-taper calculations of coherence. PMID:25004470

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Penetrants in Microphase Separated Tapered Diblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmi; Brown, Jonathan R.; Hall, Lisa M.

    Tapered AB diblock copolymers contain pure A and B monomer blocks on the ends with a tapered midblock of intermediate composition, providing taper length as an additional tuning parameter to control microphase separation and interfacial behavior. We model the midblock as a statistical linear gradient from pure A to pure B. Recent experiments with salt dissolved in one of microphases show that a certain length of taper increases ion conductivity while the same length of inverse taper lowers conductivity. We perform coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of tapered copolymers with monomer sized penetrants, which have preferential interactions with one microphase, to better understand this observation and the general effects of tapering on dynamics. We calculate penetrant diffusion, polymer relaxation times, and other quantities over the range from 0% (diblock) to 100% (full gradient) taper length, with the taper direction either normal or inverse (with the A side of the taper connected to the pure B block). Normal taper results typically lie between those of diblocks and full gradients, while inverse tapers show strong nonmonotonic behavior as a function of taper length. For intermediate length inverse tapers, penetrant and monomer dynamics are significantly slower than those of diblocks or normal tapers, and this relates to the folding of the inverse chains back and forth across the interface. To provide further insight, we also compare to the dynamics of random copolymers of various compositions. Based upon work supported by NSF Grant 1454343.

  3. Super-polishing of Zerodur aspheres by means of conventional polishing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Klepetková, Eva; Pošmourný, Josef; Šulc, Miroslav; Procháska, František; Tomka, David; Matoušek, Ondřej; Poláková, Ivana; Šubert, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quest to find simple technique to superpolish Zerodur asphere (55μm departure from best fit sphere) that could be employed on old fashion way 1-excenter optical polishing machine. The work focuses on selection of polishing technology, study of different polishing slurries and optimization of polishing setup. It is demonstrated that either by use of fine colloidal CeO2 slurry or by use of bowl-feed polishing setup with CeO2 charged pitch we could reach 0.4nm RMS roughness while removing <30nm of surface layer. This technique, although not optimized, was successfully used to improve surface roughness on already prepolished Zerodur aspheres without necessity to involve sophisticated super-polishing technology and highly trained manpower.

  4. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  5. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  6. Deterministic polishing from theory to practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Abigail R.; Hoffmann, Nathan N.; Sarkas, Harry W.; Escolas, John; Hobbs, Zachary

    2015-10-01

    Improving predictability in optical fabrication can go a long way towards increasing profit margins and maintaining a competitive edge in an economic environment where pressure is mounting for optical manufacturers to cut costs. A major source of hidden cost is rework - the share of production that does not meet specification in the first pass through the polishing equipment. Rework substantially adds to the part's processing and labor costs as well as bottlenecks in production lines and frustration for managers, operators and customers. The polishing process consists of several interacting variables including: glass type, polishing pads, machine type, RPM, downforce, slurry type, baume level and even the operators themselves. Adjusting the process to get every variable under control while operating in a robust space can not only provide a deterministic polishing process which improves profitability but also produces a higher quality optic.

  7. The effect of frictional torque and bending moment on corrosion at the taper interface : an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidou, A; Meswania, J; Osman, K; Bolland, B; Latham, J; Skinner, J; Haddad, F S; Hart, A; Blunn, G

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of frictional torque and bending moment on fretting corrosion at the taper interface of a modular femoral component and to investigate whether different combinations of material also had an effect. The combinations we examined were 1) cobalt-chromium (CoCr) heads on CoCr stems 2) CoCr heads on titanium alloy (Ti) stems and 3) ceramic heads on CoCr stems. In test 1 increasing torque was imposed by offsetting the stem in the anteroposterior plane in increments of 0 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm when the torque generated was equivalent to 0 Nm, 9 Nm, 14 Nm and 18 Nm. In test 2 we investigated the effect of increasing the bending moment by offsetting the application of axial load from the midline in the mediolateral plane. Increments of offset equivalent to head + 0 mm, head + 7 mm and head + 14 mm were used. Significantly higher currents and amplitudes were seen with increasing torque for all combinations of material. However, Ti stems showed the highest corrosion currents. Increased bending moments associated with using larger offset heads produced more corrosion: Ti stems generally performed worse than CoCr stems. Using ceramic heads did not prevent corrosion, but reduced it significantly in all loading configurations. PMID:25820883

  8. Using FEM technology for optical surfaces polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procháska, F.; Polák, J.; Tomka, D.; Šubert, E.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is optical surfaces polishing on the 6-axis computer-controlled (CCM) machine Optotech MCP 250 CNC using FEM technology, which is suitable for aspheric elements polishing. The main attention is dedicated to the choice and to the precise adjustment of major process parameters. The possibility of usage the multi wave interferometer Luphoscan as a data source for the 2D surface correction is solved too.

  9. HyDRa: control of parameters for deterministic polishing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, E; Salas, L; Sohn, E; Luna, E; Herrera, J; Quiros, F

    2013-08-26

    Deterministic hydrodynamic polishing with HyDRa requires a precise control of polishing parameters, such as propelling air pressure, slurry density, slurry flux and tool height. We describe the HyDRa polishing system and prove how precise, deterministic polishing can be achieved in terms of the control of these parameters. The polishing results of an 84 cm hyperbolic mirror are presented to illustrate how the stability of these parameters is important to obtain high-quality surfaces. PMID:24105579

  10. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  11. An Experimental Study of an FEL Oscillator with a Linear Taper

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Gubeli, J.; Neil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Saldin, Schneidmiller and Yurkov, we have measured the detuning curve widths, spectral characteristics, efficiency, and energy spread as a function of the taper for low and high Q resonators in the IR Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab. Both positive and negative tapers were used. Gain and frequency agreed reasonably well with the predictions of a single mode theory. The efficiency agreed reasonably well for a negative taper with a high Q resonator but disagreed for lower Q values due to the large slippage parameter and the non-ideal resonator Q. We saw better efficiency for a negative taper than for the same positive taper. The energy spread induced in the beam, normalized to the efficiency is larger for the positive taper than for the corresponding negative taper. This indicates that a negative taper is preferred over a positive taper in an energy recovery FEL.

  12. Fatigue delamination onset prediction in unidirectional tapered laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Salpekar, Satish A.; O'Brien, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    Tapered (0 deg) laminates of S2/CE9000 and S2/SP250 glass/epoxies, and IM6/1827I graphite/epoxy were tested in cyclic tension. The specimens usually showed some initial stable delaminations in the tapered region, but these did not affect the stiffness of the specimens, and loading was continued until the specimens either delaminated unstably, or reached 10(exp 6) to 2 x 10 (exp 7) million cycles with no unstable delamination. The final unstable delamination originated at the junction of the thin and tapered regions. A finite-element model was developed for the tapered laminate with and without the initial stable delaminations observed in the tests. The analysis showed that for both cases the most likely place for an opening (Mode I) delamination to originate is at the junction of the taper and thin regions. For each material type, the models were used to calculate the strain energy release rate, G, associated with delaminations originating at that junction and growing either into the thin region or tapered region. For the materials tested, cyclic G(sub Imax) values from DCB tests were used with the maximum strain energy release rates calculated from the finite-element analysis to predict the onset of unstable delamination at the junction as a function of fatigue cycles. The predictions were compared to experimental values of maximum cyclic load as a function of cycles to unstable delamination from fatigue tests in tapered laminates. For the IM6/1827I and S2/SP250 laminates, the predictions agreed very well with the test data. Predicted values for the S2/CE9000 were conservative compared to the test data.

  13. Fatigue delamination onset prediction in tapered composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen Bostaph; Salpekar, Satish A.; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Tapered (0 deg) laminates of S2/CE9000 and S2/SP250 glass/epoxies, and IM6/1827I graphite/epoxy were tested in cyclic tension. The specimens usually showed some initial stable delaminations in the tapered region, but these did not affect the stiffness of the specimens, and loading was continued until the specimens either delaminated unstably, or reached 10(exp 6) to 2 x 10(exp 7) million cycles with no unstable delamination. The final unstable delamination originated at the junction of the thin and tapered regions. A finite-element model was developed for the tapered laminate with and without the initial stable delaminations observed in the tests. The analysis showed that for both cases the most likely place for an opening (Mode 1) delamination to originate is at the junction of the taper and thin regions. For each material type, the models were used to calculate the strain energy release rate, G, associated with delaminations originating at that junction and growing either into the thin region or tapered region. For the materials tested, cyclic G(sub Imax) values from DCB tests were used with the maximum strain energy release rates calculated from the finite-element analysis to predict the onset of unstable delamination at the junction as a function of fatigue cycles. The predictions were compared to experimental values of maximum cyclic load as a function of cycles to unstable delamination from fatigue tests in tapered laminates. For the IM6/1827I and S2/SP250 laminates, the predictions agreed very well with the test data. Predicted values for the S2/CE9000 were conservative compared to the test data.

  14. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  15. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  16. The influence of contact conditions and micromotions on the fretting behavior of modular titanium alloy taper connections.

    PubMed

    Baxmann, M; Jauch, S Y; Schilling, C; Blömer, W; Grupp, T M; Morlock, M M

    2013-05-01

    Modularity of femoral stems and neck components has become a more frequently used tool for an optimized restoration of the hip joint center and improvement of patient biomechanics. The additional taper interface increases the risk of mechanical failure due to fretting and crevice corrosion. Several failures of titanium alloy neck adapters have been documented in case-reports. An experimental fretting device was developed in this study to systematically investigate the effect of micromotion and contact pressure on fretting damage in contact situations similar to taper interfaces of modular hip prostheses under cyclic loading representative of in vivo load conditions. As a first application, the fretting behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy components was investigated. Micromotions were varied between 10μm and 50μm, maximum contact pressures between 400 and 860N/mm(2). All modes of fretting damage were observed: Fretting wear was found for high micromotions in combination with low contact pressures. Fretting fatigue occurred with reduced movement or increased contact pressures. With small micromotions or high normal pressures, low fretting damage was observed. The developed device can be used to evaluate taper design (and especially contact geometry) as well as different materials prior to clinical use. PMID:22940445

  17. Multi-tapered x-ray capillary optics for mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Carla Duquesne

    X-ray mammography is currently the primary tool used for breast cancer detection. However mammography has limitations. Studies have shown that 5%-15% of breast cancers are not visualized mammographically and of the number of cases sent to biopsy, only 15% are actually cancerous (high false positive percentage). The long term goal of this project is to improve the x- ray mammographic imaging system using capillary optics. A post-patient capillary optic lens has the potential to increase spatial resolution and eliminate the detection of scattered x-rays, thereby improving image contrast and SNR. These improvements can be exploited with any detector but may have the greatest potential when implemented with digital detectors. An image analysis study has been performed using a prototype multi-tapered optic to determine the feasibility of a full-field multi-tapered optic. Scatter fraction, contrast, transmission, uniformity, MTF, NPS and DQE were measured for a CR imaging system when the prototype multi-tapered optic lens was applied. The results were compared with standard grid and air gap techniques. The measurements demonstrate that the multi-tapered optic lens removes 85% of the scattered photons, while air gap and grid methods remove 66% and 39%, respectively. This results in an improvement of contrast by approximately 80% for the optics, compared to 51% for the air gap and 30% for the grid methods. The single capillary optic lenses can improve the limiting resolution (5% MTF level) of the CR detector by 78% due to magnification with very little focal spot blurring, while the multi-tapered prototype improved resolution significantly but not as much as the single optic. This was due to relative misalignment of the individual lenses in the multi- tapered optic. Acceptable levels of misalignment have been established that appear to be readily achievable. Once this relative misalignment issue is resolved, the multi-tapered lens will produce results similar to single

  18. Fabrication of polymer waveguide tapers to minimize insertion loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacoubian, Araz; Lin, Weiping; Bechtel, James H.

    2001-12-01

    Polymer based electro-optic (EO) modulators and other integrated optic devices have the potential to provide low cost and lightweight alternative for high-speed digital as well as analog RF links. To be truly competitive with existing technologies such as LiNbO3, EO polymer modulators must also meet the criteria of low loss. There are two major causes of loss in EO modulators: waveguide loss (including material loss, scattering, etc.), and fiber- to-waveguide coupling (butting) loss. Various techniques can be utilized to minimize these coupling losses, however, to maintain low cost of component, we resort to the simplest possible approach which is easy to manufacture. Pigtails using standard single mode fiber produce coupling loss on the order of 3 to 5 dB/connection. In order to improve mode size matching yet maintain low drive voltage we incorporate waveguide and fibers tapers. Waveguide tapers resulted to butting losses as low as 1.5 dB/connection, whereas fiber tapers resulted to 2.5 dB/connection butting losses. Combining both techniques together, it was possible to produce 1.3 dB/connection butting loss, however, tapered waveguide devices were less sensitive to alignment tolerance than tapered fiber devices, and therefore less sensitive to environmental conditions.

  19. Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the generation of mid spatial-frequency error. The consideration of the polishing lap design to optimize the process in order to keep residual errors to a minimum and optimization of the process (speeds, stroke, etc.) and to keep the residual mid spatial-frequency error to a minimum, is also presented.

  20. Internet Use of Polish by Polish Melburnians: Implications for Maintenance and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Debski, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become an important communication medium and it is having a significant impact on language use. The present study takes a "snapshot" of how the Polish language is currently used with modern communications technologies by Polish-Australians living in Melbourne. Through a questionnaire, it surveys which communications technologies…

  1. Structure and Phase Behavior of Tapered Diblock Copolymers from Self-Consistent Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan R.; Sides, Scott W.; Hall, Lisa M.

    2014-03-01

    Tapered block copolymers are like AB diblock copolymers with a ``tapered block'' inserted between the A and B endblocks. This tapered block sequence is random with its average composition changing linearly from pure A to pure B (or B to A for inverse-tapered systems). Depending on the fraction of A monomers and the quantity χN , the blocks microphase separate to form various ordered morphologies. Increasing N (such as to improve mechanical properties) simultaneously affects the microphase separated state. Tapering adds another adjustable parameter, taper length, that can be used to control the microphase separated state. We map the phase diagrams of model tapered and inverse tapered polymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). The ordered phases shift to higher χN for tapered systems, and the shift increases as the taper length increases. Inverse tapers shift the phase diagram to even higher χN . Direct tapered systems' phase diagrams are like those of diblocks, but with a larger gyroid region. For large inverse tapered systems, the polymer appears like an ABAB tetrablock, and it folds across the interface or bridges between domains. In this case some of the ordered structures show reversed A and B domains where the majority phase is relatively impure.

  2. Large deflection of flexible tapered functionally graded beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodinik, A. R.; Rahimi, G. H.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper the semi-analytical analyses of the flexible cantilever tapered functionally graded beam under combined inclined end loading and intermediate loading are studied. In order to derive the fully non-linear equations governing the non-linear deformation, a curvilinear coordinate system is introduced. A general non-linear second order differential equation that governs the shape of a deflected beam is derived based on the geometric nonlinearities, infinitesimal local displacements and local rotation concepts with remarkable physical properties of functionally graded materials. The solutions obtained from semi-analytical methods are numerically compared with the existing elliptic integral solution for the case of a flexible uniform cantilever functionally graded beam. The effects of taper ratio, inclined end load angle and material property gradient on large deflection of the beam are evaluated. The Adomian decomposition method will be useful toward the design of tapered functionally graded compliant mechanisms driven by smart actuators.

  3. Acoustic vibration sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ben; Li, Yi; Sun, Miao; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Dong, Xin-Yong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan; Jin, Shang-Zhong

    2012-11-15

    A simple and low-cost vibration sensor based on single-mode nonadiabatic fiber tapers is proposed and demonstrated. The environmental vibrations can be detected by demodulating the transmission loss of the nonadiabatic fiber taper. Theoretical simulations show that the transmission loss is related to the microbending of the fiber taper induced by vibrations. Unlike interferometric sensors, this vibration sensor does not need any feedback loop to control the quadrature point to obtain a stable performance. In addition, it has no requirement for the coherence of the light source and is insensitive to temperature changes. Experimental results show that this sensing system has a wide frequency response range from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz with the maximal signal to noise ratio up to 73 dB. PMID:23164907

  4. Optical Tapers as White-Light WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical analysis has revealed that tapered optical waveguides could be useful as white-light whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. The compactness and the fixed-narrow-frequency-band nature of the resonances of prior microdisk and microsphere WGM resonators are advantageous in low-power, fixed-narrow-frequency-band applications. However for optical-processing applications in which there are requirements for power levels higher and/or spectral responses broader than those of prior microdisk and microsphere WGM resonators, white-light WGM resonators in the form of optical tapers would be preferable. The theoretical analysis was performed for a multimode, axisymmetric, circular-cross-section waveguide having a taper sufficiently smooth and gradual to justify the approximation of adiabaticity. In this approximation, the equation for the dependence of the electromagnetic field upon the axial (longitudinal) waveguide coordinate can be separated from the equation for the dependence upon the radius and the azimuthal angle.

  5. Tapered rib fiber coupler for semiconductor optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert Edward

    2001-01-01

    A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.

  6. Misalignment tolerant efficient inverse taper coupler for silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Michael, Aron; Kwok, Chee Yee; Chen, Ssu-Han

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an efficient fiber to submicron silicon waveguide coupling based on an inversely tapered silicon waveguide embedded in a SiO2 waveguide that is suspended in air. The inverse taper waveguide consist of a 50um long and 240nm thick silicon that linearly taper in width from 500nm to 120nm, which is embedded in SiO2. The SiO2 waveguide is 6um wide and 10um long. The simulation results show that the coupling loss of this new approach is 2.7dB including the interface loss at the input and output. The tolerance to fiber misalignment at the input of the coupler is 2um in both horizontal and vertical directions for only 1.5dB additional loss.

  7. Synthesis of tungsten oxide tapered needles with nanotips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiliang; He, Yuehui; Zou, Jin; Cao, Peng; Jiang, Yao; Huang, Baiyun; Liu, C. T.; Liaw, P. K.

    2007-05-01

    Tungsten oxide tapered needles with nanotips were synthesized on a large scale by reacting tungsten nanopowders with hydrous nickel nitrate in hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant tungsten oxide needles have lengths more than 100 μm, root diameters of several hundred nanometers and tip diameters of several nanometers, showing a perfectly axisymmetric configuration. HRTEM and SAED analyses showed that the synthesized tungsten oxide tapered needles have a single-crystalline structure with growth direction of [0 1 0]. The effects of the experimental conditions (the ratio between tungsten and hydrous nickel nitrate, the size of tungsten powders, and the reaction atmosphere) on the morphology of the products were systematically investigated. It was found that tungsten oxide nanowires, submicro-/micro-whiskers and microtubules could be facilely obtained under different experimental conditions. The unique configuration and the single-crystal structure of the tapered needles may make them a potential candidate for field emitters and probing tips.

  8. Tapered fiber optic sensor for potassium detection in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, M.; Pujiyanto, .; Apsari, R.; Tanjung, M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple sensor is proposed and demonstrated using a silica tapered fiber for sensing different concentration of potassium in de-ionized water. The tapered fiber is fabricated using a flame brushing technique to achieve a waist diameter and length of 10 μm and 80 mm, respectively. For a concentration change from 0 to 50 %, the ouput signal of the sensor decreases exponentially from -10.04 dBm to -11.11 dBm with linearity of more than 92%. The increment of potassium concentration increases the refractive index of the solution, which in turn reduces the index difference between core and cladding of the tapered fiber and thus allows more light to be leaked out from the fiber. This new potassium monitoring system provides numerous advantages such as simplicity of design and low cost of production.

  9. Enhanced plasmonic nanofocusing of terahertz waves in tapered graphene multilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Bing; Ke, Shaolin; Qin, Chengzhi; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-06-27

    We investigate the plasmonic nanofocusing of terahertz waves in tapered graphene multilayers separated by dielectrics. The nanofocusing effect is significantly enhanced in the graphene multilayer taper compared with that in a single layer graphene taper due to interlayer coupling between surface plasmon polaritons. The results are optimized by choosing an appropriate layer number of graphene and the field amplitude has been enhanced by 620 folds at λ = 50 μm. Additionally, the structure can slow light to a group velocity ~1/2815 of the light speed in vacuum. Our study provides a unique approach to compress terahertz waves into deep subwavelength scale and may find great applications in terahertz nanodevices for imaging, detecting and spectroscopy. PMID:27410629

  10. Enhanced broadband absorption in gold by plasmonic tapered coaxial holes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lei; Yang, Liu; Nadzeyka, Achim; Bauerdick, Sven; He, Sailing

    2014-12-29

    Gold absorbers based on plasmonic tapered coaxial holes (PTCHs) are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. An average absorption of over 0.93 is obtained theoretically in a broad wavelength range from 300 nm to 900 nm without polarization sensitivity due to the structural symmetry. Strong scattering of the incident light by the tapered coaxial holes is the main reason for the high absorption in the short wavelength range below about 550 nm, while gap surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the taper dominate the resonance-induced high absorption in the long wavelength range. Combining two PTCHs with different structural parameters can further enhance the absorption and thus increase the spectral bandwidth, which is verified by a sample fabricated by focused ion beam milling. This design is promising to be extended to other metals to realize effective and efficient light harvesting and absorption. PMID:25607189

  11. Gap and channeled plasmons in tapered grooves: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, C L C; Stenger, N; Kristensen, A; Mortensen, N A; Bozhevolnyi, S I

    2015-06-01

    Tapered metallic grooves have been shown to support plasmons - electromagnetically coupled oscillations of free electrons at metal-dielectric interfaces - across a variety of configurations and V-like profiles. Such plasmons may be divided into two categories: gap-surface plasmons (GSPs) that are confined laterally between the tapered groove sidewalls and propagate either along the groove axis or normal to the planar surface, and channeled plasmon polaritons (CPPs) that occupy the tapered groove profile and propagate exclusively along the groove axis. Both GSPs and CPPs exhibit an assortment of unique properties that are highly suited to a broad range of cutting-edge nanoplasmonic technologies, including ultracompact photonic circuits, quantum-optics components, enhanced lab-on-a-chip devices, efficient light-absorbing surfaces and advanced optical filters, while additionally affording a niche platform to explore the fundamental science of plasmon excitations and their interactions. In this Review, we provide a research status update of plasmons in tapered grooves, starting with a presentation of the theory and important features of GSPs and CPPs, and follow with an overview of the broad range of applications they enable or improve. We cover the techniques that can fabricate tapered groove structures, in particular highlighting wafer-scale production methods, and outline the various photon- and electron-based approaches that can be used to launch and study GSPs and CPPs. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges that remain for further developing plasmonic tapered-groove devices, and consider the future directions offered by this select yet potentially far-reaching topic area. PMID:25965100

  12. Bent optical fiber tapers for refractometery and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penchev, Emil; Eftimov, Tinko; Bock, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of our study of the spectral shifts caused by surrounding refractive index changes (SRI) in bent fibre tapers. Fused and etched fibre tapers were fabricated using a gas burner and HF acid. Spectral shifts as high as 200 nm have been observed for SRI variations from 1.33 to 1.44 and sensitivity as high as 830 nm/r.i.u. around water RI values. We present results for refractometric measurements of cow milk of varying fat content and compare results with those obtained with conventional Abbe refractometers and high sensitivity double resonance LPGs.

  13. Impedance Scaling for Small-angle Tapers and Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2010-02-11

    In this note I will prove that the impedance calculated for a small-angle collimator or taper, of arbitrary 3D profile, has a scaling property that can greatly simplify numerical calculations. This proof is based on the parabolic equation approach to solving Maxwell's equation developed in Refs. [1, 2]. We start from the parabolic equation formulated in [3]. As discussed in [1], in general case this equation is valid for frequencies {omega} >> c/a where a is a characteristic dimension of the obstacle. However, for small-angle tapers and collimators, the region of validity of this equation extends toward smaller frequencies and includes {omega} {approx} c/a.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Superradiance in a Tapered Free-Electron Laser Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Y.; She, Y.; Murphy, J.B.; Podobedov, B.; Seletskiy, S.; Yang, X.

    2011-03-28

    We report experimental studies of the effect of undulator tapering on superradiance in a single-pass high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier. The experiments were performed at the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) of National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Efficiency was nearly tripled with tapering. Both the temporal and spectral properties of the superradiant FEL along the uniform and tapered undulator were experimentally characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) images. Numerical studies predicted pulse broadening and spectral cleaning by undulator tapering Pulse broadening was experimentally verified. However, spectral cleanliness degraded with tapering. We have performed first experiments with a tapered undulator and a short seed laser pulse. Pulse broadening with tapering expected from simulations was experimentally confirmed. However, the experimentally obtained spectra degraded with tapering, whereas the simulations predicted improvement. A further numerical study is under way to resolve this issue.

  15. Expanded-mode semiconductor laser with tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.; Hou, H.; Wendt, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    A new diode laser using a Tapered-Rib Adiabatic-Following Fiber Coupler to achieve 2D mode expansion and narrow, symmetric far-field emission without epitaxial regrowth or sharply-defined tips on tapered waveguides is presented.

  16. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-05-17

    Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.

  17. [Study of pure titanium electrolytic polishing].

    PubMed

    Morita, N

    1990-03-01

    This study attempted to polish pure titanium test pieces electrolytically to mirror surface at the size of cast denture frames. Electrolytic polishing of pure titanium could be done on an area of 30 cm2 with a non-aqueous electrolyte. Small pure titanium plates could be polished electrolytically, but a uniformly smooth surface could not be obtained easily with large testpiece. The optimal electrolytic conditions were 30 V for 6 min at 25 degrees C using a solution consisting of 70 ml ethyl alcohol, 30 ml iso-propyl alcohol, 6 g aluminum chloride, and 25 g zinc chloride. The solution was safe and had less restriction of frequency of use. PMID:2135513

  18. Occupational lung fibrosis in an aluminium polisher.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Rickaert, F; Van de Weyer, R; Lenclud, C; Yernault, J C

    1986-02-01

    An aluminium polisher developed severe lung fibrosis complicated by bronchial carcinoma. Although he was not submitted to the exposure risks usually described in aluminium lung (bauxite smelting, use of aluminium powders, aluminium welding), he worked in a high concentration of aluminium dust. This was demonstrated by mineralogical analyses which revealed large amounts of small metallic aluminium particles (0.5 micron - 5 micron) in bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue and lymph nodes 5 years after the end of exposure. Aluminium polishing seems to be a potential cause of aluminium lung. PMID:3699115

  19. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Nasby, R.D.; Hetherington, D.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.; Apblett, C.A.

    1998-09-08

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface. 4 figs.

  20. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Nasby, Robert D.; Hetherington, Dale L.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; McWhorter, Paul J.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface.

  1. De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xiaolu; Peng, Fan; Wang, Ruijiao; Jiang, Yulin; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Xiao, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Construction as well as characterization of a polish wheat transcriptome is a crucial step to study useful traits of polish wheat. In this study, a transcriptome, including 76,014 unigenes, was assembled from dwarf polish wheat (DPW) roots, stems, and leaves using the software of Trinity. Among these unigenes, 61,748 (81.23%) unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases and classified into differentially functional types. Aligning this transcriptome against draft wheat genome released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), 57,331 (75.42%) unigenes, including 26,122 AB-specific and 2,622 D-specific unigenes, were mapped on A, B, and/or D genomes. Compared with the transcriptome of T. turgidum, 56,343 unigenes were matched with 103,327 unigenes of T. turgidum. Compared with the genomes of rice and barley, 14,404 and 7,007 unigenes were matched with 14,608 genes of barley and 7,708 genes of rice, respectively. On the other hand, 2,148, 1,611, and 2,707 unigenes were expressed specifically in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Finally, 5,531 SSR sequences were observed from 4,531 unigenes, and 518 primer pairs were designed. PMID:27429972

  2. Polishing procedure and surface characterization lead tungstate crystal scintillator Road No. 723 and No. 754

    SciTech Connect

    Kellam, M

    1996-05-01

    Step by step procedures are given for polishing the scintillator rods. A Strasbaugh spindle polishing machine was used along with visual inspection and hand polishing. Extensive data is given on pre-polish surface characterization, profilometry, microphotography, and interferometry.

  3. Tapering optimization for controlling of intermodulation in TWTs

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr. |; Levush, B.

    1996-12-31

    In many applications TWTs amplifiers are required to provide simultaneous amplification of multiple frequencies. Intermodulation and amplitude and phase cross-modulation effects take place. These effects occur because the nonlinearities in the amplification process. However, some applications require intermodulation products at levels lower than {minus}60 dBC. In addition, the requirements of further increasing the efficiency, frequency, and power levels of TWTs makes the attainment of these levels of intermodulation challenging. In order to study intermodulation phenomena in the nonlinear regime the authors are developing time-dependent, multi-frequency models of helix TWTs. In this paper they describe a one-dimensional nonlinear multifrequency model which extends previous work in this field. The extension consists in the ability to treat an arbitrarily large number of distinct signals. it has been suggested that dynamic velocity tapers can, in addition to enhancing the efficiency, extend the range of linearity of the drive curve. In this work, they also suggest the use of tapering in order to reduce the intermodulation products. The results of the optimization of the rates of taper in order to minimize the intermodulation products will be presented. These results hold promise that the dynamic velocity taper approach for reduction of intermodulation products can be accomplished more simply than by the convention feed-forward techniques.

  4. Efficiency optimization in a FEL with fields` nonadiabatic tapering

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, I.A.; Belyavskiy, E.D.; Silivra, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Amplification of an electromagnetic wave in free electron lasers with a reversed guide field and right-hand polarized wiggler field is investigated both analytically and numerically. An effect of electron bunch trapping by the high frequency electromagnetic field is used for efficiency optimization. On the basis of motion stability criteria a possibility of bunches trapping by FEL parameters nonadiabatic (experimentally realizable) tapering is shown. The stability analysis of electron motion is based on Lyapunov theory for autonomy systems. A particle simulation is carried out for FEL parameters close to the experimental ones (relativistic factor {gamma}=4.75, wiggler field strength B{sub w}= 2.8 kG, guide field strength B{sub o}= -1.4 kG, operation wavelength {lambda}=6.2 mm) for the case of wiggler field tapering. Theoretically predicted rule of wiggler field tapering corresponding to FEL efficiency of 55% is approximated by stepped functions. For the experimentally realizable tapering it is found that FEL efficiency can be over 40%.

  5. Taper array in silica glass for beam splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zehua; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Ge, Meng; Ye, Jingfu; Deng, Duo; Wang, Benyang; Gao, Jianmin; Qu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    We proposed taper array in silica glass for beam splitting which was fabricated by water-assisted femtosecond laser direct writing technology and the subsequent heat treatment. We divided the array into many fabricating cells which were executed automatically in sequences as specified by the program that contained the information for the three-dimensional stage movements. Each cell could fabricated a rectangular cylinder. The size and distribution of the rectangular cylinder could be controlled by adjusting the position of the fabricating cells. Then the heat treatment should be used to reshape the rectangular cylinders into taper array. The experimental results show that the taper periodic microstructures in silica glass are uniform and smooth, and the tapers can divide the incident light into beam array. The results demonstrated that the combination of the water-assisted femtosecond laser direct writing technology and the heat treatment is accessible and practical for the high quality micro-optical elements. These micro-optical elements will have potential applications in fluorescence detection and beam splitter.

  6. Impedance Matching of Tapered Slot Antenna using a Dielectric Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.

    1998-01-01

    A new impedance matching technique for tapered slot antennas using a dielectric transformer is presented. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the input impedance, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and the gain of a Vivaldi antenna (VA). Measured results at Ka-Band frequencies are presented and discussed.

  7. Using Tapered Block Copolymers to Create Conducting Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Thomas, III

    2014-03-01

    Soft materials, such as polymers, colloids, surfactants, and liquid crystals, are a technologically important class of matter employed in a variety of applications. One sub-class of soft material, block copolymers, provides the opportunity to design materials with attractive chemical and mechanical properties based on the ability to assemble into periodic structures with nanoscale domain spacings. Several applications for block copolymers currently under investigation in my group include battery and fuel cell membranes, analytical separations membranes, nano-tool templates, precursors to electronic arrays, and drug delivery vehicles. One area of recent progress in the group focuses on the behavior of conventional block copolymer and tapered block copolymer systems for lithium battery membrane applications. We find that we can tune poly(styrene- b-ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer nanostructures by adjusting the lithium counterion and lithium salt concentration, as well as the taper volume fraction and composition. Additionally, we can estimate the effective interaction parameters (χeff) for the salt-doped copolymers to determine the overall influence of tapering on the energetics of copolymer assembly. These tapered materials allow us to design nanostructured membrane systems with increased conductivity and improved mechanical properties in ion transport devices. We gratefully acknowledge AFOSR-PECASE (FA9550-09-1-0706) and NSF-CAREER (DMR-0645586) for financial support.

  8. FSW of Tapered Thickness Welds using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the advantages of tapered thickness welds in FSW (friction stir welding), the structure of FSW welds, the adjustable pin tool used in FSW. Other topics described include compliance and temperature measurement in a FSW system, loads and torque upon the pin tool and its ability to penetrate different metals, and the results and metallurgy of FSW welds.

  9. Vibration frequencies of tapered bars with nonclassical boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The goals for this research were revised and clarified. The goals are restated along with an evaluation of the accomplishment of the goal. All of the cases of the truncated-cone beams that were originally proposed to be solved were solved. A summary of these solutions is presented. Some cases of beams with unequal tapers were solved and are discussed.

  10. Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Kreider, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage of tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. A diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests conducted using health monitoring hardware. Failure progression tests were performed with tapered roller bearings under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three pre-damaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor and three accelerometers were monitored and recorded for the occurrence of bearing failure. The bearing was removed and inspected periodically for damage progression throughout testing. Using data fusion techniques, two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. The data fusion diagnostic tool was evaluated during bearing failure progression tests under simulated engine load conditions. This integrated system showed improved detection of fatigue damage and health assessment of the tapered roller bearings as compared to using individual health monitoring technologies.

  11. Linearly tapered slot antenna circular array for mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of a conformal K-band circular array is presented. The array consists of sixteen linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA). It is fed by a 1:16 microstrip line power splitter via electromagnetic coupling. The array has an omni-directional pattern in the azimuth plane. In the elevation plane the beam is displaced above the horizon.

  12. Dielectric tapered rod antennas for millimeter-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Mittra, R.; Lampe, R.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for several types of tapered dielectric rod antennas of rectangular cross section investigated at 81.5 GHz. The antennas are based on Zucker's (1961) design principles for low sidelobes and maximum gain adapted to rods of rectangular cross section. The gain and beamwidth plots for the antennas tested are shown.

  13. Integrative Performance Analysis of a Novel Bone Level Tapered Implant.

    PubMed

    Dard, M; Kuehne, S; Obrecht, M; Grandin, M; Helfenstein, J; Pippenger, B E

    2016-03-01

    Primary mechanical stability, as measured by maximum insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis, is generally considered to be positively associated with successful secondary stability and implant success. Primary implant stability can be affected by several factors, including the quality and quantity of available bone, the implant design, and the surgical procedure. The use of a tapered implant design, for instance, has been shown to result in good primary stability even in clinical scenarios where primary stability is otherwise difficult to achieve with traditional cylindrical implants-for example, in soft bone and for immediate placement in extraction sockets. In this study, bone-type specific drill procedures are presented for a novel Straumann bone level tapered implant that ensure maximum insertion torque values are kept within the range of 15 to 80 Ncm. The drill procedures are tested in vitro using polyurethane foam blocks of variable density, ex vivo on explanted porcine ribs (bone type 3), and finally in vivo on porcine mandibles (bone type 1). In each test site, adapted drill procedures are found to achieve a good primary stability. These results are further translated into a finite element analysis model capable of predicting primary stability of tapered implants. In conclusion, we have assessed the biomechanical behavior of a novel taper-walled implant in combination with a bone-type specific drill procedure in both synthetic and natural bone of various types, and we have developed an in silico model for predicting primary stability upon implantation. PMID:26927485

  14. Nonplanar linearly tapered slot antenna with balanced microstrip feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.; Perl, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A nonplanar linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) has been fabricated and tested at frequencies from 8 to 32 giga-Hz. The LTSA is excited by a broadband balanced microstrip transformer. The measured results include the input term return loss as well as the radiation pattern of the antenna.

  15. Taper-seal type metal sealing system and available applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokouchi, Satoshi; Okabe, Masayuki; Morita, Shinsaku

    2001-01-01

    A conventional disk (flat ring) gasket for ConFlat ® sealing system has been commonly applied to commercially available equipments for ultrahigh vacuum systems. However, its large redundant part which wastes the tightening force makes its handling and seal reliability problematic. We examine a taper-seal type gasket, which is newly designed to improve the inefficiency of ConFlat mechanism using conventional disk gaskets. It is remarked that the obtained seal area on a taper-seal type gasket is 1.6˜3.7 times larger than that of a conventional disk gasket. Our numencal results on stress distributions in a tightened gasket indicate that taper-seal gasket realizes highly stable seal pressure even under a lower tightening torque. High sealing reliability is thus achieved as expected which is mainly due to the wide seal area and stable seal pressure realized even for rather hard gasket material. Taper-seal type gasket also has some practical advantages. The most important of them may be that it enables to construct new edgeless metal sealing systems without a welded heavy flange. Here, edgeless sealing systems are composed of highly flexible incorporating viewports, bellows, feedthroughs, and blank-off covers, as well as any other conventional vacuum components.

  16. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  17. Nonlinear acoustic streaming in straight and tapered tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Brian C.

    In thermoacoustic and Stirling devices such as the pulse-tube refrigerator, efficiency is diminished by the formation of a second-order mean velocity known as Rayleigh streaming. This flow emerges from the interaction of the working gas with the wall of the tube in a thin boundary layer. Recent studies have suggested that streaming velocity can be decreased in a tube by tapering it slightly. This research investigates that claim through the development of a numerical model of Rayleigh streaming in variously tapered tubes. It is found that the numerical simulation of streaming in a straight tube compares well with theory, and the application of different thermal boundary conditions at the tube wall shows that for pressurized helium, inner streaming vortices which appear near an adiabatic tube wall do not develop near an isothermal wall. An order analysis indicates that the temperature dependence of viscosity and thermal conductivity contributes appreciably to an accurate numerical model of streaming. Comparison of Rayleigh streaming in tapered tubes shows the effects of taper angle on the circulation and velocity of the mean flow.

  18. Polish Students after the Decline of Communism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wnuk-Lipinska, Elzbieta

    1990-01-01

    The report describes Polish student and teacher surveys that indicate, over time, a lower level of student interest in studying and low levels of cognitive need and professional ambition. Findings are applied to possibilities for change in Poland's new social, political, and economic situation. Similarities of student attitudes in Poland and in…

  19. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  20. Freeform grinding and polishing with PROSurf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Franciscus; Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Torres, Josh; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the desire to use freeform optics has been increasing, including shapes such as torics and anamorphic aspheres. Freeform optics can be used to expand capabilities of optical systems. They can compensate for limitations in rotationally symmetric optics. These same traits that give freeform optics the ability to improve optical systems also makes them more challenging to manufacture. This holds true for grinding, polishing, and metrology. As freeform optics become more prevalent in the industry, tolerances will become more stringent, requiring deterministic manufacturing processes. To generate freeforms, it is crucial to have control over all aspects of the process. Controlling the surface definition is important for achieving a better surface finish during processing. Metrology will be required to adjust tool paths at various stages in manufacturing. During grinding, metrology will be used to adjust tool positions relative to the nominal tool path to compensate for repeatable machine and tooling error. For polishing, metrology will be used to deterministically adjust dwell relative to the amount of the error in different surface locations, allowing for convergence towards the desired surface at a uniform rate. OptiPro has developed PROSurf, a CAM software package for creating freeform tool paths and applying metrology-based corrections. The software can be used for both grinding and polishing freeform optics. The software has flexibility to allow for different methods of modelling the surface: mathematical equations, solid models, and point clouds. The software is designed to make it easier to manufacture and polish complex freeform optics.

  1. Femtosecond laser polishing of optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lauren L.; Qiao, Jun; Qiao, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Technologies including magnetorheological finishing and CNC polishing are commonly used to finish optical elements, but these methods are often expensive, generate waste through the use of fluids or abrasives, and may not be suited for specific freeform substrates due to the size and shape of finishing tools. Pulsed laser polishing has been demonstrated as a technique capable of achieving nanoscale roughness while offering waste-free fabrication, material-specific processing through direct tuning of laser radiation, and access to freeform shapes using refined beam delivery and focusing techniques. Nanosecond and microsecond pulse duration radiation has been used to perform successful melting-based polishing of a variety of different materials, but this approach leads to extensive heat accumulation resulting in subsurface damage. We have experimentally investigated the ability of femtosecond laser radiation to ablate silicon carbide and silicon. By substituting ultrafast laser radiation, polishing can be performed by direct evaporation of unwanted surface asperities with minimal heating and melting, potentially offering damage-free finishing of materials. Under unoptimized laser processing conditions, thermal effects can occur leading to material oxidation. To investigate these thermal effects, simulation of the heat accumulation mechanism in ultrafast laser ablation was performed. Simulations have been extended to investigate the optimum scanning speed and pulse energy required for processing various substrates. Modeling methodologies and simulation results will be presented.

  2. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  3. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Ryszard; Sobiecka, Joanna; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Nowak-Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Kobiołka, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians). The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women). The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45), athletes with disabilities (n = 126) and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47). The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33%) with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388). Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%). Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities. PMID:26133132

  4. Polish Youth: A Dychotomic World of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodnar, Artur; Zelichowski, Ryszard

    Research results show a skepticism among Polish youth concerning the possibility of implementing the accepted socialist values in political practice and denote a steady erosion of socialism's image. Youth organizations are many and varied, but it appears that most join because of the opportunity to meet friends, not because of political…

  5. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  10. Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles--verification of GAM.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, S T; Møller, U; Larsen, C; Moselund, P M; Jakobsen, C; Johansen, J; Andersen, T V; Thomsen, C L; Bang, O

    2012-05-01

    We use an asymmetric 2 m draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper to demonstrate that the taper profile needs careful optimisation if you want to develop a supercontinuum light source with as much power as possible in the blue edge of the spectrum. In particular we show, that for a given taper length, the downtapering should be as long as possible. We argue how this may be explained by the concept of group-acceleration mismatch (GAM) and we confirm the results using conventional symmetrical short tapers made on a taper station, which have varying downtapering lengths. PMID:22565689

  11. Characteristics of a tapered capillary plasma waveguide for laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. S.; Jang, D. G.; Lee, T. H.; Nam, I. H.; Lee, I. W.; Suk, H.

    2013-05-20

    We developed a gas-filled capillary with a tapered density for laser wakefield acceleration, of which the tapering was realized by employing gas feed-lines with different cross-sections. Plasma diagnostics show that the capillary plasma has a significant longitudinal density tapering and a transverse parabolic profile. By using the tapered capillary plasma, high transmission (over 90%) of laser beams, meaning good optical guiding, was observed. These results demonstrate the potential of the tapered plasma source for high-energy laser wakefield acceleration, where the dephasing problem is minimized.

  12. Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The future X-ray observatory missions, such as International X-ray Observatory, require grazing incidence replicated optics of extremely large collecting area (3 m2) in combination with angular resolution of less than 5 arcsec half-power diameter. The resolution of a mirror shell depends ultimately on the quality of the cylindrical mandrels from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation studies have been performed to optimize the operational parameters as well as the polishing lap configuration. Furthermore, depending upon the surface error profile, a model for localized polishing based on dwell time approach is developed. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel, having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process.

  13. Between Polish Positivism and American Capitalism: The Educational Agents' Experiment in the Polish-American Community, 1889-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.

    2008-01-01

    "Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of self-education, promoted…

  14. Vibration transfer in the ball-stem contact interface of artificial hips.

    PubMed

    Hothan, Arne; Lewerenz, Kathrin; Weiss, Cornelius; Hoffmann, Norbert; Morlock, Michael; Huber, Gerd

    2013-10-01

    Audible squeaking has put the reputation of ceramic bearings for total hip replacements into question. Inter-articular friction induces vibrations in the ceramic head which are transferred through the head-taper interface to the femoral stem. If excited to sufficient amplitudes, squeaking can be emitted by the stem. Hence, the damping and amplification properties of this interface have a crucial influence on stem vibrations. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration transfer behavior between the head and the taper of a femoral stem and its dependence on the assembly force, in order to assess its influence on the development of audible squeaking. A ceramic head was assembled on a titanium femoral stem taper with high and low forces. Frequency response functions characterizing the head-stem interface were determined experimentally. The interface demonstrated negligible influence on vibration transfer in the squeaking frequency range (1-5 kHz). However its damping effect in lower and higher frequency ranges was significant and some areas of amplification were also found. Although squeaking vibration was not influenced by the particular interface studied, the method established can be utilized to trace taper designs with dynamic properties that decrease the susceptibility to squeaking. PMID:23707143

  15. Refractive index sensors based on the fused tapered special multi-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xing-hu; Xiu, Yan-li; Liu, Qin; Xie, Hai-yang; Yang, Chuan-qing; Zhang, Shun-yang; Fu, Guang-wei; Bi, Wei-hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel refractive index (RI) sensor is proposed based on the fused tapered special multi-mode fiber (SMMF). Firstly, a section of SMMF is spliced between two single-mode fibers (SMFs). Then, the SMMF is processed by a fused tapering machine, and a tapered fiber structure is fabricated. Finally, a fused tapered SMMF sensor is obtained for measuring external RI. The RI sensing mechanism of tapered SMMF sensor is analyzed in detail. For different fused tapering lengths, the experimental results show that the RI sensitivity can be up to 444.517 81 nm/RIU in the RI range of 1.334 9—1.347 0. The RI sensitivity is increased with the increase of fused tapering length. Moreover, it has many advantages, including high sensitivity, compact structure, fast response and wide application range. So it can be used to measure the solution concentration in the fields of biochemistry, health care and food processing.

  16. Chemical mechanical polishing of boron-doped polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Cadien, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a technique which helps to print a smaller depth of focus and smoother surface in micro fabrication industry. In this project, boron doped polysilicon is used as a fill material for Through Silicon Vias (TSV) creating a 3D package. It is shown that the presence of boron as dopant suppresses the polysilicon polish rate. To increase the polish rate, understanding the mechanism of polish rate retardation is essential. We believe that the electrical effects play the major role in this phenomenon and by reducing this effect we are able to increase the polish rate.

  17. Polishing Material Removal Correlation on PMMA - FEM Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R.; Börret, R.; Rimkus, W.; Harrison, D. K.; DeSilva, A. K. M.

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of polishing is very high and experience in this field is required to achieve reproducible deterministic results concerning shape accuracy. The goal of this work is to predict the material removal of the polishing process on PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate) using an industrial robot polisher. In order to predict the material removal, a FEM Model was created representing the polishing process. This model will help to predict the material removal when polishing parameters are changed. Experiments were carried out and compared to the results obtained from the different parameters tested in the simulation.

  18. Minimum 10-year Survival of Kerboull Cemented Stems According to Surface Finish

    PubMed Central

    Baqué, François; Lefevre, Nicolas; Kerboull, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The optimal surface finish for a cemented THA stem is still debated. We hypothesized surface finish would influence survival of Kerboull cemented hip arthroplasties and a matte finish would have lower survival. We reviewed survival of 433 total hip arthroplasties in 395 patients: 284 consecutive patients (310 hips) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of polished (165 hips) or matte finish stems (145 hips) and compared to a historical series of satin stems (123 hips) in 111 patients. The satin and matte finish implants had similar geometry but the polished was quadrangular rather than oval. Finish roughnesses were: polished (radius, 0.04 μm), satin (radius, 0.9 μm), and matte (radius, 1.7 μm). The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was 63.6 years. The survival rate at 13 years, using radiographic loosening as the end point, was 97.3% ± 2.6% for polished stems, 97.1% ± 2.1% for satin stems, and 78.9% ± 5.8% for matte stems. The data suggest survival of Kerboull stems was higher with a polished or satin surface finish than with a matte finish. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196414

  19. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Pirouz

    1999-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) team at the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as an enabling electronic technology for many aerospace applications. The Lewis team is focusing on the chemical vapor deposition of the thin, single-crystal SiC films from which devices are fabricated. These films, which are deposited (i.e., epitaxially "grown") on commercial wafers, must consist of a single crystal with very few structural defects so that the derived devices perform satisfactorily and reliably. Working in collaboration (NASA grant) with Professor Pirouz of Case Western Reserve University, we developed a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) technique for removing the subsurface polishing damage prior to epitaxial growth of the single-crystal SiC films.

  20. Optimized tapered dipole nanoantenna as efficient energy harvester.

    PubMed

    El-Toukhy, Youssef M; Hussein, Mohamed; Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Abd-Elrazzak, M M; Obayya, S S A

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, a novel design of tapered dipole nanoantenna is introduced and numerically analyzed for energy harvesting applications. The proposed design consists of three steps tapered dipole nanoantenna with rectangular shape. Full systematic analysis is carried out where the antenna impedance, return loss, harvesting efficiency and field confinement are calculated using 3D finite element frequency domain method (3D-FEFD). The structure geometrical parameters are optimized using particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to improve the harvesting efficiency and reduce the return loss at wavelength of 500 nm. A harvesting efficiency of 55.3% is achieved which is higher than that of conventional dipole counterpart by 29%. This enhancement is attributed to the high field confinement in the dipole gap as a result of multiple tips created in the nanoantenna design. Furthermore, the antenna input impedance is tuned to match a wide range of fabricated diode based upon the multi-resonance characteristic of the proposed structure. PMID:27410898

  1. X-ray beam compression by tapered waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-Y. E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de; Hoffmann, S.; Salditt, T. E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de

    2015-05-11

    We have fabricated linear tapered waveguide channels filled with air and imbedded in silicon for the hard x-ray regime, using a processing scheme involving e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and wafer bonding. Beam compression in such channels is demonstrated by coupling a pre-focused undulator beam into the channels, and recording the exit flux and far-field diffraction patterns. We achieved a compressed beam with a spot size of 16.48 nm (horizontal) × 14.6 nm (vertical) near the waveguide exit plane, as determined from the reconstructed near-field distribution, at an exit flux which is eight times higher than that of an equivalent straight channel. Simulations indicate that this gain could reach three to four orders of magnitude for longer channels with tapering in two directions.

  2. The experimental and calculated characteristics of 22 tapered wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Raymond F

    1938-01-01

    The experimental and calculated aerodynamic characteristics of 22 tapered wings are compared, using tests made in the variable-density wind tunnel. The wings had aspect ratios from 6 to 12 and taper ratios from 1:6:1 and 5:1. The compared characteristics are the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, the lift-curve slope, the maximum lift coefficient, and the curves of drag. The method of obtaining the calculated values is based on the use of wing theory and experimentally determined airfoil section data. In general, the experimental and calculated characteristics are in sufficiently good agreement that the method may be applied to many problems of airplane design.

  3. Tapered fiber bundle couplers for high-power fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinska, Dorota; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we would like to demonstrate our results on performing (6+1)x1 tapered fiber bundle combiners using a trielectrode fiber splicing system. In our combiners we have used 9/80 μm (core/clad) diameter fibers as single-mode signal input ports. Using this fiber, instead of a conventional 9/125 μm single-mode fiber allowed us to reduce the taper ratio and therefore significantly increase the signal transmission. We have also performed power combiner which is based on the LMA fibers: input signal fiber 20/125μm and passive double clad fiber 25/300 μm at the output.

  4. Integrated polarizers based on tapered highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Priscila; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; de Matos, Christiano J S

    2014-07-28

    This paper proposes and demonstrates the creation of sections with a high polarization dependent loss (PDL) in a commercial highly birefringent (polarization maintaining) photonic crystal fiber (PCF), via tapering with pressure applied to the holes. The tapers had a 1-cm-long uniform section with a 66% scale reduction, in which the original microstructure aspect ratio was kept by the pressure application. The resulting waveguides show polarizing action across the entire tested wavelength range, 1510-1600 nm, with a peak PDL of 35.3 dB/cm (c.f. ~1 dB/cm for a typical commercial polarizing fiber). The resulting structure, as well as its production, is extremely simple, and enable a small section with a high PDL to be obtained in a polarization maintaining PCF, meaning that the polarization axes in the polarizing and polarization maintaining sections are automatically aligned. PMID:25089397

  5. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Rick A.; Sumali, Hartono

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  6. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  7. Design of multiple-ply laminated composite tapered beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of a special case of symmetric laminated composite cantilever beams is presented. The approach models beams that are tapered both in depth and width and investigates the effect of the ply layup angle and the ply taper on bending and interlaminar shearing stresses. For the determination of stresses and deflections, the beam stiffness matrices are expressed as linear functions of the beam length. Using classical lamination theory (CLT) the stiffness matrices are determined and assembled at strategic locations along the length of the beam. They are then inverted and necessary stiffness parameters are obtained numerically and extracted for determination of design information at each location chosen. Several ply layup configurations are investigated, and design considerations are presented based on the findings. Finally, recommendations for the design of these beams are presented, and a means for anticipating the location of highest stresses is offered.

  8. Dislodgement of a cemented exeter femoral stem during closed manipulative reduction of a dislocated total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Aysha; Mohamed, Abdalla; Shaikh, Mazharuddin; Banaszkiewicz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cemented femoral stem migration and dislodgement even though has been described is extremely unusual. There is a high chance of polished femoral stem displacement happening while trying to reduce a dislocated total hip replacement by closed measures. Presentation of the case A 73 year old lady who had an Exeter cemented total hip replacement about two weeks back was admitted from Accident and Emergency with a dislocation. During the closed manipulative reduction under general anaesthesia it was noted that the femoral stem has dislodged from the canal. She underwent revision of the total hip replacement with good outcome. Discussion Femoral stem dislodgement occurs in total hip replacement if polished stem or inadequate cementing of the collar is carried out. Conclusion Gentle manipulative reduction under general anaesthesia of dislocated total hip replacement should be carried out if the polished femoral stem is used. PMID:27060643

  9. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  10. First years of the Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The first attempts of video and photographic meteor observations in Poland are presented. The Polish Fireball Network (PFN) was estabilished in 2004 after a succesfull Leonid campaign and the appearance of the Laskarzew fireball. Typical fireball stations were equiped with CCTV systems, with METREC software running. The first digital fireball stations have been created in 2005. Currently, PFN consists of 20 fireball stations and uses 54 CCTV cameras.

  11. Subaperture approaches for asphere polishing and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricard, Marc; Dumas, Paul; Forbes, Greg

    2005-02-01

    This paper summarizes some of QED Technologies" latest developments in the field of high-precision polishing and metrology. Magneto-Rheological Finishing (MRF) is a deterministic sub-aperture polishing process that overcomes many of the fundamental limitations of traditional finishing. MRF has demonstrated the ability to produce optical surfaces with accuracies better than 30 nm peak-to-valley (PV) and surface micro-roughness less than 0.5 nm rms on a wide variety of optical glasses, single crystals, and glass-ceramics. The MR fluid forms a polishing tool that is perfectly conformal and therefore can polish a variety of shapes, including flats, spheres, aspheres, prisms, and cylinders, with either round or rectangular apertures. QED"s Sub-aperture Stitching Interferometer (SSI) complements MRF by extending the effective aperture, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range of a phase-shifting interferometer. This workstation performs automated sub-aperture stitching measurements of spheres, flats, and mild aspheres. It combines a six-axis precision stage system, a commercial Fizeau interferometer, and specially developed software that automates measurement design, data acquisition, and the reconstruction of the full-aperture map of figure error. Aside from the correction of sub-aperture placement errors (such as tilts, optical power, and registration effects), our software also accounts for reference-wave error, distortion, and other aberrations in the interferometer"s imaging optics. By addressing these matters up front, we avoid limitations encountered in earlier stitching work and significantly boost reproducibility beyond that of the integrated interferometer on its own.

  12. Plasmonic Sensors Based on Doubly-Deposited Tapered Optical Fibers

    PubMed Central

    González-Cano, Agustín; Navarrete, María-Cruz; Esteban, Óscar; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    A review of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) transducers based on tapered fibers that have been developed in the last years is presented. The devices have proved their good performance (specifically, in terms of sensitivity) and their versatility and they are a very good option to be considered as basis for any kind of chemical and biological sensor. The technology has now reached its maturity and here we summarize some of the characteristics of the devices produced. PMID:24618726

  13. Numerical Simulation of Flow Past a Tapered Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, Dennis; Levit, Creon

    1990-01-01

    We have computed the unsteady three-dimensional low Reynolds number flow past a tapered cylinder. The spanwise variation in natural shedding frequency results in interesting three-dimensional flow phenomena. Our computed hot-wire and spectral data are very similar to experimental results. The computation was done on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer, we highlight the capabilities of the Connection Machine, for computation and visualization of three-dimensional unsteady flow fields.

  14. Numerical simulation of flow past a tapered cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon

    1991-01-01

    The unsteady three-dimensional low Reynolds number flow past a tapered cylinder is computed. The spanwise variation in natural shedding frequency results in interesting three-dimensional flow phenomena. The computed hot-wire and spectral data are very similar to experimental results. The computation was done on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer; highlights of the capabilities of the Connection Machine for computation and visualization of three-dimensional unsteady flow fields are shown.

  15. Development of high-power gyrotrons with gradually tapered cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Chaojun; Yu Sheng; Niu Xinjian; Liu Yinghui; Li Hongfu; Li Xiang

    2012-12-15

    In high power gyrotrons, the parasitic modes coupled with the operating mode cannot be avoided in the beam-wave interaction. These parasitic modes will decrease the efficiency of the gyrotrons. The purity of the operating mode affected by different tapers should be carefully studied. The steady-state self-consistent nonlinear theory for gyrotron with gradually tapered cavity is developed in this paper. A steady-state calculation code including 'cold cavity' and 'hot cavity' is designed. By comparison, a time-domain model analysis of gyrotron operation is also studied by particle-in-cell (PIC). It is found that the tapers of gyrotron have different influences on the modes coupling between the operating mode and the parasitic modes. During the study, an example of 94 GHz gyrotron with pure operating mode TE{sub 03} has been designed. The purity of the operating mode in the optimized cavity is up to -77 dB, and in output waveguide of the cavity is up to -76 dB. At the same time, the beam-wave interaction in the designed cavity has been simulated, too. An output power of 120 kW, corresponding to 41.6% efficiency and an oscillation frequency of 94.099 GHz have been achieved with a 50 kV, 6 A helical electron beam at a guiding magnetic field of 3.5485 T. The results show that the power in spurious modes of the optimized cavity may be kept far below than that of the traditional tapered cavity.

  16. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  17. The taper disaster--how could it happen?

    PubMed

    Morlock, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of metallic implants in contact with body fluids is unavoidable, especially at interfaces where movement occurs or in gaps. Corrosion became clinically relevant with the introduction of large modular metal-on-metal total hip joint articulations (MoM THA) early in the 21st century. This review attempts to summarise the scientific knowledge about taper problems available at the time of introduction of these bearings, why this "disaster" could happen. It is speculated that changes to the taper connection made in the 1990s to increase the range of motion with small heads (28 and 32 mm) reduced the mechanical strength of this connection, which did not matter for small heads. With the use of large and very large metal heads in MoM articulations, which have a larger lever arm and can generate high friction in unfavourable situations, suddenly the taper interface exhibited corrosion problems on a previously unknown scale. It is speculated that due to the higher mechanical loading with larger heads, the taper connection became less forgiving with respect to assembly conditions, contamination, manufacturing tolerances and other factors, which are yet not known. Since no major clinical problems had been reported before the introduction of these bearings and the pre-clinical testing was very successful, the disaster took its course. The patient-implant-surgeon system is a very complex intrinsically hazardous system. Pre-clinical testing addresses few and defined factors and such, good results cannot be directly transferred to the clinical reality. A controlled stepwise introduction of innovations is required. PMID:26044535

  18. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the Self-adjusting File systems

    PubMed Central

    Vyavahare, Nishant K.; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Desai, Niranjan N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complete cleaning of the root canal is the goal for ensuring success in endodontics. Removal of debris plays an important role in achieving this goal. In spite of advancements in instrument design, apical extrusion of debris remains a source of inflammation in the periradicular region. Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the self-adjusting File (SAF) system. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four extracted human mandibular teeth with straight root canals were taken. Access openings were done and working length determined. The samples were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - V-Taper files (n = 20), Group II - ProTaper Next (n = 20), Group III - SAF (n = 20). Biomechanical preparation was completed and the debris collected in vials to be quantitatively determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test. Results: All the specimens showed apical debris extrusion. SAF showed significantly less debris extrusion compared to V-Taper and ProTaper Next (P < 0.001). Among Groups I and II, ProTaper Next showed lesser debris extrusion as compared to V-Taper, but it was not significant (P = 0.124). Conclusion: The SAF showed least amount of apical debris extrusion when compared to newer rotary endodontic instruments. This indicates that the incidence of inter-treatment flare-ups due to debris extrusion would be less with the SAF. PMID:27217636

  19. Duplication of holograms by using fingernail polish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Quintero-Romo, A.

    2007-08-01

    In this manuscript, we report the results of a research effort in finding an innovative recorder material which utilized fingernail polish (Super Oro One Coat®) information by means of the control of temperature as a parameter induced by hand rubbing. Analogical and computer holograms were replicated, resulting in a high quality behavior of fingernail polish through coating the polish with an average thickness of 10-15 μm, which contains some components of polyester resin with nitrocellulose. Through this material we obtained a high absolute diffraction efficiency, which was approximately equal to 90%, with gratings of 100 lines/mm. For a copy of conventional holograms at high frequencies (holographic ranges) the diffraction efficiency parameter is in the neighborhood of 22% at first order or more, depending on diffraction efficiency of the pattern of the hologram. The hologram is elaborated in the absence of any development of any process and does not need to have carefully controlled environmental conditions. Following this process, the hologram is obtained at standard atmospheric conditions of pressure and temperature. Another advantage is that it is possible to obtain a hologram at a lower cost; furthermore, the property of applicability to any substrate that it has is remarkable.

  20. Super-smooth polishing on aspherical surfaces (II): achievement of a super-smooth polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Manabu; Negishi, Mahito; Takimoto, Masafumi; Deguchi, Akinobu; Nakamura, Nobuo

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses super-smooth polishing technology for excimer lasers, soft X-rays, and other short-wavelength light applications. Short-wavelength light elements require surface quality and contour accuracy superior to traditional specifications, as well as free-form contours. For this reason, our target for free-form contours of a 500 mm diameter was set to 0.08 mm PV for contour accuracy, and 0.2 nm RMS for surface roughness. To improve surface quality we employed local pitch polishing, utilizing a flexible tool laminated with an elastic sheet, which adapts well to various contours. For greater contour accuracy, we developed the CSSP (Canon Super-Smooth Polisher), which polishes 500 mm diameter optical elements. The CSSP polishing process achieves a contour accuracy of 0.078 mm PV and a surface roughness of 0.13 nm RMS on a 500 mm diameter fused silica toroidal mirror. We also fabricated both CaF2 and CVD-SiC, materials widely used in short-wavelength light elements.

  1. Submicron particle manipulation using slotted tapered optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M.; Truong, V. G.; Nic Chormaic, S.

    2015-08-01

    The use of optical micro- and nanofibers has become commonplace in the areas of atom trapping using neutral atoms and, perhaps more relevantly, the optical trapping and propulsion of micro- and nanoscale particles. It has been shown that such fibers can be used to manipulate and trap silica and polystyrene particles in the 1-3 µm range using either the fundamental or higher order modes of the fibers, with the propulsion of smaller particle sizes also possible through the use of metallic and/or high index materials. We previously proposed using a focused ion beam nanostructured tapered optical fiber for improved atom trapping geometries; here, we present the details of how these nanostructured optical fibers can be used as a platform for submicron particle trapping. The optical fibers are tapered to approximately 1.2 µm waist diameters, using a custom-built, heat-and-pull fiber rig prior to processing using a focused ion beam. Slots of approximately 300 nm in width and 10-20 µm in length are milled clean though the waist regions of the tapered optical fibers. High fiber transmissions (> 80%) over a broad range of wavelengths (700-1100 nm) are observed. We present simulation results for the trapping of submicron particles and experimental results on the trapping of 200 nm particles. This work demonstrates even further the functionality of optical micro- and nanofibers as trapping devices across a range of regimes.

  2. Microbiological Seal of Two Types of Tapered Implant Connections.

    PubMed

    Peruzetto, Wheslley M; Martinez, Elizabeth F; Peruzzo, Daiane C; Joly, Júlio Cesar; Napimoga, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    Tapered implant connections have gained wide popularity for being more resistant to fatigue and for promoting a better seal against bacterial infiltration than conventional connections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial seal at the implant-abutment interface using two Morse taper implant models, by in vitro microbiological analysis. Eleven non-indexed and 11 indexed abutments were selected and connected to their respective implants with a 20 N torque, according to manufacturer's recommendation. Microbiological analysis was carried out using colonies of Escherichia coli transported directly from a culture dish to the prosthetic component. For control, one non-contaminated abutment-implant set from each group (negative control) and one contaminated implant with no abutment (positive control) were used. The specimens were immersed in BHI broth and maintained in an incubator at 37 °C for 14 days to assess the development of bacterial contamination. The results revealed that 36.4% (n=4) of the indexed components and 90.9% (n=10) of the non-indexed components allowed bacterial leakage, with significant difference between groups (p=0.0237). In conclusion, both tapered components failed to provide adequate sealing to bacterial leakage, although the indexed type components showed a superior seal compared with non-indexed components. PMID:27224559

  3. A prospective evaluation of outcomes of two tapered implant systems.

    PubMed

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Lopez, M A; Confalone, L; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate survival rate (SVR - i.e. fixtures still in place at the end of the observation period) and success rate (SCR - i.e. bone resorption around the implant neck) of two tapered implant systems. Both systems were equipped with a tapered connection, one requiring bone-level (BL) placement, while the other required soft-tissue-level (STL) placement. In the period between January 1996 and October 2011, 133 fixtures were inserted, 90 in females and 43 in males, with a mean age of 60±11 years. The mean post-surgical follow-up was 64±38 months. Several clinical parameters were evaluated as potential outcome conditioners. An SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and a Cox analysis was performed. The SVR was 100% since no fixtures were lost. SCR, expressed through the mean marginal bone loss, was 88%. No significant differences were found, for most of the variables investigated with the exception of bone grafting and implant type: STL implants showed a better clinical outcome than BL implants when bone grafting was performed simultaneously with implant placement. Tapered implants are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation of jaws. PMID:27469541

  4. Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinping; Wu, Jixuan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Kailiang; Yuan, Yujie; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2013-12-01

    Optical microfiber taper has unique propagation properties, which provides versatile waveguide structure to design the tunable photonic devices. In this paper, the S-tapered microfiber is fabricated by using simple fusion spicing. The spectral characteristics of microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid under different magnetic-field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum are both found to become highly magnetic-field-dependent. The results indicate the transmission and wavelength of the dips are adjustable by changing magnetic field intensity. The response of this device to the magnetic field intensity exhibits a Langvin function. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the transmission loss and magnetic field intensity for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 to 200Oe, and the sensitivities as high as 0.13056dB/Oe and 0.056nm/Oe have been achieved, respectively. This suggests a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber photonic device, such as magneto-optic modulator, filter, and sensing element. PMID:24514542

  5. Electromechanical analysis of tapered piezoelectric bimorph at high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattaraj, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2015-04-01

    Piezoelectric bimorph laminar actuator of tapered width exhibits better performance for out-of-plane deflection compared to the rectangular surface area, while consuming equal surface area. This paper contains electromechanical analysis and modeling of a tapered width piezoelectric bimorph laminar actuator at high electric field in static state. The analysis is based on the second order constitutive equations of piezoelectric material, assuming small strain and large electric field to capture its behavior at high electric field. Analytical expressions are developed for block force, output strain energy, output energy density, input electrical energy, capacitance and energy efficiency at high electric field. The analytical expressions show that for fixed length, thickness, and surface area of the actuator, how the block force and output strain energy gets improved in a tapered surface actuator compared to a rectangular surface. Constant thickness, constant length and constant surface area of the actuator ensure constant mass, and constant electrical capacitance. We consider high electric field in both series and parallel electrical connection for the analysis. Part of the analytical results is validated with the experimental results, which are reported in earlier literature.

  6. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    PubMed

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles. PMID:23744363

  7. Multiwavelength digital holography for polishing tool shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lédl, Vít.; Psota, Pavel; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vojtíšek, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Classical mechano-chemical polishing is still a valuable technique, which gives unbeatable results for some types of optical surfaces. For example, optics for high power lasers requires minimized subsurface damage, very high cosmetic quality, and low mid spatial frequency error. One can hardly achieve this with use of subaperture polishing. The shape of the polishing tool plays a crucial role in achieving the required form of the optical surface. Often the shape of the polishing tool or pad is not known precisely enough during the manufacturing process. The tool shape is usually premachined and later is changed during the polishing procedure. An experienced worker could estimate the shape of the tool indirectly from the shape of the polished element, and that is why he can achieve the required shape in few reasonably long iterative steps. Therefore the lack of the exact tool shape knowledge is tolerated. Sometimes, this indirect method is not feasible even if small parts are considered. Moreover, if processes on machines like planetary (continuous) polishers are considered, the incorrect shape of the polishing pad could extend the polishing times extremely. Every iteration step takes hours. Even worse, polished piece could be wasted if the pad has a poor shape. The ability of the tool shape determination would be very valuable in those types of lengthy processes. It was our primary motivation to develop a contactless measurement method for large diffusive surfaces and demonstrate its usability. The proposed method is based on application of multiwavelength digital holographic interferometry with phase shift.

  8. EFFECTS OF POLISHING PROCEDURES ON COLOR STABILITY OF COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Çagin; ERTA§, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change ∆E*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish system

  9. New Approach and Stem Increased Femoral Revision Rate in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Panichkul, Phonthakorn; Parks, Nancy L; Ho, Henry; Hopper, Robert H; Hamilton, William G

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the femoral stem revision and loosening rates in primary total hip arthroplasty between 2 different approaches and stem designs. Recent reports comparing the direct anterior approach with either the posterior or lateral approach showed that patients undergoing the direct anterior approach have less pain and an accelerated functional recovery in the early postoperative period. After converting to an anterior approach, the authors observed an increased rate of femoral stem revision. From 2003 to 2009, a posterior or lateral approach was used to insert 514 stems of 2 designs. These cases included the use of an extensively coated cobalt-chrome stem (n=232) or a straight, dual-tapered, proximally porous-coated titanium stem (n=282). In the following years, from 2009 to 2012, 594 short, proximally coated, titanium tapered-wedge stems were inserted through a direct anterior approach. The revision rates of femoral stems inserted through a posterior approach or a lateral approach were compared with those inserted via a direct anterior approach. No stem revisions occurred in the posterior approach group or the lateral approach group, and 5 stems were revised in the anterior approach group for periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening (0.8%). Significantly more stem revisions occurred after the use of the new stem design and a direct anterior approach (P=.04). PMID:26726989

  10. Variations in the trunnion surface topography between different commercially available hip replacement stems.

    PubMed

    Munir, Selin; Walter, William L; Walsh, William Robert

    2015-01-01

    Modular hip implants allows for the adjustment of leg length, offset, and the ability to remove the head for acetabular exposure during primary and revision surgery. The design of the Morse taper facilitates the intimate contact of the conical trunnion of the femoral stem (male component), with the conical bore of the femoral head (female component). Orthopaedic trunnion tapers are not standardized and vary in length, taper angle, and base dimension. Variations in the design and surface characteristics of the trunnion, will directly reflect on the interface at the taper junction and can influence the likelihood of subsequent wear, corrosion and longevity of the implant. The effect of surface topography of trunnions on commercially available hip stems has not yet been considered as a possible contributing factor in the corrosion observed at taper junctions. In this study we analyzed the surface topography and surface roughness of randomly selected commercially available femoral hip stem trunnions to obtain a greater insight into their surface characteristics. PMID:25319315

  11. The application of dry photoresists in fabricating cost-effective tapered through-silicon vias and redistribution lines in a single step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Pradeep; Salonen, Jaakko; Pohjonen, Harri; Monnoyer, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and cost-effective technique to fabricate a partially electroplated tapered through-silicon via (TSV) and redistribution line (RDL)-like structures on the field in a single process step using dry laminated photoresists. An array of 100 µm deep positively tapered silicon vias was etched by a three-step non-Bosch plasma etching process. Insulation, diffusion barrier and seed layers were deposited by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering processes, respectively. A 15 µm thick dry MXA115 photoresist was laminated on the wafer by a roller-less vacuum lamination process. The dry resist allows a satisfactory patterning of the RDL-like structures by eliminating the chances of resist residuals falling in the etched TSVs. Direct-current (dc) electroplating was used to deposit 10 µm thick copper layers on the via sidewalls as well as on the field. Therefore, the electroplating not only partially fills the vias but also forms the RDL structures at the same time. Since both TSVs and RDLs are fabricated together in a single process step, several conventional process steps such as over-burden polishing, lithography, and metal etching were avoided. Compared to the conventional TSV fabrication processes, this dry resist lithography-based method turned out to be simple and very cost-effective in making complex TSV interconnects.

  12. Polishing performances of different optics with different size powder and different pH value slurries during CMP polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jun; Wei, Chaoyang; Liu, Shijie; Dun, Aihuan; Yang, Minghong; Xu, Xueke; Shao, Jianda

    2015-10-01

    Different size polishing powder and different pH value ceria slurries were used to polish fused silica glass K9 glass and Nd-doped glass on pitch plate. Material removal rates (MRR) of glass polished with different size powder and various pH value slurries, and textures of each sample were characterized. The results show that powder size has an effect on glass polishing performance: scratch densities increase with the increase of polishing powder size; surface textures become rougher with the increase of the size of polishing powder. The slurry pH value also affects glass polishing performance: MRR of fused silica glass are lowest under any pH value slurry while Nd-doped glass has the largest MRR; removal rates of all three kinds of glass will rise under both acidic and alkaline condition. Near neutral polishing environment and smaller size powder are useful for the surface polishing process. The results further reveal polishing mechanism and provide the guidance for glass surface process.

  13. Strain energy release rate analysis of delamination in a tapered laminate subjected to tension load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; O'Brien, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Finite element method was used to analyze a tapered glass/epoxy composite laminate subjected to a tension load, in order to determine the interlaminar stress distributions the strain-energy release rate for the delamination growth that may occur due to ply drops. In a laminate having a typical configuration of a helicopter hub, the (+/- 45)3 plies were dropped in three distinct steps, each 20-ply thickness apart, with the resulting taper angle of 5.71 deg. Delaminations were assumed to initiate at the bottom of the taper on the -45/+45 interface, and the delamination growth was simulated along the taper and into the thin region. The results of the analysis indicated that a delamination initiating at the end of the taper will grow unstably along the taper and the thin laminate simultaneously.

  14. The ABCD matrix in graded index tapers used for beam expansion and compression.

    PubMed

    McMullin, J N

    1989-04-01

    A new form is proposed for the ABCD matrix in a graded index taper with a large variation in cross section such as might be used for single-mode beam expansion. Expressions are given for the loss of power from the fundamental mode and the coupling efficiency between fibers when two tapers are used in an expanded beam connector. Exact solutions are found for linear tapers and for a class of tapers with zero slope ends. The distinction between adiabatic and nonadiabatic tapers is made clear from the functional form of the matrix in the linear case. Comparisons are made with previously published results and the effect of taper shape on the coupling efficiency is discussed. PMID:20548654

  15. Calculation and analysis of the magnetic field of a linearly tapered undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He-Ting; Guo, Fan; Li, Jia-Yu; Jia, Qi-Ka

    2015-08-01

    There is an empirical formula describing the relationship between the peak magnetic field and the undulator structure parameters for a uniform-parameter hybrid undulator. In this paper, we investigate the relationship for a linearly tapered undulator through numerical calculation by using the code RADIA, and check it with the empirical formula. The results imply that this empirical formula is also effective for linearly tapered undulators at a big enough scope for the requirements of normal FEL experiments. Therefore, for a linearly tapered undulator, we can use the empirical formula to design the variation of the undulator gap. For the tapering rate demanded by normal FEL experiments, the gap of a linearly tapered undulator increases almost linearly, and the tapering rate will keep constant while adjusting the undulator gap with the same variation for each undulator period. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205156) and Major State Basic Research Development Program (2011CB808301)

  16. HyDRa: polishing process convergence rate optimization.

    PubMed

    Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Sohn, Erika; Ruiz, Elfego; Herrera, Joel

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to optimize the hydrodynamic radial (HyDRa) polishing process for applications where the amount of material that has to be removed implies long polishing times, we have developed a method to determine the optimum correction fraction that has to be made for a given error map, in terms of the level of determinism of the process, the number of iterations, and their associated polishing runs as well as run times. PMID:24085216

  17. Using “Sub-cement” to simulate the long-term fatigue response of cemented femoral stems in a cadaver model: could a novel pre-clinical screening test have caught the Exeter matte problem?

    PubMed Central

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we formulated cement with degraded fatigue properties (sub-cement) to simulate long-term fatigue in short-term cadaver tests. The present study determined the efficacy of sub-cement in a `pre-clinical' test of a design change with known clinical consequences: the “polished” to “matte” transition of the Exeter stem (revision rates were twice as high for matte stems). Contemporary stems were bead-blasted to give Ra=1micron (matte finish). Matte and polished stems were compared in cadaver pairs under stair-climbing loads (3 pairs size-1, 3 pairs size-3). Stem micromotion was monitored during loading. Post-test, transverse sections were examined for cement damage. Cyclic retroversion decreased for polished stems but increased for matte stems (p<0.0001). Implant size had a substantial effect: retroversion of (larger) size-3 stems was half that of size-1 stems and polished size-3 stems subsided 2½ times more than the others. Cement damage measures were similar and open through-cracks occurred around both stems of two pairs. Stem retroversion within the mantle resulted in stem-cement gaps of 50–150microns. Combining information on cyclic motion, cracks, and gaps, we concluded that this test `predicted' higher revision rates for matte stems (it also implied that polished size-3 stems might be superior to size-1). PMID:20476506

  18. Efficiency enhancement of coupled-cavity TWT's through cavity resonance tapering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines efficiency enhancement of coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube (TWT) through cavity resonance tapering. Beam-wave resynchronization through circuit velocity reduction is used for TWT efficiency enhancement, with circuit velocity reduction in coupled cavity TWT's accomplished through period tapering. However, the amount of the latter is limited by the stability considerations, so that beyond a critical value of velocity reduction, the tube may be subject to zero drive oscillations originating in the velocity taper region. The coupled-cavity resonance tapering allows the velocity reduction to continue beyond the limit of stable period tapering, and it is accomplished by a gradual reduction in the cavity resonance frequency, with the period and the circuit bandwidth unchanged. The advantages of cavity resonance tapering vs period tapering are discussed, and test data are presented with the results of large-signal computer calculations. It is shown that cavity resonance tapering can produce efficiencies as period tapering without incurring the same risk of lower band-edge oscillations.

  19. Fundamental mode evolution in long, large-core (>100 μm) adiabatic tapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerttula, Juho; Filippov, Valery; Chamorovskii, Yuri; Ustimchik, Vasily; Okhotnikov, Oleg G.

    2013-03-01

    We have experimentally investigated fundamental mode propagation in few-meter-long adiabatic step-index tapers with high numerical aperture, core diameter up to 117μm (V=38), and tapering ratio up to 18. We confirmed single fundamental mode guiding in tapers with uniform core index profile by several experiments. We observed an annular near field distribution and degraded beam quality for large output core diameters, found to occur due to intrinsic mechanical stress in the fibers. We expect that eliminating the stress would prevent the mode deformation and allow constructing single-mode, diffraction-limited tapered large-mode-area amplifiers with a good beam shape.

  20. Efficiency and Spectrum Enhancement in a Tapered Free-Electron Laser Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. J.; Harder, D.; Murphy, J. B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Yang, X.; Freund, H. P.; Miner, W. H. Jr.

    2009-10-09

    We report the first experimental characterization of efficiency and spectrum enhancement in a laser-seeded free-electron laser using a tapered undulator. Output and spectra in the fundamental and third harmonic were measured versus distance for uniform and tapered undulators. With a 4% field taper over 3 m, a 300% (50%) increase in the fundamental (third harmonic) output was observed. A significant improvement in the spectra with the elimination of sidebands was observed using a tapered undulator. The experiment is in good agreement with predictions using the MEDUSA simulation code.

  1. Efficiency and spectrum enhancement in a tapered free-electron laser amplifier.

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Freund, H P; Harder, D; Miner, W H; Murphy, J B; Qian, H; Shen, Y; Yang, X

    2009-10-01

    We report the first experimental characterization of efficiency and spectrum enhancement in a laser-seeded free-electron laser using a tapered undulator. Output and spectra in the fundamental and third harmonic were measured versus distance for uniform and tapered undulators. With a 4% field taper over 3 m, a 300% (50%) increase in the fundamental (third harmonic) output was observed. A significant improvement in the spectra with the elimination of sidebands was observed using a tapered undulator. The experiment is in good agreement with predictions using the MEDUSA simulation code. PMID:19905644

  2. Simple Expressions for the Design of Linear Tapers in Overmoded Corrugated Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical formulae are presented for the design of linear tapers with very low mode conversion loss in overmoded corrugated waveguides. For tapers from waveguide radius a 2 to a 1, with a 1< a 2, the optimal length of the taper is 3.198 a 1 a 2/ λ. Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation. The fractional loss of the HE 11 mode in an optimized taper is 0.0293 (a2-a1)4/{a12}{a22}. These formulae are accurate when a 2≲2 a 1. Slightly more complex formulae, accurate for a 2≤4 a 1, are also presented in this paper. The loss in an overmoded corrugated linear taper is less than 1 % when a 2≤2.12 a 1 and less than 0.1 % when a 2≤1.53 a 1. The present analytic results have been benchmarked against a rigorous mode matching code and have been found to be very accurate. The results for linear tapers are compared with the analogous expressions for parabolic tapers. Parabolic tapers may provide lower loss, but linear tapers with moderate values of a 2/ a 1 may be attractive because of their simplicity of fabrication.

  3. Simple Expressions for the Design of Linear Tapers in Overmoded Corrugated Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical formulae are presented for the design of linear tapers with very low mode conversion loss in overmoded corrugated waveguides. For tapers from waveguide radius a2 to a1, with a1 < a2, the optimal length of the taper is 3.198a1a2/λ. Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation. The fractional loss of the HE11 mode in an optimized taper is 0.0293(a2−a1)4∕a12a22. These formulae are accurate when a2 ≲ 2a1. Slightly more complex formulae, accurate for a2 ≤ 4a1, are also presented in this paper. The loss in an overmoded corrugated linear taper is less than 1 % when a2 ≤ 2.12a1 and less than 0.1 % when a2 ≤ 1.53a1. The present analytic results have been benchmarked against a rigorous mode matching code and have been found to be very accurate. The results for linear tapers are compared with the analogous expressions for parabolic tapers. Parabolic tapers may provide lower loss, but linear tapers with moderate values of a2/a1 may be attractive because of their simplicity of fabrication. PMID:27053963

  4. Multimode Brillouin spectrum in a long tapered birefringent photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Tchahame, Joël Cabrel; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a long tapered birefringent solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and compare our results with a similar but untapered PCF. It is shown that the taper generates a broadband and multipeaked Brillouin spectrum, while significantly increasing the threshold power. Furthermore, we observe that the strong fiber birefringence gives rise to a frequency shift of the Brillouin spectrum which increases along the fiber. Numerical simulations are also presented to account for the taper effect and the birefringence. Our findings open a new means to control or inhibit the SBS by tapering photonic crystal fibers. PMID:26371916

  5. Surface characteristics of posterior composites after polishing and toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Ruyter, I E

    1987-10-01

    The surface characteristics of eight posterior and two anterior composite resins were studied by SEM and profilometric tracings. The materials included both chemically cured and light-cured resin systems. Two posterior materials were microfilled composites; the others were conventional or hybrid types. The anterior composites were of conventional and hybrid types. At various steps in the procedures the following polishing/brushing treatments were evaluated: 1) dry polishing with Sof-lex discs followed by brushing with toothpaste; and 2) wet polishing with diamond pastes of increasing fineness, followed by brushing with toothpaste. The base line before the polishing/brushing procedures was obtained by wet polishing on silicon-carbide paper (4000 grit). All materials could be polished to a comparable smoothness by the Sof-lex discs, but this polishing procedure was associated with the development of an amorphous surface layer. Polishing with diamond pastes gave various results, with a 20-fold difference in surface roughness values from the smoothest to the roughest material. Toothbrushing after polishing with the Sof-lex system increased the surface roughness for all materials, but to various degrees. The two microfilled and four of the conventional posterior composites showed comparable surface roughness values, whereas two remaining posterior and the two anterior materials showed two to three times higher surface roughness values after toothbrushing. PMID:3478939

  6. Defect centers in chemical-mechanical polished MOS oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Warren, W.L.; Hetherington, D.L.; Timon, R.P.; Resnick, P.J.; Winokur, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    Defect centers generated in vacuum-ultraviolet irradiated chemical-mechanical polished oxides have been characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance and C-V analysis. Both oxide trap E{sub {gamma}} and interface trap P{sub b0} centers were detected in unpolished and polished oxides. In addition, another interface defect center known as the P{sub b1} center was only identified in the polished oxides, suggesting that the polishing process altered the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  7. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision < 10 nm RMS every four days, compared with a typical year or more for an one-off part. This requires a radically-new approach to large optics fabrication, which will inevitably propagate into wider industrial optics. We report on how these ambitious requirements have stimulated an investigation into the synergy between robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  8. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the

  9. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, John S.

    1997-01-01

    A non-contact polishing tool that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required.

  10. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, J.S.

    1997-01-07

    A non-contact polishing tool is disclosed that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required. 5 figs.

  11. Embryonic body formation using the tapered soft stencil for cluster culture device.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Hiroshi; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikuta, Koji; Hayashi, Shuji

    2011-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to provide a source of tissue, a renewable cell source for tissue engineering, and a method for in vitro drug screening for patient-specific or disease-specific treatment. A simple technology by which iPS cells can be differentiated effectively and in large quantities is strongly desired. In this paper, a new device (Tapered Soft Stencil for Cluster Culture: TASCL) is proposed for the easy and efficient formation of EBs which can be used in regenerative medicine. This device was compared with the two major methods currently being evaluated, namely the HD method and the Terasaki® plate (MWC substitution), in terms of the efficiency, morphology and acquired number of EB formation. Using the TASCL device, the shape of the EBs formed was almost a perfect sphere, and the formation was also faster than for the two other methods. There was little variability in the number of cells. Moreover, EBs formed using the TASCL device had the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers, and differentiation of EBs from the TASCL culture into hepatic cells was confirmed. In conclusion, it appears that the TASCL device can be utilized for EB formation to generate cells for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21354615

  12. Tapered cavity surface emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui

    2000-09-01

    High power, diffraction-limited semiconductor lasers are required for a wide range of applications such as pumping for EDFAs, Raman amplifiers, and for free space optical communications. Unstable resonator has been identified as a very promising concept to develop these lasers. The objective of this research is to investigate and develop tapered cavity unstable resonator grating coupled surface emitting lasers (TCSELs). The laser consists of a ridge section, a tapered gain section and a DBR grating section. The ridge is used to ensure single lateral mode operation. The taper is used to achieve high power from a large aperture. The grating is used to provide feedback and surface outcoupling. This laser design has several key features including high output power, near diffraction-limited beam, low divergence angle, single longitudinal mode operation, and integration with dynamic functionality such as wavelength tuning and beam steering. In this dissertation the design, fabrication and characterization of TCSELs are discussed. The theory of TCSELs is presented. As a theoretical investigation, a comprehensive numerical modeling based on finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) for semiconductor laser is developed. The model includes major parameters affecting device performance such as current spreading, carrier diffusion, nonlinear gain- carrier relation, gain saturation, carrier induced antiguiding and thermal lensing. The simulation results are presented and effects of design parameters on device performance are discussed. TCSELs with different device design and functionality are fabricated. The characterization results are discussed. High power operation is obtained under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operation. Collimated near diffraction-limited beam is demonstrated with moderate power. Single longitudinal mode operation with high side mode suppression ratio is observed. Wavelength tuning and beam steering is achieved using current injection to

  13. General optimization of tapered anti-reflective coatings.

    PubMed

    Good, Brandon L; Simmons, Shaun; Mirotznik, Mark

    2016-07-25

    An efficient, general optimized method is outlined that achieves antireflective tapers using lossless, non-dispersive dielectrics. The method modifies the derivative of a perfect antireflective wave amplitude distribution rather than the index of refraction distribution. Modifying the derivative of the wave amplitude distribution minimizes the potential index of refraction distributions and ensures perfect antireflection at one frequency, incidence angle, and linear polarization combination. Additional combinations of frequency, incident angle, and linear polarization can be targeted at a particular reflection coefficient within the optimization. After the method is outlined, three examples are shown with one being fabricated and validated at radiofrequencies. PMID:27464116

  14. On-chip optical mode exchange using tapered directional coupler

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present an on-chip optical mode exchange between two multiplexed modes by using tapered directional couplers on silicon-on-insulator platform. The device consisting of mode multiplexing and mode exchange is compact with relatively large fabrication error tolerance. The simulation results show efficient higher order mode excitation and mode exchange. A low excess loss less than 0.5 dB and high extinction ratio larger than 15 dB over 10 nm wavelength range from 1535 to 1545 nm are achieved. PMID:26530728

  15. Method of making tapered capillary tips with constant inner diameters

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-02-17

    Methods of forming electrospray ionization emitter tips are disclosed herein. In one embodiment, an end portion of a capillary tube can be immersed into an etchant, wherein the etchant forms a concave meniscus on the outer surface of the capillary. Variable etching rates in the meniscus can cause an external taper to form. While etching the outer surface of the capillary wall, a fluid can be flowed through the interior of the capillary tube. Etching continues until the immersed portion of the capillary tube is completely etched away.

  16. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  17. Asymmetric laser sideband generation with a tapered semiconductor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanakas, Michael; Lim, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a free-space, frequency-shifted feedback amplifier using a tapered semiconductor gain element. The general layout of the system is similar to that described in Littler, et al., Opt. Comm. 88, 523 (1992). Traveling-wave feedback is demonstrated with the m = - 1 order of several different acousto-optic modulators driven at variable frequency. Asymmetric sideband production is observed in the rf spectrum of a fast photodiode and in the transmission of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The number of asymmetric modes is controlled with the AOM rf drive power and the seed laser optical power. Supported by NSF PHY-0613659

  18. Spatial frequency multiplier with active linearly tapered slot antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1994-01-01

    A frequency multiplier with active linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA's) has been demonstrated at the second harmonic frequency. In each antenna element, a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) distributed amplifier is integrated with two LTSA's. The multiplier has a very wide bandwidth and large dynamic range. The fundamental-to-second harmonic conversion efficiency is 8.1 percent. The spatially combined second harmonic signal is 50 dB above the noise level. The design is suitable for constructing a large array using monolithic integration techniques.

  19. Tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Li, Yi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2009-12-10

    A tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip as a bandpass filter has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. This is a simple and cost-effective tunable source. It is found that the tuning range and bandwidth of the laser are related to the relaxation time of the optical amplifier, the current of the amplifier, and the steepness of the tip shape. The calculations and experimental results show that the laser has a tuning range of 9 nm in the L-band and the spectral linewidth can be varied from 0.06 nm to 0.17 nm. PMID:20011024

  20. Space Power Amplification with Active Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1993-01-01

    A space power amplifier composed of active linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA's) has been demonstrated and shown to have a gain of 30 dB at 20 GHz. In each of the antenna elements, a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) three-stage power amplifier is integrated with two LTSA's. The LTSA and the MMIC power amplifier has a gain of 11 dB and power added efficiency of 14 percent respectively. The design is suitable for constructing a large array using monolithic integration techniques.

  1. Modeling taper charge with a non-linear equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    Work aimed at modeling the charge voltage and current characteristics of nickel-cadmium cells subject to taper charge is presented. Work reported at previous NASA Battery Workshops has shown that the voltage of cells subject to constant current charge and discharge can be modeled very accurately with the equation: voltage = A + (B/(C-X)) + De to the -Ex where A, B, D, and E are fit parameters and x is amp-hr of charge removed during discharge or returned during charge. In a constant current regime, x is also equivalent to time on charge or discharge.

  2. Supercontinuum generation in dispersion-managed tapered-rib waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K

    2013-10-20

    We have designed a tapered-rib waveguide and numerically studied the generation of supercontinuum using such waveguides. The Air-SF57 glass-SiO(2) waveguide is 3 cm long, with a varying etched depth to manage the total dispersion. Numerical simulations are conducted for input pulses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with a width of 150 fs and peak power of 5 kW. The proposed waveguide geometry greatly broadens the output spectrum, extending from ∼1 to ∼6  μm, caused by the continuous modification of the phase-matching condition for the generated waves. PMID:24216588

  3. Dispersion-engineered tapered planar waveguide for coherent supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    We have designed a tapered planar rib waveguide and numerically studied supercontinuum generation by the propagation of input pulses at 1.55 μm. The Air-SF57 glass-SiO2 waveguide is 2 cm long, with a varying etch depth to manage the total dispersion. This proposed waveguide geometry significantly broadens the output spectrum caused by continuous modification of the phase matching condition for dispersive wave emission. The coherence property has also been investigated, demonstrating that fully coherent supercontinuum extending from ~1 μm to ~4.6 μm can be obtained with proper pumping conditions.

  4. Design and Manufacture of Structurally Efficient Tapered Struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewster, Jebediah W.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials offer the potential of weight savings for numerous spacecraft and aircraft applications. A composite strut is just one integral part of the node-to-node system and the optimization of the shut and node assembly is needed to take full advantage of the benefit of composites materials. Lockheed Martin designed and manufactured a very light weight one piece composite tapered strut that is fully representative of a full scale flight article. In addition, the team designed and built a prototype of the node and end fitting system that will effectively integrate and work with the full scale flight articles.

  5. Nanocoating effects on tapered long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, P.; Cusano, A.; Cutolo, A.; Giordano, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Bock, W. J.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the experimental analysis of the response of nanocoated Tapered Long Period Gratings (TLPGs) to Surrounding Refractive Index (SRI) changes is presented. The modal transition is demonstrated to take place in this kind of devices and to be an effective method to improve their SRI sensitivity. The dip-coating method was carried out by an automated system and showed to be a reliable technique for the deposition of conformal coatings. A comparison with traditional UV-written LPGs revealed that a thicker overlay is necessary for the TLPG to tune the transition region in the same SRI range.

  6. Numerical simulation of the insertion process of an uncemented hip prosthesis in order to evaluate the influence of residual stress and contact distribution on the stem initial stability.

    PubMed

    Monea, Aida Georgeta; Pastrav, Leonard Cezar; Mulier, Michiel; Van der Perre, Georges; Jaecques, Siegfried V

    2014-01-01

    The long-term success of a cementless total hip arthroplasty depends on the implant geometry and interface bonding characteristics (fit, coating and ingrowth) and on stem stiffness. This study evaluates the influence of stem geometry and fitting conditions on the evolution and distribution of the bone-stem contact, stress and strain during and after the hip stem insertion, by means of dynamic finite element techniques. Next, the influence of the mechanical state (bone-stem contact, stress and strain) resulted from the insertion process on the stem initial resistance to subsidence is investigated. In addition, a study on the influence of bone-stem interface conditions (friction) on the insertion process and on the initial stem stability under physiological loading is performed. The results indicate that for a stem with tapered shape the contact in the proximal part of the stem was improved, but contact in the calcar region was achieved only when extra press-fit conditions were considered. Changes in stem geometry towards a more tapered shape and extra press fit and variation in the bone-stem interface conditions (contact amount and high friction) led to a raise in the total insertion force. A direct positive relationship was found between the stem resistance to subsidence and stem geometry (tapering and press fit), bone-stem interface conditions (bone-stem contact and friction interface) and the mechanical status at the end of the insertion (residual stress and strain). Therefore, further studies on evaluating the initial performance of different stem types should consider the parameters describing the bone-stem interface conditions and the mechanical state resulted from the insertion process. PMID:22548243

  7. Deterministic Computer-Controlled Polishing Process for High-Energy X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A deterministic computer-controlled polishing process for large X-ray mirror mandrels is presented. Using tool s influence function and material removal rate extracted from polishing experiments, design considerations of polishing laps and optimized operating parameters are discussed

  8. POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

  9. Ethnic Identity and the Polish Immigrant in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostwin, Danuta

    1988-01-01

    Examines the ethnic identity of Polish Americans, and the issues that Polish immigrants face. The following are components of the conceptual structure of identity: (1) genetically inherited characteristics; (2) characteristics acquired through family socialization; and (3) characteristics acquired through re-socialization. (BJV)

  10. Social Obstacles Towards Success of Pupils in Polish Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakielska, Zofia

    In 1973, the Polish Minister of Education ordered objective competitions at the primary school level in the fields of Polish studies, Russian language, and math. In order to determine whether such subject competitions were justified and if they contributed equally to the development of interests and abilities among the rural and urban and…

  11. Gain saturation and high-power pulsed operation of GaSb-based tapered diode lasers with separately contacted ridge and tapered section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfahler, C.; Eichhorn, M.; Kelemen, M. T.; Kaufel, G.; Mikulla, M.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.

    2006-07-01

    (AlGaIn)(AsSb) ridge-waveguide tapered diode lasers with separately contacted ridge and tapered sections, emitting at 1.93μm, have been analyzed in pulsed mode with respect to their high-power capability and wavelength tunability. Operating the ridge section above saturation, a variation of the current through this section resulted in a change in lasing wavelength, while changing the current injected into the tapered section at a constant ridge current allowed to vary the output power at constant lasing wavelength. Furthermore, the optical power required to saturate the tapered amplifier section has been derived from a comparison of the experimental characteristics with beam propagation method calculations.

  12. Improved oil-off survivability of tapered roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, Gary E.; Lee, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this program is to improve the oil-off survivability of a tapered roller bearing when applied to a helicopter transmission, since the tapered bearing has shown a performance advantage in this application. However, the critical roller end-rib conjunction is vulnerable to damage in an oil-off condition. Three powdered metal materials were selected to use as the rib material for oil-off evaluation. These were: M2 steel to a 65% density, CBS 1000M 65% density, and CBS 1000M 75% density. The bearing styles tested were ribbed cone (inner race) and ribbed cup (outer race). Carburized solid CBS 600 was also used as a ribbed material for comparison of oil-off results. The tests were conducted at six speeds from 4000 rpm (0.26 million DN) through 37000 rpm (2.4 million DN).The ribbed cup style bearing achieved longer lives than the ribbed cone style. A standard bearing lasted only 10 minutes at 4000 rpm; however, the 30-min oil-off goal was achieved through 11000 rpm using the survivable ribbed cup bearing. The oil-off lives at 37000 rpm were less than 10 seconds. The grinding of the powder metal materials and surface preparation to achieve an open porosity is extremely critical to the oil-off performance of the powder metal component.

  13. Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C. D.; Hancher, C. W.; Arcuri, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

  14. Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    urri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam specimens from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. Two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) associated with simulated delamination growth in the flexbeams are presented from both codes. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the tip of the ply-drop toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves for comparison with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared well with the test results.

  15. Fatigue Life Analysis of Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.; Dobyns, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam laminates from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. The two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) obtained from the above codes using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) at a resin crack location in the flexbeams are presented for both hybrid material types. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the resin crack toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves and compared with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared reasonably well with the test results.

  16. Analysis of guided wave propagation in a tapered composite panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Moll, Jochen; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have been published in recent years on Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and (multi-layered) anisotropic structures. In this paper, adiabatic wave propagation phenomenon in a tapered composite panel made out of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) will be considered. Such structural elements are often used e.g. in wind turbine blades and aerospace structures. Here, the wave velocity of each wave mode does not only change with frequency and the direction of wave propagation. It further changes locally due to the varying cross-section of the GFRP panel. Elastic waves were excited using a piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field measurements using scanning Laser Doppler vibrometry have been performed. This approach allows the detailed analysis of elastic wave propagation in composite specimen with linearly changing thickness. It will be demonstrated here experimentally, that the wave velocity changes significantly due to the tapered geometry of the structure. Hence, this work motivates the theoretical and experimental analysis of adiabatic mode propagation for the purpose of Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring.

  17. Flow and acoustic features of a supersonic tapered nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, E.; Bowman, H. L.; Schadow, K. C.

    1992-05-01

    The acoustic and flow characteristics of a supersonic tapered jet were measured for free and shrouded flow configurations. Measurements were performed for a full range of pressure ratios including over- and underexpanded and design conditions. The supersonic tapered jet is issued from a converging-diverging nozzle with a 3∶1 rectangular slotted throat and a conical diverging section leading to a circular exit. The jet was compared to circular and rectangular supersonic jets operating at identical conditions. The distinct feature of the jet is the absence of screech tones in the entire range of operation. Its near-field pressure fluctuations have a wide band spectrum in the entire range of measurements, for Mach numbers of 1 to 2.5, for over- and underexpanded conditions. The free jet's spreading rate is nearly constant and similar to the rectangular jet, and in a shroud, the pressure drop it is inducing is linearly proportional to the primary jet Mach number. This behavior persisted in high adverse pressure gradients at overexpanded conditions, and with nozzle divergence angles of up to 35°, no inside flow separation was observed.

  18. Optimization of epitaxial layer design for high brightness tapered lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijero, J. M. G.; Rodriguez, D.; Borruel, L.; Sujecki, S.; Larkins, E. C.; Esquivias, I.

    2005-04-01

    A comparative simulation study of the optical output characteristics of tapered lasers with different epitaxial structure was performed. The simulation model self-consistently solves the steady state electrical and optical equations for the flared unstable resonator and was previously backed by experiments on one of the simulated structures. Three different epitaxial designs emitting at 975 nm were analyzed: a standard single quantum well symmetrically located in the confinement region (s-SQW), a double quantum well also symmetrically located (s-DQW) and an asymmetrically located double quantum well (a-DQW). The symmetric structures have different confinement factor but a similar ratio between the active layer thickness and the confinement factor, dQW/Γ, while the a-DQW has similar confinement factor than the s-SQW, but double dQW/Γ. A better performance is predicted for the a-DQW design, reaching considerably higher output power with good beam quality. The results are interpreted in terms of a lower density of power in the QW in the case of the a-DQW design, thus delaying to higher output power the onset of the non-linear effects that degrade the beam quality. The role of dQW/Γ as a figure of merit for high brightness tapered lasers is emphasized.

  19. Moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeksal, Adnan

    1993-01-01

    A method of moments (MOM) model for the analysis of the Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) is developed and implemented. The model employs an unequal size rectangular sectioning for conducting parts of the antenna. Piecewise sinusoidal basis functions are used for the expansion of conductor current. The effect of the dielectric is incorporated in the model by using equivalent volume polarization current density and solving the equivalent problem in free-space. The feed section of the antenna including the microstripline is handled rigorously in the MOM model by including slotline short circuit and microstripline currents among the unknowns. Comparison with measurements is made to demonstrate the validity of the model for both the air case and the dielectric case. Validity of the model is also verified by extending the model to handle the analysis of the skew-plate antenna and comparing the results to those of a skew-segmentation modeling results of the same structure and to available data in the literature. Variation of the radiation pattern for the air LTSA with length, height, and taper angle is investigated, and the results are tabulated. Numerical results for the effect of the dielectric thickness and permittivity are presented.

  20. Spiralling tapered slip-on drill string stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T.R.; Teng, C.C.

    1986-12-23

    A stabilizer is described for use in a drilling string comprising: a substantially cylindrical body member having a central passageway to accommodate the drill sting, the inside surface of the body member defining a right-hand spiralling thread with a tapered trailing edge which spirals from a starting point on the body member. The thread terminates internally of the body member in an arcuate recess extending around the interior of the body member; a key member is secured to the inner wall surface of the recess of the body member, the key member having a lug extending longitudinally of the body member within the recess; a slip member adapted to thread within the body member between the body member and the drill string. The slip defines a right-hand thread with a matching tapered trailing edge configured to make up with the right-hand thread on the body member and to wedge between the body member and the drill string. One end of the slip terminates in a longitudinally disposed shoulder capable of abutting the lug upon threading of the clip within the body member.

  1. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  2. Excessive distal migration of fiber-mesh coated femoral stems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surface texture, localization, and magnitude of the surface material applied to the femoral stem can facilitate bone ingrowth and influence the survival of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical and radiographic studies have shown superior bone ingrowth in proximally porous-coated stems with a diaphyseal grit-blasted surface in comparison to a smooth diaphyseal surface. Surface textures—especially porous surface material—have been suggested to have a sealing effect against migration of polyethylene debris along the implant-bone interface and to reduce the inflammatory response, leading to a prolonged implant survival. Patients and methods Between 2004 and 2006, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) involving 50 patients with non-inflammatory arthritis. They received either a distally tapered, extended coated stem or a straight, proximally coated stem. During surgery, tantalum markers were inserted into the greater and lesser trochanter. Implant migration was evaluated at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by radiostereometric analysis. The primary endpoint was stem migration 2 years after surgery. Results All femoral components in both groups showed pronounced distal translation, with the highest rate of translation occurring between 0 and 3 months. After 2 years, the mean distal translation was 2.67 (95% CI: –3.93 to –1.42) mm for the tapered, extended coated stem and 1.80 (–2.45 to –1.15) mm for the straight, proximally coated stem. Half of the tapered, extended coated stems and two-thirds of the straight, proximally coated stems had migrated more than 1 mm. No difference between the 2 stems could be seen with regard to translation or rotation at any time point. After 2 years, 2 hips have been reoperated due to mechanical loosening of the stem. Interpretation An excessive amount of migration of both stem types was seen 2 years postoperatively. It is of vital importance to follow this patient cohort since radiostereometric

  3. Dynamic analysis of tapered laminated composite magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) sandwich plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, V. Ramesh; Vasudevan, R.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the dynamic performance of the sandwich plate with magneto rheological elastomer (MRE) as the core layer and tapered laminated composite plates as the face layers is investigated. Various MRE tapered laminated composite sandwich plate models are formulated by dropping-off the plies longitudinally in top and bottom composite layers to yield tapered plates as the face layers and uniform MRE layer as the core layer. The governing equations of motion of tapered composite MRE sandwich plates are derived using classical laminated plate theory and solved numerically. Further, silicon based MRE is being fabricated and tested to obtain the shear and loss moduli using MR rheometer. The efficacy of the finite element formulation is validated by carrying out experiments on the various prototypes of tapered composite silicon based MRE sandwich plates and comparing the results in terms of natural frequencies obtained at various magnetic fields with those obtained numerically and with available literature. Also, the effects of magnetic field, taper angle of the top and bottom layers, aspect ratio, ply orientations and various end conditions on the various dynamic properties of tapered laminated composite MRE sandwich plate are investigated. Further, the transverse vibration responses of three different tapered composite MRE based sandwich plates under harmonic force excitation are analyzed at various magnetic fields.

  4. Pad polishing for rapid production of large flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Ralph R.; Schmell, Rodney A.

    1997-10-01

    Pad polishing is an efficient technique for polishing-out a ground surface and reaching a figure better than one wave, ready for completion with less than an hour on a planetary polisher. Recent work has shown success on 350 mm square parts; current work involves scaling the process to 1.4 meter diameter. For the 350 mm square piece of BK7, removal was one micrometer every 10 minutes. Polishing-out from a 5 micrometer grind took less than 3 hours, to a surface smoothness of one nm rms. Other tests verified that the pad leaves no unusual subsurface damage. Following completion on a pitch planetary polisher, surface finish is the same as obtained for conventional processing.

  5. The invisible community: undocumented Polish workers in Athens.

    PubMed

    Romaniszyn, K

    1996-04-01

    "This article describes the development of an economic migration from Poland to Greece and the creation of a migrant community in Athens. It presents the development of a new migration route by political immigrants. It then describes how the Polish political emigrants heading for Greece in the mid-1980s established the pillar institutions which were inherited by the Polish undocumented workers who have followed, and which have served the latter well. The article proceeds to highlight the work milieu of the Polish undocumented workers in Athens, and discusses the role played by the ¿Polish church', i.e., the Roman Catholic church to which Poles were given access. It concludes by considering the future prospects of this migration and of the Polish migrant community in Greece." PMID:12179815

  6. Precision technique for side-polished fiber fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishakov, Gennadi V.; Sokolov, Victor I.

    2002-04-01

    The precision technique for side polishing of single-mode quartz fibers is developed. The technique comprises cutting curved groove in silica block, gluing a section of bare fiber into the groove, and subsequent grinding and polishing of the silica block/fiber assembly. We succeeded in fabricating up to six side-polished fibers in one block with effective interaction length 2-4 mm. The accuracy of polishing depth was achieved at 1 micrometers using in-situ monitoring of transmission of 1.3 micrometers laser light through the fiber. The developed technique combines high accuracy, reproducibility and low cost in commercial production. Side- polished single-mode fibers fabricated with this technique can find application as elements of Bragg grating transmission filters, narrowband reflectors, optical add/drop multiplexers, couplers, polarizers, sensors, etc.

  7. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Honglin

    The concept of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was examined for finishing sapphire. In this study sapphire was used as a model system for oxide ceramics. The removal rates were determined by weight loss. Surface quality and structure were characterized with surface probe microscopy (SPM). Polishing experiments were designed to test the chemically modified surface layer. A series of abrasives with various hardnesses including mono-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond, alpha and gamma alumina, zirconia, ceria and silica were used. Diaspore was also evaluated. The results indicated that, with similar particle size and shape, harder abrasives do not necessarily cause faster material removal and better surface finish, and abrasives with hardness equal to or less than sapphire such as alpha alumina and gamma alumina achieved the best surface finish and efficient material removal. A hypothesis was proposed that the sapphire surface was modified by water to form a thin hydration laver with structure and hardness close to diaspore. Abrasives with a hardness between diaspore and sapphire polished the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. SPM indicated the hydration layer on the c-plane surface was about 1 nm thick. Removal rate and surface finish as a function of pH were also examined on c-plane sapphire with nano-alumina abrasives. The removal rate as a function of pH was compared to the solubility behavior of alumina. The results showed the deviation of pH from the lowest solubility pH for alumina (pH = 5) was a driving force for the surface reaction to form a hydration layer. The anisotropy of sapphire strongly affects removal rate and surface quality in CMP. The relationships among orientation. pH and abrasive were studied for sapphire with c (0001), a (11-20), and m (10-10) planes. Based on the results, the CMP process for sapphire includes chemical reaction of the surface to form a thin reaction layer that is softer than sapphire

  8. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro Henrique; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Sodré Junior, Laerte; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, "FOCCoS", for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, "PFS", is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, we describe the procedure developed for high quality polishing of this type of slit. The cylindrical polishing described here, uses cylindrical concave metal bases on which glass paper is based. The polishing process consists to use grid sequences of 30μm, 12μm, 9μm, 5μm, 3μm, 1μm and, finally, a colloidal silica on a chemical cloth. To obtain the maximum throughput, the surface of the fibers should be polished in such a way that they are optically flat and free from scratches. The optical fibers are inspected with a microscope at all stages of the polishing process to ensure high quality. The efficiency of the process may be improved by using a cylindrical concave composite base as a substrate suitable for diamond liquid solutions. Despite this process being completely by hand, the final result shows a very high quality.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and self-adjusting file systems

    PubMed Central

    Ozsu, Damla; Karatas, Ertugrul; Arslan, Hakan; Topcu, Meltem C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during preparation with ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), a reciprocating single-file (WaveOne; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), and a self-adjusting file (SAF; ReDent Nova, Ra’anna, Israel). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six intact mandibular premolar teeth were randomly assigned to four groups. The root canals were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and SAF. Apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted Eppendorf tubes during instrumentation. The net weight of the apically extruded debris was determined by subtracting the preweights and postweights of the tubes. The data were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: A measurable amount of debris was apically extruded in all groups, and the amounts of debris extrusion in the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ProTaper Next and WaveOne groups resulted in less debris extrusion than the ProTaper Universal group (P < 0.05), and the SAF group resulted in the least debris extrusion. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that all systems extruded debris beyond the apical foramen. PMID:25512732

  10. Acousto-optic interaction in biconical tapered fibers: shaping of the stopbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Bello-Jiménez, Miguel Ángel; Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian; Díez, Antonio; Cruz, José Luis; Rodríguez-Cobos, Amparo; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl; Andrés Bou, Miguel Vicente

    2016-03-01

    The effect of a gradual reduction of the fiber diameter on the acousto-optic (AO) interaction is reported. The experimental and theoretical study of the intermodal coupling induced by a flexural acoustic wave in a biconical tapered fiber shows that it is possible to shape the transmission spectrum, for example, substantially broadening the bandwidth of the resonant couplings. The geometry of the taper transitions can be regarded as an extra degree of freedom to design the AO devices. Optical bandwidths above 45 nm are reported in a tapered fiber with a gradual reduction of the fiber down to 70 μm diameter. The effect of including long taper transition is also reported in a double-tapered structure. A flat attenuation response is reported with 3-dB stopband bandwidth of 34 nm.

  11. Intensity modulated SMF cascaded tapers with a hollow core PCF based microcavity for curvature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Sumit; Narayan Dash, Jitendra; Jha, Rajan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a highly sensitive curvature sensor based on cascaded single mode fiber (SMF) tapers with a microcavity. The microcavity is created by splicing a small piece of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) at the end of an SMF to obtain a sharp interference pattern. Experimental results show that two SMF tapers enhance the curvature sensitivity of the system and by changing the tapering parameters of the second taper, the curvature sensitivity of the system can be tailored, together with the fringe contrast of the interference pattern. A maximum curvature sensitivity of 10.4 dB/m-1 is observed in the curvature range 0 to 1 m-1 for a second taper diameter of 18 μm. The sensing setup is highly stable and shows very low temperature sensitivity. As the interrogation is intensity based, a low cost optical power meter can be utilized to determine the curvature.

  12. Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr:forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Alfimov, M. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Birks, T. A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Russell, P. St. J.; Fedotov, A. B.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Podshivalov, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    Spectral broadening of femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses is enhanced due to the use of tapered fibers. Supercontinuum generation with unamplified subnanojoule femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses is observed for the first time. With 40-fs 0.6-nJ pulses of 1.25-μm Cr:forsterite laser radiation coupled into a tapered fiber having a taper waist diameter of about 2 μm and a taper waist length of 90 mm, we observed the spectra spanning more than two octaves at the output of the fiber in the regime of anomalous group-velocity dispersion. This result opens the way for the creation of compact femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser plus tapered fiber systems for optical metrology and biomedical applications.

  13. Theoretical span loading and moments of tapered wings produced by aileron deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    The effect of tapered ailerons on linearly tapered wings is theoretically determined. Four different aileron spans are considered for each of three wing aspect ratios and each of four wing taper ratios. The change in lift on one half of the wing, the rolling moment, the additional induced drag, and the yawing moment, due to aileron deflection, are represented by non dimensional coefficients. Similar coefficients are given for the damping and yawing moments, the additional drag, and the change in lift, due to rolling. It was found possible to effect a fairly close agreement between the theoretical and experimental rolling moments by introducing into the theoretical expression for the rolling moment an effective change in angle of attack obtained from an analysis of flap data. The theoretical curves show that the highly tapered wing with long ailerons has a lower ratio of yawing to rolling moment and a lower additional induced drag than wings with less taper.

  14. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  15. Immune responses against islet allografts during tapering of immunosuppression - A pilot study in 5 subjects.

    PubMed

    Huurman, Volkert A L; van der Torren, Cornelis R; Gillard, Pieter; Hilbrands, Robert; van der Meer-Prins, Ellen P M W; Duinkerken, Gaby; Gorus, Frans K; Claas, Frans H J; Keymeulen, Bart; Roelen, Dave L; Pipeleers, Daniel G; Roep, Bart O

    2012-04-25

    Transplantation of isolated islet of Langerhans cells has great potential as a cure for type 1 diabetes but continuous immune suppressive therapy often causes considerable side effects. Tapering of immunosuppression in successfully transplanted patients would lower patients' health risk. To identify immune biomarkers that may prove informative in monitoring tapering, we studied the effect of tapering on islet auto- and alloimmune reactivity in a pilot study in five transplant recipients in vitro. Cytokine responses to the graft were measured using Luminex technology. Avidity of alloreactive cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) was determined by CD8 blockade. The influence of immunosuppression was mimicked by in vitro replenishment of tacrolimus and MPA, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil. Tapering of tacrolimus was generally followed by decreased C-peptide production. T-cell autoreactivity increased in four out of five patients during tapering. Overall alloreactive CTL precursor frequencies did not change, but their avidity to donor mismatches increased significantly after tapering (p=0.035). In vitro addition of tacrolimus but not MPA strongly inhibited CTL alloreactivity during tapering and led to a significant shift to anti-inflammatory graft-specific cytokine production. Tapering of immunosuppression is characterized by diverse immune profiles that appear to relate inversely to plasma C-peptide levels. Highly avid allospecific CTLs that are known to associate with rejection increased during tapering, but could be countered by restoring immune suppression in vitro. Immune monitoring studies may help guiding tapering of immunosuppression after islet cell transplantation, even though we do not have formal prove yet that the observed changes reflect direct effects of immune suppression on immunity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology. PMID:23607493

  16. Immune responses against islet allografts during tapering of immunosuppression--a pilot study in 5 subjects.

    PubMed

    Huurman, V A L; van der Torren, C R; Gillard, P; Hilbrands, R; van der Meer-Prins, E P M W; Duinkerken, G; Gorus, F K; Claas, F H J; Keymeulen, B; Roelen, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Roep, B O

    2012-08-01

    Transplantation of isolated islet of Langerhans cells has great potential as a cure for type 1 diabetes but continuous immune suppressive therapy often causes considerable side effects. Tapering of immunosuppression in successfully transplanted patients would lower patients' health risk. To identify immune biomarkers that may prove informative in monitoring tapering, we studied the effect of tapering on islet auto- and alloimmune reactivity in a pilot study in five transplant recipients in vitro. Cytokine responses to the graft were measured using Luminex technology. Avidity of alloreactive cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) was determined by CD8 blockade. The influence of immunosuppression was mimicked by in vitro replenishment of tacrolimus and MPA, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil. Tapering of tacrolimus was generally followed by decreased C-peptide production. T-cell autoreactivity increased in four out of five patients during tapering. Overall alloreactive CTL precursor frequencies did not change, but their avidity to donor mismatches increased significantly after tapering (P = 0·035). In vitro addition of tacrolimus but not MPA strongly inhibited CTL alloreactivity during tapering and led to a significant shift to anti-inflammatory graft-specific cytokine production. Tapering of immunosuppression is characterized by diverse immune profiles that appear to relate inversely to plasma C-peptide levels. Highly avid allospecific CTLs that are known to associate with rejection increased during tapering, but could be countered by restoring immune suppression in vitro. Immune monitoring studies may help guiding tapering of immunosuppression after islet cell transplantation, even though we do not have formal prove yet that the observed changes reflect direct effects of immune suppression on immunity. PMID:22774994

  17. Latest developments in Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Polish Fireball Network started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of the Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 40 continuously working stations, where nearly 70 sensitive CCTV video and digital cameras operate. The new cameras for digital meteor spectroscopy were tested. We use technology of crossed grids to have better chances to register a meteor spectrum. A resolution of 8 A/pixel + 5.5 A/pixel was achieved. For the meteor patrol we have chosen the DMK 23GX236 with a chip resolution of 1920x1200 pixels. Two new cameras will be able to cover almost the whole sky with a resolution 4'/pixel.

  18. Polished Downhole Transducer Having Improved Signal Coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    Apparatus and methods to improve signal coupling in downhole inductive transmission elements to reduce the dispersion of magnetic energy at the tool joints and to provide consistent impedance and contact between transmission elements located along the drill string. A transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including an annular core constructed of a magnetically conductive material. The annular core forms an open channel around its circumference and is configured to form a closed channel by mating with a corresponding annular core along an annular mating surface. The mating surface is polished to provide improved magnetic coupling with the corresponding annular core. An annular conductor is disposed within the open channel.

  19. Patient's autonomy of will in Polish law.

    PubMed

    Swiderska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-01

    A principle of Polish legislation is that the evidence of legality for any medical intervention is the patient's consent. The issue is directly referred to by both the Patient's Rights Act from 2008 and the Medical Profession Act from 1996. The patient's consent may be given after obtaining reliable, accessible and thorough information about all stages of medical intervention: diagnosis, therapy prospects or rehabilitation. The extent of information about the potential risk of medical treatment should include the typically foreseeable results, which usually brings the matter down to typical risk. However, there are interventions, which bear greater risk, and even though it can't be considered typical, it should also be mentioned, despite the fact that the postulate of tactfulness should be respected here. The burden of proof that appropriate information has been given lies upon the doctor. Thus default consent, especially one given on being admitted to hospital, to all medical actions isn't valid in legal terms. The role of forms including standard information for giving consent is limited. Polish law doesn't regulate this issue, and other forms of indirect communication are used as auxiliary and cannot replace direct contact between a patient and a doctor. According to the Patient's Rights Act, in case of deliberate breach of those rights, the court can grant the aggrieved party with an appropriate sum as financial compensation for the harm sustained or an appropriate sum of money for the charity chosen by the aggrieved party. It is a legal basis for claiming compensation for non-material harm in case of a breach of the patient's right to give consent. It is possible both in case of liability in tort, as well as contractual claims. PMID:23248839

  20. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  1. Tapered lasers emitting at 650 nm with 1 W output power with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Adamiec, Pawel; Sumpf, Bernd; Rüdiger, Ingo; Fricke, Jörg; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Ressel, Peter; Wenzel, Hans; Zorn, Martin; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2009-08-15

    High-brightness tapered lasers emitting around 650 nm were developed. Devices 2 mm long with a200-microm-long straight section, 1800-microm-long tapered section, and 4 degrees taper angle reached 1 W output power in CW operation with a nearly diffraction-limited beam quality. PMID:19684814

  2. Surface roughness and morphology of resin composites polished with two-step polishing systems.

    PubMed

    Can Say, Esra; Yurdagüven, Haktan; Yaman, Batu Can; Özer, Füsun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of supra-nanofilled [Estelite Omega (EO), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ)], micro-hybrid [Esthet.X HD (EHD), G-aenial (GAE)] and nano-hybrid [Clearfil Majesty Posterior (CMP), Charisma Diamond (CD), Beautifil II (BII)] composites polished with two-step polishing systems [Enhance/PoGo (EP); Venus Supra (VS)]. Composite discs, 30 of each type, were prepared. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups: Mylar (control), EP and VS. Ra was evaluated with profilometer. In each composite group, the control had the lowest Ra. With both polishing systems, EO and EQ had significantly the lowest Ra, whereas CMP and BII had the highest. Except for GAE, CD and BII, the differences in Ra between EP and VS in each composite group were significant, showing smoother surfaces for EP. Supra-nanofilled composites created smoother surfaces than nano-hybrids, and their performance was similar or slightly better than that of micro-hybrids. PMID:24598241

  3. New perspectives in hydrodynamic radial polishing techniques for optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cordero, Alberto; González, Jorge; Núñez, Manuel; Salinas, Javier; Cruz-González, Irene; Valdés, Jorge; Cabrera, Victor; Martínez, Benjamín

    2004-09-01

    In order to overcome classic polishing techniques, a novel hydrodynamic radial polishing tool (HyDRa) is presented; it is useful for the corrective lapping and fine polishing of diverse materials by means of a low-cost abrasive flux and a hydrostatic suspension system that avoids contact of the tool with the working surface. This tool enables the work on flat or curved surfaces of currently up to two and a half meters in diameter. It has the advantage of avoiding fallen edges during the polishing process as well as reducing tool wear out and deformation. The functioning principle is based on the generation of a high-velocity, high-pressure, abrasive emulsion flux with radial geometry. The polishing process is repeatable by means of the control of the tool operational parameters, achieving high degrees of precision and accuracy on optical and semiconductor surfaces, with removal rates of up to 9 mm3/hour and promising excellent surface polishing qualities. An additional advantage of this new tool is the possibility to perform interferometric measurements during the polishing process without the need of dismounting the working surface. A series of advantages of this method, numerical simulations and experimental results are described.

  4. Estimation of the dietary acrylamide exposure of the Polish population.

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Ołtarzewski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine acrylamide content in the Polish foods and to assess the average dietary acrylamide exposure of the Polish population. We analysed the acrylamide content in Polish food using GCQ-MS/MS method. The daily dietary acrylamide exposure was computed using a probabilistic approach for the total Polish population (1-96 years) and for the following age groups: 1-6, 7-18 and 19-96, using Monte Carlo simulation technique. To assess the Polish population exposure to acrylamide present in food, food consumption data was taken from the 'Household Food Consumption and Anthropometric Survey in Poland'. The mean content of acrylamide in tested 225 samples of foodstuffs taken randomly all over Poland, ranged widely from 11 to 3647 microg/kg of product. For the total Polish population (1-96 years) the estimated acrylamide mean exposure is 0.43 microg/kg of body weight per day. The main sources of dietary acrylamide in Polish population were as follow: bread--supplied 45% of total dietary acrylamide intake, French fries and potato crisps--23%, roasted coffee--19%. PMID:20470853

  5. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  6. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Periwal, P.; Baron, T. Salem, B.; Bassani, F.; Gentile, P.

    2014-04-01

    We report the effect of PH{sub 3} on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs). Ge NWs were grown on Si (111) substrate at 400 °C in the presence of PH{sub 3}, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH{sub 3}/GeH{sub 4} ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH{sub 3} concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH{sub 3} flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH{sub 3}-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  7. Elastic and inelastic transmission of electrons through tapered glass capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Keerthisinghe, D.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Tanis, J. A.; Ikeda, T.

    2013-05-01

    The transmission of electrons through tapered borosilicate glass capillaries has been studied for 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. The energy and angular dependence of the transmitted electrons as well as the temporal charge deposition has been investigated. The capillaries had inlet/outlet diameters of 800 μm/100 μm and 700 μm/20 μm and lengths of 35 mm. Transmission was observed for tilt angles up to 9.5o, and 1.5o, respectively, for the two capillaries. The transmitted electrons were found to have both elastic and inelastic behavior as was observed for electrons through PET and single straight glass capillaries. The charge deposition with time consisted of stable transmission, fluctuations, blocking, and self discharging for both capillaries depending on the sample tilt angle.

  8. Tapered Optical Fibers Designed for Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Matching

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinni; Blake, Phillip; Roper, D. Keith

    2009-01-01

    Combining a modified two-step chemical etch method with equations to predict etch parameters and photon-plasmon phase-matching resulted in single-mode tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to optimize electromagnetic field enhancement. The phase-matching equation was used to identify the angle of incidence near the TOF cutoff radius at which surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is maximized. The axisymmetric Young–Laplace equation was used to predict the angle of incidence from the fabrication of a TOF via chemical etching. An optimal cone angle of 20.0°, angles of incidence averaging (81.6 ± 1.9)°, and tip diameters of (80.0 ± 14.1) nm were achieved through a two-step etching process. These TOF characteristics maximize SPR excitation and field enhancement. The refractive index for optimized SPR excitation in the fabricated TOFs at a wavelength of 650 nm was found to be 1.343. PMID:19061312

  9. Improved finite-difference vibration analysis of pretwisted, tapered beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    An improved finite difference procedure based upon second order central differences is developed. Several difficulties encountered in earlier works with fictitious stations that arise in using second order central differences, are eliminated by developing certain recursive relations. The need for forward or backward differences at the beam boundaries or other similar procedures is eliminated in the present theory. By using this improved theory, the vibration characteristics of pretwisted and tapered blades are calculated. Results of the second order theory are compared with published theoretical and experimental results and are found to be in good agreement. The present method generally produces close lower bound solutions and shows fast convergence. Thus, extrapolation procedures that are customary with first order finite-difference methods are unnecessary. Furthermore, the computational time and effort needed for this improved method are almost the same as required for the conventional first order finite-difference approach.

  10. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Research Focus Area: Power Electronics, Temperature Tolerant Devices. Demonstrate initial feasibility of totally new "Large Tapered Crystal" (LTC) process for growing vastly improved large-diameter wide-band gap wafers. Addresses Targets: The goal of this research is to experimentally investigate and demonstrate feasibility of the key unproven LTC growth processes in SiC. Laser-assisted growth of long SiC fiber seeds. Radial epitaxial growth enlargement of seeds into large SiC boules. Uniqueness and Impacts open a new technology path to large-diameter SiC and GaN wafers with 1000-fold defect density improvement at 2-4 fold lower cost. Leapfrog improvement in wide band gap power device capability and cost.

  11. Formation of discrete pulses using taper defects in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Sai Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal based on a lattice of silicon rods in air with a photonic bandgap in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectra is proposed by removing some of the silicon rods or resizing their radii to create a monotonically varying tapered line defect, thereby pertaining to a case of structure-based nonlinearity and making it possible to operate with low input powers. By properly manipulating the length of the line defect, pulse compression and consequent adiabatic amplification are seen, along with bunching/antibunching of pulses. For certain modes of operation, field confinement is observed, and this leads to the formation of discrete pulses, or light bullets. Such a structure can be used as a multifunctional device, with some of the functionalities being optical nonpumped amplification, frequency upconversion, memory writing, matched termination, and slow wave guiding, which form the major conclusions of the work.

  12. Enhanced supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite suspended core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot-Clemente, J.; Strutynski, C.; Amrani, F.; Désévédavy, F.; Jules, J.-C.; Gadret, G.; Deng, D.; Cheng, T.; Nagasaka, K.; Ohishi, Y.; Kibler, B.; Smektala, F.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate 400-THz (0.6-3.3 μm) bandwidth infrared supercontinuum generation in a 10 cm-long tapered tellurite suspended core fiber pumped by nJ-level 200-fs pulses from an optical parametric oscillator. The increased nonlinearity and dispersion engineering extended by the moderate reduction of the fiber core size are exploited for supercontinuum optimization on both frequency edges (i.e., 155-THz overall gain), while keeping efficient power coupling into the untapered fiber input. The remaining limitation of supercontinuum bandwidth is related to the presence of the high absorption beyond 3 μm whereas spectral broadening is expected to fully cover the glass transmission window (0.5-4.5 μm).

  13. Thin-ribbon tapered coupler for dielectric waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Otoshi, T. Y.; Shimabukuro, F. I.

    1994-01-01

    A recent discovery shows that a high-dielectric constant, low-loss, solid material can be made into a ribbon-like waveguide structure to yield an attenuation constant of less than 0.02 dB/m for single-mode guidance of millimeter/submillimeter waves. One of the crucial components that must be invented in order to guarantee the low-loss utilization of this dielectric-waveguide guiding system is the excitation coupler. The traditional tapered-to-a-point coupler for a dielectric rod waveguide fails when the dielectric constant of the dielectric waveguide is large. This article presents a new way to design a low-loss coupler for a high- or low-dielectric constant dielectric waveguide for millimeter or submillimeter waves.

  14. Analysis of the transverse electromagnetic mode linearly tapered slot antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, R.; Schaubert, D. H.; Pozar, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the radiation characteristics of the transverse electromagnetic mode linearly tapered slot antenna is presented. The theory presented is valid for antennas with air dielectric and forms the basis for analysis of the more popular dielectric-supported antennas. The method of analysis involves two steps. In the first step, the aperture distribution in the flared slot is determined. In the second step, the equivalent magnetic current in the slot is treated as radiating in the presence of a conducting half-plane, and the far-field components are obtained. Design curves for the variation of the 3-dB and 10-dB beamwidths as a function of the antenna length, with the flare angle as a parameter, are presented.

  15. Analysis of the Tem Mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, R.; Schaubert, D. H.; Pozar, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the radiation characteristics of the TEM mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) is presented. The theory presented is valid for antennas with air dielectric and forms the basis for analysis of the more popular dielectric-supported antennas. The method of analysis involves two steps. In the first step, the aperture distribution in the flared slot is determined. In the second step, the equivalent magnetic current in the slot is treated as radiating in the presence of a conducting half-plane and the far-field components are obtained. Detailed comparison with experiment is made and excellent agreement is obtained. Design curves for the variation of the 3 dB and 10 dB beamwidths as a function of the antenna length, with the flare angle as a parameter, are presented.

  16. Diode-Pumped Dye Laser Using a Tapered Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian; Stofel, James; Myers, Elliot; Knize, Randy

    2015-05-01

    We describe the construction of a simple dye laser based on a single-mode optical fiber. Light from a 120-mW laser diode (λ = 520 nm) is launched into the fiber. The fiber is tapered to a diameter of approximately 1 μm and placed in Rhodamine 6G laser dye. The pump light interacts with the gain medium through the evanescent field outside the fiber causing stimulated emission, which couples back into the fiber. Mirrors on each end of the fiber provide the necessary feedback for lasing, and a grating is used to narrow the spectral output. We characterize the lasing threshold and output spectrum of the laser. This has been a good project for undergraduate students to learn about lasers and optics.

  17. Direct Measurement of the Transverse Wakefields of Tapered Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; Bane, K.L.F.; Eriksson, L.; Irwin, J.; Jobe, R.K.; McCormick, D.; Ng, C.K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ross, M.C.; Stupakov, G.; Walz, D.; /SLAC

    2007-01-09

    We report on a recent set of measurements of the transverse wakefields from longitudinally-tapered collimators. The measurements were performed with a low-emittance 1.19 GeV beam in the SLAC linac by inserting a collimator aperture into the beam path and reconstructing the vertical deflection of the beam as a function of the vertical position of the aperture. Each collimator in the experiment was designed to present a relatively large transverse impedance and to minimize the impedance from other contributions such as resistivity. In addition, the collimator parameters were chosen to provide some insight into the scaling of the transverse geometric wakefield as a function of the collimator's geometry. Description of the experimental apparatus and the aperture design, method of data collection and analysis, and comparison to theoretical and numerical predictions are presented.

  18. Electrochemical aspects of chemical mechanical polishing of tungsten and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneer, Emil Anton

    1998-12-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of metals has emerged as a critical process step for the fabrication of advanced integrated circuit devices in the semiconductor industry. In a typical metal CMP process, the metal film is blanket deposited to fill recessed features on a patterned dielectric on silicon. Following metal deposition and gap fill, the metal overabundance is polished away by CMP, leaving an inlayed metal pattern or damascene structure on the substrate. Removal of the metal overabundance also planarizes the wafer surface for subsequent processing steps. The material removal process occurring during CMP is thought to involve the combined action of chemical oxidation and dissolution, and mechanical removal of material by abrasives. However, the relative contribution of mechanical and chemical effects during metal CMP is not well understood. The objective of this research was to characterize the fundamental electrochemical behavior of tungsten and aluminum thin films in polishing chemistries of interest to CMP. It was also of interest to determine the extent to which electrochemical oxidation and dissolution, or mechanical removal by abrasive action assists in material removal during CMP. A simultaneous electrochemical tester and polishing tool was developed to characterize the electrochemical behavior of tungsten and aluminum during and after abrasion. Small-scale polishing experiments were also carried out to measure polishing (removal) rates of the metals during CMP. Electrochemical dissolution rates and polishing rates were compared. It was found that the electrochemical dissolution rate of tungsten or aluminum during or after abrasion was very small compared to actual polishing rates. However, the presence of an oxidant enhanced polishing rates dramatically. The findings indicate that the mechanism for removal during CMP is primarily corrosion assisted metal removal, and not electrochemical dissolution and/or removal of the oxidation product of the

  19. Effect of texture of polishing particle on the surface roughness of a cobalt-chromium alloy using a centrifugal shooting type polishing machine.

    PubMed

    Ono, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Kaori; Yamaba, Osamu; Nokubi, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    In a previous report, we investigated the influence of the shooting angle of polishing particle on the surface roughness of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy using a centrifugal shooting type polishing machine. In the present work, we examined the effects of the texture of polishing particle and polishing time on the surface roughness of Co-Cr alloy cast specimens. Nine different textures of polishing particle were investigated with respect to core material and particle abrasiveness: three different elastic body cores (core A, hard chloroprene rubber; core B, soft chloroprene rubber; core C, natural rubber) and three different green carborundum powders as abrasives (#800, #3000, and #6000). Polishing was performed under a fixed shooting angle of 30 degrees for six different polishing times (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes). Surface roughness (Ra, Sm) and cutting depth on the polished surface were measured after each polishing stage. Surface roughness was significantly improved within three minutes, particularly using a polishing particle with rough carborundum powder (#800 or #3000) and a heavy core (core A or core B). Cutting depth increased in proportion to polishing time and roughness of carborundum powder, and was least with core C. These results suggested that a polishing particle composed of core B and #3000 carborundum paste was superior for the intermediate polishing of a Co-Cr alloy, and that polishing time should be limited to within three minutes. PMID:16445008

  20. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    DOEpatents

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  1. Electro-Chemically Enhanced Mechanical Polishing of Nickel Mandrels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell

    2006-01-01

    Grinding and mechanical polishing techniques used for x-ray optics mandrel figuring lead to mid-frequency surface ripple. These small figure variations have to be addressed in order to improve the performance of the resulting x-ray mirrors. If the electrochemical etching is combined with mechanical polishing, the figuring and the surface finishing cm be done simultaneously and be used to correct the mid-frequency surface ripple. It is shown that the electrochemical mechanical polishing method allows selective removal of nickel alloy without mandrel surface microroughness degradation.

  2. Inferring the spatial variation of the wedge strength based on a modified critical taper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Liu, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Critical taper wedge theory has been widely applied to evaluate the strength of the detachment fault and the wedge by measuring taper angle. Traditional taper model, which incorporated constant cohesion and friction angle, fails to explain the lateral variation of the taper angle. A modified critical taper model adopting nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion is proposed accordingly. The fold-and-thrust belt of central Taiwan was studied. Based on the field works and laboratory tests, the geological strength index (GSI) and the uniaxial compressive strength were obtained and the wedge strength can be estimated accordingly. The GSI values from investigation are decreased from the west to the east along the cross section due to the wedge strength heterogeneity. The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock varies from the age of formation and lithology. The estimated wedge strength exhibits a strong spatial variation. The strength of the detachment fault was derived from rotary shear tests using fault gouge materials under different velocities and normal stresses. General speaking, the steady-state friction coefficient are about 0.29-0.46 when the shear velocity less than 0.1 m/s. The friction coefficient is not sensitive to the normal stress. Consequently, the lateral variation of the taper angle, which calculated by modified critical taper model, is mainly dominated by the wedge strength heterogeneity and the thickening of the wedge from the west to the east.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of multimaterial chalcogenide glass fiber tapers with high numerical apertures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya'nan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Yinsheng; Liu, Zijun; Chen, Feifei; Wu, Yuehao; Zhang, Yuji; Wang, Rongping; Tao, Guangming

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of multimaterial chalcogenide fiber tapers that have high numerical apertures (NAs). We first fabricated multimaterial As(2)Se(3)-As(2)S(3) chalcogenide fiber preforms via a modified one-step coextrusion process. The preforms were drawn into multi- and single-mode fibers with high NAs (≈1.45), whose core/cladding diameters were 103/207 and 11/246 μm, respectively. The outer diameter of the fiber was tapered from a few hundred microns to approximately two microns through a self-developed automatic tapering process. Simulation results showed that the zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) of the tapers were shorter than 2 μm, indicating that the tapers can be conveniently pumped by commercial short wavelength infrared lasers. We also experimentally demonstrated the supercontinuum generation (SCG) in a 15-cm-long multimaterial As(2)Se(3)-As(2)S(3) chalcogenide taper with 1.9 μm core diameter and the ZDW was shifted to 3.3 μm. When pumping the taper with 100 fs short pulses at 3.4 µm, a 20 dB spectral of the generated supercontinuum spans from 1.5 μm to longer than 4.8 μm. PMID:26368447

  4. Strain energy release rate analysis of delamination in a tapered laminate subjected to tension load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; Obrien, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    A tapered composite laminate subjected to tension load was analyzed using the finite-element method. The glass/epoxy laminate has a (+ or - 45)sub 3 group of plies dropped in three distinct steps, each 20 ply-thicknesses apart, thus forming a taper angle of 5.71 degrees. Steep gradients of interlaminar normal and shear stress on a potential delamination interface suggest the existence of stress singularities at the points of material and geometric discontinuities created by the internal plydrops. The delamination was assumed to initiate at the thin end of the taper on a -45/+45 interface and the delamination growth was simulated in both directions, i.e., along the taper and into the thin region. The strain-energy-release rate for a delamination growing into the thin laminate consisted predominantly of mode I (opening) component. For a delamination growing along the tapered region, the strain-energy-release rate was initially all mode I, but the proportion of mode I decreased with increase in delamination size until eventually total G was all mode II. The total G for both delamination tips increased with increase in delamination size, indicating that a delamination initiating at the end of the taper will grow unstably along the taper and into the thin laminate simultaneously.

  5. Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Steele, R; Feit, M D; Wong, L; Miller, P E; Menapace, J A; Davis, P J

    2007-05-02

    The distribution and characteristics of surface cracks (i.e., sub-surface damage or scratching) on fused silica formed during grinding/polishing resulting from the addition of rogue particles in the base slurry has been investigated. Fused silica samples (10 cm diameter x 1 cm thick) were: (1) ground by loose abrasive grinding (alumina particles 9-30 {micro}m) on a glass lap with the addition of larger alumina particles at various concentrations with mean sizes ranging from 15-30 {micro}m, or (2) polished (using 0.5 {micro}m cerium oxide slurry) on various laps (polyurethanes pads or pitch) with the addition of larger rogue particles (diamond (4-45 {micro}m), pitch, dust, or dried Ceria slurry agglomerates) at various concentrations. For the resulting ground samples, the crack distributions of the as-prepared surfaces were determined using a polished taper technique. The crack depth was observed to: (1) increase at small concentrations (>10{sup -4} fraction) of rogue particles; and (2) increase with rogue particle concentration to crack depths consistent with that observed when grinding with particles the size of the rogue particles alone. For the polished samples, which were subsequently etched in HF:NH{sub 4}F to expose the surface damage, the resulting scratch properties (type, number density, width, and length) were characterized. The number density of scratches increased exponentially with the size of the rogue diamond at a fixed rogue diamond concentration suggesting that larger particles are more likely to lead to scratching. The length of the scratch was found to increase with rogue particle size, increase with lap viscosity, and decrease with applied load. At high diamond concentrations, the type of scratch transitioned from brittle to ductile and the length of the scratches dramatically increased and extended to the edge of the optic. The observed trends can explained semi-quantitatively in terms of the time needed for a rogue particle to penetrate into a

  6. Wavelength-dependent femtosecond pulse amplification in wideband tapered-waveguide quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we study the wavelength-dependent amplification in three different wideband quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers (QWAs) having conventional, exponentially tapered, and linearly tapered active region waveguide structures. A new theoretical model for tapered-waveguide QWAs considering the effect of lateral carrier density distribution and the strain effect in the quantum well is established based on a quantum well transmission line modeling method. The temporal and spectral characteristics of amplified femtosecond pulse are analyzed for each structure. It was found that, for the amplification of a single femtosecond pulse, the tapered-waveguide QWA provides higher saturation gain, and the output spectra of the amplified pulse in all three structures exhibit an apparent redshift and bandwidth narrowing due to the reduction of carrier density; however, the output spectrum in the tapered-waveguide amplifier is less distorted and exhibits smaller bandwidth narrowing. For the simultaneous amplification of two femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies, in all the three structures, two peaks appear in the output spectra while the peak at the frequency closer to the peak frequency of the QWA gain spectrum receives higher amplification due to the frequency (wavelength) dependence of the QWA gain. At a low peak power level of the input pulse, the bandwidth of each window in the tapered structure is larger than that of the conventional waveguide structure, which aggravates the spectrum alias in the amplification of femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies. As the peak powers of the two pulses increase, the spectrum alias in the conventional waveguide becomes more serious while there are small changes in the tapered structures. Also, we have found that in the amplification of a femtosecond pulse train, the linear-tapered QWAs exhibit the fastest gain recovery as compared with the conventional and exponentially tapered QWAs. PMID

  7. Tunable optofluidic microring laser based on a tapered hollow core microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Li; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Luo, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yan-Ge; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-20

    A tunable optofluidic microring dye laser within a tapered hollow core microstructured optical fiber was demonstrated. The fiber core was filled with a microfluidic gain medium plug and axially pumped by a nanosecond pulse laser at 532 nm. Strong radial emission and low-threshold lasing (16 nJ/pulse) were achieved. Lasing was achieved around the surface of the microfluidic plug. Laser emission was tuned by changing the liquid surface location along the tapered fiber. The possibility of developing a tunable laser within the tapered simplified hollow core microstructured optical fiber presents opportunities for developing liquid surface position sensors and biomedical analysis. PMID:25969082

  8. Vector rectangular-shape laser based on reduced graphene oxide interacting with a long fiber taper.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Zeng, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where nonlinearity is enhanced due to a large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of an 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 μm. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7.9 MHz shows fast polarization switching in two orthogonal polarization directions, and temporal and spectral characteristics are investigated. PMID:25322232

  9. Efficiency enhancement of anomalous-Doppler electron cyclotron masers with tapered magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao-Ran; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Kong, Ling-Bao E-mail: pkliu@pku.edu.cn; Beijing Key Laboratory of Harmful Chemicals Analysis and School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Liu, Pu-Kun E-mail: pkliu@pku.edu.cn; Du, Chao-Hai; Jin, Hai-Bo

    2014-02-15

    The efficiency of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) is usually low, thus limiting the practical applications. Here, a method of tapered magnetic field is introduced for the efficiency enhancement of the slow-wave ECM. The numerical calculations show that the tapered magnetic-field method can enhance the efficiency of slow-wave ECM significantly. The effect of beam electron velocity spread on the efficiency has also been studied. Although the velocity spread reduces the efficiency, a great enhancement of efficiency can still be obtained by the tapered magnetic field method.

  10. The universal method for optimization of undulator tapering in FEL amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2015-05-01

    Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing x-ray FELs for increasing the radiation power. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. Diffraction effects essentially influence on the choice of the tapering strategy. Recent studies resulted in an general law of the undulator tapering for a seeded FEL amplifier. In this paper we extend these results for the case of the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL.

  11. High-power pulsed-current-mode operation of an overdriven tapered amplifier.

    PubMed

    Takase, Ken; Stockton, John K; Kasevich, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the performance of a commercial tapered amplifier diode operating in a pulsed-current mode with a peak current that is significantly higher than the specified maximum continuous current. For a tapered amplifier rated at 500 mW of continuous power, we demonstrate 2.6 W of peak optical output power with 15 mW of injection light for 200 micros, 7 A current pulses. Different failure mechanisms for the tapered amplifier, including thermal and optical damage, are identified under these conditions. PMID:17767324

  12. Analytical Solution of a Tapering Cable Equation for Dendrites and Conformal Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Juan M.; Trenado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Progress towards detailed characterization of structural and biophysical properties of dendrites emphasizes the importance of finding analytical solutions for more realistic dendrite models with circular cross-section and varying diameter. In this regard, we employ symmetry methods and the passive cable theory to deduce a generalized analytical solution for electric propagation in a family of tapering dendrites. In particular, we study the effect of such tapering geometries on the obtained electric voltage. Simulations using the deduced analytical solution indicate that for a subfamily of tapering profiles neural integration is better than in the stereotypical profile given by a cylinder.

  13. Particle beam self-modulation instability in tapered and inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Gruener, Florian; Leemans, Wim

    2011-12-28

    The particle beam self-modulation instability in tapered and inhomogeneous plasmas is analyzed via an evolution equation for the beam radius. For a sufficiently fast taper the instability is suppressed, and the condition for growth suppression is derived. The form of the taper to phase lock a trailing witness bunch in the plasma wave driven by a self-modulated beam is determined, which can increase the energy gain by several orders of magnitude. Growth of the instability places stringent constraints on the initial background plasma density fluctuations.

  14. Particle beam self-modulation instability in tapered and inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Gruener, F. J.

    2012-01-15

    The particle beam self-modulation instability in tapered and inhomogeneous plasmas is analyzed via an evolution equation for the beam radius. For a sufficiently fast taper, the instability is suppressed, and the condition for growth suppression is derived. The form of the taper to phase lock a trailing witness bunch in the plasma wave driven by a self-modulated beam is determined, which can increase the energy gain by several orders of magnitude. Growth of the instability places stringent constraints on the initial background plasma density fluctuations.

  15. Simulation on friction taper plug welding of AA6063-20Gr metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Nithin, Abeyram M.

    2016-05-01

    Friction taper plug welding a variant of friction welding is useful in welding of similar and dissimilar materials. It could be used for joining of composites to metals in sophisticated aerospace applications. In the present work numerical simulation of friction taper plug welding process is carried out using finite element based software. Graphite reinforced AA6063 is modelled using the software ANSYS 15.0 and temperature distribution is predicted. Effect of friction time on temperature distribution is numerically investigated. When the friction time is increased to 30 seconds, the tapered part of plug gets detached and fills the hole in the AA6063 plate perfectly.

  16. Electrochemical and mechanical polishing and shaping method and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Jones, William David (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Benson, Carl M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for the shaping and polishing of the surface of a material selected from the group consisting of electrically semi-conductive materials and conductive materials. An electrically non-conductive polishing lap incorporates a conductive electrode such that, when the polishing lap is placed on the material's surface, the electrode is placed in spaced-apart juxtaposition with respect to the material's surface. A liquid electrolyte is disposed between the material's surface and the electrode. The electrolyte has an electrochemical stability constant such that cathodic material deposition on the electrode is not supported when a current flows through the electrode, the electrolyte and the material. As the polishing lap and the material surface experience relative movement, current flows through the electrode based on (i) adherence to Faraday's Law, and (ii) a pre-processing profile of the surface and a desired post-processing profile of the surface.

  17. CNC subaperture polishing process arrangement for microroughness minimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, F.; Matousek, O.; Tomka, D.; Polak, J.; Poláková, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal subaperture polishing procedure for aspherical surfaces on the Optotech MCP 250 CNC machine. Due to the fact that the CNC subaperture polishing process runs along well defined paths, certain frequencies develop on the polished surface, which can be limiting for the resulting microroughness. A proper sequence of polishing steps in different tool motion control modes can minimize these frequencies and help to substantially reduce microroughness. In this context, various tool motion control modes ("Spiral spindle mode", "Spiral axis mode" and "Raster mode") in combination with different tools were tested. The resulting microroughness values were observed in the defined mid-frequency and high-frequency areas. The best results, i.e. the lowest microroughness values were obtained using a combination of the processes "Ball spiral axis mode", "FEM raster mode", "spiral spindle 2D FEM correction mode" and "AFJ spiral axis mode"

  18. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  19. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  20. Why won't Polish women birth at home?

    PubMed

    Pendleton, John

    2015-09-01

    Polish women living in the United Kingdom (UK) are statistically more likely to have normal births than their British counterparts, yet anecdotally, do not choose to birth their babies at home. A medicalised approach to birth in their country of origin means women are unaware of the benefits of midwifery-led care, which they often perceive as sub-standard. Affordable travel means Polish women can access care in both countries and compounds the difficulties in acclimatising to UK maternity services. Online discussion groups and Internet forums represent an opportunity for midwives to engage with women to promote their services. This is increasingly important with rising numbers of both Polish migrants to the UK and Polish residents applying for British citizenship. PMID:26547999

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF AXLE LATHE. Polishing journals on lathe. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF AXLE LATHE. Polishing journals on lathe. Wilbur Johnston, operator. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  3. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF AXLE LATHE. Polishing journals on lathe. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF AXLE LATHE. Polishing journals on lathe. Wilbur Johnston, operator. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  4. Effect of chemical polishing in titanium materials for low outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, K.; Kurisu, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Nomura, T.; Murashige, N.

    2008-03-01

    A chemical polishing using a nitric acid solution was found to be the most suitable for the titanium materials. 1.8 nm of small surface roughness was observed in a microscopic range in 1 μm square, and 7 nm of a thin oxide layer was shown to exist for the chemically polished titanium. The surface processing for the titanium was developed combining the chemical polishing and the precision cleaning. The chemically polished pure titanium of JIS grade 2 showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10-12 Pams-1 after baking process, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for standard vacuum materials under the same baking condition. Outgassing rates of the titanium is about 1/5 of that for a stainless steel without baking process.

  5. The effectiveness of polishing kits: influence on surface roughness of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Preis, Verena; Grumser, Katharina; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of intraoral and technical polishing kits. Zirconia specimens were sintered, ground, and polished with 14 different two-step or three-step polishing kits. Surface roughness (Ra, Rz) after each treatment step was determined, and scanning electron micrographs were made. Except for one system, all polishing kits were effective in reducing the surface roughness of ground zirconia. Differences in surface roughness were high after the first polishing step but were reduced to Ra/Rz values similar to or lower than those of the sintered reference after the final polishing step. Achieving smooth surfaces depended on a sequential application of all polishing steps. PMID:25822299

  6. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  7. Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses. PMID:22318653

  8. Stereomicroscope Inspection of Polished Aluminum Collector 50684.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis polished aluminum "kidney" collector was damaged during the hard landing of the capsule on September 8, 2004 in the Utah desert. The kidney was introduced into the Genesis (ISO class 4) cleanroom laboratory on November 4, 2004 and stored under nitrogen cover gas. The collector is currently fastened to a highly polished stainless steel plate for secure handling. Curatorial work at JSC has made successful subdivision and subsequent allocation of samples from the kidney.

  9. Joining of SiC parts by polishing and hipping

    DOEpatents

    Rossi, Guilio A.; Pelletier, Paul J.

    1990-05-15

    A method of joining two pre-sintered pieces of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails polishing the surfaces to be joined to a mirror-finish, fitting the polished surfaces together to form a composite structure, and then subjecting the composite structure to hot isostatic pressing under conditions which are sufficient to form a joint which is essentially indistinguishable from the original silicon carbide pieces.

  10. A jet polishing technique for thinning two phase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Witcomb, M.J. ); Dahmen, U. )

    1990-11-01

    A common problem in the preparation of thin foils for transmission electron microscopy is the different thinning rate in two-phase materials. Often this leads to foils in which the majority, or matrix, phase is evenly polished while the minority, or precipitate, phase is either etched out or stands proud of the surrounding material. In the present report we describe a two-stage jet polishing technique that has been used successfully on different relatively coarse two-phase structures. 3 figs.

  11. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-09-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  12. Parameter investigation of air-driving fluid jet polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zong-Ru; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Pham, Loc Huu; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2012-10-01

    Air-driving fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique was first presented in 2011. Slurry was drop out due to Venturi effect inside the atomizer which is the main component of air-driving FJP system, and was guided to mix with air flow by the nozzle. The Venturi effect and the added high speed air flow provide slurry more kinetic energy to impact the optical surface. Therefore, the air-driving FJP system has a rotational symmetrical Gaussian-like removal profile with lower air pressure and normal incidence configuration. In this paper, we investigate oblique incidence polishing to find the optimal material removal performance of the technique, including removal shape and depth and surface roughness. Different oblique angles ranged from 80 to 20 degree were tested. The air-driving FJP system was adapted upon a CNC machine, so not only single point polishing but also straight line polishing with constant feed rate can be carried out. We report on the performance of oblique air-driving FJP in different air pressure and processing time, and also the material removal of dynamic polishing for N-BK7, Fused Silica and ZERODUR®. The results indicate oblique incidence can get a Gaussian-like removal shape, and improve the surface roughness. The air-driving FJP not only has the advantages of conventional fluid jet polishing, such as no tool wears, cutter interference and debris deposition problems, but also has excellent material removal rate with lower energy.

  13. High-sensitivity refractive index sensors based on fused tapered photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xing-hu; Xie, Hai-yang; Yang, Chuan-qing; Qu, Yu-wei; Zhang, Shun-yang; Fu, Guang-wei; Guo, Xuan; Bi, Wei-hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel liquid refractive index (RI) sensor based on fused tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed. It is fabricated by fusing and tapering a section of PCF which is spliced with two single-mode fibers (SMFs). Due to the fused biconical taper method, the sensor becomes longer and thinner, to make the change of the outside RI has more direct effects on the internal optical field of the PCF, which finally enhances the sensitivity of this sensor. Experimental results show that the transmission spectra of the sensor are red-shifted obviously with the increase of RI. The longer the tapered region of the sensor, the higher the sensitivity is. This sensor has the advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, high performance and so on, so it has potential applications in RI measurement.

  14. Label free detection of DNA hybridization by refractive index tapered fiber biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Ghanati, E.; Gholami, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate a simple refractive index sensor (RI) sensing system based on a biconical tapered optical fiber (BTOF), which is fabricated by heat pulling method, utilizing a CO2 laser. In this work we explore the application of these sensors for the detection of label free single stranded DNA (ssDNA) in real time. During the experiment, the target ssDNA did not need to be labeled with a fluorescent tag, which is expensive and complicated. The change in output optical transmission of the tapered fiber was recorded for Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) coating, ssDNA probe immobilization and hybridization. The result indicated that due to the hybridization with the complementary target ssDNA on the tapered surface, the RI of surrounding medium changes which leads to changes in the characteristics of the tapered region and change in the output power of the sensor.

  15. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  16. Physics design for the ATA tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-10-01

    We are presently designing and constructing a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. FEL amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV ATA e-beam. The initial experiments will be done with a constant period (lambda /SUB w/ =8 cm), 5 m-long linear wiggler. For an input laser power of 800 MW and electron beam brightness of 2.10/sup 5/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/, we hope to achieve a trapped particle fraction about0.5 and an energy extraction efficiency of about2% with a about10% taper in the wiggler magnetic field. This taper corresponds to decelerating the trapped particle approximately two full ponderomotive well (i.e. bucket) heights. In this talk, we discuss the physics motivations behind our tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  17. Implementation of rectangular slit-inserted ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a tapered slot antenna capable of ultra-wideband communication was designed. In the proposed antenna, rectangular slits were inserted to enhance the bandwidth and reduce the area of the antenna. The rectangular slit-inserted tapered slot antenna operated at a bandwidth of 8.45 GHz, and the bandwidth improved upon the basic tapered slot antenna by 4.72 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna was suitable for location recognition in a certain direction owing to an appropriate 3 dB beam width. The antenna gain was analyzed within the proposed bandwidth, and the highest gain characteristic at 7.55 dBi was exhibited at a 5-GHz band. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed tapered slot antenna were similar. PMID:27610306

  18. Comparison of the fracture resistance of dental implants with different abutment taper angles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Geng, Jianping; Jones, David; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of abutment taper angles on the fracture strength of dental implants with TIS (taper integrated screwed-in) connection. Thirty prototype cylindrical titanium alloy 5.0mm-diameter dental implants with different TIS-connection designs were divided into six groups and tested for their fracture strength, using a universal testing machine. These groups consisted of combinations of 3.5 and 4.0 mm abutment diameter, each with taper angles of 6°, 8° or 10°. 3-Dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was also used to analyze stress states at implant-abutment connection areas. In general, the mechanical tests found an increasing trend of implant fracture forces as the taper angle enlarged. When the abutment diameter was 3.5 mm, the mean fracture forces for 8° and 10° taper groups were 1638.9 N ± 20.3 and 1577.1 N ± 103.2, respectively, both larger than that for the 6° taper group of 1475.0 N ± 24.4, with the largest increasing rate of 11.1%. Furthermore, the difference between 8° and 6° taper groups was significant, based on Tamhane's multiple comparison test (P<0.05). In 4.0 mm-diameter abutment groups, as the taper angle was enlarged from 6° to 8° and 10°, the mean fracture value was increased from 1066.7 N ± 56.1 to 1241.4 N ± 6.4 and 1419.3 N ± 20.0, with the largest increasing rate of 33.1%, and the differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). The FEA results showed that stress values varied in implants with different abutment taper angles and supported the findings of the static tests. In conclusion, increases of the abutment taper angle could significantly increase implant fracture resistance in most cases established in the study, which is due to the increased implant wall thickness in the connection part resulting from the taper angle enlargement. The increasing effects were notable when a thin implant wall was present to accommodate wide abutments. PMID:27040208

  19. Study of High-Frequency Impedance of Small-Angle Tapers and Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; Podobedov, B.; /Brookhaven

    2010-06-04

    Collimators and transitions in accelerator vacuum chambers often include small-angle tapering to lower the wakefields generated by the beam. While the low-frequency impedance is well described by Yokoya's formula (for axisymmetric geometry), much less is known about the behavior of the impedance in the high frequency limit. In this paper we develop an analytical approach to the highfrequency regime for round collimators and tapers. Our analytical results are compared with computer simulations using the code ECHO.

  20. Wiggler taper optimization for free-electron-laser amplifiers with moderate space-charge effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, R.A.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Fawley, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The standard synchronous tapering method used to design the wiggler magnetic field for free-electron-laser (FEL) amplifiers operating in the Compton regime will not work for amplifier systems where space-charge effects are important. The space-charge effects lower the overall gain in the amplifier system and, even more importantly, shift the peak in the gain curve to magnetic field values that are significantly less than the synchronous magnetic field value. As a result, the overall predicted gain using the synchronous tapering method is too low. Moreover, the synchronous magnetic field corresponds to the peak in the gain curve for a frequency below the fundamental frequency. Consequently, shot noise at frequencies below the fundamental frequency can grow to levels that may prevent amplification of the fundamental. We have developed a new tapering strategy that improves the predicted amplifier gain and circumvents the shot-noise growth for systems with moderate space-charge effects. For this new strategy, we hold the wiggler magnetic field constant at a value below the synchronous value but near the peak of the gain curve for the fundamental frequency, for some optimized length at the front end of the wiggler. Beyond this constant wiggler section, the field is tapered using the standrd synchronous tapering algorithm. This new tapering scheme results in significant improvement in predicted amplifier gains and limits the growth of shot noise to insignificant levels. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new tapering algorithm using the tapered wiggler design for the proposed microwave heating experiment (MTX) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). 4 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Morse taper dental implants and platform switching: The new paradigm in oral implantology

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, José Paulo; Pereira, Jorge; Vahey, Brendan R.; Henriques, Bruno; Benfatti, Cesar A. M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the potential benefits with the use of Morse taper dental implant connections associated with small diameter platform switching abutments. A Medline bibliographical search (from 1961 to 2014) was carried out. The following search items were explored: “Bone loss and platform switching,” “bone loss and implant-abutment joint,” “bone resorption and platform switching,” “bone resorption and implant-abutment joint,” “Morse taper and platform switching.” “Morse taper and implant-abutment joint,” Morse taper and bone resorption,” “crestal bone remodeling and implant-abutment joint,” “crestal bone remodeling and platform switching.” The selection criteria used for the article were: meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; as well as reviews written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish languages. Within the 287 studies identified, 81 relevant and recent studies were selected. Results indicated a reduced occurrence of peri-implantitis and bone loss at the abutment/implant level associated with Morse taper implants and a reduced-diameter platform switching abutment. Extrapolation of data from previous studies indicates that Morse taper connections associated with platform switching have shown less inflammation and possible bone loss with the peri-implant soft tissues. However, more long-term studies are needed to confirm these trends. PMID:27011755

  2. Polymer taper bridge for silicon waveguide to single mode waveguide coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Coupling of optical power from high-density silicon waveguides to silica optical fibers for signal routing can incur high losses and often requires complex end-face preparation/processing. Novel coupling device taper structures are proposed for low coupling loss between silicon photonic waveguides and single mode fibers are proposed and devices are fabricated and measured in terms of performance. Theoretical mode conversion models for waveguide tapers are derived for optimal device structure design and performance. Commercially viable vertical and multi-layer taper designs using polymer waveguide materials are proposed as innovative, cost-efficient, and mass-manufacturable optical coupling devices. The coupling efficiency for both designs is determined to evaluate optimal device dimensions and alignment tolerances with both silicon rib waveguides and silicon nanowire waveguides. Propagation loss as a function of waveguide roughness and metallic loss are determined and correlated to waveguide dimensions to obtain total insertion loss for the proposed taper designs. Multi-layer tapers on gold-sputtered substrates are fabricated through photolithography as proof-of-concept devices and evaluated for device loss optimization. Tapered waveguide coupling loss with Si WGs (2.74 dB) was experimentally measured with high correlation to theoretical results.

  3. Morse taper dental implants and platform switching: The new paradigm in oral implantology.

    PubMed

    Macedo, José Paulo; Pereira, Jorge; Vahey, Brendan R; Henriques, Bruno; Benfatti, Cesar A M; Magini, Ricardo S; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio C M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the potential benefits with the use of Morse taper dental implant connections associated with small diameter platform switching abutments. A Medline bibliographical search (from 1961 to 2014) was carried out. The following search items were explored: "Bone loss and platform switching," "bone loss and implant-abutment joint," "bone resorption and platform switching," "bone resorption and implant-abutment joint," "Morse taper and platform switching." "Morse taper and implant-abutment joint," Morse taper and bone resorption," "crestal bone remodeling and implant-abutment joint," "crestal bone remodeling and platform switching." The selection criteria used for the article were: meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; as well as reviews written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish languages. Within the 287 studies identified, 81 relevant and recent studies were selected. Results indicated a reduced occurrence of peri-implantitis and bone loss at the abutment/implant level associated with Morse taper implants and a reduced-diameter platform switching abutment. Extrapolation of data from previous studies indicates that Morse taper connections associated with platform switching have shown less inflammation and possible bone loss with the peri-implant soft tissues. However, more long-term studies are needed to confirm these trends. PMID:27011755

  4. Can biologic therapies be withdrawn or tapered in psoriatic arthritis?

    PubMed

    Moverley, Anna R; Coates, Laura C; Helliwell, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on tapering and withdrawing therapy in psoriatic arthritis but advances in treatment and outcome measures suggest it is now time to be looking more closely at this. Several highly effective therapies are available providing the opportunity to achieve low disease activity. However, these therapies are associated with a marked increase in direct costs and patients are exposed to potentially life threatening adverse events. In addition to effective therapies the science of outcome assessment means that there are now suitable validated criteria for low disease activity which will allow both treat-to-target and a suitable measure of continuing low disease. Given these conditions, suitably designed randomized controlled trials of treatment withdrawal are now needed. Such studies will allow us to determine disease characteristics predictive of flare upon treatment withdrawal. In this way identifying which patients can successfully stop therapy will allow a more personalized approach to treatment decisions in PsA and will minimise risks and costs associated with ongoing therapy. PMID:24129138

  5. Compact fiber optic immunosensor using tapered fibers and acoustic enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chonghua; Pivarnik, Philip E.; Auger, Steven; Rand, Arthur G.; Letcher, Stephen V.

    1997-06-01

    A compact fiber-optic sensing system that features all-fiber optical design and semiconductor-laser excitation has been developed and tested. A 2X2 fiber coupler directs the input light to the SMA connected sensing fiber tip and the fluorescent signal back to a CCD fiber spectrophotometer. In this system, the fluorescent signal is confined in the fiber system so the signal-to-noise ratio is greatly improved and the system can be operate in ambient light conditions. The utilization of a red laser diode has reduced the background signal of non-essential biomolecules. The fluorescent dye used is Cy5, which has an excitation wavelength of 650 nm and a fluorescent center wavelength of 680 nm. To illustrate the biosensor's diagnostic capabilities, a sandwich immunoassay to detect Salmonella is presented. Tapered fiber tips with different shapes and treatments were studied and optimized. An enhancement system employing ultrasonic concentration of target particles has also been developed and applied to the detection of Salmonella. The immunoassay was conducted in a test chamber that also serves as an ultrasonic standing-wave cell and allows microspheres to be concentrated in a column along the fiber probe. The system demonstrates broad promise in future biomedical application.

  6. Experimental study on the wake behind tapered circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Jan; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.

    2011-11-01

    The flow around tapered cylinders can act as basic models for numerous bluff body flows with a spanwise variation of either the body shape or the inflow conditions. The well-known vortex street is influenced by strong three-dimensional effects from the spanwise variation of the shedding frequency, namely oblique vortex shedding and vortex dislocations. Stereo-PIV was chosen to study these phenomena, since it allows analyzing planes with the full three-component, instantaneous velocity fields and local, time-dependent variations in the same setting. Hence, detailed aspects of the vortex dislocation phenomenon are presented. Single vortex dislocation events are presented through the local variation of the three measured velocity components u, v and w. Longer time-series reveal both period and location of these dislocation events, as well as quantity and sizes of the cells of constant shedding velocity in between them. The influence of the Reynolds number and the cylinder aspect ratio on the vortex cells could be shown. The analysis of the vortex shedding behavior shows good agreement with previously published results. At the same time, the applied PIV technique provides more spatial information than point-based measurements and offers insight into a Reynolds number range that is currently out of reach of Direct Numerical Simulations.

  7. WGM-Resonator/Tapered-Waveguide White-Light Sensor Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the feasibility of compact white-light sensor optics consisting of unitary combinations of (1) low-profile whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators and (2) tapered rod optical waveguides. These sensors are highly wavelength-dispersive and are expected to be especially useful in biochemical applications for measuring absorption spectra of liquids. These sensor optics exploit the properties of a special class of non-diffracting light beams that are denoted Bessel beams because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have large values of angular momentum. In a sensor optic of this type, a low-profile WGM resonator that supports modes having large angular momenta is used to generate high-order Bessel beams. As used here, "low-profile" signifies that the WGM resonator is an integral part of the rod optical waveguide but has a radius slightly different from that of the adjacent part(s).

  8. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  9. STEM Education

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-01-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893

  10. Influence of femoral stem surface finish on the apparent static shear strength at the stem-cement interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Brown, L T; Blunt, L A; Barrans, S M

    2008-01-01

    The stem-cement interface has long been implicated in failure of cemented total hip replacement. Much research has been performed to study the factors affecting the bond strength between the femoral stem and the bone cement. The present study aims to further investigate the influence of femoral stem surface finish on the apparent static shear strength at the stem-cement interface through a series of pull out tests, where stainless steel rods are employed to represent the femoral stem. The results demonstrated that there was a general tendency for the apparent static shear strength to be increased with the rise of surface roughness. The polished and glass bead-blasted rods illustrated a slip-stick-slip failure whereas the shot-blasted and grit-blasted rods displayed gross interface failure. Following pull out test, cement transfer films were detected on the polished rods, and there was cement debris adhered to the surface of the grit-blasted rods. Micropores, typically 120 mum in diameter, were prevalent in the cement surface interfaced with the polished rods, and the cement surfaces in contact with the shot-blasted and grit-blasted rods were greatly damaged. There was also evidence of metal debris embedding within the cement mantle originating from the tests of the grit-blasted rods, indicating an extremely strong mechanical interlocking at the interface. In summary, this present research demonstrated that the grit-blasted rods with the highest surface roughness were the best in terms of apparent static shear strength. However, it seemed to be most applicable only to the stem designs in which mechanical interlocking of the stem in the initial fixed position was essential. PMID:19627775

  11. Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, H.; Birglenl, L.; Tahan, A.; Paquet, F.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated.

  12. BRITE-PL: the first Polish scientific satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orleanski, Piotr; Graczyk, Rafal; Rataj, Miroslaw; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander; Zawistowski, Tomasz; Zee, Robert E.

    2010-09-01

    The participation in BRITE Consortium gives Poland the possibility to launch into space the first Polish scientific satellite. This paper presents the Polish technical contribution to the BRITE Program to be realized in two institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center and Space Research Center.. BRITE Constellation, short for "BRIght Target Explorer Constellation," is a group of up to six nano-satellites whose purpose is to photometrically measure low-level oscillations and temperature variations in the sky's 286 stars brighter than visual magnitude 3.5, with unprecedented precision and time sampling not achievable through terrestrial-based methods. The three-axis pointing performance (1 arc minute rms stability) of each BRITE satellite is a significant advancement over anything that has ever flown before on a nano-satellite and is an important factor that enables the high precision photometry mission. The paper summarizes the technical details of the BRITE satellite based on Generic Nanosatellite Bus from SFL/UTIAS. The first Polish satellite, BRITE -PL 1, will be a modified version of the original SFL design. The second Polish satellite, BRITE-PL 2, will include the significant changes to be implemented by SRC PAS.

  13. Polishability of thin electrolytic and electroless NiP layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinast, Jan; Beier, Matthias; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-precise metal optics are key components of sophisticated scientific instrumentation in astronomy and space applications, covering a wide spectral range. Especially for applications in the visible or ultra-violet spectral ranges, a low roughness of the optics is required. Therefore, a polishable surface is necessary. State of the art is an amorphous nickel-phosphorus (NiP) layer, which enables several polishing techniques achieving a roughness of <1 nm RMS. Typically, these layers are approximately 30 μm to 60 μm thick. Deposited on Al6061, the bimetallic effect leads to a restricted operational temperature, caused by different coefficients of thermal expansion of Al6061 and NiP. Thinner NiP layers reduce the bimetallic effect. Hence, the possible operating temperature range. A deterministic shape correction via Magnetorheological Finishing of the substrate Al6061 leads to low shape deviations prior to the NiP deposition. This allows for depositing thin NiP-layers, which are polishable via a chemical mechanical polishing technique aiming at ultra-precise metal optics. The present article shows deposition processes and polishability of electroless and electrolytic NiP layers with thicknesses between 1 μm and 10 μm.

  14. An Approach to Thermal Modeling of Laser Polishing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, E.; Lamikiz, A.; Tabernero, I.; Liebana, F.; del Pozo, D.

    2009-11-01

    Polishing operation of die and molds represents up to 30% of the total manufacturing cost, since it is a high added value operation that is necessary carried out manually by qualified personnel. There are several alternatives to hand operations, such as abrasive automated methods operated by robots, ball burnishing or laser polishing process in order to reduce operation time and costs. The presented article proposes a laser based polishing operation which consists in the application of a laser beam in a very controlled way. The radiated energy melts a microscopic layer which flows and re-solidifies smoothing the topographic irregularities of the surface resulting in a reduction of the initial roughness. The article presents, in addition to some experimental results of laser polishing process, a thermal model developed based on the finite difference method. The model is able to take into account different types of lasers; in particular, simulations for a CO2 laser and a high power diode laser have been carried out. As the model gets the full map of temperatures in 3D, it is possible to predict the melted material layer thickness, which is a crucial parameter in the laser polishing process. Finally, two types of validation tests are presented: First, some tests measured by pyrometers on the test part surface. Secondly, the comparison of a series of metallographic analysis on W.-Nr.1.2379 tool steel, where the metallurgical changes caused by the laser radiation can be observed with the thermal field estimated by the model.

  15. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... stem cells? What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before ... two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells . ...

  16. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  17. Lumped-element model of a tapered transmission line for impedance matching in a pulsed power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kun-A.; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In a pulsed power system, impedance matching is one of the significant factors for increasing the efficiency of the system. One of the most general methods for impedance matching is to use a tapered transmission line. Because the characteristics of a tapered transmission line are changed continuously according to its position, modeling the tapered transmission line by using lumped elements is difficult. In this study, we investigated a tapered transmission line to match the impedance of power supply to that of a load by using lumped elements especially in a pulsed power system. In modeling the tapered transmission line, we used the concept of a transmission, and we introduced an efficient modeling method. We propose a simulation model based on the investigation results. The results of the study will be useful for research on tapered transmission lines.

  18. Effects of tapering structures on the characteristics of a coaxial-waveguide gyrotron backward-wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.; Yeh, Y. S.

    2011-10-15

    This study analyzes the characteristics of a gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) with a longitudinally tapered coaxial-waveguide by using a single-mode, self-consistent nonlinear code. Simulation results indicate that although tapering the inner wall or the outer wall can significantly raise the start-oscillation current, the former is more suitable for mode selection than the latter because an increase of the start-oscillation current by a tapered inner wall heavily depends on the chosen C value (i.e., the average ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius over the axial waveguide length). Selective suppression of the competing mode by tapering the inner wall is numerically demonstrated. Moreover, efficiency of the coaxial gyro-BWO is increased by tapering the outer wall. Properly down-tapering the outer wall ensures that the coaxial gyro-BWO can reach a maximum efficiency over twice that with a uniform one.

  19. [Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP). Founded in 1990, the PNTZP's supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work. PMID:25016775

  20. Paul Lazarsfeld and Polish sociology: a historical record of contact, perception, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sułek, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper records the Polish aspects of P. F. Lazarsfeld's sociointellectual biography and examines his impact on Polish sociology. The analysis is divided into three chronological parts. In the 1930s, Lazarsfeld's empirical work inspired Polish sociologists in their studies on unemployment. In the late 1950s and 1960s, his model of empirical social research shaped the style of sociological practice in Poland. In the 1990s, some of Lazarsfeld's substantive contributions, mainly in the area of election studies, were taken up in Polish sociology. Lazarsfeld's influence on Polish sociology was conditioned by changes in Polish society and sociology, which is emphasized in this analysis. PMID:9809456

  1. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p < 0.05) were evident by the early phases of TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p < 0.05), and increased morning and evening SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.01) were observed during the middle-late phases of TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition. PMID:23249825

  2. Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Composite Flexbeam Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Rousseau, Carl Q.

    1997-01-01

    The viability of a method for determining the fatigue life of composite rotor hub flexbeam laminates using delamination fatigue characterization data and a geometric non-linear finite element (FE) analysis was studied. Combined tension and bending loading was applied to non-linear tapered flexbeam laminates with internal ply drops. These laminates, consisting of coupon specimens cut from a full-size S2/E7T1 glass-epoxy flexbeam were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined axial-tension and transverse cyclic bending. The magnitude of the axial load remained constant and the direction of the load rotated with the specimen as the cyclic bending load was applied. The first delamination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group. Subsequently, unstable delamination occurred by complete delamination along the length of the specimen. Continued cycling resulted in multiple delaminations. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed and a geometrically non-linear analysis was performed. The global responses of the model and test specimens agreed very well in terms of the transverse displacement. The FE model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at the tip of the outer ply-drop area and growing toward the thick or thin regions of the flexbeam, as was observed in the specimens. The delamination growth toward the thick region was primarily mode 2, whereas delamination growth toward the thin region was almost completely mode 1. Material characterization data from cyclic double-cantilevered beam tests was used with the peak calculated G values to generate a curve predicting fatigue failure by unstable delamination as a function of the number of loading cycles. The calculated fatigue lives compared well with the test data.

  3. Fatigue Life Methodology for Tapered Composite Flexbeam Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; O''Brien, T. Kevin; Rousseau, Carl Q.

    1997-01-01

    The viability of a method for determining the fatigue life of composite rotor hub flexbeam laminates using delamination fatigue characterization data and a geometric non-linear finite element (FE) analysis was studied. Combined tension and bending loading was applied to nonlinear tapered flexbeam laminates with internal ply drops. These laminates, consisting of coupon specimens cut from a full-size S2/E7T1 glass-epoxy flexbeam were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined axial-tension and transverse cyclic bending loads. The magnitude of the axial load remained constant and the direction of the load rotated with the specimen as the cyclic bending load was applied. The first delamination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group. Subsequently, unstable delamination occurred by complete delamination along the length of the specimen. Continued cycling resulted in multiple delaminations. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed and a geometrically non-linear analysis was performed. The global responses of the model and test specimens agreed very well in terms of the transverse flexbeam tip-displacement and flapping angle. The FE model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at the tip of the outer ply-drop area and growing toward the thick or thin regions of the flexbeam, as was observed in the specimens. The delamination growth toward the thick region was primarily mode 2, whereas delamination growth toward the thin region was almost completely mode 1. Material characterization data from cyclic double-cantilevered beam tests was used with the peak calculated G values to generate a curve predicting fatigue failure by unstable delamination as a function of the number of loading cycles. The calculated fatigue lives compared well with the test data.

  4. Vortex shedding behind tapered obstacles in neutral & stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Ian; Vosper, Simon; Paisley, Martin; Hayden, Paul

    2001-10-01

    Results of laboratory and numerical experiments on both homogeneous and density-stratified flow over single, bluff obstacles of various shapes are presented. The obstacle height is in most cases of the same order as the base diameter and the major controlling (flow) parameter is the Froude number, defined here as Fh= U/ Nh, where U is the (uniform) upstream velocity, h the obstacle height and N is the buoyancy frequency. Attention is concentrated, firstly, on the case of homogeneous flows over rather weakly tapered obstacles and, secondly, for bodies whose height is similar to their base width, on the case Fh=0.1, representing stratification sufficiently strong that lee-wave motions do not play a significant role in the flow dynamics. For right-circular cones it is shown that the sectional contributions to the total fluctuating side force (lift) show significant phase variations up the height of the obstacle, which are not always reflected in the developed vortex street further downstream. For some obstacle shapes, the vortex lines linking the von Karman eddies at different heights can be significantly tilted, particularly in the upper part of the wake. Vortex convection speeds do not appear generally to vary greatly with height and, as found in previous work, the shedding frequency remains constant with height, despite the strong variation of cross-stream obstacle width. By comparison with the homogeneous results, it is suggested that the stratification enhances the shedding instability, which would otherwise be very weak for squat obstacles, but does not annihilate the ability of the flow at one level to influence that at another.

  5. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181

  6. [Polish legal terms of animal-based research - selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Poznański, Paweł; Niedźwiecki, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Animal-based models used in biomedical sciences allow to perform research that, conducted on humans, would be highly problematic because of bioethical and technical issues. Contemporary researchers race can lead to abuse, hence the need for special law regulations regarding this subject. This necessity reflected both in the EU and Polish legislation, and is rooted in the philosophical and moral achievements of Europe. EU legislation in this case takes the form of directives implemented in the legal systems of the member states. Polish tradition of legislative approach to animal-based research is long. In 1959 the wide attempt to regulate this matter was undertaken. Until 2005, the nature of the matter had been regulated by the Polish animal protection law. Currently, details concerning animal-based-research are regulated by the animal experiments law (2005). The elapsed time since enactment allowed doctrine and judicature to reveal capabilities and vulnerabilities of the law. PMID:25932901

  7. Laser measurement and analysis of reposition error in polishing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weisen; Wang, Junhua; Xu, Min; He, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, robotic reposition error measurement method based on laser interference remote positioning is presented, the geometric error is analyzed in the polishing system based on robot and the mathematical model of the tilt error is presented. Studies show that less than 1 mm error is mainly caused by the tilt error with small incident angle. Marking spot position with interference fringe enhances greatly the error measurement precision, the measurement precision of tilt error can reach 5 um. Measurement results show that reposition error of the polishing system is mainly from the tilt error caused by the motor A, repositioning precision is greatly increased after polishing system improvement. The measurement method has important applications in the actual error measurement with low cost, simple operation.

  8. Optical glass surfaces polishing by cerium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, D.; Belkhie, N.; Aliouane, T.

    2012-02-01

    The use of powders in metallic oxides as means of grinding and polishing of the optical glass components have seen recently a large application in optical industry. In fact, cerium oxide abrasive is more used in the optical glass polishing. It is used as grains abrasive in suspension or fixed abrasive (pellets); these pellets are manufactured from a mixture made of cerium oxide abrasive and a organic binder. The cerium oxide used in the experiments is made by (Logitech USA) of 99 % purity, the average grain size of the particle is 300 nm, the density being 6,74 g /cm3 and the specific surface is 3,3042 m2/g. In this study, we are interested in the surfaces quality of the optical glass borosilicate crown (BK7) polished by particles in cerium oxide bounded by epoxy. The surfaces of the optical glass treated are characterized by the roughness, the flatness by using the microscope Zygo and the SEM.

  9. Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, R R; Saha, A; Parikh, J R

    2009-02-01

    There are millions of working children worldwide. In gem polishing industry, exposure to occupational hazards of dust and chemicals used in polishing of gemstone may result in respiratory symptoms and respiratory disorders. The present study included 586 exposed and 569 comparison group subjects. Data was collected through personal interview, clinical examination, and chest radiography. The respiratory morbidity was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and chest radiography. The study variables included age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure. The mean age of the child laborers was 11.31 +/- 5.34 years. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was significantly high in the female child laborers. The other study variables namely age, duration of exposure, and daily working hours were found to be statistically non-significant. The prevalence of respiratory morbidity among child laborers of gem polishing industry in Jaipur was found to be 7%. PMID:19318508

  10. Study on the Stressed Mirror Polishing with a Continuous Polishing Machine for Large Aperture Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Hai-ying; Cui, Xiang-qun; Jiang, Zi-bo; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xing-tao; Ni, Hou-kun

    2012-10-01

    A special stressed annular polishing technique is proposed to mill the off-axis aspheric sub-mirrors of a large segmented mirror with an annular polishing machine. Based on the basic principle of stressed annular polishing technique, a set of special stressing mechanisms are designed to convert milling the aspheric surfaces of sub-mirrors with different off-axis distances into milling the spherical surfaces with identical radii of curvature, so that they can be pol- ished simultaneously on a continuous polishing machine. It took about contin- uous 40 hours to polish a scaled-down mirror of the planning Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT) using this technique. This mirror has the 330 mm di- ameter, 3.6 m off-axis distance, and the 21.6 m radius of curvature, and its max- imum asphericity is 16 micron. The experiment shows that this method has a high effciency, suits batch manufacturing, especially the batch manufacturing of aspheric sub-mirrors of the segmented primary mirror of an extremely large aperture telescope.

  11. Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, R.; Suzuki, M.; Omoda, E.; Manako, S.; Kamei, T.; Mori, M.; Sakakibara, Y.

    2013-03-01

    For ultralow-loss and polarization-insensitive spot-size converters (SSCs) on a silicon platform, we propose and demonstrate a silicon knife-edge taper waveguide with a gradual decrease in height as well as width toward the taper end. The taper was fabricated using a double-patterning method involving i-line stepper photolithography and angled sidewall dry-etching. The SSC, with the knife-edge taper covered with a polymer secondary core, exhibited mode conversion losses of 0.35 and 0.21 dB for transverse electric-like and transverse magnetic-like modes, respectively.

  12. Nanofocusing enhancement in a tapered slit by using a dielectric micro isosceles triangle prism and tuning the entrance aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Dengfeng; Ouyang, Sheng; Du, Zhongxun

    2012-07-01

    We present a combined configuration consisting of a dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism and a metallic tapered slit for enhanced nanofocusing. The dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism collects the incident light first and then the tapered slit guides the beam to form naofocusing with higher intensity at the exit aperture of the tapered slit, which overcomes the limit of the extremely small entrance aperture diaphragm of the slit. With the help of the dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism, the intensity of the nanofocused electric field at the exit aperture of the tapered slit can be increased more than 4 folds.

  13. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  14. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Anjan; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Tamal Kanti; Datta, Someswar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra <0.2 μm). Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 70 periodontally involved, caries-free extracted human teeth from 42 patients. All the teeth were collected from the region of incisors, canines, and premolars. In vitro scaling and root planing were performed by piezoelectric scaler and Gracey's area specific curettes, respectively. All the teeth were grouped at random into control and experimental. The collections of abrasive materials were done directly from the market, and the different particle sizes were prepared in the laboratory. Experimentation: The polishing was done at a constant speed of 200 rpm with cylindrical nylon bristle brush followed by rubber prophy cup. Each group belonging to control and experimental was subjected to profilometric study for evaluation of surface roughness. Results: Regular polishing abrasives are not able to produce the surface smoothness of our desire level (i.e., Ra <0.2 μm), which can be achieved only by submicron-sized particles. Conclusion: Regular size polishing particles available in the market (>5 μm) are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness. PMID:27041833

  15. In situ electrochemical investigation of tungsten electrochemical behavior during chemical mechanical polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, D.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Hetherington, D.; Guilinger, T.

    1998-09-01

    The electrochemical behavior of tungsten during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was observed in order to investigate a proposed blanket passivation and abrasion mechanism for tungsten removal. The experiments were performed in a cell that allowed electrochemical measurements to be made during polish. Polish rates were determined from the same samples used in the cell. Alumina-based polish slurries containing potassium iodate, ferric nitrate, or ammonium persulfate were used. DC polarization experiments show no evidence of passive film formation on the tungsten during polish. Tungsten oxidation rates measured during polish account for removal rates that are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the measured polish rate. Values of the charge-transfer resistance (measured by ac impedance spectroscopy) during polish are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected from the polish rate, thus corroborating the dc-based data. Polish rates under potentiostatic conditions were also measured. The current required to maintain the metal anodic of the open-circuit potential is well below the current expected from measured polish rates, assuming complete oxidation of the tungsten. The polish rate during cathodic potentiostatic conditions ({minus}0.5 V with regard to the open-circuit potential) was similar to the polish rate at open circuit. The authors conclude that the formation of a blanket passive layer does not significantly contribute to tungsten removal during CMP.

  16. Computer controlled precision optical polishing on the diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.

    1993-10-01

    This abstract reports the force and wear data required to predict the material removal, or wear, for the Numerical controlled (N/C) polishing program. The program`s aim is to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The first phase of the program looks at a rotating polishing wheel, moving from near the center to edge of a rotating glass disc. future phases will look at more complex shapes.

  17. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Mike; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  18. Polish queer lesbianism: sexual identity without a lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the state of Polish lesbianism. It presents the history of lesbian groups, lesbian culture, and community in Poland. It puts social and political activism of lesbians in the context of the growing feminist movement and strong nationalism in Poland. Showing the important role of the Internet communication and the way in which queer philosophy is understood in this country, it investigates sexual identity formation and the process through which lesbian communities develop in Poland. The analysis of Polish lesbianism confirms the constructionists' theory that sexual identity formation highly depends on cultural and political circumstances. PMID:21774600

  19. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  20. Lower periprosthetic bone loss and good fixation of an ultra-short stem compared to a conventional stem in uncemented total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salemyr, Mats; Muren, Olle; Ahl, Torbjörn; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — We hypothesized that an ultra-short stem would load the proximal femur in a more physiological way and could therefore reduce the adaptive periprosthetic bone loss known as stress shielding. Patients and methods — 51 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomized to total hip arthroplasty (THA) with either an ultra-short stem or a conventional tapered stem. The primary endpoint was change in periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD), measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in Gruen zones 1 and 7, two years after surgery. Secondary endpoints were change in periprosthetic BMD in the entire periprosthetic region, i.e. Gruen zones 1 through 7, stem migration measured with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and function measured with self-administered functional scores. Results — The periprosthetic decrease in BMD was statistically significantly lower with the ultra-short stem. In Gruen zone 1, the mean difference was 18% (95% CI: −27% to −10%). In zone 7, the difference was 5% (CI: −12% to −3%) and for Gruen zones 1–7 the difference was also 5% (CI: −9% to −2%). During the first 6 weeks postoperatively, the ultra-short stems migrated 0.77 mm more on average than the conventional stems. 3 months after surgery, no further migration was seen. The functional scores improved during the study and were similar in the 2 groups. Interpretation — Up to 2 years after total hip arthroplasty, compared to the conventional tapered stem the ultra-short uncemented anatomical stem induced lower periprosthetic bone loss and had equally excellent stem fixation and clinical outcome. PMID:26134386

  1. Characterization of the fretting corrosion behavior, surface and debris from head-taper interface of two different modular hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudio T; Barbosa, Cassio; Monteiro, Maurício J; Abud, Ibrahim C; Caminha, Ieda M V; Roesler, Carlos R M

    2016-09-01

    Modular hip prostheses are flexible to match anatomical variations and to optimize mechanical and tribological properties of each part by using different materials. However, micromotions associated with the modular components can lead to fretting corrosion and, consequently, to release of debris which can cause adverse local tissue reactions in human body. In the present study, the surface damage and residues released during in vitro fretting corrosion tests were characterized by stereomicroscope, SEM and EDS. Two models of modular hip prosthesis were studied: Model SS/Ti Cementless whose stem was made of ASTM F136 Ti-6Al-4V alloy and whose metallic head was made of ASTM F138 austenitic stainless steel, and Model SS/SS Cemented with both components made of ASTM F138 stainless steel. The fretting corrosion tests were evaluated according to the criteria of ASTM F1875 standard. Micromotions during the test caused mechanical wear and material loss in the head-taper interface, resulting in fretting-corrosion. Model SS/SS showed higher grade of corrosion. Different morphologies of debris predominated in each model studied. Small and agglomerated particles were observed in the Model SS/Ti and irregular particles in the Model SS/SS. After 10 million cycles, the Model SS/Ti was more resistant to fretting corrosion than the Model SS/SS. PMID:27179766

  2. Coupling behaviour of tapered highly multimodal dielectric waveguides as part of PCB-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soenmez, Yasin; Mrozynski, Gerd; Schrage, Juergen

    2010-05-01

    Optical interconnects replace electrical links increasingly at shorter distances. At printed circuit board (PCB) level highly multimodal polymer channel waveguides are the chosen approach to meet bandwidth-length and bandwidth-density requirements. One important challenge of board integrated waveguides is the coupling problem. The manufacturing process of PCBs leads to relatively high placement tolerances which cause poor optical coupling efficiency due to mechanical misalignment between separate components, e.g.: 1) Coupling between a VCSEL and the board integrated waveguides; 2) Coupling between waveguides in two separate boards. This paper deals with the deployment of tapered dielectric multimode waveguides for increasing the optical coupling robustness towards mechanical misalignments in these two coupling applications. A coupled mode approach for calculation of the mode coupling and power loss in a taper with decreasing width has been presented before [5]. In [6], the two above mentioned coupling applications for tapered dielectric waveguides have been dealt with, but only the coupling efficiency in case of longitudinal misalignment has been calculated. In this paper, results of advanced analysis of the two applications are presented. The coupling efficiency in case of transverse misalignment is simulated by a ray-optical approach. Furthermore the results of measurements of the coupling behaviour of board integrated tapered waveguides are presented. The results show that tapered multimodal dielectric waveguides have the capability to increase the coupling efficiency significantly if some conditions are fulfilled.

  3. An experimental and analytical evaluation of the tapered tension-torsion strap concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    A new free-tip rotor moment controller designed to increase torque output (a restoring moment) was proposed. The controller would be used as a retention device for the freely pitching tip of a helicopter rotor. The new design featured a tapered tension-torsion strap instead of the previously used parellel strap. A tapered strap has a larger separation between the tension wires at the retention end than at the oscillating end; separation is equal at both ends for a parallel strap. A simple dynamic analysis was developed and an experiment performed to evaluate this tapered strap concept. The test results indicated that the torsional spring stiffness of the strap, represented by a torsional pendulum, increased with the amount of taper. The predicted dynamic characteristics of the pendulum also confirmed this observation and correlated reasonably well with the experimental results. It could be concluded from the experimental and analytical results that the tapered strap accomplished increased torque output when compared to the parellel strap.

  4. Investigation on single taper-based all-solid photonic bandgap fiber modal interferometers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Geng, Mengmei; Sun, Li-Peng; Fan, Pengcheng; Liu, Bo; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate a single taper-based all-solid photonic bandgap (AS-PBG) fiber modal interferometer that consists of a central tapered fiber region connected to the untapered via two abrupt transitions. Modal interference is given by superimposing the bandgap-guided fundamental core mode with a lower effective index and a specific index-guided cladding supermode with a higher effective index. A series of interferometers with taper diameter of 50μm ~60μm and device length of ~3mm are fabricated and studied in contrast to the conventional counterparts. The temperature coefficient of the interferometer is closely determined by the fraction of the cladding supermode energy localized within the index-raised regions of the fiber. The refractive index (RI) responsivities associated to fiber taper sizes are investigated. The measured maximal RI sensitivity is ~3512.36nm/RIU at the taper diameter of 50μm around RI = 1.423. This research gives a deep understanding to the modal-interferometric AS-PBG structure, which we believe to be valuable for the future application of the related device. PMID:27137292

  5. Development and Implementation of a Double-Blind Corticosteroid-Tapering Regimen for a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Neil; Tuckwell, Katie; Habeck, Frank; Chapman, Monique; Klearman, Micki; Stone, John H.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and operationalization of a blinded corticosteroid-tapering regimen for a randomized trial of tocilizumab in giant cell arteritis (GCA). To our knowledge, no clinical trial in any disease has ever employed a blinded corticosteroid-tapering regimen, but this was necessary to the design of our trial which is likely to be relevant to other investigations of steroid-sparing regimens. Two standardized corticosteroid-tapering regimens are required for this GCA trial: a 6-month regimen in 3 arms (taken with tocilizumab 162 mg subcutaneously weekly or every other week or with placebo) and a 12-month regimen with placebo (fourth arm). Investigators select initial prednisone doses, tapered in an open-label fashion until 20 mg/day. Doses <20 mg/day are blinded. At least 27 blinded blister packs are required to ensure blinding and encourage compliance. This permits all possible daily doses but requires ≤5 capsules/day. The number of capsules taken at any point during tapering is identical across groups. Our approach may be extrapolated to trials beyond GCA. PMID:25878667

  6. Linear permittivity tapering in a Cerenkov microwave source with a pre-bunched beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, B. R.; Harris, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    Cerenkov microwave sources use a dielectric-lined waveguide to reduce the velocity of the electromagnetic wave and provide efficient energy transfer between the wave and the driving electron beam. Tapering the permittivity of the dielectric to maintain synchronism between the beam and the wave as the beam loses energy can increase the efficiency of these devices. Here, we consider such a structure driven by an electron beam with a harmonic density perturbation. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations and a macro-particle model based on the slowly varying envelope approximation are first used to examine an un-tapered baseline case. PIC simulations of the source with linear tapers over the entire amplifier length as well as over only a section of the amplifier where the beam executes synchrotron oscillations are examined. The efficiency for the baseline un-tapered source is 18%, while efficiencies up to approximately 48% are found using a taper in dielectric permittivity. Results of the best performing cases are presented. Detailed examination of longitudinal phase space, particle energy distributions, evolution of longitudinal wavenumber, and phase dynamics are presented from the PIC simulations.

  7. Linear permittivity tapering in a Cerenkov microwave source with a pre-bunched beam

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B. R.; Harris, J. R.

    2013-04-15

    Cerenkov microwave sources use a dielectric-lined waveguide to reduce the velocity of the electromagnetic wave and provide efficient energy transfer between the wave and the driving electron beam. Tapering the permittivity of the dielectric to maintain synchronism between the beam and the wave as the beam loses energy can increase the efficiency of these devices. Here, we consider such a structure driven by an electron beam with a harmonic density perturbation. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations and a macro-particle model based on the slowly varying envelope approximation are first used to examine an un-tapered baseline case. PIC simulations of the source with linear tapers over the entire amplifier length as well as over only a section of the amplifier where the beam executes synchrotron oscillations are examined. The efficiency for the baseline un-tapered source is 18%, while efficiencies up to approximately 48% are found using a taper in dielectric permittivity. Results of the best performing cases are presented. Detailed examination of longitudinal phase space, particle energy distributions, evolution of longitudinal wavenumber, and phase dynamics are presented from the PIC simulations.

  8. Mechanically induced long period fiber gratings on single mode tapered optical fiber for structure sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Navarro, María. G.; Marrujo-García, Sigifredo; Álvarez-Chávez, José A.; Velázquez-González, Jesús S.; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Escamilla-Ambrosio, Ponciano J.

    2015-08-01

    The modal characteristics of tapered single mode optical fibers and its strain sensing characteristics by using mechanically induced long period fiber gratings are presented in this work. Both Long Period Fiber Gratings (LPFG) and fiber tapers are fiber devices that couple light from the core fiber into the fiber cladding modes. The mechanical LPFG is made up of two plates, one flat and the other grooved. For this experiment the grooved plate was done on an acrylic slab with the help of a computer numerical control machine. The manufacturing of the tapered fiber is accomplished by applying heat using an oxygen-propane flame burner and stretching the fiber, which protective coating has been removed. Then, a polymer-tube-package is added in order to make the sensor sufficiently stiff for the tests. The mechanical induced LPFG is accomplished by putting the tapered fiber in between the two plates, so the taper acquires the form of the grooved plate slots. Using a laser beam the transmission spectrum showed a large peak transmission attenuation of around -20 dB. The resultant attenuation peak wavelength in the transmission spectrum shifts with changes in tension showing a strain sensitivity of 2pm/μɛ. This reveals an improvement on the sensitivity for structure monitoring applications compared with the use of a standard optical fiber. In addition to the experimental work, the supporting theory and numerical simulation analysis are also included.

  9. Concentration of broadband terahertz radiation using a periodic array of conically tapered apertures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuchang; Vardeny, Z Valy; Nahata, Ajay

    2013-05-20

    We describe the optical concentration properties of periodic arrays of conically tapered metallic apertures measured using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. As a first step in this process, we optimize the geometrical properties of individual apertures, keeping the output aperture diameter fixed, and find that the optimal taper angle is 30°. A consequence of increasing the taper angle is that the effective cutoff frequency red shifts, which can be readily explained using conventional waveguide theory. We then fabricate and measure the transmission properties of a periodic (hexagonal) array of optimized tapered apertures. In contrast to periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures in thin metal films, which are characterized by narrowband transmission resonances associated with the periodic spacing, here we observe broadband enhanced transmission above the effective cutoff frequency. Further enhancement in the concentration capabilities of the array can be achieved by tilting the apertures towards the array center, although the optical throughput of individual tapered apertures is reduced with increasing tilt angle. Finally, we discuss possible future directions that utilize cascaded structures, as a means for obtaining further enhancement in the amplitude of the transmitted THz radiation. PMID:23736454

  10. Acrylic cement creeps but does not allow much subsidence of femoral stems.

    PubMed

    Verdonschot, N; Huiskes, R

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the endurance of cemented femoral reconstructions in total hip arthroplasty is affected by the creep of acrylic cement, but it is not known to what extent cement creeps under loading conditions in vivo, or how this affects load transfer. We have simulated the long-term creep properties of acrylic cement in finite-element models of femoral stem constructs and analysed their effects. We investigated whether subsidence rates measured in vivo could be explained by creep of acrylic cement, and if polished, unbonded, stems accommodated creep better than bonded stems. Our findings showed that polished prostheses subsided only about 50 microm as a result of cement creep. The long-term prosthetic subsidence rates caused by creep of acrylic cement are therefore very small and do not explain the excessive migration rates which have sometimes been reported. Cement creep did, however, relax cement stresses and create a more favourable stress distribution at the interfaces. These trends were found around both the bonded and unbonded stems. Our results did not confirm that polished, unbonded, stems accommodated creep better than bonded stems in terms of cement and interface stress patterns. PMID:9250762

  11. Reversible neurotoxicity following hyperfractionated radiation therapy of brain stem glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, M.; Friedman, H.S.; Halperin, E.C.; Wiener, M.D.; Marks, L.; Oakes, W.J.; Hoffman, J.M.; DeLong, G.R.; Schold, S.C.; Hockenberger, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with brain stem gliomas were treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFR) (7,020 and 7,560 cGy, respectively). Despite initial clinical improvement during irradiation, both patients demonstrated clinical deterioration approximately 3 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a progressive increase in distribution of abnormal brain stem signal consistent with either tumor or edema. {sup 18}FDG positron emission tomography (PET) was obtained in one patient and demonstrated a hypermetabolic lesion at diagnosis and a hypometabolic lesion at the time of clinical deterioration postirradiation. Management with a tapering dose of dexamethasone alone resulted in marked clinical (both patients) and radiographic (one patient) improvement, allowing reduction or discontinuation of this medication. These results suggest that patients with brain stem tumors demonstrating clinical and radiographic evidence of progressive tumor shortly after completion of HFR should be initially managed conservatively with dexamethasone, since these findings may be manifestations of reversible radiation-related neurotoxicity.

  12. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  13. A comparative evaluation of plaque-removing efficacy of air polishing and rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing on oral hygiene status: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Saurabh S.; Rakhewar, Purshottam S.; Limaye, Priyanka S.; Chaudhari, Niraj P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, professional dental prophylaxis has involved the use of rubber-cup, bristle brush, and abrasive paste for coronal polishing. Although air polishing is an excellent alternative for removal of tooth stain and dental plaque, very few studies have compared their efficacy in vivo. The present study attempts to evaluate and compare the efficacy of air polishing (test) alone versus rubber-cup polishing (control). Materials and Methods: A total of 35 individuals having generalized mild to moderate gingivitis were enrolled as the study population after obtaining their informed consent. Before commencement of the study, all subjects underwent scaling to remove calculus deposits (if any), following which the ipsilateral quadrant of the patient's mouth was randomly assigned as the test side and the contralateral quadrant of the same arch was assigned as the control side for polishing procedures. Time employed for both methods of polishing was held constant at 5 min for each technique. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after polishing and again after 15 days following treatment, for plaque and gingival status along with gingival bleeding. Results: Overall, the results of the intra-group comparison of both the polishing procedure sites indicated similar but significant plaque and gingival status changes, whereas the inter-group comparison showed no significant difference between the efficacies of both the groups. Conclusions: Air polishing and the rubber-cup, bristle brush with paste polishing demonstrated equivalent efficacy regarding removal of supragingival plaque and in reducing gingival inflammation. PMID:26759798

  14. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    SciTech Connect

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-21

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  15. Single-mode tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lateral gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Xu, T. H.; Wan, W. J.; Li, H.; Cao, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lateral gratings. The proposed devices exhibit not only low horizontal divergence due to tapered structure but also single-mode operation by using lateral grating structure. The tapered region and lateral gratings can be fabricated with the ridged waveguide in one etching step without inducing complexity into the fabrication. Side-mode suppression ratio ∼20 dB is obtained for proposed devices from threshold to rollover currents at all measure temperatures, with the peak output power of ∼30 mW at 10 K in pulsed mode and lateral divergence angle reduced by half. The proposed devices are good candidates for high-power, single-mode operation and low-divergence laser with easy fabrication.

  16. High-power 1550 nm tapered DBR lasers fabricated using soft UV-nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viheriälä, Jukka; Aho, Antti T.; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Salmi, Joel; Virtanen, Heikki; Leinonen, Tomi; Dumitrescu, Mihail; Guina, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    Paper reports the DBR-RWG surface grating design, the fabrication process, and the output characteristics of tapered DBR laser diodes for the applications, like for example LIDAR and range finding, that require eye-safe high-power single-mode coherent light sources. The fabricated regrowth-free DBR AlGaInAs/InP lasers exhibited a CW output power as high as 560 mW in single-mode operation at room temperature. At maximum output power the SMSR was 38 dB, proving the excellent behavior of the surface gratings. The tapered section enabled scaling the maximum CW power at room temperature from 125 mW to 560 mW, by increasing its length from 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm. The paper discusses the limitations and performance variation associated to the power scaling by using the tapered section length as a scaling parameter.

  17. Ultrathin fiber-taper coupling with nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masazumi; Zhao, Hong-Quan; Noda, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-15

    We demonstrate cooling of ultrathin fiber tapers coupled with nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds to cryogenic temperatures. Nanodiamonds containing multiple NV centers are deposited on the subwavelength 480-nm-diameter nanofiber region of fiber tapers. The fiber tapers are successfully cooled to 9 K using our home-built mounting holder and an optimized cooling speed. The fluorescence from the nanodiamond NV centers is efficiently channeled into a single guided mode and shows characteristic sharp zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) of both neutral and negatively charged NV centers. The present nanofiber/nanodiamond hybrid systems at cryogenic temperatures can be used as NV-based quantum information devices and for highly sensitive nanoscale magnetometry in a cryogenic environment. PMID:26670490

  18. Tailored dispersion profile in controlling optical solitons in a tapered parabolic index fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S. Arun; Malathi, V.; Mani Rajan, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the soliton dynamics in tapered parabolic index fibers via symbolic computation for a variety of dispersion profiles to inspect how a specific dispersion profile controls the optical soliton. By means of AKNS procedure, Lax pair is constructed for nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients. Using obtained Lax pair, multi-soliton solutions are generated via Darboux transformation technique. Using multi-soliton solutions, soliton dynamics in tapered parabolic index fiber with the hyperbolic, Gaussian, exponential, and linear profiles are discussed. Results obtained in this study will be of certain potential application on construction of the nonlinear optical devices by soliton control. Results obtained in this study will be of certain value to the studies on the propagation and application of the soliton in the tapered parabolic index fiber and dispersion-managed fiber system.

  19. Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuchan; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Sun, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    A dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on silicon-on-insulator platform for mode division multiplexing system is proposed and demonstrated. The device, which consists of a tapered directional coupler and two output bend waveguides, has a 50:50 coupling ratio around the wavelength of 1550 nm for both fundamental and first order transverse magnetic (TM0 and TM1) modes. Based on asymmetrical tapered structure, a short common coupling length of ~15.2 μm for both modes is realized by optimizing the width of the tapered waveguide. The measured insertion loss for both modes is less than 0.7 dB. The crosstalks are about −14.3 dB for TM0 mode and −18.1 dB for TM1 mode. PMID:27002747

  20. Optical similaritons in a tapered graded-index nonlinear-fiber amplifier with an external source

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Thokala Soloman; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2011-09-15

    We analytically explore a wide class of optical similariton solutions to the nonlinear Schroedinger equation appropriately modified to model beam propagation in a tapered, graded-index nonlinear-fiber amplifier with an external source. Under certain physical conditions, we reduce the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations to a single-wave equation that aptly describes similariton propagation through asymmetric twin-core fiber amplifiers. The asymmetric twin-core fiber is composed of two adjoining, closely spaced, single-mode fibers in which the active one is a tapered, graded-index nonlinear-fiber and the passive one is a step-index fiber. We obtain these self-similar waves for different choices of tapered index profile, using a Moebius transformation. Our procedure is applicable for both self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinearities.

  1. Integrated dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on tapered directional coupler.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuchan; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Sun, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    A dual-mode 3 dB power coupler based on silicon-on-insulator platform for mode division multiplexing system is proposed and demonstrated. The device, which consists of a tapered directional coupler and two output bend waveguides, has a 50:50 coupling ratio around the wavelength of 1550 nm for both fundamental and first order transverse magnetic (TM0 and TM1) modes. Based on asymmetrical tapered structure, a short common coupling length of ~15.2 μm for both modes is realized by optimizing the width of the tapered waveguide. The measured insertion loss for both modes is less than 0.7 dB. The crosstalks are about -14.3 dB for TM0 mode and -18.1 dB for TM1 mode. PMID:27002747

  2. Characteristics of a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Conformed Longitudinally Around a Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ponchak, George E.; Tavassolian, Negar; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2007-01-01

    The family of tapered slot antennas (TSA s) is suitable for numerous applications. Their ease of fabrication, wide bandwidth, and high gain make them desirable for military and commercial systems. Fabrication on thin, flexible substrates allows the TSA to be conformed over a given body, such as an aircraft wing or a piece of clothing for wearable networks. Previously, a Double Exponentially Tapered Slot Antenna (DETSA) was conformed around an exponential curvature, which showed that the main beam skewed towards the direction of curvature. This paper presents a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) conformed longitudinally around a cylinder. Measured and simulated radiation patterns and the direction of maximum H co-polarization (Hco) as a function of the cylinder radius are presented.

  3. Temperature sensing on tapered single mode fiber using mechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrujo-García, Sigifredo; Velázquez-González, Jesús Salvador; Pulido-Navarro, María. Guadalupe; González-Ocaña, Ernesto; Mújica-Ascencio, Saúl; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of a temperature optical fiber sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this work. The suggested structure to obtain the sensing temperature characteristics is by the use of a mechanically induced Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG) on a tapered single mode optical fiber. A biconical fiber optic taper is made by applying heat using an oxygen-propane flame burner while stretching the single mode fiber (SMF) whose coating has been removed. The resulting geometry of the device is important to analyze the coupling between the core mode to the cladding modes, and this will determine whether the optical taper is adiabatic or non-adiabatic. On the other hand, the mechanical LPFG is made up of two plates, one grooved and other flat, the grooved plate was done on an acrylic slab with the help of a computerized numerical control machine (CNC). In addition to the experimental work, the supporting theory is also included.

  4. About the role of phase matching between a coated microsphere and a tapered fiber: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Davor; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Chiappini, Andrea; Féron, Patrice; Pelli, Stefano; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Ivanda, Mile; Righini, Giancarlo C; Cibiel, Gilles; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    Coatings of spherical optical microresonators are widely employed for different applications. Here the effect of the thickness of a homogeneous coating layer on the coupling of light from a tapered fiber to a coated microsphere has been studied. Spherical silica microresonators were coated using a 70SiO(2)- 30HfO(2) glass doped with 0.3 mol% Er(3+) ions. The coupling of a 1480 nm pump laser inside the sphere has been assessed using a tapered optical fiber and observing the 1530-1580 nm Er(3+) emission outcoupled to the same tapered fiber. The measurements were done for different coating thicknesses and compared with theoretical calculations to understand the relationship of the detected signal with the whispering gallery mode electric field profiles. PMID:24103968

  5. Thymol blue immobilized on tapered fibers as optical transducer for pH sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Falai, Alida; Mignani, Anna G.; Rayss, Jan; Sudolski, Grzegorz

    1999-02-01

    The present work is concerned with the optical characterization of an evanescent wave sensor for pH detection. First, the interaction between the solution containing the acid-base indicator and the fiber core was investigated. Then, the acid-base indicator, thymol blue, was covalently immobilized on the core of a 200/380 micrometers fiber by means of a silylation process of the glass surface. The fiber core surface was modified along a section of 8 mm. A comparison was made using both bare and tapered fibers, with a tapering ratio (fiber diameter/waist diameter) of 2.3. An enhancement in sensitivity of a factor 6 was observed with tapered fibers in the 1/2.5 range, and a sensitivity of 0.05 pH units was attained.

  6. An efficient method for supercontinuum generation in dispersion-tailored Lead-silicate fiber taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Ma, S.; Dutta, N. K.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we theoretically study the broadband mid-IR supercontinuum generation (SCG) in a lead-silicate microstructured fiber (the glass for simulation is SF57). The total dispersion of the fiber can be tailored by changing the core diameter of the fiber so that dispersion profiles with two zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) can be obtained. Numerical simulations of the SCG process in a 4 cm long SF57 fiber/fiber taper seeded by femto-second pulses at telecommunications wavelength of 1.55 µm are presented. The results show that a fiber taper features a continuous shift of the longer zero dispersion wavelength. This extends the generated continuum to a longer wavelength region compared to fibers with fixed ZDWs. The phase-matching condition (PMC) is continuously modified in the fiber taper and the bandwidth of the generated dispersive waves (DWs) is significantly broadened.

  7. LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellah, Hakim; Zhang, Xiupu; Shen, Dongya

    2015-11-01

    A mode converter between LP01 and LP0m modes is proposed using two stages of tapers. The first stage is formed by an adiabatically tapering a circular fiber to excite the desirable LP0m mode. The second stage is formed by inserting an inner core (tapered from both sides) with a refractive index smaller than the original core. This second stage is used to obtain low insertion loss and high extinction ratio of the desired LP0m mode. Three converters between LP01 and LP0m, m=2, 3, and 4, are designed for C-band, and simulation results show that less than 0.24, 0.54 and 0.7 dB insertion loss and higher than 15, 16, and 17.5 dB extinction ratio over the entire band were obtained for the three converters, respectively.

  8. Radiation Losses Due to Tapering of a Double-Core Optical Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Khet, Myat; Pencil, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical model we designed parameterizes the power losses as a function of .the profile shape for a tapered, single mode, optical dielectric coupler. The focus of this project is to produce a working model that determines the power losses experienced by the fibers when light crosses a taper region. This phenomenon can be examined using coupled mode theory. The optical directional coupler consists of a parallel, dual-channel, waveguide with minimal spacing between the channels to permit energy exchange. Thus, power transfer is essentially a function of the taper profile. To find the fields in the fibers, the approach used was that of solving the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates involving Bessel and modified Bessel functions depending on the location.

  9. Attitudes and Motivations of Polish Students towards Entrepreneurial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul; Miller, Christopher; Jones, Amanda; Packham, Gary; Pickernell, David; Zbierowski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Polish economy is continuing its expansion through the adoption of free market economics in the post-communist era. To encourage this growth in a future where difficult global economic conditions are likely to persist, it is essential that entrepreneurial activity is encouraged within the next generation of graduates. This study aims…

  10. Pre-Posed Possessive Constructions in Russian and Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Erik Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Contemporary Standard Russian (CSR) and Contemporary Standard Polish (CSP) nominal possession is conveyed by means of the adnominal genitive. In this construction the dependent follows the noun it modifies and is marked morphologically for possession in the genitive case. The head noun is marked morphologically for any one of the six…

  11. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  12. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to compare Canadian community colleges with post-secondary vocational schools in Poland. The comparison concentrated upon programs in nursing, tourism and information technology delivered by the following three Polish schools Krakowska Szkola Medyczna, (Cracow, Poland), Policealne Studium Zawodowe, (Cracow,…

  13. The Teaching of English in Polish Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teachers of English in Polish schools, and is the result of the Dr. Butler's experience as a teacher of English in Poland. It is argued that native teachers of English should be employed in Poland because they teach in their own language, use current idioms, provide…

  14. Stress polishing demonstrator for ELT M1 segments and industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Laslandes, Marie; Floriot, Johan; Dufour, Thibaut; Fappani, Denis; Combes, Jean Marc; Ferrari, Marc

    2014-07-01

    After two years of research and development under ESO support, LAM and Thales SESO present the results of their experiment for the fast and accurate polishing under stress of ELT 1.5 meter segments as well as the industrialization approach for mass production. Based on stress polishing, this manufacturing method requires the conception of a warping harness able to generate extremely accurate bending of the optical surface of the segments during the polishing. The conception of the warping harness is based on finite element analysis and allowed a fine tuning of each geometrical parameter of the system in order to fit an error budget of 25nm RMS over 300μm of bending peak to valley. The optimisation approach uses the simulated influence functions to extract the system eigenmodes and characterise the performance. The same approach is used for the full characterisation of the system itself. The warping harness has been manufactured, integrated and assembled with the Zerodur 1.5 meter segment on the LAM 2.5meter POLARIS polishing facility. The experiment consists in a cross check of optical and mechanical measurements of the mirrors bending in order to develop a blind process, ie to bypass the optical measurement during the final industrial process. This article describes the optical and mechanical measurements, the influence functions and eigenmodes of the system and the full performance characterisation of the warping harness.

  15. Metallography of Aluminum and Its Alloys : Use of Electrolytic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquet, Pierre A

    1955-01-01

    Recent methods are described for electropolishing aluminum and aluminum alloys. Numerous references are included of electrolytic micrographic investigations carried out during the period 1948 to 1952. A detailed description of a commercial electrolytic polishing unit, suitable for micrographic examination of aluminum and its alloys, is included.

  16. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  17. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  18. ABUSE OF BOOT POLISH BY INGESTION: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Anil K.; Srivastava, R.P.; Chavan, B.S.; Saxena, Shekhar

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY This case report describes the abuse of boot polish by inhalation and ingestion in a 32 year old patient who also had alcohol dependence. Pleasurable psychological effects, craving, active search for the substance and tolerance were present but withdrawal symptoms could not be demonstrated because of simultaneous alcohol dependence. PMID:21776174

  19. The "Metrica Regni" Project: The Polish Experience of EAD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajs, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The fonds of Crown Chancery Public Register ("Metrica Regni") was chosen for the pilot project to introduce Encoded Archival Description (EAD) because of its historical value, typical archival structure and existing finding aids. The rights and privileges granted by Polish kings were recorded in the Register. The oldest books in the series of…

  20. Reference Values of Maximal Oxygen Uptake for Polish Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes’ fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the “trainability” of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19–22 years (U23 category). PMID:25713672