Science.gov

Sample records for politically constrained world

  1. The Political economy of world energy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The continuous growth in global energy consumption has created international concern about the linkage between energy and socioeconomic development. Provoked by awareness of the potential effects of long-term growth in energy use on fuel availability, economics, geopolitics, and environmental quality, considerable scholarly attention has focused on assessing historical patterns as well as generating plausible estimates of alternative energy futures. While conservation projections to the middle of the next century suggest the existing developed countries will then be using about one-half of the world's energy with the US share declining to roughly one-sixth of the world's total, overall consumption is likely to increase due to population growth as well as economic modernization among the current set of developing countries. Not surprisingly, scenarios such as this raise the question of the social, political, and economic implications of varying energy supply systems. This book seeks to provide answers to that question by presenting a broad, historical analysis of the role played by changing energy management systems in the international political economy of this century. In the study, the author primarily concentrates on attempting to identify institutional factors and salient events shaping the politics and economics of global energy supply and utilization patterns from approximately 1900 to 1980. While the primary emphasis is on the Western industrialized countries and the less-developed countries (LDCs) which are energy-producing states, some attention also is devoted to the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the energy-importing LDCs.

  2. Political Compromise Makes the World Go 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Compromise in any context is often hard to accept. It feels like a person is giving up on his or her ideals. This is especially true in dealing with politics. Legislative and congressional bills can be written with the highest of ideals in mind. By the time the bill progresses through committees and the floor debate process, it can look like a…

  3. The Emerging Pacific: Reshaping World Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Steven L.; Wilson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a series of articles which emphasize the diversity and unity of the Pacific Rim nations. Examines the interests of the United States, USSR, Japan, and China in this part of the world and discusses how teachers might organize lessons on this region. States that the articles present a variety of ways of seeing the emerging Pacific. (GEA)

  4. Political economy of western medicine in third world countries.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D R

    1988-03-01

    Inroads made by the colonial rule on western medicine continue to influence health services systems in 3rd World countries to this day. While half-hearted efforts have been made to overcome the adverse effects of such influence, they have not proved very successful. This is so largely because of the nature of the political systems and social structures prevailing in many of the 3rd World countries that have placed at the helm of affairs a political leadership not capable of severing its links with western conceptualization, development, and delivery of health care services systems. However, due to various factors (most important being the rising political consciousness among people) the inequitous sociopolitical system has conceded to a people-oriented health services system. The degree of political commitment to this goal will determine the level of success it is able to achieve. The degree of political commitment depends on the degree of mobilization of people. The struggle for health thus becomes a struggle for democratization. In this struggle for democratization, alleviation of suffering due to health problems becomes a political device for community mobilization. Once this is understood, it is the task of those involved in democratization to mobilize community health physicians to devise community-oriented health services. PMID:12179471

  5. Beyond a Politics of the Plural in World Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Curt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores three recent books related to World Englishes studies and considers ways they overtly and implicitly frame the politics of the field. The author also describes some of his own experiences working with graduate students that suggest a disruption of traditional dichotomies between single standard and pluralistic models of…

  6. The Olympic Games and World Politics: A Select Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Evelyn S.

    1984-01-01

    This 62-item annotated bibliography lists books and journal articles published over last decade (historical guides and surveys, memoirs, speeches, essays, biographies, government documents, critical analyses) on the history of politics in modern Olympic games and use of games in politics. A brief history of the games is included with 24…

  7. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    PubMed

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge. PMID:18175454

  8. The emergence of vitamins as bio-political objects during World War I.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    Biochemists investigating the problem of the vitamins in the early years of the twentieth century were working without an object, as such. Although they had developed a fairly elaborate idea of the character of the 'vitamine' and its role in metabolism, vitamins were not yet biochemical objects, but rather 'functional ascriptions' and 'explanatory devices'. I suggest that an early instance of the changing status of the object of the 'vitamins' can be found in their stabilization, through the course of World War I, as bio-political objects for the British and Allied war effort. Vitamins emerged as players, active agents, in Britain's wartime bio-political problems of food distribution and population health and because of this they became increasingly real as bio-political objects, even prior to their isolation as bio-chemical molecules. I suggest that the materiality of our biology has agency in the development of political regimes and schemes. PMID:19720326

  9. Comparing an Aesthetic and a Political Approach to Teaching World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Evelyn T.; Napier, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to examine the effects on student achievement and attitudes of an integrated approach to teaching world history (termed the aesthetic approach) by comparing it to a traditional approach (termed a political approach). Findings indicated that the aesthetic approach was a more effective means of presenting a broad range…

  10. The environment as radical politics: Can ?Third World? education rise to the challenge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of industrial development which has been adopted globally in the last two centuries by both capitalist and socialist economies has caused unprecedented damage to the physical and ecological health of our planet. This paper argues that any challenges to these systems, including educational challenges, will involve political understanding and activism. It examines the potential of educational structures in Third World regions, using the Caribbean as the main example, for implementing eco-political education. This would involve encouraging students to use ecological and social justice criteria for comparing consumerist with sustainable development approaches to rethinking and refashioning the international economy, particularly the Third World share of it. It would involve teachers and students exploring how political and economic structures could be challenged and altered to obtain a fairer quality of life for the majorities now living in poverty and an adjustment of the opulent and wasteful lifestyles of affluent minorities primarily responsible for environmental degradation. Finally, those in eco-political education would work to achieve such goals within broad movements and pressure groups in rich and poor countries.

  11. Politics and economics of American arms transfers in the post World War Two era

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major economic and political theories about arms transfers are extracted from the literature. These theories are then tested to see how accurate they are in explaining arms transfers. The method used for this testing is to create analytic measures for each theory and then to compare actual data on arms transfers with the assumptions and predictions of each theory. Results of this study indicate that none of the economic or political theories on American arms transfers provide a sufficient explanation for the developments in arms transfers since World War II. To explain arms transfers in the face of the failure of commonly accepted theories, an alternative view is suggested. This alternative theory argues that arms transfers must be viewed in the light of a broad understanding of the evolution of American foreign policy and political ideology since World War II. In support of this theory the history of the arms trade and the relationship between the arms trade and American foreign policy are examined.

  12. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  13. Multinational corporations, the politics of the world economy, and their effects on women's health in the developing world: a review.

    PubMed

    Hippert, Christine

    2002-12-01

    Presently, globalization and the world economy maintain power relations that hamper the economic integrity and the political autonomy of the developing world. My paper addresses specific economic conditions that perpetuate poverty and poor health. I examine multinational corporations and their effects on women's health, particularly in Mexico and parts of Asia. The advent of multinational corporate business in Mexico, Malaysia, Philippines, India, and Indonesia has led to increased poverty and human rights abuses. Women bear the brunt of this because of specific international economic arrangements and their low social status, both locally and globally. As a result, their physical, mental, and emotional health is suffering. Solutions to these health problems have been proposed on multiple levels: international top-down approaches (i.e., employing international protectionist regulatory standards, exposing multinationals who infringe on their workers' human rights), as well as local grassroots organizational campaigns (i.e., conducting informational human rights workshops for factory workers). Ultimately, the answers lie in holding corporations accountable to their laborers while developing countries maintain their comparative advantage; this is the only way women's health will improve and the developing world can entice corporate investment. PMID:12487701

  14. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  15. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  16. International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1981-09-01

    This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

  17. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success. PMID:22670650

  18. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  19. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  20. Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading…

  1. Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2010-06-01

    Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

  2. The global economic long-term potential of modern biomass in a climate-constrained world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, David; Humpenöder, Florian; Bauer, Nico; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Low-stabilization scenarios consistent with the 2 °C target project large-scale deployment of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass. In case a GHG price regime integrates emissions from energy conversion and from land-use/land-use change, the strong demand for bioenergy and the pricing of terrestrial emissions are likely to coincide. We explore the global potential of purpose-grown lignocellulosic biomass and ask the question how the supply prices of biomass depend on prices for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land-use sector. Using the spatially explicit global land-use optimization model MAgPIE, we construct bioenergy supply curves for ten world regions and a global aggregate in two scenarios, with and without a GHG tax. We find that the implementation of GHG taxes is crucial for the slope of the supply function and the GHG emissions from the land-use sector. Global supply prices start at 5 GJ-1 and increase almost linearly, doubling at 150 EJ (in 2055 and 2095). The GHG tax increases bioenergy prices by 5 GJ-1 in 2055 and by 10 GJ-1 in 2095, since it effectively stops deforestation and thus excludes large amounts of high-productivity land. Prices additionally increase due to costs for N2O emissions from fertilizer use. The GHG tax decreases global land-use change emissions by one-third. However, the carbon emissions due to bioenergy production increase by more than 50% from conversion of land that is not under emission control. Average yields required to produce 240 EJ in 2095 are roughly 600 GJ ha-1 yr-1 with and without tax.

  3. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in Argentina, and…

  4. Nonprofit environmental organizations in world politics: Domestic structure and transnational relations

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Nonprofit environmental organizations often have global policy goals. Consequently, they pursue transnational objectives by pressuring influential governments and international institutions. The effectiveness of this strategy as applied to nation-states varies by domestic political structure. First, transnational actors are more likely to achieve their goals in society-dominated rather than they are in state-dominated countries because the former are more open to external inputs to the policy process and provide a greater number of access points. Second, ironically, transnational actors are more likely to achieve success in relatively centralized states if political access is attained. Decentralization invites a cacophony of voices in what may turn into a maelstrom of domestic politics. Relatively centralized corporatist states may prove accessible without the disadvantage of domestic turbulence.

  5. Where in the World Are We? Geographic Understanding for Political Survival and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartshorne, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Reprint of a presentation to the National Council of Geography Teachers in 1952 stating that a fundamental error in popular thought about geography is that the land masses of the continents are the basic divisions of the world. Analyzes the U.S. world position and claims the United States has a responsibility for the world's future. (NL)

  6. Political Economy of Higher Education: Comparing South Africa to Trends in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrivastava, Meenal; Shrivastava, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Education is one of the major linchpins of economic, social and political development of any nation. Recent evidence suggests that higher education can produce both public and private benefits. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy, and funding education is indeed critical, and cannot be left to be determined by market forces…

  7. Thinking about Language: What Political Theorists Need to Know about Language in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricento, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Political theorists, generally non-experts in the language sciences, whose principal aim is often to advance normative theories on desirable states of affairs within liberal democratic states, tend to deal with language as a stable nominal category, as something that one "has" or "doesn't have", that can be labeled as one…

  8. Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

  9. Fictional and real-world revolutionary heroes in the history of psychiatric politics.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes, firstly, how the representation of the psychiatric institution in Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest pioneered criticism regarding asylum politics during the 1950s and, secondly, how the reactions of R.D. Laing, an influential psychiatrist-critic of the time, impacted changes of asylum politics, as seen through his autobiographical considerations in Wisdom, Madness and Folly that were published in 1985. The key aim of this work is to compare the ability of a satirizing, fictional piece of writing and a medically focused, nonfictional work of criticism to influence a movement that extended during the 1960s and the 1970s, indeed shaping health care policies in the 1980s and the 1990s as well as our present-day view on institutional management. PMID:23183364

  10. Not just a man's world: women's political leadership in the American labor movement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew W

    2014-07-01

    Although women have long played an important role in working class struggles, most leadership positions in unions have been held by men. Organized labor's recent shift towards social movement unionism has lead to a sense of optimism among those pressing for more gender equality among labor's elite. Yet scholarship on gender and power in other settings, including political institutions, social movements, and formal organizations, suggests other factors may also play a role in determining women's leadership in labor unions. The current research, based on a rich dataset of 70 local unions, provides important insight into the political careers of women. Beyond an analysis of organized labor, this research has implications for understanding the interplay of gender and power in formal organizations and social movements more broadly. PMID:24767587

  11. Education, Philosophy and Politics: The Selected Works of Michael A. Peters. World Library of Educationalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces--extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/practical contributions--so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Michael A. Peters has…

  12. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  13. Bridging Worlds in the Social Studies Classroom:Teachers' Practices and Latino Immigrant Youths' Civic and Political Development

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Obenchain, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior research suggests that high school experiences shape young adult political behaviors, particularly among immigrant youth. The U.S. social studies classroom, focused on democratic citizenship education, proves an interesting socializing institution. Methods Through qualitative inquiry, we interviewed Latino immigrant young adults and their former teachers regarding their high school social studies experiences and evolving political and civic engagement. Findings indicate that armed with experience bridging the worlds of the school and home, immigrant students respond and relate to the content and pedagogy of the social studies classroom in such a way that they (1) participate in civic discourse and (2) nurture a disposition toward leadership through teachers' civic expectations of them and instructional emphasis on critical thinking skills. Social Implications The ability to engage in civic discourse and a disposition toward leadership are both necessary to foster America's democratic ideals, and to take on leadership roles during adulthood. With focused effort on the unique perspective of immigrant youth, high school social studies teachers can nurture in these students the ability to become leaders in young adulthood, broadening the potential leadership pool. Originality This study highlights how the social studies curriculum may be particularly salient to Latino immigrant youth as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood and develop their political and civic identities. PMID:25364306

  14. The psychology of intelligence analysis: drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics.

    PubMed

    Mellers, Barbara; Stone, Eric; Atanasov, Pavel; Rohrbaugh, Nick; Metz, S Emlen; Ungar, Lyle; Bishop, Michael M; Horowitz, Michael; Merkle, Ed; Tetlock, Philip

    2015-03-01

    This article extends psychological methods and concepts into a domain that is as profoundly consequential as it is poorly understood: intelligence analysis. We report findings from a geopolitical forecasting tournament that assessed the accuracy of more than 150,000 forecasts of 743 participants on 199 events occurring over 2 years. Participants were above average in intelligence and political knowledge relative to the general population. Individual differences in performance emerged, and forecasting skills were surprisingly consistent over time. Key predictors were (a) dispositional variables of cognitive ability, political knowledge, and open-mindedness; (b) situational variables of training in probabilistic reasoning and participation in collaborative teams that shared information and discussed rationales (Mellers, Ungar, et al., 2014); and (c) behavioral variables of deliberation time and frequency of belief updating. We developed a profile of the best forecasters; they were better at inductive reasoning, pattern detection, cognitive flexibility, and open-mindedness. They had greater understanding of geopolitics, training in probabilistic reasoning, and opportunities to succeed in cognitively enriched team environments. Last but not least, they viewed forecasting as a skill that required deliberate practice, sustained effort, and constant monitoring of current affairs. PMID:25581088

  15. Colliding Worlds: Practical and Political Tensions of Prekindergarten Implementation in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Lisa A.; Sipple, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines how the previously distinct worlds of early childhood education (ECE) and K-12 public school education are being drawn together through the recent and rapid advances of prekindergarten programming in the United States. Tensions around teaching philosophies, teacher qualifications, and financing are presented to illustrate the…

  16. The Uncomfortable Classroom: Incorporating Feminist Pedagogy and Political Practice into World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Lorraine

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how to incorporate a feminist pedagogy into teaching World Regional Geography in order to empower students to seek social change. This paper also addresses the fragile relationships that develop in the feminist classroom, such as challenging students' inherent prejudices in a safe and comfortable setting.

  17. DTIC review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear proliferation and deterrence in a changing political world

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, C.M.; Lee, C.; Foster, H.; Greene, E.; Levine, P.

    1995-08-01

    This collection of selected documents from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) addresses the formidable issue of protecting the United States and its people from potential nuclear destruction. With the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and, concomitantly, the end of the Cold War, new strategies for nonproliferation and deterrence must be devised and implemented. Potential threats from countries not previously seen as a danger, the escalation of regional conflicts and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are but a few of the considerations to be addressed. The authors of the following papers propose various plans and tactics to ensure United States national security and maintain world peace.

  18. The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.

    PubMed

    Ausman, James I

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything

  19. The World – Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know

    PubMed Central

    Ausman, James I.

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of

  20. Social Studies. Exceptional Child Education Curriculum K-12: Volume II. History Process and Skills, Geography, Economics, Citizenship, Political Science, Humanities, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Dean; And Others

    Volume II of the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools exceptional child education curriculum for K-12 social studies covers history process and skills, geography, economics, citizenship, political science, humanities, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and world history. The curriculum guide is organized by content areas, and within each…

  1. Getting Outside the Canon: The Role of World, Contemporary, and Lesser Known Texts in the Political Theory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Rick

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the pros and cons of incorporating more non-canonical political theory into our introductory political theory courses. I begin by identifying what I take to be the goals of an introductory political theory class. Based on these four goals, I examine the reasons why we tend not to include non-canonical works in our…

  2. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  3. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for "political will to end malaria".

    PubMed

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S; Rekol, Huy

    2016-01-01

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia's National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Health), and H.E. Keut Sothea (Governor of Pailin Province). There were more than 1000 attendees, ranging from Village Malaria Workers and high school students to CNM's director and other officials in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia. A strong inter-sectoral participation included attendances from the Ministry of Education and high-level representatives of the Cambodian Armed Forces, as well as Malaria Partners like the World Health Organization. PMID:27251357

  4. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  5. Performing Tolerance and Curriculum: The Politics of Self-Congratulation, Identity Formation, and Pedagogy in World Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how it might be possible to engage in world music ethically. I examine ways that traditional engagements can be problematic in order to push towards new possibilities for encounters and engagement. I begin by considering my own experience with world music. Moving to the theoretical, I consider "world music" study…

  6. Volume, heat, and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993-2000, estimated from a general circulation model constrained by World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammer, D.; Wunsch, C.; Giering, R.; Eckert, C.; Heimbach, P.; Marotzke, J.; Adcroft, A.; Hill, C. N.; Marshall, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ocean volume, heat, and freshwater transports from a fully constrained general circulation model (GCM) is described. Output from a data synthesis, or state estimation, method is used by which the model was forced to large-scale, time-varying global ocean data sets over 1993 through 2000. Time-mean horizontal transports, estimated from this fully time-dependent circulation, have converged with independent time-independent estimates from box inversions over most parts of the world ocean but especially in the southern hemisphere. However, heat transport estimates differ substantially in the North Atlantic where our estimates result in only 1/2 previous results. The models drift over the estimation period is consistent with observations from TOPEX/Poseidon in their spatial pattern, but smaller in their amplitudes by about a factor of 2. Associated temperature and salinity changes are complex, and both point toward air-sea interaction over water mass formation regions as the primary source for changes in the deep ocean. The estimated mean circulation around Australia involves a net volume transport of 11 Sv through the Indonesian Throughflow and the Mozambique Channel. In addition, we show that this flow regime exists on all timescales above 1 month, rendering the variability in the South Pacific strongly coupled to the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the dynamically consistent variations in the model show temporal variability of oceanic heat transports, heat storage, and atmospheric exchanges that are complex and with a strong dependence upon location, depth, and timescale. Our results demonstrate the great potential of an ocean state estimation system to provide a dynamical description of the time-dependent observed heat transport and heat content changes and their relation to air-sea interactions.

  7. Toward a political analysis of the consequences of a world climate change produced by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schware, R.

    1980-01-01

    It was Hegel's extraordinarily deep and perceptive insight that mankind is caught up in a drama that cannot be fully understood until it has been played out. The owl of Minewa spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. On the more hopeful side is the fact that, although we cannot know the consequences of future interactions between climate and society, we can begin to work toward political solutions and gird ourselves for ominous trends that are now coming into view. The purpose of this paper is to identify one such trend, namely the increase of atmospheric temperatures due to increased carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and lay some initial groundwork for political research related to climate-societal interactions.

  8. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  9. Global Aspirations and Strategising for World-Class Status: New Form of Politics in Higher Education Governance in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Cheung, Anthony B. L.

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalisation, competition has also become global. In higher education, countries worldwide are attaching increasing importance to international ranking exercises and subscribing to the "world-class universities" paradigm, complemented by various strategies to benchmark with leading universities in order to enhance the global…

  10. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  11. In Praise of Political Parties. Grade 12 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hizal, Kris

    In this lesson plan, each student must decide which political party he/she will join or whether to register as an independent. Each student will be part of a group analyzing one current political party and presenting to the class this party's solutions for the problems confronting the United States today. The political parties for analysis are:…

  12. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. PMID:26585942

  13. Constraining ecosystem carbon dynamics in a data-limited world: integrating ecological "common sense" in a model-data fusion framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, A. A.; Williams, M.

    2015-03-01

    Many of the key processes represented in global terrestrial carbon models remain largely unconstrained. For instance, plant allocation patterns and residence times of carbon pools are poorly known globally, except perhaps at a few intensively studied sites. As a consequence of data scarcity, carbon models tend to be underdetermined, and so can produce similar net fluxes with very different parameters and internal dynamics. To address these problems, we propose a series of ecological and dynamic constraints (EDCs) on model parameters and initial conditions, as a means to constrain ecosystem variable inter-dependencies in the absence of local data. The EDCs consist of a range of conditions on (a) carbon pool turnover and allocation ratios, (b) steady-state proximity, and (c) growth and decay of model carbon pools. We use a simple ecosystem carbon model in a model-data fusion framework to determine the added value of these constraints in a data-poor context. Based only on leaf area index (LAI) time series and soil carbon data, we estimate net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for (a) 40 synthetic experiments and (b) three AmeriFlux tower sites. For the synthetic experiments, we show that EDCs lead to an overall 34% relative error reduction in model parameters, and a 65% reduction in the 3 yr NEE 90% confidence range. In the application at AmeriFlux sites all NEE estimates were made independently of NEE measurements. Compared to these observations, EDCs resulted in a 69-93% reduction in 3 yr cumulative NEE median biases (-0.26 to +0.08 kg C m-2), in comparison to standard 3 yr median NEE biases (-1.17 to -0.84 kg C m-2). In light of these findings, we advocate the use of EDCs in future model-data fusion analyses of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  14. Constraining ecosystem carbon dynamics in a data-limited world: integrating ecological "common sense" in a model-data-fusion framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, A. A.; Williams, M.

    2014-08-01

    Many of the key processes represented in global terrestrial carbon models remain largely unconstrained. For instance, plant allocation patterns and residence times of carbon pools are poorly known globally, except perhaps at a few intensively studied sites. As a consequence of data scarcity, carbon models tend to be underdetermined, and so can produce similar net fluxes with very different parameters and internal dynamics. To address these problems, we propose a series of ecological and dynamic constraints (EDCs) on model parameters and initial conditions, as a means to constrain ecosystem variable inter-dependencies in the absence of local data. The EDCs consist of a range of conditions on (a) carbon pool turnover and allocation ratios, (b) steady state proximity, and (c) growth and decay of model carbon pools. We use a simple ecosystem carbon model in a model-data fusion framework to determine the added value of these constraints in a data-poor context. Based only on leaf area index (LAI) time series and soil carbon data, we estimate net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for (a) 40 synthetic experiments and (b) three AMERIFLUX tower sites. For the synthetic experiments, we show that EDCs lead to an an overall 34% relative error reduction in model parameters, and a 65% reduction in the 3 yr NEE 90% confidence range. In the application at AMERIFLUX sites all NEE estimates were made independently of NEE measurements. Compared to these observations, EDCs resulted in a 69-93% reduction in 3 yr cumulative NEE median biases (-0.26 to +0.08 kg C m-2), in comparison to standard 3 yr median NEE biases (-1.17 to -0.84 kg C m-2). In light of these findings, we advocate the use of EDCs in future model-data fusion analyses of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  15. Achieving What Political Science Is For

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…

  16. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  17. Navigating a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Grothen, G.E.

    2007-07-15

    Global climate change could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to the US electric power industry since the days of Thomas Edison. To cope with mandatory carbon caps, utilities will have to step up efforts to reduce demand, build or buy more renewable energy capacity, increase the efficiency of their existing fleets, and find ways to capture and sequester massive amounts of CO{sub 2} from new and old plants alike. The next 20 years are sure to be exciting, and they will require new skills to identify and manage the considerable risks involved. The article compares America's CO{sub 2} emissions profile to other nations. It then examines how the electric power sector's strategies for coping with carbon caps might differ from those of other major economic sectors, the residential and commercial, industrial and transportation sector. It then goes into more detail about clean power generation. It says that the simplest and fastest way for utilities to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions is to replace inefficient coal-fired plants at the end of their lives by gas-fired combined cycle units. Carbon sequestration will take decades rather than years to be commercially viable. The biggest risk to the electric power sector is a lack of legislative guidance on and certainty of the technology. 8 figs.

  18. Managing in an environmentally constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Allenby, B.R. |

    1995-09-25

    In thinking about this issue, one comes to fundamental question: Why are we concerned at all? Why have all of us gathered here, rather than simply continue to clean up what we should from the past and control our emissions for the present and the future? The answer, I think, may be hinted at by several scenarios (which, although plausible given current trends, are intended to be hypothetical).

  19. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  20. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  1. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  2. Commentary: Political Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshtain, Jean Bethke

    1996-01-01

    Uses the 1988 film "A World Apart" as a focus for commentary on the controversial topic of involving children in political activism. Analyzes Hannah Arendt's writings for opinions on childhood activism, contrasting Arendt's views with those of Robert Coles. Gives examples from the desegregation crisis in the United States, China's Maoist…

  3. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  4. Biology and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Pat

    1977-01-01

    A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.…

  5. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  6. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  7. The Nature of Politics and Government...Differing Concepts of "Authority" in the World...Differing Views of the "State." Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Jeffrey B.

    This resource packet is designed to provide teachers and other civic educators with an introduction to differing concepts of authority views of the state in a complex world environment and to serve as a blueprint for developing materials, classes and programs for civic education. The material discusses: (1) the relationship between the concepts of…

  8. Literacy for What? Literacy for Whom? The Politics of Literacy Education and Neocolonialism in UNESCO- and World Bank-Sponsored Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Corrine M.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literacy education, especially the kinds practiced and promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), as a form of neocolonialism. Although researchers in other educational contexts have examined how schooling and education operate as a form…

  9. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  10. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  11. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  12. Politics of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, N.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement.

  13. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: Technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002–2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry’s construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies’ products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. PMID:22784375

  14. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  15. A Global Health Diagnostic for Personalized Medicine in Resource-Constrained World Settings: A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping CYP2B6 g.15582C>T and Science and Policy Relevance for Optimal Use of Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Swart, Marelize; Soko, Nyarai; Wonkam, Ambroise; Huzair, Farah; Dandara, Collet

    2015-06-01

    The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge in treatment of individual patients is becoming a common phenomenon in the developed world. However, poorly resourced countries have thus far been constrained for three main reasons. First, the cost of whole genome sequencing is still considerably high in comparison to other (non-genomics) diagnostics in the developing world where both science and social dynamics create a dynamic and fragile healthcare ecosystem. Second, studies correlating genomic differences with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been consistent, and more importantly, often not indexed to impact on societal end-points, beyond clinical practice. Third, ethics regulatory frames over PGx testing require improvements based on nested accountability systems and in ways that address the user community needs. Thus, CYP2B6 is a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine. More than 40 genetic variants have been reported, but only a few contribute to differences in plasma EFV and NVP concentrations. The most widely reported CYP2B6 variants affecting plasma drug levels include c.516G>T, c.983T>C, and to a lesser extent, g.15582C>T, which should be considered in future PGx tests. While the first two variants are easily characterized, the g.15582C>T detection has been performed primarily by sequencing, which is costly, labor intensive, and requires access to barely available expertise in the developing world. We report here on a simple, practical PCR-RFLP method with vast potentials for use in resource-constrained world regions to detect the g.15582C>T variation among South African and Cameroonian persons. The effects of CYP2B6 g.15582C>T on plasma EFV concentration were further evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients. We report no differences in the frequency of the g.15582T variant between the South African (0.08) and Cameroonian (0.06) groups, which are significantly lower than reported in Asians (0.39) and

  16. A Global Health Diagnostic for Personalized Medicine in Resource-Constrained World Settings: A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping CYP2B6 g.15582C>T and Science and Policy Relevance for Optimal Use of Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan; Swart, Marelize; Soko, Nyarai; Wonkam, Ambroise; Huzair, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge in treatment of individual patients is becoming a common phenomenon in the developed world. However, poorly resourced countries have thus far been constrained for three main reasons. First, the cost of whole genome sequencing is still considerably high in comparison to other (non-genomics) diagnostics in the developing world where both science and social dynamics create a dynamic and fragile healthcare ecosystem. Second, studies correlating genomic differences with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been consistent, and more importantly, often not indexed to impact on societal end-points, beyond clinical practice. Third, ethics regulatory frames over PGx testing require improvements based on nested accountability systems and in ways that address the user community needs. Thus, CYP2B6 is a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine. More than 40 genetic variants have been reported, but only a few contribute to differences in plasma EFV and NVP concentrations. The most widely reported CYP2B6 variants affecting plasma drug levels include c.516G>T, c.983T>C, and to a lesser extent, g.15582C>T, which should be considered in future PGx tests. While the first two variants are easily characterized, the g.15582C>T detection has been performed primarily by sequencing, which is costly, labor intensive, and requires access to barely available expertise in the developing world. We report here on a simple, practical PCR-RFLP method with vast potentials for use in resource-constrained world regions to detect the g.15582C>T variation among South African and Cameroonian persons. The effects of CYP2B6 g.15582C>T on plasma EFV concentration were further evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients. We report no differences in the frequency of the g.15582T variant between the South African (0.08) and Cameroonian (0.06) groups, which are significantly lower than reported in Asians (0

  17. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  18. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  19. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  20. Political polarization

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality. PMID:17452633

  1. Constraining Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Anderson, Gemma J.; Hull, Matthew; Seery, David E-mail: G.Anderson@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: D.Seery@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    In this short paper, we present constraints on the Galileon inflationary model from the CMB bispectrum. We employ a principal-component analysis of the independent degrees of freedom constrained by data and apply this to the WMAP 9-year data to constrain the free parameters of the model. A simple Bayesian comparison establishes that support for the Galileon model from bispectrum data is at best weak.

  2. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  3. View on world market

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  4. The Political World of the Chicano Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, F. Chris

    Chicanos comprise both the oldest and newest minority in the United States with the largest number being second and third generation. They are characterized by great intra-group diversity along generational, locational, socioeconomic, and acculturational lines. There is also evidence of increasing differentiation in social relations with…

  5. Political Participation. Make Your Mark Ohio: Vote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Secretary of State, Columbus.

    This volume on political participation and voting is designed to provide teachers with useful classroom information and materials. Students are offered: (1) the information they want and need about voter registration, voting procedures, and the political process; (2) direct involvement ideas, either in real-world campaigns and elections or…

  6. Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeriano, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

  7. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    PubMed

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease. PMID:20028669

  8. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  9. Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

  10. Student Investment in Political Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students…

  11. Perspectives on Student Political Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a historical and international overview of student political movements. Discusses the sporadic nature of student activism, effects of mass media attention and government response, characteristics of activist leaders and participants, and the cultural and educational impact of student protest in Third World and industrialized countries.…

  12. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  13. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that promise to solve certain combinatorial optimization problems of practical relevance faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and real-world optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which, in turn, requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here, we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby reduces the number of required couplers and removes the need for minor embedding, greatly reducing the number of required physical qubits. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to appreciably reduce the resource requirements for implementing optimization problems on quantum annealers and its significance in the field of quantum computing.

  14. The Political Environment of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    The political environment for higher education in Australia is becoming more difficult and constrained. Although there are many sources of influence and constraint, by far the most important source is government--both federal and state. Both universities and colleges of advanced education (CAEs) now receive almost all funds from the federal…

  15. Constrained Canonical Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)

  16. Today's Students Need World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casement, William

    1988-01-01

    The most appropriate literature for study in general education is world literature from antiquity to the present, not limited to English-language works but expanded to include translated readings concerning basic moral and political issues. (MSE)

  17. Postwar Developments in German Political, Social and Security Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kendall L., Ed.

    To understand developments in West Germany since World War II, one must consider numerous social, political, economic, military, and educational variables. Important among these are the decline in output orientation, increase in interpersonal political involvement, decline in value placed on politics, stress on democratic decision making,…

  18. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  19. The Scientist's World

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bernard D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some “postmodern” trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science. PMID:10704471

  20. The new world disorder.

    PubMed

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder. PMID:12884669

  1. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  2. Using Twitter to Increase Political Interest in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliendo, Stephen M.; Chod, Suzanne; Muck, William

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of using Twitter in the classroom on student political efficacy, interest, and engagement. Millennials use the virtual world to build social relationships and to obtain information. By envisioning the virtual world as a means to increase civic engagement, political science instructors can use technology to draw upon…

  3. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  4. Images of World Society: A Third World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopal, Sarvepalli

    1982-01-01

    Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)

  5. An Approach to World Order Studies and the World System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard; Kim, Samuel S.

    This paper discusses an approach to world order studies which can be used to supplant traditional international relations courses. It is one of a series of working papers commissioned by the World Order Models Project (WOMP) in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action aimed at contributing to a movement for a…

  6. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  7. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  8. Hunger: The World's Oldest Sorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1985-01-01

    No human problem is older than starvation. Authorities agree that poverty and unequal distribution of resources are the basic causes of hunger. The hungry are ignored by the world because they have no political power and even less economic strength. How to build a world without hunger is discussed. (RM)

  9. Culture, politics and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Moray, N

    2000-07-01

    The beginning of a new century is an appropriate moment to consider the role of ergonomics in relation to the problems facing society. To help solve these serious global problems, ergonomics needs to be open to new disciplines, particularly those in the social sciences. Also, it may be difficult to generalize research on human-centred sociotechnical design without taking into account national characteristics, economics and political constraints. Currently there is more interest than ever in what ergonomics has to offer, but to deliver its promise requires a much broader approach than is usual. By adopting such new approaches one may help solve both the problems of the overdeveloped postindustrial societies and those of the societies of the Third World, where a new approach to work and economics may provide an improved chance for development given the recent changes in global economic policy. PMID:10929822

  10. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  11. Review Essay: Good Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines two books, "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" and "Black Social Capital: The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore," both of which apply urban regime theory to a new policy arena, reconsider the role of business in local school politics, bring politics into institutionalist analysis of…

  12. Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  13. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  14. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  15. Militarism and world health.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, C W

    1992-04-01

    Militarism is a rapidly growing factor in that complex network of social, political and economic causes of ill health among the world's poor. This complex of causes is driving a spiral of class inequality, political instability, and military repression in many less developed nations. These nations share a uniform security doctrine, which has major health impacts. Here five impacts are noted: diversion of resources, suppression of dissent, military classism, environment damage, and crime and terrorism. The demand stimulated by the recent Persian Gulf War for expensive, high-technology weapons may deepen Third World debt and fuel the cycle of poverty, ill health, social unrest, and military oppression. International health workers need to take account of the causes and effects of militarism in their studies of health problems. Their work could be aided by organizations that promote disarmament and environment preservation. PMID:1604366

  16. People, power and timber: the politics of community-based forest management.

    PubMed

    Pulhin, Juan M; Dressler, Wolfram H

    2009-10-01

    The potential of devolved conservation to empower people, reduce poverty and protect forest resources has yet to be realized in much of the developing world. This is particularly evident in the Philippines where the central state paradoxically recentralizes political power through devolution at the policy, program and project level in forest management. We investigate how centralized state power emanates through devolved networks to affect the success of local timber utilization involving community-based forest management (CBFM) on Mindanao Island, the southern Philippines. By examining broader shifts from centralized to devolved forest management, results suggest that centralized political power continues to control and adversely affect local uses of timber through CBFM. We discuss how in the process of state authorities recentralizing devolved rights and responsibility over timber management, community-based logging operations were threatened but sustained by members relying on community-based structures and their own capabilities. The conclusion asserts that broader state processes of devolving power over timber management remains constrained by political motives and interests and so largely fails to fulfill the objectives of community-based forest management. PMID:19717220

  17. The Case for Hydrogen in a Carbon Constrained World

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G D; Aceves, S M

    2005-02-18

    Unlike other fuels, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) can be generated and consumed without generating carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This creates both significant engineering challenges and unsurpassed ecological advantages for H{sub 2} as a fuel, while enabling an inexhaustible (closed) global fuel cycle based on the cleanest, most abundant, natural, and elementary substances: H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. If generated using light, heat, and/or electrical energy from solar, wind, fission, or (future) fusion power sources, H{sub 2} becomes a versatile, storable, and universal carbonless energy carrier, a necessary element for future global energy system(s) aimed at being free of air and water pollution, CO{sub 2}, and other greenhouse gases. The case for hydrogen rests fundamentally on the need to eliminate pollution and stabilize Earth's atmosphere and climate system.

  18. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  19. Constraining Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta

    2010-12-01

    Future advances in cosmology will depend on the next generation of cosmological observations and how they shape our theoretical understanding of the universe. Current theoretical ideas, however, have an important role to play in guiding the design of such observational programs. The work presented in this thesis concerns the intersection of observation and theory, particularly as it relates to advancing our understanding of the accelerated expansion of the universe (or the dark energy). Chapters 2 - 4 make use of the simulated data sets developed by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) for a number of cosmological observations currently in the experimental pipeline. We use these forecast data in the analysis of four quintessence models of dark energy: the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis and Inverse Power Law (IPL) models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of these models. We examine the potential of the data for differentiating time-varying models from a pure cosmological constant. Additionally, we introduce an abstract parameter space to facilitate comparison between models and investigate the ability of future data to distinguish between these quintessence models. In Chapter 5 we present work towards understanding the effects of systematic errors associated with photometric redshift estimates. Due to the need to sample a vast number of deep and faint galaxies, photometric redshifts will be used in a wide range of future cosmological observations including gravitational weak lensing, baryon accoustic oscillations and type 1A supernovae observations. The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from such observations. We introduce a method for parameterizing uncertainties in modeling assumptions affecting photometric redshift calculations and for propagating these

  20. Constrained Vapor Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Plawsky, J.; Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The nonisothermal Constrained Vapor Bubble, CVB, is being studied to enhance the understanding of passive systems controlled by interfacial phenomena. The study is multifaceted: 1) it is a basic scientific study in interfacial phenomena, fluid physics and thermodynamics; 2) it is a basic study in thermal transport; and 3) it is a study of a heat exchanger. The research is synergistic in that CVB research requires a microgravity environment and the space program needs thermal control systems like the CVB. Ground based studies are being done as a precursor to flight experiment. The results demonstrate that experimental techniques for the direct measurement of the fundamental operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and interfacial curvature fields) have been developed. Fluid flow and change-of-phase heat transfer are a function of the temperature field and the vapor bubble shape, which can be measured using an Image Analyzing Interferometer. The CVB for a microgravity environment, has various thin film regions that are of both basic and applied interest. Generically, a CVB is formed by underfilling an evacuated enclosure with a liquid. Classification depends on shape and Bond number. The specific CVB discussed herein was formed in a fused silica cell with inside dimensions of 3x3x40 mm and, therefore, can be viewed as a large version of a micro heat pipe. Since the dimensions are relatively large for a passive system, most of the liquid flow occurs under a small capillary pressure difference. Therefore, we can classify the discussed system as a low capillary pressure system. The studies discussed herein were done in a 1-g environment (Bond Number = 3.6) to obtain experience to design a microgravity experiment for a future NASA flight where low capillary pressure systems should prove more useful. The flight experiment is tentatively scheduled for the year 2000. The SCR was passed on September 16, 1997. The RDR is tentatively scheduled for October, 1998.

  1. The Politics of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1975-01-01

    Traces social, cultural, economic, and political history shaping intelligence testing with respect to an inheritable intelligence level to conclude that interpretation of IQ has always been in a social and political context. (DW)

  2. Politics and the Movie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Explains how the use of feature-length motion pictures, combined with interesting readings, can generate enthusiasm, discussion, and analysis of basic political ideas, concepts, and values. Reviews costs and identifies specific movies and readings on various political topics. (AV)

  3. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  4. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  5. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  6. Policy Research and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  7. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  8. The Politics of Development: The Languages of Industrialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    This report assesses the changes in language use, based on political and cultural uses, around the world and specifically in Thailand. Early global theories divided the nations of the world into central, semiperipheral, and peripheral. Later, this classification was changed to developed nations, developing nations, and the Third World. Then came…

  9. Population and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program. PMID:12257161

  10. Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on published tobacco document research and related sources, this article applies Farnsworth and Holden's conceptual framework for the analysis of corporate power and corporate involvement in social policy (2006) to the transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). An assessment is made of TTCs' structural power, the impact upon their structural position of tobacco control (TC) policies, and their use of agency power. The analysis suggests that, as a result of the growth of TC policies from the 1950s onwards, TTCs have had to rely on political agency to pursue their interests and attempt to reassert their structural position. The collapse of the Eastern bloc and the liberalisation of East Asian economies presented new structural opportunities for TTCs in the 1980s and 1990s, but the development of globally coordinated TC policies facilitated by the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has the potential to constrain these. PMID:20228951

  11. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  12. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  13. World futures: A critical analysis of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews and analyzes the future studies on multiple issues (food, population, economics, resources, values and political structures). It shows how differences arise from alternative world views, competing methodologies and theories, and contradictory evidence.

  14. It's complicated: Facebook users' political participation in the 2008 election.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Jessica; Zube, Paul; Smock, Andrew; Carr, Caleb T; Ellison, Nicole; Lampe, Cliff

    2011-03-01

    In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to civic engagement? Or do these activities represent another example of feel-good participation that has little real-world impact, a concept often referred to as "slacktivism"? Results from a survey of undergraduate students (N = 683) at a large public university in the Midwestern United States conducted in the month prior to the election found that students tend to engage in lightweight political participation both on Facebook and in other venues. Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity on Facebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a "fan" of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of political participation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper or online petition), and that a number of factors--including intensity of Facebook use and the political activity users see their friends performing on the site--predict political activity on Facebook. Students' perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific kinds of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored. PMID:20649449

  15. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old. PMID:18474963

  16. Political commitment to tuberculosis control in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    As part of expanding and sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control, the Stop TB Partnership of the World Health Organization initiative has called for strong political commitment to TB control, particularly in developing countries. Framing political commitment within the theoretical imperatives of the political economy of health, this study explores the existing and the expected dimensions of political commitment to TB control in Ghana. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 purposively selected staff members of the Ghana Health Service and some political officeholders. In addition, the study analysed laws, policies and regulations relevant to TB control. Four dimensions of political commitment emerged from the interviews: provision of adequate resources (financial, human and infrastructural); political authorities' participation in advocacy for TB; laws and policies' promulgation and social protection interventions. Particularly in respect to financial resources, donors such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria presently give more than 60% of the working budget of the programme. The documentary review showed that laws, policies and regulations existed that were relevant to TB control, albeit they were not clearly linked. PMID:24521048

  17. Wizarding in the Classroom: Teaching Harry Potter and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deets, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes teaching a course called Harry Potter and Politics. Focusing on aspects of political culture, the class tackled themes of identity, institutional behavior, and globalization. Teaching Harry Potter has several benefits. Students are both familiar with the wizarding world and yet have enough distance to examine it…

  18. A Place for Political Literacy in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Rod; Viola, Josie

    1999-01-01

    The accredited course "Understanding Our Legal and Political World" was developed by the Victoria Law Foundation after a 1994 national survey into awareness of civics in Australia confirmed the need for basic political literacy programs at all levels of instruction, including adult education. To date, the course has been offered by a diverse range…

  19. The Effect of Political Stability on Public Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.; Kafle, Bhojraj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis to evaluate the implications of political stability for educational quality, evident in the survival rate measure. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary analyses were conducted for data drawn from the Political Risk Service Report, the World Bank Report, the United Nations…

  20. Women in Politics: A Global Review. Worldwatch Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Kathleen

    The changing role of women worldwide and its impact on politics, economic development, and social structures is examined. Inadequate education, lack of access to channels of influence, and prejudice generally hamper women in exercising the political rights they are now given by most countries in the world. Priority should be given to those…

  1. Health Promotion Education Politics and Schooling: The Greek Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…

  2. The politics of water.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578

  3. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  4. Political Information Content and Children's Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Karin L.; Ostroff, David H.

    1981-01-01

    A content analysis of television programs presented during times likely to have high proportions of children in the audience indicated that entertainment programs contain messages about the political system which are often negative or inaccurate. (Author/MER)

  5. Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Terrence G.; Garcia, David R.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Stigler, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Research in Education: Vol. 38, Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education" explores the role of educational language policies in promoting education as a human right. There are an estimated nearly 7,000 living languages in the world. Yet, despite the extent of language diversity, only a small number of the…

  6. Moral Voices of Politically Engaged Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Youth activism represents a promising synthesis of two broad goals in moral education: the development of moral judgments about the social and political world and the ability to implement one's principles in action. Among working-class and poor youth, such commitments often take place in a context where inequities in resources, opportunities, and…

  7. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  8. Cosmetics, Pets, Politics, and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. Steve; Nichols, B. Kim

    1999-01-01

    Explores the topics and issues that filled this journal during its history. Focuses on the period in U.S. history of 1917 to 1950, a time of two world wars and the Great Depression, and examines how the political and social ideas of the times were reflected in the writings in this journal. (ASK)

  9. Simulating History to Understand International Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kimberly; Baranowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To understand world politics, one must appreciate the context in which international systems develop and operate. Pedagogy studies demonstrate that the more active students are in their learning, the more they learn. As such, using computer simulations can complement and enhance classroom instruction. CIVILIZATION is a computer simulation game…

  10. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  11. "Flat World" Lessons for Real-World Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Virtually every college today feels the pressure to prepare its graduates for an increasingly international world, one in which an understanding of other cultures, economies, and political systems is critical for success. Traditionally, American higher education has relied on study-abroad programs to supply students with many of those…

  12. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  13. Geopolitics, World Resources and Survival: A Role-playing Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bruce E.

    1982-01-01

    Intended for college level geography courses, this game simulates the division and trade of world resources. These resources include all essential tangible and intangible elements--e.g., food, energy, technology, and political concessions--that are negotiated or exchanged on world commercial and political markets. Instructions for designing game…

  14. Women, politics and global management.

    PubMed

    Chen, L C; Fitzgerald, W M; Bates, L

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) sponsored three decennial world population conferences over the period 1974-94. The first such conference was held in 1974 in Bucharest, Romania, at which the North and the South became polarized over the importance of demographics relative to other development concerns. Northern countries proposed vigorous family planning programs to control rapid population growth, while many Southern governments, led by China and India, argued instead that higher priority should be given to socioeconomic development and the more equitable distribution of resources between the North and South. After a decade of extremely rapid population growth, however, most Southern countries had adopted antinatalist policies by the second world population conference held in 1984 in Mexico City. While Southern countries had adopted the 1974 Northern view of world population growth, widespread political and religious conservatism in the US at the time of the second conference had the US delegation opposing abortion and being neutral on demographic factors. The US argued that private markets would solve many population problems and the US government even withdrew financial support to several international organizations, such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the UN Population Fund. The third decennial UN-sponsored world population conference, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, however, succeeded in shifting concern about world demographics into a gender-sensitive, people-centered approach of sustainable human development and bringing sensitive and ideologically charged population issues into the public domain. It was also a landmark in the management of complex global problems such as population. The international consensus achieved in Cairo and summarized in a World Program of Action was truly a monumental achievement. The authors note the shift in rhetoric to concerns about women's status and

  15. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  16. Envy, Politics, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  17. Does Big Business Rule America? Critical Commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's "Politics and Markets."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, Robert, Ed.

    This volume pulls together commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's book entitled "Politics and Markets: The World's Political-Economic Systems" (1977) which expounds the thesis that big business dominates American culture and politics and prevents the introduction of central planning in place of a market-oriented economy. Following an introduction,…

  18. "Ladlad" and Parrhesiastic Pedagogy: Unfurling LGBT Politics and Education in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the political and educational activism of "Ladlad," the first lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political party in the Philippines and the only existing LGBT political party in the world. Founded in 2003, "Ladlad" fielded candidates for the 2010 national election in the Philippines, amidst…

  19. World uranium production in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    For the first time since the political and economic opening of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, world uranium production actually increased in 1995. Preliminary estimates for 1996 continue this trend, indicating additional (if slight) production increases over 1995 levels. Natural uranium production increased by about 5% in 1995 to 34,218 tons uranium or 89 Mlbs U3O8. This is an increase of approximately 1700 tons of uranium or 4.3 Mlbs of U3O8 over the updated 1994 quantities. Data is presented for each of the major uranium producing countries, for each of the world`s largest uranium mines, for each of the world`s largest corporate producers, and for major regions of the world.

  20. The Politics of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…

  1. The problems of plenty: Energy policy and international politics

    SciTech Connect

    Cowhey, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the interplay of technology, economics, and politics in the world energy market. It particularly emphasizes how shifting international coalitions of governments and businesses have altered the world energy market since 1914. Economic shifts may have several causes: new technology, changing patterns of supply and demand, or the reordering of political arrangements within and between countries. Whatever the reason, governments and corporations find that old strategies no longer suffice. Success comes to countries and firms that devise the most successful strategies for exploiting the crises. This book shows how statesmen and businessmen have satisfied political and economic necessity while exploiting political and economic opportunities. It identifies the major elements of the international strategies of the principal actors in world energy markets, asks why coalitions selected a given strategy, and probes the consequences of their choices.

  2. Common Worlds: Reconceptualising Inclusion in Early Childhood Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Affrica; Giugni, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    "Common worlds" is a conceptual framework developed to reconceptualise inclusion in early childhood communities. Common worlds take account of children's relations with all the others in their worlds--including the more-than-human others. The ethics and politics of living together in these common worlds is the central concern of this article. The…

  3. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  4. Getting Your Political Bearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

  5. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  6. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

  7. ICTs and Political Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  8. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and permanent…

  9. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  10. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  11. Constrained Clustering With Imperfect Oracles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiatian; Loy, Chen Change; Gong, Shaogang

    2016-06-01

    While clustering is usually an unsupervised operation, there are circumstances where we have access to prior belief that pairs of samples should (or should not) be assigned with the same cluster. Constrained clustering aims to exploit this prior belief as constraint (or weak supervision) to influence the cluster formation so as to obtain a data structure more closely resembling human perception. Two important issues remain open: 1) how to exploit sparse constraints effectively and 2) how to handle ill-conditioned/noisy constraints generated by imperfect oracles. In this paper, we present a novel pairwise similarity measure framework to address the above issues. Specifically, in contrast to existing constrained clustering approaches that blindly rely on all features for constraint propagation, our approach searches for neighborhoods driven by discriminative feature selection for more effective constraint diffusion. Crucially, we formulate a novel approach to handling the noisy constraint problem, which has been unrealistically ignored in the constrained clustering literature. Extensive comparative results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art constrained clustering approaches and can generally benefit existing pairwise similarity-based data clustering algorithms, such as spectral clustering and affinity propagation. PMID:25622327

  12. Generalized Constrained Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a comprehensive approach, generalized constrained multiple correspondence analysis, for imposing both row and column constraints on multivariate discrete data. Each set of discrete data is decomposed into several submatrices and then multiple correspondence analysis is applied to explore relationships among the decomposed submatrices.…

  13. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  14. The State of the World's Children 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report on the well-being of the world's children focuses on the issue of child labor and its impact on children's lives. Chapter 1 provides a historical context for children's rights and highlights the need to guarantee the civil, social, economic, and political rights of children. The chapter shows how the world's course toward peace,…

  15. Adolescents and Politics in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Judith

    1985-01-01

    Maintains that the French family and school intentionally avoid the subject of politics. Reports the results of a survey of 13- to 18-year-old students regarding their sources of political information and level of interest in politics. (JDH)

  16. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. PMID:26040216

  17. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  18. Collective Violence in a Discontinuous World: Regional Realities and Global Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vayrynen, Raimo

    1986-01-01

    Notes the conflict between increasing economic and political interdependence and the increasing fragmentation of the international power structure. Explains the regional conditions which constrain the global economic and military policies of the superpowers. (JDH)

  19. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  20. Constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  1. Politics of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  2. Nuclear politics on the subcontinent: Two views

    SciTech Connect

    Sibal, K.; Naqvi, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    The 1990`s have ushered in irreversible, fundamental changes in international relations, creating new imperatives for the international security agenda. The era of bloc politics is being replaced by a cooperative world order, and ideology as the dominant theme in the international contest for supremacy and power has been supplanted by demands for economic prosperity and a shared concern for the environment, which can take root in an era of cooperatice security. A new mind-set has to evolve to expore fresh political concepts, military doctrines and institutional arranges. Preceptions of the new era are given for India and Pakistan. India is seeking a democratic and Non-discriminatory new world order. Pakistan is seeking regional peace and progress in a non-nuclear south Asia.

  3. [Changes in health politics].

    PubMed

    Widmer, H

    2000-03-16

    In the last 25 years we observed in health politics an impressive transition, always more important became money. The big majority of physicians is not interested in politics, neither in health politics, they permit, that there is made politics with them. Often the "health war" (Clausewitz) is more important for them than "the art of the possible" (Bismark). There are many groups and many competences, but until now everybody forgot to allot the competences clearly to the different groups. Decisions are made with few competence, with "an empty brain". Additional services are demanded for the same money, as Mrs. Dreifuss of the Swiss Federal Council does. She wishes the neutrality of cost, but more services. PMID:10771587

  4. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

  5. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  6. Semi-Projective Methods, Political Attitudes, and Political Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binford, Michael B.

    Semi-projective holistic methods in political science research can augment knowledge of political attitudes and political reasoning. Semi-projective methods refer to techniques which present focused or structured stimuli and allow an unrestricted range of responses. Visual stimuli include ink blots, standard drawings, political cartoons, or…

  7. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  8. Global Systems Science: A New World View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneider, Cary; Golden, Richard; Barrett, Katharine

    1999-01-01

    Global systems science is a new field of study about the interactions between Earth's natural systems and human activities. The people who study global systems science draw on methods and theories of many different fields from chemistry and biology to economics and politics-in order to predict how today's actions are likely to affect the world of tomorrow - our world and our children's world.

  9. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  10. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  11. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  12. The Politics of Student Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Joseph C.; Cosgrove, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Political skill is critical to the success of any leader, and the political dimension of leadership can no longer be omitted from students' training. An understanding of politics and the ability to use political strategy are critical dimensions of leadership. (MLW)

  13. Spacetime-constrained oblivious transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2016-06-01

    In 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer (OT), Alice inputs numbers x0,x1 , Bob inputs a bit b and outputs xb. Secure OT requires that Alice and Bob learn nothing about b and xb ¯, respectively. We define spacetime-constrained oblivious transfer (SCOT) as OT in Minkowski spacetime in which Bob must output xb within Rb, where R0 and R1 are fixed spacelike separated spacetime regions. We show that unconditionally secure SCOT is impossible with classical protocols in Minkowski (or Galilean) spacetime, or with quantum protocols in Galilean spacetime. We describe a quantum SCOT protocol in Minkowski spacetime, and we show it unconditionally secure.

  14. Constraining Lorentz violation with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Zuntz, J A; Ferreira, P G; Zlosnik, T G

    2008-12-31

    The Einstein-aether theory provides a simple, dynamical mechanism for breaking Lorentz invariance. It does so within a generally covariant context and may emerge from quantum effects in more fundamental theories. The theory leads to a preferred frame and can have distinct experimental signatures. In this Letter, we perform a comprehensive study of the cosmological effects of the Einstein-aether theory and use observational data to constrain it. Allied to previously determined consistency and experimental constraints, we find that an Einstein-aether universe can fit experimental data over a wide range of its parameter space, but requires a specific rescaling of the other cosmological densities. PMID:19113765

  15. Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2009-04-15

    We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.

  16. Constraining Lorentz Violation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J. A.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G

    2008-12-31

    The Einstein-aether theory provides a simple, dynamical mechanism for breaking Lorentz invariance. It does so within a generally covariant context and may emerge from quantum effects in more fundamental theories. The theory leads to a preferred frame and can have distinct experimental signatures. In this Letter, we perform a comprehensive study of the cosmological effects of the Einstein-aether theory and use observational data to constrain it. Allied to previously determined consistency and experimental constraints, we find that an Einstein-aether universe can fit experimental data over a wide range of its parameter space, but requires a specific rescaling of the other cosmological densities.

  17. Image compression using constrained relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihai

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we develop a new data representation framework, called constrained relaxation for image compression. Our basic observation is that an image is not a random 2-D array of pixels. They have to satisfy a set of imaging constraints so as to form a natural image. Therefore, one of the major tasks in image representation and coding is to efficiently encode these imaging constraints. The proposed data representation and image compression method not only achieves more efficient data compression than the state-of-the-art H.264 Intra frame coding, but also provides much more resilience to wireless transmission errors with an internal error-correction capability.

  18. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066

  19. Between Political History and Historical Politics: Fundamental Forms of Historical and Political Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Politics without history has no roots; history without politics bears no fruits. If one inquires into the content of the relation between politics and history, then one discovers it is defined by symbiotic dependence. Those who are trained in history also take into account the political dimensions of history, and those educated in political…

  20. From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Lauren

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes critical attacks on Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems approach to history and offers new critical evaluations. Wallerstein argued that an emerging capitalist world economy dominated politics and history from the 16th century to the present. Defines two new approaches, institutional analysis and post colonial cultural theory, that…

  1. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  2. Murder, political resources, and women's political success.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Paxton, Pamela M; Jackson, Aubrey L; Malone, Chad A

    2013-03-01

    This analysis tests overlooked sociological hypotheses about women's presence in the state legislatures and the House of Representatives. Stereotypes about women suggest that shifts in social conditions affect these political outcomes by making such stereotypes more or less salient. Findings indicate that beliefs about female competencies-such as women's purported unwillingness to endorse violent solutions-should reduce support for female candidates when increases in violent crime create demands for increasingly severe punishments. Since women also are typecast as being more protective of vulnerable populations than males, states with larger minority populations should have additional women in both legislatures. Pooled time-series models based on 1127 state-years show that fewer women were present in the state legislatures or in state delegations to the House after increases in the murder rates. States with larger minority populations, however, had more women in these two legislative bodies. Our results support claims that under researched social conditions produce political climates that either benefit or harm women who seek these offices. PMID:23347492

  3. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that could potentially solve certain quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and practical optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which in turn requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby removes many of the obstacles associated with the implementation of these. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We then conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to boost the encodability of other optimization problems.

  4. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  5. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  6. The politics of paranoia.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube. PMID:23414269

  7. The Handwriting Is on the Wall. A World Development Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This anthology of writings on world development examines the widening gap between the rich and the poor of the world. Development is understood to mean the struggle to realize a just and humane life for everyone. The thoughts of third world economists and political leaders as well as those of European and North American observers are included. The…

  8. Korea as a World Order Issue. Occasional Paper Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Yoshikazu

    This paper discusses the Korean problem, not as an aspect of the East-West conflict, but as a world order problem. The paper is one of a series commissioned by the World Order Models Project in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action which will contribute to a movement for a just world order. The first part of…

  9. Gene worlds.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Shostak, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from a critical sociology of knowledge perspective, we situate the production of genetic information within relevant political, financial, and professional contexts. We consider as well the broad range of social conditions that render genetic knowledge salient in clinical settings and for population health. This sociological analysis of genetic knowledge highlights how genetic knowledge flourishes and shapes social environments and how in turn environments select for particular forms of genetic knowledge. We examine the role of the laboratory, regulatory state, and social movements in the production of genetic knowledge and the clinic, family, and population health as critical sites where genetic knowledge becomes actionable. PMID:26582350

  10. Social Networking Sites and Cyberdemocracy: A New Model of Dialogic Interactivity and Political Moblization in the Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Heasun

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to test whether dialogic interactions via SNSs can help revive political participation and help citizens to become involved in real-world politics. In a Tocquevillian sense, this study assumes a positive relationship between virtual associational life and political participation and therefore argues that SNSs…

  11. Global environmental politics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.; Brown, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explore past international environmental negotiations and the broader political landscape in which they take place to discern some elements of success. The overridding message is that it may take a long time, but in the end some combination of new scientific evidence, domestic political pressures, and international persuasion will likely turn the tide in favor of cooperative action. The authors feel that an incremental change approach, based on current international environmental governance, is the one most likely to be followed, although global governance, with a greatly strengthened UN and environmental law, or global partnership, developmental assistance from richer countries to poorer countries, are the better choices.

  12. Mapping the online communication patterns of political conversations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    The structure of the social networks in which individuals are embedded influences their political choices and therefore their voting behavior. Nowadays, social media represent a new channel for individuals to communicate, what together with the availability of the data, makes it possible to analyze the online social network resulting from political conversations. Here, by taking advantage of the recently developed techniques to analyze complex systems, we map the communication patterns resulting from Spanish political conversations. We identify the different existing communities, building networks of communities, and finding that users cluster themselves in politically homogeneous networks. We found that while most of the collective attention was monopolized by politicians, traditional media accounts were still the preferred sources from which to propagate information. Finally, we propose methods to analyze the use of different languages, finding a clear trend from sympathizers of several political parties to overuse or infra-use each language. We conclude that, on the light of a social media analysis perspective, the political conversation is constrained by both ideology and language.

  13. Third World Ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.E.; Wheelon, A.D.

    1990-08-01

    Ballistic missiles and other means of long-range destruction, traditionally limited to a handful of industrialized nations, are fast becoming a fixture in many regional conflicts. The Third World military buildup is perhaps even more worrisome than its First World prototype, for it is far more likely to find expression in war. There are several reasons why this should be so. In the past decade the number of countries in the missile club has more than doubled, to 18. Many of the new members have been at war or are embroiled in disputes. Unlike the major powers, these countries have not had time enough to perfect systems of command and control over their new strategic forces. They have had little time to learn to manage the complexities of military brinksmanship. Finally, because many regional conflicts overlap, an escalation in the arms race tends to convey itself from one area of tension to another. For many years the big industrialized countries ignored the proliferation of ballistic missiles and sought political advantage by arming their clients. In doing so, they presumed that the bipolar alignment of power would restrain regional conflicts. The preoccupation with East-West issues overshadowed problems in the Third World. Smaller industrialized powers sold missiles to generate revenues to support their own military industries. Meanwhile the developing countries eagerly acquired missiles for the same reasons that had motivated their predecessors: to deter attack, intimidate enemies, build a technological base and win prestige.

  14. Constrained filter optimization for subsurface landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie; Clodfelter, Fred; Lulich, Dan; Patrikar, Ajay; Howard, Peter; Weaver, Richard; Rosen, Erik

    2006-05-01

    Previous large-scale blind tests of anti-tank landmine detection utilizing the NIITEK ground penetrating radar indicated the potential for very high anti-tank landmine detection probabilities at very low false alarm rates for algorithms based on adaptive background cancellation schemes. Recent data collections under more heterogeneous multi-layered road-scenarios seem to indicate that although adaptive solutions to background cancellation are effective, the adaptive solutions to background cancellation under different road conditions can differ significantly, and misapplication of these adaptive solutions can reduce landmine detection performance in terms of PD/FAR. In this work we present a framework for the constrained optimization of background-estimation filters that specifically seeks to optimize PD/FAR performance as measured by the area under the ROC curve between two FARs. We also consider the application of genetic algorithms to the problem of filter optimization for landmine detection. Results indicate robust results for both static and adaptive background cancellation schemes, and possible real-world advantages and disadvantages of static and adaptive approaches are discussed.

  15. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original positor,…

  16. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  17. The politics of insight.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  18. Principles, Politics, and Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Karl E.

    1990-01-01

    In response to Fischer (HE 527 626), the author considers his proposal to simplify and unify the need analysis used in the Pell grant program and other federal need-based student aid to be useful and well designed, avoiding some common political considerations as it improves procedures and increases equity. The alternative cost-saving aspects of…

  19. Learning Linguistic Politeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2004-01-01

    American KFL (Korean as a foreign language) students' communicative success depends to a large extent on their ability to express interpersonal meanings with target-language resources. However, information regarding how KFL students acquire, or fail to learn linguistic politeness through classroom learning is scarce. The nature of this study is…

  20. Political Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  1. Instruction for Political Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The development process of an alternative to high school government courses included the elaboration of a two-semester course called Comparing Political Experiences. The discussion of a competency-based approach to instruction and learning used in this course specifies, in diagram and in theoretical terms, three phases in achieving political…

  2. Manual on Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schakel, Minnekus

    This guide offers teachers and senior high school students the simple facts of how he can make a difference in the operation of the two-party system in the United States at the precinct level. It also attempts to show that students, teachers, the school curriculum, and our American political structure definitely need large numbers of high school…

  3. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  4. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  5. Imaging and Political Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    This document looks at advertising and political commercials in radio. When placing an advertisement, in any media in general and radio in particular, one takes into consideration qualitative and quantitative data: how many people are listening, and who they are, and what level of education they have attained. Listeners have extremely well…

  6. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  7. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  8. The Great Alliance Between Politics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Pietro

    2014-07-01

    Dear Friends, I accepted the invitation to take part in this important scientific appointment, which has remarkably reached its 46th edition this year, with great pleasure. First of all, I would like to warmly welcome and thank the scientists who have come from all over the world to give their contribution of intelligence and commitment to the future of our planet and of humanity. I would like to thank the World Federation of Scientists, the ICSC World Lab and the Ettore Majorana Foundation for their invitation and hospitality and I would like to express my personal consideration and respect for Professor Antonino Zichichi, for his competent and passionate dedication in keeping the attention of science, public opinion and politics focused on planetary emergencies for decades, combining scientific rigour and popularisation skill...

  9. Clean Air Now: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    The fourth unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. Using a documentary approach, this unit analyzes the concept of political change by examining the changes in Riverside, California, as that community confronts the issue of smog. The unit is divided into five…

  10. Unexplored Dimensions of 'Political' in the Politics of Education Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Wirt, Fred

    Recent analyses of the linkages between policy analysis and politics suggests that contemporary focus on the first had been poorly attenuated to the theoretical needs of the second. This paper specifies the kinds of research in educational politics that should ensue if the politics-of-education field is to become less oriented to specific policies…

  11. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  12. Politics as Social History: Political Cartoons in the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Provides analyses of four political cartoons in order to suggest approaches to Gilded Age politics that reveal key issues, such as gender, religion, and ethnicity, as well as the struggles over material resources in a stratified economy. Maintains that political cartoons assist students in understanding the ideology of a past era. (CMK)

  13. Union Underground: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    This is the third unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course which focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. The unit analyzes the concept of political maintenance by studying the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) between 1918 and 1975 and its fight to secure mine safety standards. A documentary approach…

  14. Learning in Politics: Teachers' Political Experiences as a Pedagogical Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The suggestion that teaching is a political act has been a divisive issue among educators. However, there has been little analysis of the ways that teachers draw on their political experiences as pedagogical resources. Using a case study of seven teachers in Porto Alegre, Brazil who were involved in politics, this article explores the relationship…

  15. [Population pressure: a factor of political destabilization].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1993-04-01

    Political stability throughout the world appears to be greater in countries with slowly growing populations than in those with rapid growth. Population is not the only influence on political stability, however. The relationship between political stability and development is strong. The rich countries with the slowest growth are the most stable, while poor developing countries with rapid growth suffer from chronic instability. Demographic pressure and density are not the same thing and must be distinguished. A fragile environment like that of the Sahel will experience demographic pressure despite low density. Japan has a greater population density than Rwanda and little cultivable land, but the population has a high standard of living. demographic pressure is not comparable in Japan and Rwanda because Japan has slow population growth and stable democratic political institutions. The rate of growth seems to be a more important element in destabilization than density. Rapid growth creates enormous political tensions especially when profound ethnic divisions exist, and it complicates problems of government by encouraging rapid urbanization. The unbalanced age structures resulting from rapid growth hinder the satisfaction of employment, educational, and health care needs for the ever-increasing masses of young people. 49% of Rwanda's population is under 15 and 66% is under 25. Rwanda is already densely populated, with around 300 inhabitants/sq km, and its population is projected to double in 20 years. 95% of the population is dependent on agriculture, but by 1988 the average landholding per family was only 1.25 hectares and 58% of families did not grown sufficient food for household needs. Further reduction in the size of holdings or a growing landless population will have multiple consequences. Urban migration will inevitably increase, bringing with it all the problems so evident in other poor countries where the process is more advanced than in Rwanda. Chaotic

  16. Teaching Real-World Political Economy: Simulating a WTO Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Jares, Timothy E.; Gallo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    "If free trade is a no-brainer, why isn't trade free?" Students often express such sentiments at the conclusion of a typical international trade course, during which they have learned that free trade is optimal, but that countries continue to restrict trade substantially. This article describes a simulation of a round of trade liberalization under…

  17. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  18. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  19. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  20. The cultural politics of eating in Shenzhen.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, construction in Shenzhen symbolized both the transformation of Chinese socialism and the concomitant integration of Chinese society into global capitalist networks. This article tells the story of Shenzhen from the perspective of this first generation of immigrants, the so-called Old Shenzheners, who use nostalgia about food to define, debate, and ultimately retreat from conversations about what Shenzhen culture was and what it ought to be. Their food nostalgia is part of a larger cultural tradition of Chinese alimentary politics and has allowed Shenzheners to indigenize capitalist globalization to make the city their own. Old Shenzheners' food nostalgia represents an important moment in the Chinese transition to a post socialist political economy, redefining what it means to be both Chinese and global in a post–cold war world order. PMID:21539046

  1. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  2. The Politics of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  3. The Politics of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jean A.

    Politics and children's literature would seem to be two areas of thought which are incompatible; politics being the administration of power, control, government, and regulation, and children's literature embodying the freedom of the imagination at a period in life described as "literary innocence." Embedded political perspectives, whether…

  4. The Nature of Organizational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Belinda K.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Examines the role organizational politics play in student affairs. Sees background knowledge of politics as a concept critical to understanding idiosyncratic nature of any organization. Notes that both organizational conditions and individual behavior contribute to organization's political climate. Concludes that professionals who fail to…

  5. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  6. Political Institutions and Their Historical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Mikael; Lundberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, “anocracy” and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem “canalized”, i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them. PMID:23056219

  7. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Chung, Jun Young; Biggins, John S.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain—the cerebral cortex—has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highly convoluted. Furthermore, this dependence on two simple geometric parameters that characterize the brain also allows us to qualitatively explain how variations in these parameters lead to anatomical anomalies in such situations as polymicrogyria, pachygyria, and lissencephalia. PMID:25136099

  8. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  9. BICEP2 constrains composite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-07-01

    In light of BICEP2, we re-examine single field inflationary models in which the inflation is a composite state stemming from various four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. We study in the Einstein frame a set of cosmological parameters, the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, predicted by such models. We confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We find that the minimal composite inflationary model is fully consistent with the Planck data. However it is in tension with the recent BICEP2 data. The observables predicted by the glueball inflationary model can be consistent with both Planck and BICEP2 contours if a suitable number of e-foldings are chosen. Surprisingly, the super Yang-Mills inflationary prediction is significantly consistent with the Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  10. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  11. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  12. Serenity in political uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

    2015-01-01

    College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

  13. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  14. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  15. World Hunger: Ten Myths. Fourth Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph

    Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…

  16. Teaching About World Hunger. No. 5419.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This secondary-level resource unit surveys hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and the interdependent factors affecting world food supplies. The main part of the unit is divided into four sections which examine the historical and geographical, economic and political, health and nutritional, and environmental and ecological factors…

  17. European Education in a World Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1992-01-01

    Discusses problems facing European education as the world continues to become more interconnected through politics, communication, and economics. Stresses the need to maintain national values without regressing to nationalism. Examines teacher training, history instruction, and television as areas where divisions can be lessened. Warns against…

  18. Bringing a Global Perspective to World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Nine units of study to help high school social studies teachers introduce a global perspective are contained in this booklet. Stressing interactions among regions economically, politically, and socially, the lessons are intended to help teachers reinforce basic skills and introduce new images of the world. Each lesson contains the following…

  19. New Tasks for Teachers of English in Poland in Light of Social, Economic, and Political Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Ewa

    The weakness of English and other language instruction in Poland is due largely to the political system after World War II. Political and economic change and gradual recognition of the importance of English have recently increased rapidly. Expanded contact with the West calls for immediate qualitative and quantitative changes in English language…

  20. The Importance, Content and Teaching of the Political Geography Course in Social Studies Undergraduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Today, big countries and other countries inside their axes have entered power wars in regions where underground and aboveground sources are important. One of the characteristics of countries where these power wars take place is them not being able to understand the current world politics and elements of political geography. These countries cannot…

  1. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  2. Non-Effective National Territory: A Characteristic of Third World States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Bob J.

    In an effort to improve understanding and to provide better solutions to the world's political problems, this paper examines national territory or states in terms of their functional processes and their spatial structures. Examples from Third World states are provided. The author first presents a model of political territory. It has a boundary…

  3. Activities Using the "State of the World Atlas, 5th Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Heidi

    This activity book highlights recent changes in international political and economic systems of the world. Teachers of geography, history, economics, political science, current issues, foreign languages, and journalism will find these activities useful in integrating the "State of the World Atlas" into their curriculum. Two introductory activities…

  4. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. PMID:24417900

  5. Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book looks at the way corporate cultures is encroaching on children's lives. It explores three myths prevalent in society: (1) that the triumph of democracy is equal to the triumph of the market; (2) that children are unaffected by power and politics; and (3) that teaching and learning are no longer linked to improving the world. The book…

  6. Beyond the Chalkboard: Multimedia Sources for Instruction in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Carl J.; McKenzie, Joe Mac

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the wealth of opportunity provided by electronic media applicable to political science instruction. Reviews CD-ROM text supplements, tutorial packages, and databases. Briefly summarizes online sources and websites including the CIA World Factbook, Congressional Quarterly, United Nations gopher, and Supreme Court rulings. (MJP)

  7. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  8. The Politics of U.S. Immigration Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Alan K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counter-proposals for U.S. immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform. Also addresses the pressures for outmigration in the Third World, American public opinion on immigration reform, and increases in…

  9. Business, Political & Academic Perspectives on Higher Education Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, Grady; Hall, Kimberely

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of the emergence of accountability expectations for higher education in the United States and throughout the world is abundant; it is in national reports, conference themes, mandated assessments, accreditation guidelines, and government statues and regulations. Yet some research establishes that business, political, and academic…

  10. Youth's Political Views and Their Experience of September 11, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Lonnie, R.; Quinones, Omar; Davila, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Three surveys were given to 90 college-aged youth: (1) to examine their experience of and reactions to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001; (2) to evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following the event; and (3) to assess the youth's general political views. These youth living in New York City were…

  11. Youth Activists, Youth Councils, and Constrained Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Jessica K.; Gordon, Hava R.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a common form of adult attempts to promote civic engagement among young people, namely, youth advisory councils. While youth councils have been widely celebrated as an effective way to integrate young people into political processes, little research has explored why some politically active youth…

  12. Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Roslyn; Copley, Kath; Sithirajvongsa, Sisamone; Pennycook, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Explores the political, ethical, and professional dilemmas faced by English-as-a-Second-Language professionals working in the context of Australian language aid projects in Laos, East Timor, and Cambodia. Illuminates how language aid practitioners have to deal with issues of language choice, ownership, and political context. (Author/VWL)

  13. An optimum world population.

    PubMed

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  14. NHS politics. Winging it.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Steve; Chantler, Cyril

    2002-03-14

    At present, NHS managers are highly constrained, suffering excessive regulation and central control. More autonomy for trusts would mean fewer directives and less performance management. Giving trusts a new organisational form, such as a public interest company or foundation hospital, might be reinvigorating and would not involve further reorganisation. These new freedoms should be accompanied by new accountabilities, not solely to politicians but to independent NHS regulators, local communities and patients. Devolved power and greater patient choice could produce a more responsive NHS. Its potential needs to be explored through experimentation and evaluation. PMID:11915404

  15. Constrained Deformable-Layer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.

    2006-12-01

    The improvement on traveltime tomography depends on improving data coverage and tomographic methodology. The data coverage depends on the spatial distribution of sources and stations, as well as the extent of lateral velocity variation that may alter the raypaths locally. A reliable tomographic image requires large enough ray hit count and wide enough angular range between traversing rays over the targeted anomalies. Recent years have witnessed the advancement of traveltime tomography in two aspects. One is the use of finite frequency kernels, and the other is the improvement on model parameterization, particularly that allows the use of a priori constraints. A new way of model parameterization is the deformable-layer tomography (DLT), which directly inverts for the geometry of velocity interfaces by varying the depths of grid points to achieve a best traveltime fit. In contrast, conventional grid or cell tomography seeks to determine velocity values of a mesh of fixed-in-space grids or cells. In this study, the DLT is used to map crustal P-wave velocities with first arrival data from local earthquakes and two LARSE active surveys in southern California. The DLT solutions along three profiles are constrained using known depth ranges of the Moho discontinuity at 21 sites from a previous receiver function study. The DLT solutions are generally well resolved according to restoration resolution tests. The patterns of 2D DLT models of different profiles match well at their intersection locations. In comparison with existing 3D cell tomography models in southern California, the new DLT models significantly improve the data fitness. In comparison with the multi-scale cell tomography conducted for the same data, while the data fitting levels of the DLT and the multi-scale cell tomography models are compatible, the DLT provides much higher vertical resolution and more realistic description of the undulation of velocity discontinuities. The constraints on the Moho depth

  16. The Intersection of Science and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Elias

    2016-03-01

    Politics and science often seem at odds. However, important political issues like climate change, cybersecurity, and space exploration require the input of both communities. To create the best possible policies, there must be a dialogue between politicians and scientists. SPS and John Mather gave me the opportunity to be part of this dialogue. Through the Mather Policy Internship, I worked for the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, which has jurisdiction over telecom, health care, energy supply, and other technical areas. I worked with the technology and communications subcommittee, conducting research on cybersecurity, spectrum auctions, and the internet of things. It is clear that even the commercial side of science would benefit from the help of the science community. My background gave me an edge over the other interns; I didn't need to learn what it meant for there to be signals of different wavelength. Most importantly, I learned what it will take to pursue a career in science policy. For the number of physics undergrads who do not wish to pursue a pure physics career, science policy is a strong option. Scientists bring a rigorous, fact-based approach that might benefit the political world as a whole. Thanks to SPS, AIP, and the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts.

  17. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years.

  18. Environmental politics and the coal coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Vietor, R.H.K.

    1980-01-01

    A history of environmental politics and coal is presented. Since the late nineteenth century coal has been essential to the industrial economy of the United States. But air pollution from burning coal damages health and property, and strip mining despoils the natural environment. As industry mushroomed after World War II, the social costs of air pollution and strip mining emerged as national problems, and by the late fifties public health officials, conservationists, and sportsmen began to call for federal regulation. Pressures mounted for federal rather than state control, for stringent health criteria, expensive technological solutions, and, by the 1970's, constraints on industrial growth. The coal industry resisted, concerned with the costs of cleanup and the need for larger, centralized systems to deliver ever more energy in what would become a crisis situation. Meanwhile, the coal industry was being absorbed by mergers with larger industries, including petroleum, electric utilities, railroads, steel, and equipment manufacturing; large commercial banks with energy interests and interlocking trade associations and government advisory councils provided a cohesive framework for political opposition to escalating regulation. By the 1970's environmentalists had also formed national coalitions. As the issues became more complex and highly technical, the conflict shifted from the legislative to the administrative arena. The result has been a degree of regulation and interface between business and government unimaginable in the Eisenhower era. Using both government and interest-group sources, the author documents the significant changes in both social values and the pluralist political process over two decades of reform.

  19. From Cognitive Capability to Social Reform? Shifting Perceptions of Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Learning in immersive virtual worlds (simulations and virtual worlds such as Second Life) could become a central learning approach in many curricula, but the socio-political impact of virtual world learning on higher education remains under-researched. Much of the recent research into learning in immersive virtual worlds centres around games and…

  20. Will political realism prevail in Kiev?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Moscow summit produced a major step toward resolving the impasse on Ukrainian denuclearization, the world`s most serious nuclear proliferation problem. The trilateral statement signed by Presidents Clinton, Yeltsin and Kravchuk calls for delivery to Russia for dismantlement of some 1,800 Ukrainian strategic warheads, reportly over a period of less than three years. The document was described as a political declaration and not an agreement. It does not guarantee that the total denuclerization of Ukraine will occur on schedule. But it does establish an ongoing process to accomplish that end on a compensated basis, which should encourage formal Ukrainian ratification of START I and adherence to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

  1. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    PubMed

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year. PMID:19323856

  2. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  3. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  4. Population's political clout.

    PubMed

    Schima, M E; Viel, B; Chen, P C; Gille, H; Epstein, S G

    1980-03-01

    China's birth planning program has its own separate administrative hierarchy. The political commitment to population planning which originates with the top leadership extends to peer pressure exerted on couples at the brigade and neighborhood level. While family planning services are primarily delivered in health structures, responsibility for the population program falls to the Leading Group on Birth Planning. Not only health officials but also officials responsible for economic planning, political propaganda, scientific research, trade unions, women's affairs, and all those whose participation is considered necessary to the program's success attend meeting. The Leading Group on Birth Planning is chaired by a Vice-Premier. At each administrative level, provincial to work brigade, the same pattern is repeated: centralized responsibility combined with broad representation and high-level potitical leadership. With a tight, working structure, China has been able to enact its birth control program with remarkable speed and effectiveness. Each production brigade has its own planned birth leading group headed by the captain of the brigade or the captain of the women's team. The leading group supervises the barefoot doctors, midwives, and team level health aides who deliver contraceptives to households or accompany people to the community health center to obtain surgical services. PMID:12261795

  5. A politics of health glossary

    PubMed Central

    Bambra, C; Fox, D; Scott‐Samuel, A

    2007-01-01

    This glossary reflects a (re‐)emerging awareness within public health of the political dimension of health and health inequalities, and it also attempts to define some of the key concepts from the political science literature in a way that will be of use in future public health analyses. Examples from different domains (healthcare and population health) are provided to highlight how political concepts pervade health. PMID:17568046

  6. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  7. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)

  8. Political abuse of psychiatry--an historical overview.

    PubMed

    van Voren, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of psychiatry for political purposes has been a major subject of debate within the world psychiatric community during the second half of the 20th century. The issue became prominent in the 1970s and 1980s due to the systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, where approximately one-third of the political prisoners were locked up in psychiatric hospitals. The issue caused a major rift within the World Psychiatric Association, from which the Soviets were forced to withdraw in 1983. They returned conditionally in 1989. Political abuse of psychiatry took also place in other socialist countries and on a systematic scale in Romania, and during the first decade of the 21st century, it became clear that systematic political abuse of psychiatry is also happening in the People's Republic of China. The article discusses the historical background to these abuses and concludes that the issue had a major impact on the development of concepts regarding medical ethics and the professional responsibility of physicians. PMID:19892821

  9. Political Abuse of Psychiatry—An Historical Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Voren, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of psychiatry for political purposes has been a major subject of debate within the world psychiatric community during the second half of the 20th century. The issue became prominent in the 1970s and 1980s due to the systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, where approximately one-third of the political prisoners were locked up in psychiatric hospitals. The issue caused a major rift within the World Psychiatric Association, from which the Soviets were forced to withdraw in 1983. They returned conditionally in 1989. Political abuse of psychiatry took also place in other socialist countries and on a systematic scale in Romania, and during the first decade of the 21st century, it became clear that systematic political abuse of psychiatry is also happening in the People's Republic of China. The article discusses the historical background to these abuses and concludes that the issue had a major impact on the development of concepts regarding medical ethics and the professional responsibility of physicians. PMID:19892821

  10. Online Education: The Impact of Economics and Politics on Teachers' Situationally Constrained Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhianan E.

    2012-01-01

    Online education has been increasing at an astounding rate, and advocates contend this trend will transform schooling as we know it. The current research has been centered on the student outcomes in online education. However, this myopic focus on outcomes underestimates the broader systemic factors that may be driving the implementation and…

  11. Incentives to Exclude: The Political Economy Constraining School Fee Abolition in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrum, Lee E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the South African Department of Education extended tuition fee abolition to schools serving the poorest 60% of students, increased from 40% in 2007. This policy intends to increase access to and longevity in school for the poorest households by removing fees as a barrier and replacing private revenue with increased state funds. Despite…

  12. Millennials Talk Politics: A Study of College Student Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesa, Abby; Orlowski, Alexander P.; Levine, Peter; Both, Deborah; Kirby, Emily Hoban; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    In 1993, The Charles F. Kettering Foundation published "College Students Talk Politics," a national study conducted by the Harwood Group and based on focus groups on ten American campuses. The study found, among other things, that students considered politics "irrelevant" to their lives and saw little purpose in ever actively participating in the…

  13. Busing in Boston: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    Unit two to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific controversial political issue: court-ordered busing in Boston. A documentary approach represents the core of instruction in this 12th-grade unit. This approach avoids lengthy narratives of a theoretical approach and yet is more in-depth than the…

  14. Political Disenchantment: A Cognitive-Perceptual Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    An investigation of a cognitive-perceptual model to measure adolescents' feelings of political alienation is reported. The model hypothesizes that fundamental to the political alienation process is a feared actual or potential loss of freedom; this process is called psychological reactance. The sample consisted of 460 senior high school students…

  15. Aggregating Political Dimensions: Of the Feasibility of Political Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanin, Francisco Gutierrez; Buitrago, Diana; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Political indicators are widely used in academic writing and decision making, but remain controversial. This paper discusses the problems related to the aggregation functions they use. Almost always, political indicators are aggregated by weighted averages or summations. The use of such functions is based on untenable assumptions (existence of…

  16. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  17. Personalizing Politics: A Congruency Model of Political Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political…

  18. Constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, V.; Parker, P.

    1994-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is sensitive to the presence of signal `crosstalk' in the reference channel. The authors propose a novel approach to crosstalk resistant adaptive noise cancellation, namely the constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller (CCRANC). The theoretical analysis of the CCRANC along with the constrained algorithm is presented. The performance of the CCRANC in recovering somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from myoelectric interference is then evaluated through simulations.

  19. Section on AIDS: the politics of survival. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1990-01-01

    In one short decade, the politics of AIDS has become the politics of survival. In a world whose social order is changing before our eyes, AIDS insistently brings new meaning to the age-old question of what it is we must do to survive--as individuals, as families, as communities, as nations, as members of an interdependent world. The goal of this Special Section is to promote frank discussion, from an explicitly progressive perspective, of what it will take to stop the AIDS epidemic and deal with the devastation it has already wrought. Articles by AIDS researchers, service providers, and activists from around the world will address the numerous social, political, economic, and cultural factors that affect both the spread of AIDS and the social response to the epidemic. Topics to be considered in this and future issues of the Journal include: AIDS and community survival in the United States; women and AIDS, particularly in economically underdeveloped countries; the politics and economics of AIDS interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean; and the growing international AIDS industry. PMID:2265876

  20. Political dynamics determined by interactions between political leaders and voters.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret; Backus, George A.; Hills, Richard Guy

    2010-03-01

    The political dynamics associated with an election are typically a function of the interplay between political leaders and voters, as well as endogenous and exogenous factors that impact the perceptions and goals of the electorate. This paper describes an effort by Sandia National Laboratories to model the attitudes and behaviors of various political groups along with that population's primary influencers, such as government leaders. To accomplish this, Sandia National Laboratories is creating a hybrid system dynamics-cognitive model to simulate systems- and individual-level political dynamics in a hypothetical society. The model is based on well-established psychological theory, applied to both individuals and groups within the modeled society. Confidence management processes are being incorporated into the model design process to increase the utility of the tool and assess its performance. This project will enhance understanding of how political dynamics are determined in democratic society.

  1. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  2. Economic diplomacy. The political dynamics of oil leverage

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, M.S.; Dajani, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    This study probes the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo, detailing its history, the motivations that caused it and its ripple effect on world politics and the international economic order. The authors examine the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe during the 1956 Suez Canal crisis, the growing momentum of Arab oil leverage beginning with the First Arab Petroleum Congress in 1959, the decline of the oil companies' domination of the petroleum industry, and the Arab political environment between the 1967 Arab defeat and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The book concludes with a discussion of the lessons to be learned from the recent embargoes.

  3. Technologist's political impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have always improved living standards, but have also generated harmful side-effects which are becoming increasingly threatening. The author cites case histories which include (1) the overloading beyond safe design limits of highways and bridges, (2) the damage to forests and aquatic life from acid rain and irrigated-field runoff, and (3) the failure of certain engineering projects because of regulatory, legislative, or political failures and the lack of participation by scientists and engineers in decision making. Scientists and engineers would serve the public better if they would organize to pursue active leadership roles and if legislators were required to seek their participation and counsel. Scientists and engineers should bear ethical accountability for their professional activity. 9 references.

  4. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  5. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Political activity. 700.557 Section 700.557 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.557 Political activity. (a) Regulations on the political activity of Federal... active part in partisan political management or partisan political campaigns. (b) Special...

  6. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592... PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in...

  7. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Political activity. 700.557 Section 700.557 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.557 Political activity. (a) Regulations on the political activity of Federal... active part in partisan political management or partisan political campaigns. (b) Special...

  8. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  9. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  10. 7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 52.55 Section 52.55 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities...

  11. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354... Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  12. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political activity. 700.557 Section 700.557 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.557 Political activity. (a) Regulations on the political activity of Federal... active part in partisan political management or partisan political campaigns. (b) Special...

  13. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  14. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354... Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  15. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354... Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  16. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592... PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in...

  17. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  18. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political activity. 700.557 Section 700.557 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.557 Political activity. (a) Regulations on the political activity of Federal... active part in partisan political management or partisan political campaigns. (b) Special...

  19. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354... Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  20. 50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 Section 260.88... Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed... part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State,...

  1. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592... PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in...

  2. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592... PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in...

  3. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Political activity. 700.557 Section 700.557 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.557 Political activity. (a) Regulations on the political activity of Federal... active part in partisan political management or partisan political campaigns. (b) Special...

  4. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354... Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  5. 7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 52.55 Section 52.55 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities...

  6. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592... PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in...

  7. 7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 52.55 Section 52.55 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities...

  8. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  9. Amsterdam to Nairobi: The World Council of Churches and the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W.

    Churches, and in a larger sense religion, should serve as the conscience of society. Hence Christian bodies have an obligation to condemn gross evils and to speak out on the great moral issues, but they should not give their full support to any political party or cause. The World Council of Churches (WCC) from its beginning in 1948 showed an…

  10. Hiroshima as Politics and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the objections raised to the Enola Gay exhibit are rooted in Cold War politics. Maintains that this historical myopia exemplifies the need for challenging historical inquiry. Characterizes opposition to the exhibit as largely political and discusses demands made to censor exhibit material. (MJP)

  11. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  12. The Politics of Latino Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, David L., Ed.; Meier, Kenneth J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Education is one of the most important public policy issues facing Latinos in the United States today, but the political dynamics behind Latino school achievement and failure are often misunderstood--and at times, overlooked altogether. In twelve revealing essays, "The Politics of Latino Education" brings together 23 accomplished and influential…

  13. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  14. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  15. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Bahareh Azizi; Abbaszadeh, Mir Mohammad Seiied; Hassani, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups,…

  16. The Sixth "P"--Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

  17. The Politics of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Political pressure against higher education is nothing new but, as in the broader public square, the discourse seems to have reached a new level of invective, particularly since 9/11. Much has been written about allegations against the academy for its systemic left-leaning political bias in teaching and for protecting, under the banner of academic…

  18. Assessing a Political Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert M.

    This paper describes and evaluates a political skills course for college students. Course objectives include teaching students to do the following: organize and run a meeting; bargain effectively; communicate within and between groups; manage a crisis; organize a political coalition; be aware of personal stress and some of the ways to reduce it;…

  19. Sociobiology, Neurobiology and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elliott

    Political science and its subfields cannot ignore the work being done in two areas of the life sciences: sociobiology and neurobiology. Current theories of political socialization which suggest that society molds the child will be increasingly affected by sociobiological theory which posits that children operate as independent actors in the…

  20. Press, Politics and Popular Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, George F., Ed.

    A panel discussion on politics and the press was held at the convention of the American Political Science Association in September 1971. This volume contains an essay delivered at that panel on the various functions or activities of the press--adversary, surrogate, sovereign--and remarks of the three discussants. In addition, an essay especially…

  1. Political Geography and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Phillip E.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent theoretical advances in political geography, particularly those that stress the political conflict behind the production of space. Discusses how this has impacted the study of environmental phenomena such as hazards, human-land relationships, development, and international environmental governance. Suggests ways that political…

  2. The Politics of Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah; Lande, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    Considers child care as a political issue and examines the positions of 1988 presidential candidates on child care. Discusses whether concern over the issue of child care is good politics and suggests that readers write to candidates and elicit their positions on child care. (RWB)

  3. Pumping Competition into Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H.

    1986-01-01

    States that the system of local political journalism has become fragile and that steps should be taken to remediate the situation, such as developing tax incentives that invite television news, distributed in nonbroadcast form, to enter the arena of local political information. (DF)

  4. Political Kitsch and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    This paper explores "political kitsch," a propaganda that incorporates familiar and easily understood art forms to shape the direction of public policy. Kitsch differs from art in that it is a powerful political construction designed to colonize the receiver's consciousness. It reassures and comforts the receiver through the exploitation of…

  5. Critical Thinking about Political Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckowski, Jean A.; Lopach, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that political commentary is excellent pedagogical raw material to help secondary students develop critical thinking. Outlines a lesson plan based on comparing the political commentaries of Rush Limbaugh and Will Rogers. Includes suggested evaluation activities, a list of annotated resources, and excerpts from the writings or statements of…

  6. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  7. The Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The political economy of education treats education as a factor shaped by the power relations between different economic, political, and social groups. Specific topics discussed include the economic value of education, education as an allocator of economic roles, education and social class, education and income distribution, and education and…

  8. The Politics of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Jackson

    1994-01-01

    In addition to scientific and research questions about the causes of and solutions to school violence, there are political questions about the fact that disciplinary measures to control school violence are more frequently taken against blacks than against whites. Political reality colors the congressional response to public concern about violence.…

  9. Teacher Political Disclosure as Parrhesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The traditional stance on teacher political disclosure within K-12 education is that neutrality is the only morally appropriate approach for teachers to take when broaching political or social issues in their classes due to their role as state employees who serve a particular community. A number of recent high-profile cases of…

  10. Child Politics: Dimensions and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therborn, Goran

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the history of public concern regarding children's rights in the 20th century. Details the political process leading to the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, the ratification of the Convention, and its political effects, and presents hypotheses regarding determinants of the Convention's worldwide impact. Notes areas where…

  11. Political Elections: The Library Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Terry

    1984-01-01

    Discusses library role in providing access to information on political candidates and issues. Press coverage, political party literature, Federal Election Commission, interest groups, monographs, serials, and online databases are highlighted. Lists of 15 references, 89 national organizations that rate members of Congress, and 9 active political…

  12. The Text and Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways of approaching text and textbooks as embodiments of a larger process of cultural politics, focusing on the analysis of the relationships involved in their production, contexts, use, and reading. Newer forms of analysis that emphasize the politics of how students actually create meanings around texts are reviewed. (SLD)

  13. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  14. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  15. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  16. A global assessment of transboundary watersheds for potential hydro-political tensions using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; De Stefano, L.; Petersen-Perlman, J.; Eynard, J.; Wolf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds do not recognize political boundaries. However globally 286 of them extend across international borders. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We apply NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to bridge the sparse and inconsistent hydrologic monitoring networks that exist in many regions of the world. GRACE does not distinguish political boundaries, and provides novel insights into terrestrial water storage anomalies across and through a watershed. We combine GRACE measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and disputes over transboundary waters. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics as part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  17. The politics of privatisation, decentralisation and education reform in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    Reform in the Mexican education system accords with global patterns of liberalisation, decentralisation, compensatory programs and accountability. The present study analyses reform in that country during the past 15 years. It reveals that despite expectations of change attending the installation of the new government which replaced the ruling party dominant for 70 years, there has been far more continuity than change in educational politics. It also shows that these have been constrained by the militant and powerful National Teachers' Union. Although the new government has achieved some progress in equity and management, the quality of education can be seen to remain inferior.

  18. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  19. Higher Education and the Practice of Democratic Politics: A Political Education Reader. Kettering Political Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murchland, Bernard, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on political education for democratic citizenship in higher education developed out of meetings over 5 years of a small group of faculty, administrators and students who gathered to discuss the way academia was educating young people for political responsibility. Following a foreword and an introduction by…

  20. Participating in Political Activities: Political Systems, Unit Three. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    The third unit to the first-semester course, "Comparing Political Experiences," provides 16 activities to help 12th-grade students acquire in-depth knowledge of various kinds of political activities, such as decision making, leadership, communication, and participation. The activities and readings are divided into six sections which stress the…

  1. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  2. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  3. The Politics of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the school shootings in Newtown, Connecticut this past December, people experienced the world around them as less safe--understandably so. In response to such a tragic event, there is a degree of fear instilled in all people that for many was at its peak in the New Year as they prepared to send their children back to school.…

  4. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  5. Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Constrained Hopping and Parallel Dynamics at a Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Tuo, Xianguo; Li, Zhe; Yang, Jianbo

    In this article totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with constrained hopping and parallel dynamics at a junction is investigated using a mean-field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations. The constrained particle hopping probability r (r ≤ 1) at a junction may correspond to a delay caused by a driver choosing the right direction or a delay waiting for green traffic light in the real world. There are six stationary phases in the system, which can reflect free flow and congested traffic situations. Correlations at the junction point are investigated via simulations. It is observed that small r leads to stronger correlations. The theoretical results are agreement with computer simulations well.

  6. Political Education and Social Reconstructionism: Contextualizing the Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The modernist era of world history has been defined as the age of internationalism. Conversely, globalization is an academic concept that is used to define postmodern world history. Globalization is theoretically framed from varied perspectives. Most specifically it is analyzed as political, social, and economic phenomena but also within the…

  7. Explaining the Expansion of Feminist Ideas: Cultural Diffusion or Political Struggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the expansion of feminist ideas as both a conceptual and a political issue. It focuses on two major theories of social change, world culture theory (WCT) and world system analysis (WSA), comparing and contrasting how they frame gender as a factor shaping society, how they account for the diffusion of feminist ideas and how…

  8. Confronting world hunger.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  9. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  10. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  11. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  12. Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2010-08-01

    The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.

  13. Constrained simultaneous stitching measurement for aspheric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weibo; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Significant errors could be result from multiple data sets due to error transfer and accumulation in each sub-aperture. The constrained simultaneous stitching method with error calibration is proposed to increase the stability of the numerical solution of the stitching algorithm. Global averaging error and constrained optimization are applied to simultaneous stitching after alignment errors calibrated. The goal of optimization and merit function is the minimization of the discrepancy between multiple data sets by including components related to various alignment errors. The values for stitching coefficients that fall within the unit sphere and minimize the mean square difference between and overlapping values can be found by iterative constrained optimization. At last, the full aperture wave-front was reconstructed by simultaneous stitching with the stitching coefficients required to remain within meaningful bounds.

  14. Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.

  15. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  16. Spacecraft inertia estimation via constrained least squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keim, Jason A.; Acikmese, Behcet A.; Shields, Joel F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new formulation for spacecraft inertia estimation from test data. Specifically, the inertia estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as LMIs [linear matrix inequalities). The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization that can be solved efficiently with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum by readily available algorithms. This method is applied to data collected from a robotic testbed consisting of a freely rotating body. The results show that the constrained least squares approach produces more accurate estimates of the inertia matrix than standard unconstrained least squares estimation methods.

  17. Solving constrained optimization problems with hybrid particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahara, Erwie; Hu, Chia-Hsin

    2008-11-01

    Constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very important in that they frequently appear in the real world. A COP, in which both the function and constraints may be nonlinear, consists of the optimization of a function subject to constraints. Constraint handling is one of the major concerns when solving COPs with particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with the Nelder-Mead simplex search method (NM-PSO). This article proposes embedded constraint handling methods, which include the gradient repair method and constraint fitness priority-based ranking method, as a special operator in NM-PSO for dealing with constraints. Experiments using 13 benchmark problems are explained and the NM-PSO results are compared with the best known solutions reported in the literature. Comparison with three different meta-heuristics demonstrates that NM-PSO with the embedded constraint operator is extremely effective and efficient at locating optimal solutions.

  18. Search for passing-through-walls neutrons constrains hidden braneworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, Michaël; Pignol, Guillaume; Lamblin, Jacob; Pinon, Jonhathan; Méplan, Olivier; Terwagne, Guy; Debarsy, Paul-Louis; Petit, Fabrice; Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.

    2016-07-01

    In many theoretical frameworks our visible world is a 3-brane, embedded in a multidimensional bulk, possibly coexisting with hidden braneworlds. Some works have also shown that matter swapping between braneworlds can occur. Here we report the results of an experiment - at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) - designed to detect thermal neutron swapping to and from another braneworld, thus constraining the probability p2 of such an event. The limit, p < 4.6 ×10-10 at 95% C.L., is 4 orders of magnitude better than the previous bound based on the disappearance of stored ultracold neutrons. In the simplest braneworld scenario, for two parallel Planck-scale branes separated by a distance d, we conclude that d > 87 in Planck length units.

  19. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA). The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR), Relaxed Caveman (RC) and Girvan-Newman (GN) benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results. PMID:27176470

  20. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jia Hou; Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA). The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR), Relaxed Caveman (RC) and Girvan-Newman (GN) benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results. PMID:27176470

  1. Disastrous events and political failures.

    PubMed

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included. PMID:25882131

  2. Politics and the New Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Walt

    1974-01-01

    Author's aim in this article was to present humanistic or "third-force" psychology as a perspective from which to consider political events and the way we study them in the social sciences. (Author/RK)

  3. Identity Politics and Critical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Hank

    1989-01-01

    This essay investigates what identity politics may have to contribute to the reformation of Marxist theories of education through considering how it would theorize the practice of explicitly critical pedagogy. (IAH)

  4. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  5. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-02-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.

  6. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  7. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  8. Cosmopolitics: towards a new articulation of politics, science and critique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses. PMID:26174094

  9. Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Robert J

    2010-12-14

    A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.

  10. Rhythmic Grouping Biases Constrain Infant Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to…

  11. Constrained Subjective Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliu, Sokol

    2005-01-01

    Student learning is a complex incremental cognitive process; assessment needs to parallel this, reporting the results in similar terms. Application of fuzzy sets and logic to the criterion-referenced assessment of student learning is considered here. The constrained qualitative assessment (CQA) system was designed, and then applied in assessing a…

  12. Automation of constrained-value business forms

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Beaumariage, T.G.; Greitzer, F.L.

    1993-05-01

    Expert systems can improve many business tasks. However, the nature of a constrained-value business form can result in a rule base that contains circular reasoning, unsuitable for expert system implementation. A methodology is presented for restructuring such a rule base for compatibility with a backward-chaining expert system.

  13. Analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic flight trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The flight trajectory of aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints is considered. The constrained dynamics is shown to be a natural two-time-scale system. Asymptotic analytical solutions are obtained. Problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified with these solutions. Applications in trajectory design for an aerospace plane strongly support the theoretical development.

  14. Human rights and the politics of risk and blame: lessons from the international reproductive health movement.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    Recent debates about the "politicization" of public health obscure the ways in which epidemiological concepts of risk are routinely used in the legal and political systems to apportion blame and responsibility for poor health. This article uses the example of reproductive health and rights to argue that new understandings of the connection between socioeconomic conditions and poor health will only generate change when they are reframed into political claims and pressed by social movements. In this connection, human rights language, principles, and practice hold great potential for the US reproductive rights movement, which has sometimes been constrained by the narrow scope of court rulings. PMID:9354044

  15. Earthscape: Transitions toward World Order. The Whole Earth Papers, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia; And Others

    The five articles in this booklet focus on positive social, political, and economic responses to world problems. The first article, "Earthscape: Transitions Toward World Order," by Patricia Mische, outlines major biological, historical, and cultural transformations which the world has undergone since the beginnings of recorded history and…

  16. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain. PMID:2652324

  17. Politics Can Limit Policy Opportunism in Fiscal Institutions: Evidence from Official General Fund Revenue Forecasts in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Lewis, David E.; Douglas, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Governments make policy decisions in the same areas in quite different institutions. Some assign policymaking responsibility to institutions designed to be insulated from myopic partisan and electoral pressures and others do not. In this study, we claim that differences in political context and institutional design constrain the policy choices…

  18. Digital map of the state (political) boundaries of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watermolen, John

    1997-01-01

    This data set represents the state (political) boundaries of Mexico. The Digitial Chart of the World data set had incomplete state boundaries, which was the reason to create this coverage. It was digitized from a 1992 CIA map at a scale of 1:3 million. The coast line came from the Digital Chart of the world at a scale of 1:1 million. The state names were labeled from the map and an attribute to help fill the states was added. The labeling process was done manually.

  19. The politics of psycholinguistics.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates the history of the interdisciplinary field of psycholinguistics from its modern organization in the 1950s to its application and influence in the field of reading instruction. Beginning as a combination of structural linguistics, behaviorist psychology, and information theory, the field was revolutionized by the collaboration of the psychologist George Miller and the linguist Noam Chomsky. This transformation was, at root, the adoption of the view that humans should be best understood as creative users of language and the rejection of behaviorist or machine models. Under their influence the field came to treat humans as creative, nonmechanical learners and users of language who, like scientists, hypothesize in order to understand and even perceive the world. This vision of language as a nondeterministic process shaped the field of reading instruction by providing the central model to advocates of the whole-language pedagogical method. PMID:25502313

  20. A Partially Annotated Political Communication Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barbara C.

    This 63-page annotated bibliography contains available materials in the area of political communication, a relatively new field of political science. Political communication includes facets of the election process and interaction between political parties and the voter. A variety of materials dating from 1960 to 1972 include books, pamphlets,…

  1. 7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 70.25 Section 70.25 Agriculture... Graders § 70.25 Political activity. Federal graders may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns in accordance with AMS policy. Graders...

  2. 31 CFR 0.201 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political activity. 0.201 Section 0... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.201 Political activity. (a) Employees may: (1) Take an active part in political management or in political campaigns to the extent permitted by law (5...

  3. 7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 58.61 Section 58.61 Agriculture....61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  4. 7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 58.61 Section 58.61 Agriculture....61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  5. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS...

  6. 7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 70.25 Section 70.25 Agriculture... Graders § 70.25 Political activity. Federal graders may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns in accordance with AMS policy. Graders...

  7. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS...

  8. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS...

  9. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  10. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section... Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  11. 7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 58.61 Section 58.61 Agriculture....61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  12. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section... Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  13. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  14. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section... Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  15. 31 CFR 0.201 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political activity. 0.201 Section 0... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.201 Political activity. (a) Employees may: (1) Take an active part in political management or in political campaigns to the extent permitted by law (5...

  16. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section... Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  17. 7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 70.25 Section 70.25 Agriculture... Graders § 70.25 Political activity. Federal graders may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns in accordance with AMS policy. Graders...

  18. 7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 58.61 Section 58.61 Agriculture....61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  19. 7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 70.25 Section 70.25 Agriculture... Graders § 70.25 Political activity. Federal graders may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns in accordance with AMS policy. Graders...

  20. 31 CFR 0.201 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political activity. 0.201 Section 0... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.201 Political activity. (a) Employees may: (1) Take an active part in political management or in political campaigns to the extent permitted by law (5...

  1. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  2. 31 CFR 0.201 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political activity. 0.201 Section 0... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.201 Political activity. (a) Employees may: (1) Take an active part in political management or in political campaigns to the extent permitted by law (5...

  3. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS...

  4. 31 CFR 0.201 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political activity. 0.201 Section 0... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.201 Political activity. (a) Employees may: (1) Take an active part in political management or in political campaigns to the extent permitted by law (5...

  5. 7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 58.61 Section 58.61 Agriculture....61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  6. 7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 70.25 Section 70.25 Agriculture... Graders § 70.25 Political activity. Federal graders may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns in accordance with AMS policy. Graders...

  7. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS...

  8. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  9. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  10. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section... Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns....

  11. 4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political campaign of a candidate for public office in a partisan election or a candidate for political... partisan candidate for public office or political party office; (13) Initiating or circulating a partisan... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activities. 7.3 Section 7.3 Accounts...

  12. Politics, Markets, and America's Schools: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubb, John E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Five articles comment on Chubb and Terry M. Moe's book "Politics, Markets, and America's Schools": (1) Choice in Education: Examining the Evidence on Equity; (2) Politics, Markets, and America's Schools: A Review; (3) Political Pollyannas; (4) Degrees of Imperfection: A Note from a Political Pollyanna; and (5) Thoughts on Choice. (SM)

  13. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  14. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  15. Generating political will for safe motherhood in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2003-03-01

    In 1987 an international conference brought global attention to an issue that previously had been ignored: the world's alarmingly high number of maternal deaths in childbirth. The conference ended with a declaration calling for a reduction in maternal mortality by at least half by the year 2000. As the deadline approached, safe motherhood activists lamented the fact that the world was nowhere near to achieving this objective. They attributed this failure to a variety of causes, but were in agreement that the medical technology was available to prevent maternal deaths in childbirth, and the key was generating the political will to make such technology widely available to women in developing countries.What 'political will' means, however, has been left as an unopened black box. What causes governments to give priority to the issue of safe motherhood, given that national political systems are burdened with thousands of issues to sort through each year? In marked contrast to our extensive knowledge about the medical interventions necessary to prevent maternal death, we know little about the political interventions necessary to increase the likelihood that national leaders pay meaningful attention to the issue. Drawing from a scholarly literature on agenda setting, this paper identifies four factors that heighten the likelihood that an issue will rise to national-level attention: the existence of clear indicators showing that a problem exists; the presence of effective political entrepreneurs to push the cause; the organization of attention-generating focusing events that promote widespread concern for the issue; and the availability of politically palatable policy alternatives that enable national leaders to understand that the problem is surmountable. The paper presents a case study of the emergence, waning and re-generation of political priority for safe motherhood in Indonesia over the decade 1987-1997, to highlight how these four factors interacted to raise safe

  16. A new constrained fixed-point algorithm for ordering independent components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Guo, Chonghui; Shi, Zhenwei; Feng, Enmin

    2008-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) aims to recover a set of unknown mutually independent components (ICs) from their observed mixtures without knowledge of the mixing coefficients. In the classical ICA model there exists ICs' indeterminacy on permutation and dilation. Constrained ICA is one of methods for solving this problem through introducing constraints into the classical ICA model. In this paper we first present a new constrained ICA model which composed of three parts: a maximum likelihood criterion as an objective function, statistical measures as inequality constraints and the normalization of demixing matrix as equality constraints. Next, we incorporate the new fixed-point (newFP) algorithm into this constrained ICA model to construct a new constrained fixed-point algorithm. Computation simulations on synthesized signals and speech signals demonstrate that this combination both can eliminate ICs' indeterminacy to a certain extent, and can provide better performance. Moreover, comparison results with the existing algorithm verify the efficiency of our new algorithm furthermore, and show that it is more simple to implement than the existing algorithm due to its advantage of not using the learning rate. Finally, this new algorithm is also applied for the real-world fetal ECG data, experiment results further indicate the efficiency of the new constrained fixed-point algorithm.

  17. Health care politics and policy: the business of medicine: a course for physician leaders.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article is a condensed and edited version of a speech delivered to the business of medicine: A Course for Physician Leaders symposium presented by Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Medical Directors Leadership Council at Yale University in November 2012 and drawn from Politics, Health, and Health Care: Selected Essays by Theodore R. Marmor and Rudolf Klein [1]. It faithfully reflects the major argument delivered, but it does not include the typical range of citations in a journal article. The material presented here reflects more than 40 years of teaching a course variously described as Political Analysis and Management, Policy and Political Analysis, and The Politics of Policy. The aim of all of these efforts is to inform audiences about the necessity of understanding political conflict in any arena, not least of which is the complex and costly world of medical care. PMID:24058315

  18. The politics of population.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    Whatever succeeds or fails to materialize at the UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, most of the peoples of the Earth are represented in one room where their common future is being charted. That is a staggering achievement after the chaotic and fragmented history of the human race up to this point. It is less a development willed by foresighted leaders than an inevitable response to the shrinkage of the planet due to population growth and resource depletion--plus the advent of instantaneous worldwide communication. Some of the alliances, disputes and side issues are momentous. There are governments dedicated to policies of controlling population, such as Egypt and the Philippines, in conflict with their own religious authorities. The Catholic Church finds itself in lock-step with the Islamic theologians opposing birth control and condemning abortion, raising the possibility of a previously unthinkable ecumenical breakthrough to add to the Vatican's dialogues with Protestant Christians and with Jews. There is President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt who wanted to host the conference to show off the stability of his country and regime, only to demonstrate the opposite as extremists threatened the same terror against delegates they have inflicted on tourists. Some Islamic regimes stayed away. There is the ultimate Western feminism and environmentalism expressed by Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway. And an astounding expression of women's rights to control such matters as childbearing, expressed by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, braving the wrath of clerics in her own country to attend, combined with a forceful denunciation of abortion startling to many of her Western admirers. The seriousness of the US effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to pass a meaningful document that will frame policy for world organizations, contrasts with the previous indifference of the predecessor Reagan and Bush administrations to the issue. The effort

  19. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb". PMID:24974611

  20. Vocative intonation preferences are sensitive to politeness factors.

    PubMed

    Borràs-Comes, Joan; Sichel-Bazin, Raféu; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Although intonation has been traditionally associated with the expression of attitudes and intentions on the part of the speaker, little is known about whether sociopragmatic factors, such as power or social distance, or situational ones, like physical distance or insistence, can constrain the use and felicity of pitch contours. This article investigates the felicity conditions underlying the choice of three vocative pitch contours in Central Catalan by means of two experiments, namely a production experiment based on the Discourse Completion Task (320 vocative contours produced by 20 speakers), and an acceptability judgment task in which 72 listeners were asked to rate the appropriateness match between a set of vocative contours and a previous discourse context (3,456 responses). The results from the two experiments show that both situational and social politeness factors govern the choice of vocative intonation. Finally, the results are discussed in line with the traditional classification of politeness strategies defined by Brown and Levinson, in the sense that the three intonation contours can be linked to negative, positive, and bald on-record politeness strategies. PMID:25935938

  1. Relationship between a Belief in a Just World and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Post, Phyllis; Flowers, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how belief in a just world (BJW), political ideology, religious ideology, socioeconomic status of origin, and race relate to social justice advocacy attitudes among school counseling professionals. A sequential multiple regression indicated that political ideology and BJW were statistically significant…

  2. The Indigenous World, 1995-96 = El Mundo Indigena, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marianne, Comp.

    This annual publication examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1995-96. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries, including threats to indigenous territories, human rights violations, political victories, developments at the United Nations,…

  3. Academic Mobility in a Changing World: Regional and Global Trends. Higher Education Policy 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Peggy, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains papers on regional and global trends that affect the political factors which are changing the context within which academic mobility occurs: (1) "Introduction" (by Peggy Blumenthal and others); (2) "Political Dimensions of Regionalism in a Changing World" (David Leyton-Brown); (3) "Economic Dimensions of Regionalism" (Gary…

  4. Political model of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

  5. Higher Education Reform in the Arab World. The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. 2011 U.S.-Islamic World Forum Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The youth-led revolutions that rocked the Arab world earlier this year have refocused attention on the region's 100 million-strong youth demographic and its critical role in the transformation of existing political, economic, and social structures in the Middle East and North Africa. Youth under the age of 25 represent an estimated and…

  6. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups. PMID:24452043

  7. Constraining the braneworld with gravitational wave observations.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Sean T

    2010-04-01

    Some braneworld models may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model (RS2), the AdS radius of curvature, l, of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby reproducing Newtonian gravity in the weak-field limit. However, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, it has been suggested that one possible consequence of RS2 is an enormous increase in Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. We utilize this possibility to derive two novel methods for constraining l via gravitational wave measurements. We show that the EMRI event rate detected by LISA can constrain l at the approximately 1 microm level for optimal cases, while the observation of a single galactic black hole binary with LISA results in an optimal constraint of l < or = 5 microm. PMID:20481929

  8. Elastic Domain Architectures in Constrained Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsker, J.; Artemev, A.; Roytburd, A. L.

    2002-08-01

    The formation of elastic domains in transforming constrained films is a mechanism of relaxation of internal stresses caused by the misfit between a film and a substrate. The formation and evolution of polydomain microstructure as a result of the cubic-tetragonal transformation in a constrained layer are investigated by phase-field simulation. It has been shown that the three-domain hierarchical structure can be formed in the epitaxial films. With changing a fraction of out-of-plane domain there are two types of morphological transitions: from the three-domain structure to the two-domain one and from the hierarchical three-domain structure to the cellular three-domain structure. The results of the phase-field simulation are compared with available experimental data on 90deg domain structures in epitaxial ferroelectric films.

  9. Constraining SUSY GUTs and Inflation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rocher, Jonathan

    2006-11-03

    In the framework of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), the universe undergoes a cascade of symmetry breakings, during which topological defects can be formed. We address the question of the probability of cosmic string formation after a phase of hybrid inflation within a large number of models of SUSY GUTs in agreement with particle and cosmological data. We show that cosmic strings are extremely generic and should be used to relate cosmology and high energy physics. This conclusion is employed together with the WMAP CMB data to strongly constrain SUSY hybrid inflation models. F-term and D-term inflation are studied in the SUSY and minimal SUGRA framework. They are both found to agree with data but suffer from fine tuning of their superpotential coupling ({lambda} (less-or-similar sign) 3 x 10-5 or less). Mass scales of inflation are also constrained to be less than M < or approx. 3 x 1015 GeV.

  10. Constrained optimization via artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yen, Gary G; He, Zhongshi

    2014-02-01

    An artificial immune system inspired by the fundamental principle of the vertebrate immune system, for solving constrained optimization problems, is proposed. The analogy between the mechanism of biological immune response and constrained optimization formulation is drawn. Individuals in population are classified into feasible and infeasible groups according to their constraint violations that closely match with the two states, inactivated and activated, of B-cells in the immune response. Feasible group focuses on exploitation in the feasible areas through clonal selection, recombination, and hypermutation, while infeasible group facilitates exploration along the feasibility boundary via location update. Direction information is extracted to promote the interactions between these two groups. This approach is validated by the benchmark functions proposed most recently and compared with those of the state of the art from various branches of evolutionary computation paradigms. The performance achieved is considered fairly competitive and promising. PMID:23757542

  11. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Martin; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian

    2016-03-01

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model's capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  12. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  13. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  14. Cosmicflows Constrained Local UniversE Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Helene M.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tully, R. Brent; Pomarède, Daniel; Carlesi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines observational data sets and cosmological simulations to generate realistic numerical replicas of the nearby Universe. The latter are excellent laboratories for studies of the non-linear process of structure formation in our neighbourhood. With measurements of radial peculiar velocities in the local Universe (cosmicflows-2) and a newly developed technique, we produce Constrained Local UniversE Simulations (CLUES). To assess the quality of these constrained simulations, we compare them with random simulations as well as with local observations. The cosmic variance, defined as the mean one-sigma scatter of cell-to-cell comparison between two fields, is significantly smaller for the constrained simulations than for the random simulations. Within the inner part of the box where most of the constraints are, the scatter is smaller by a factor of 2 to 3 on a 5 h-1 Mpc scale with respect to that found for random simulations. This one-sigma scatter obtained when comparing the simulated and the observation-reconstructed velocity fields is only 104 ± 4 km s-1, i.e. the linear theory threshold. These two results demonstrate that these simulations are in agreement with each other and with the observations of our neighbourhood. For the first time, simulations constrained with observational radial peculiar velocities resemble the local Universe up to a distance of 150 h-1 Mpc on a scale of a few tens of megaparsecs. When focusing on the inner part of the box, the resemblance with our cosmic neighbourhood extends to a few megaparsecs (<5 h-1 Mpc). The simulations provide a proper large-scale environment for studies of the formation of nearby objects.

  15. Constrained simulation of the Bullet Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Craig; Farrar, Glennys

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and the 0.5-2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full two-dimensional (2D) observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocities. The study gives insight into the astrophysical processes at play during a galaxy cluster merger, and constrains the strength and coherence length of the magnetic fields. The techniques developed here to create realistic, stable, triaxial clusters, and to utilize the totality of the 2D image data, will be applicable to future simulation studies of other merging clusters. This approach of constrained simulation, when applied to well-measured systems, should be a powerful complement to present tools for understanding X-ray clusters and their magnetic fields, and the processes governing their formation.

  16. Hybrid evolutionary programming for heavily constrained problems.

    PubMed

    Myung, H; Kim, J H

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid of evolutionary programming (EP) and a deterministic optimization procedure is applied to a series of non-linear and quadratic optimization problems. The hybrid scheme is compared with other existing schemes such as EP alone, two-phase (TP) optimization, and EP with a non-stationary penalty function (NS-EP). The results indicate that the hybrid method can outperform the other methods when addressing heavily constrained optimization problems in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. PMID:8833746

  17. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnar, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabo, R.

    2016-05-01

    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did not have spectroscopic data.

  18. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  19. An English language interface for constrained domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  20. Constrained optimum trajectories with specified range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lee, H.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating costs (DOC). The state variable is range-to-go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (500 n. mi. and less) a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur. The performance difference between free thrust and constrained thrust trajectories has been determined in computer calculations for an example transport aircraft.

  1. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies. PMID:26055025

  2. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph R

    2011-01-25

    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  3. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  4. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  5. Broadcast Political Advertisements and the Public Political Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Howard H.

    The method of campaigning politically on television has changed markedly between 1952, when speeches by candidates were the prevalent mode of television campaigning, and 1972, when 60-second and 30-second spot announcements had almost replaced broadcast addresses. However, studies show that spots do not constitute an important source of political…

  6. The Power of Innocence: From Politeness to Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, Simon; James, Kim

    1991-01-01

    Etiquette serves as a defense of the social order while hiding that purpose from its beneficiaries. Although people believe their manners guarantee integrity, politically "innocent" powerful people are often unintentionally offensive to people of a different class, ethnicity, or gender. (SK)

  7. The new urban politics as a politics of carbon control.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Andrew E G; Gibbs, David; While, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance. PMID:22081834

  8. Service Learning as Justice Advocacy: Can Political Scientists Do Politics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the topic of service learning and discusses the two variations of service learning: (1) providing charitable services; and (2) engaging students in political organizing and social advocacy. Focuses on the Westside Outreach Center and the Urban Citizen Project at the University of Colorado (Denver). (CMK)

  9. The Political Polarization of Women: Where Political Scientists Went Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacManus, Susan A.

    Early research into women's political participation assumed erroneously that gender was more important than race, ethnicity, and class, that uniform commitment on women's issues would occur, and that only female officeholders could represent women. Based on attitudinal, participatory, and electoral data collected in Houston, Texas in 1977-78, this…

  10. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  11. Political myths and totalitarianism: an anthropological analysis of their causal interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the key political, anthropological and socio-cultural functions of political myths in the appearance and functioning of totalitarian regimes. A special emphasis is put on structural elements of the myth (mythemes) and the mythic content (narratives) in the processes of artificial construction of a new society (community) based on the myth-inspired ideological postulates. The paper argues that the establishment of totalitarianism marked a certain anthropological devolution. This devolution, in turn, proceeds through the deconstruction of civil society as an organic social sphere and the artificial construction of a new political community based on ideological postulates and political myths. In support of this assertion, it is first shown how the mythical narratives--transformed into political concepts and programs--were the basis of (re)interpretation of the world, society and individual, and essentially determined the nature and functioning of the totalitarian regimes. Then, the specific political myths are analyzed and compared, as well as their content and origin, and particularly their dual function. It in turn is analyzed in the framework of the classical society-community dichotomy, where the (civil) society is founded socio-politically on the social contract, and the (political) community socio-anthropologically on political myth. In a situation of identity and legitimacy crisis, anomie and the weakening of social cohesion--the characteristic conditions of the great economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century that enabled the emergence of totalitarianism--society as a contracting community does not work. A strong need for meaning (at the individual and societal level) affects the citizens' susceptibility to (political) concepts of (re)constitution of (political) community with which they can identify. Right there, totalitarian movements use the cohesive power of the political myth that replaces the rationally based

  12. The World Oil Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Christopher T.

    1976-01-01

    America's domestic petroleum industry and the international industry have been dominated by seven major firms. Although production costs decreased, sale prices soared with developing political-corporate interrelationships. (MR)

  13. Portrayal of Political Parties by the Television Broadcast Media in Single and Dual-Party Political Systems: Comparing the Soviet Union to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    A study examined the treatment and portrayal of political parties on Soviet and American television. The content of six newscasts of "World News Tonight" and "Vremya" during June of 1984 were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The overall results suggest that 15 stories (24% of the total allotted time) pertaining directly to political…

  14. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    PubMed

    Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active. PMID:26331611

  15. Orwell on Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Newspeak, the engineered language of George Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four," is discussed in the context of Orwell's wider views on language and politics and the need for linguistic intervention as part of the struggle against tyranny, and the related or opposed ideas of some of Orwell's contemporaries and Saussure. Orwell worried that…

  16. The Politics of Primary Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The author is concerned with politics in a wider sense--providing children with an individual and collective sense of identity in time and space, giving them opportunities for the exploration of shared experience, making them aware of the responsibilities and privileges of community. (Editor)

  17. Teaching and Practicing Transformational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abalos, David T.

    This conference paper asserts that there are four faces to the stories of people's lives: (1) a personal face; (2) a political face; (3) a historical face; and (4) a sacred face. The study explains how each of these faces interacts in society and is used to analyze and to teach multicultural literary works as archetypal stories from the…

  18. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  19. Political Winds Still Buffeting NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the current status of the Bauman amendment that would have all National Science Foundation (NSF) grants subjected to prior Congressional approval on a monthly basis and discusses possible developments that may arise from pressure by conservative political organizations to make NSF funding more responsive to Congressional review. (GS)

  20. Developing States: Politics and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…

  1. Politics and Patriotism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2006-01-01

    It has often been said that the Inuit have many words to describe snow because one would be wholly inadequate to capture accurately the variety of frozen precipitation. Like snow, patriotism is a more nuanced idea than is immediately apparent. Political scientists, sociologists, and educators would do well to expand the roster of words used to…

  2. Teaching Political Analysis: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlefson, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A framework using concepts from systems theory, theories of power, and the garbage can model of decision-making was developed for the purpose of teaching aspiring school administrators to analyze situations using a political lens. The framework is demonstrated in an analysis of the process that led to Ohio's establishing a school facilities…

  3. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  4. Teaching Psychology: The Political Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, John

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author raises two critical aspects not adequately addressed in John Radford's (2008) wide ranging article on the teaching of psychology in higher education. The first aspect is the relevance of boundaries. The second aspect is the political context(s). These two issues, though artificially dissociated for current purposes,…

  5. The Political Persuasion of Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses liberalism in America, with emphasis on the liberal commitment to individualism. The political values of librarians are considered in this context, and it is argued that, although librarians perpetuate the myth that librarianship is apolitical, it reflects a general American culture that consists primarily of liberal tenets. (25…

  6. The Text and Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that textbooks legitimate selective forms of knowledge underlying supposedly democratic reforms heavily influenced by conservative economic/political forces and eclipsing the historical experiences and cultural expression of the less powerful. Views textbooks as part of social construction of reality. Calls for politicized, multiple…

  7. Political Parody and Public Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  8. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil attitudes,…

  9. The Politics of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergari, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Charter schools, and other market-based reforms such as school vouchers and the student tutoring provision of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, are steeped in politics largely because they challenge the legitimacy of traditional power and funding arrangements in public education. The charter school reform is a significant public-private hybrid…

  10. Political Rhetoric of Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W., Ed.; Cragan, John F., Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This student published, quarterly journal is a forum for student thought on contemporary issues in rhetoric and communication. This issue focuses on the "Political Rhetoric of Our Times." The articles in this issue focus on the following topics: application of fantasy themes to individual role identification in the small group setting; an analysis…

  11. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  12. The Politics of Biomedical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course designed to explicate the political dimensions of biomedical issues now emerging in American society. The course combines a rigorous overview of the technologies and the accompanying value changes which are producing these issues with a discussion of the problems being raised. (RM)

  13. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  14. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  15. Developing Political Tolerance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own. It is a central tenet of a liberal democracy. The individual rights and freedoms that U.S. citizens value encourage a wide array of ideas and beliefs, some of which may offend segments of the population.…

  16. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  17. Exposure to Political Diversity Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet gives individuals more choice in political news and information sources and more tools to filter out disagreeable information. Citing the preference described by selective exposure theory--that people see and attend to information that supports their beliefs and avoid counter-attitudinal information--observers warn that people may use…

  18. Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesina, Alberto; Baqir, Reza; Hoxby, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    We investigate whether political jurisdictions form in response to the trade-off between economies of scale and the costs of a heterogeneous population. We consider heterogeneity in income, race, ethnicity, and religion, and we test the model using American school districts, school attendance areas, municipalities, and special districts. We find…

  19. Social Studies: Eco-Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRoe, Margaret E.; LaRoe, Edward T.

    This guide, one of a series in the Quinmester Program, is intended to aid teachers in grades 10 through 12 as they prepare instructional programs dealing with current environmental crisis issues. The aim of this course of study is to help students understand political and economic ramifications of environmental problems and to motivate and provide…

  20. Complicated Politics to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…