Science.gov

Sample records for polluted subtropical marine

  1. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  2. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone. PMID:23324543

  4. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  5. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  6. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  7. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  8. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  9. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  10. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  11. Sediment characteristics and benthic ecological status in contrasting marine environments of subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2016-02-15

    Sediment characteristics and benthic communities on a finer sampling scale in four contrasting environments in subtropical Hong Kong were analyzed in summer and winter 2012. In two harbour habitats which suffered from historic sewage pollution or hypoxic events, organic carbon, nutrient and trace metal content in the sediment were significantly higher than that in an offshore area and a marine reserve. The relatively low organic and nutrient content in the offshore habitat could be resulted from enhanced resuspension of such materials from the seabed owing to intense water mixing and disturbance caused by bottom trawling. The biotic indices AMBI and M-AMBI were shown to be useful in assessing the benthic ecological status of these habitats. Such indices can also be more sensitive than sediment physico-chemical parameters in differentiating the response of macrofauna to seasonal changes in the benthic environment. PMID:26749224

  12. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4... pollutants. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may offer for transportation or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  13. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  14. Pollution risk from marine casualties

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    In the oil tanker, oil shipping industry, there is no single fail-safe design that can ensure spill-free protection under all possible circumstances. Regulatory efforts have focused on design improvements that can be incorporated with out destroying the basic mission. Good examples are the IMO requirements for segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing, and inert gas systems which have become mandatory over the last 15 years. They have contributed much to reduce pollution and enhance safety of life at sea. In contrast, the double-hull design, which has been mandated for new vessels operating in US waters, adds 15% to 20% more to a vessel's construction cost with no offsetting income. Most ship owners are not enamored with the double hull requirement, which will not necessarily save them from ruinous financial exposure to unlimited liability if involved in a major oil spill in the US, even if all reasonable safety precautions have been followed. There are no physical features in a ship that offset operational shortcomings such as an incompentent crew, poor operating procedures, or a lack of navigational aids. The problem in the industry is not vessel age or deficiencies in design, nor lack of safety rules and regulations. The problem is one of poor enforcement, which accounts for most of the operational inadequacies evidenced in vessels. But above all, safe marine operations depend on people. The human element remains the most important part of the safety equation.

  15. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  16. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  17. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  18. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  19. 49 CFR 176.70 - Stowage requirements for marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. 176.70... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.70 Stowage requirements for marine pollutants. (a) Marine pollutants must be properly stowed and secured to minimize the hazards to the marine environment...

  20. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  1. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 172.322 Section 172.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  2. Marine oil pollution detection with MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Xiao, Kang; Fang, Shenghui; Dong, Yanfang

    2013-10-01

    Marine oil pollution is one of the most serious pollutants on the damage to the contemporary marine environment, with the characteristics of a wide range of proliferation, which is difficult to control and eliminate. As a result, marine oil pollution has caused huge economic losses. The remote sensing sensors can detect and record the spectral information of sea film and background seawater. Here we chose to use 250-resolution MODIS data in the area of Dalian Xingang, China where ill spill case was happened on April.4th, 2005. Based on the image pre-processing and enhanced image processing, the spectral features of different bands were analyzed. More obvious characteristics of the spectral range of film was obtained. The oil-water contrast was calculated to evaluate the feature of oil at different spectral band. The result indicates that IR band has the maximum value of reflective. So band ratio was used between 400nm and 800nm and the original radiance images were used between 800nm and 2130nm. In order to get the most obvious images of entropy windows of different sizes were tested in order to decide the optimum window. At last, a FCM fuzzy clustering method and image texture analysis was combined for the MODIS images of the oil spill area segmentation. At last, the oil spill zone was estimated, the results were satisfied.

  3. Local stratification control of marine productivity in the subtropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2010-12-01

    Strengthened stratification of the upper ocean due to global warming is generally expected to inhibit marine primary productivity in the subtropics, based on the supposition that increased water column stability will decrease vertical mixing and consequently the entrainment of deep nutrients into the euphotic zone. A recent analysis of observational data from the subtropical North Atlantic, however, demonstrates that productivity in this region is not correlated with stratification on interannual time scales over the modern observational record, but is instead impacted by other dynamics that affect vertical mixing and nutrient supply. Herein, we examine data from the Hawaiian Ocean Time series program's Station ALOHA (A Long-Term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment) in the subtropical North Pacific. We find that stratification and productivity are not strongly correlated at this location over the observational record. In contrast to the North Atlantic, the weakness of correlation observed at ALOHA may reflect the strongly stratified ecosystem of the eastern subtropical North Pacific and a lack of sufficiently strong interannual forcing in this region. Although basin-wide climate processes (namely El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadel Oscillation) have previously been suggested to impact local stratification and vertical nutrient supply at ALOHA, we find no evidence of a strong or consistent linkage. Comparing local ecosystem variability to the recently identified North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, however, we observe a correlation with local subsurface productivity and salinity. The correlations have similar structure in both space (i.e., depth) and time and are possibly linked to dynamics associated with the formation and advection of water masses in the central gyre.

  4. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  5. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Ginn, Thomas; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    This review covers selected 2014 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due in part to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them. PMID:26420104

  6. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them. PMID:27620108

  7. Isotopic constraints on the formation pathways of sulfate aerosol in the marine boundary layer of the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B.; Allman, D. J.; Amos, H. M.; Fairlie, T. D.; Dachs, J.; Hegg, Dean A.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2012-03-01

    We use observations of the oxygen-17 excess of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol (Δ17O(nssSO42-)) collected from two ship cruises in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean in August 2006 and February 2007 to quantify the formation pathways of sulfate in the marine boundary layer (MBL). The large observed Δ17O(nssSO42-) values up to 7.3‰ suggest a large role for sulfate formation via S(IV) oxidation by O3 in the MBL. Model simulations with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model suggest that in-cloud oxidation of S(IV) by O3 represents over one-third (36-37%) of total in-cloud sulfate production on average. A model parameterization accounting for the impacts of sea salt aerosol on cloud droplet chemical heterogeneity and resulting impacts on in-cloud sulfate production rates improves the model's agreement with the Δ17O(nssSO42-) observations in the MBL. Including this parameterization in the model had little impact on the global sulfur budget due to the dominant role of continental anthropogenic emissions for global sulfur emissions in the present-day. The large observed Δ17O(nssSO42-) argue against a significant role of hypobromous (HOBr) or hypochlorous (HOCl) acid for sulfate formation in the remote MBL of the wintertime subtropical northeast Atlantic, but S(IV) oxidation by HOBr/HOCl on the order of 20% of total sulfate abundance is consistent with the summertime Δ17O(nssSO42-) observations in the more polluted coastal region of the Iberian Peninsula. Additional measurements of Δ17O(nssSO42-) are needed to quantify sulfate production mechanisms in the MBL over larger spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Impact of flood damage on pollutant removal efficiencies of a subtropical urban constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Tsai-Ming; Chen, Pen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Hsieh, Hwey-Lien; Guan, Chung-Yu

    2010-09-15

    Typhoons and hurricanes in subtropical/tropical regions can induce significant environmental changes (e.g., mass flooding and inundations). However, the damage to the pollutant removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands brought about by these natural disturbances has been neglected in major studies conducted in temperate climates. Therefore, this study compares the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland in the Danshui River Basin, before and after the system was inundated with flooding from Typhoon Krosa in 2007. The pollutant removal performance of the free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland was investigated monthly from September 2006 to April 2008. Results of the study demonstrated that this FWS wetland effectively removed 64.3% BOD, 98.9% NH(4)-N, and 39.5% Total-P before Typhoon Krosa. However, the extensive flooding caused by Typhoon Krosa swept over most of the aboveground plant community and deposited the sediment onto the bottom of each compartment. Subsequently, reduced pollutant removal efficiencies were observed. Only 37.7% BOD, 35.1% NH(4)-N, and 31.8% Total-P were removed after this event, although the flow regime was immediately restored. Comparing the water quality data for the FWS wetland before and after Typhoon Krosa revealed the immediate, quantitative damage to the pollutant removal performance caused by the typhoon's inundation. Consequently, a high-flow bypass and additional preventive measures would protect any constructed wetland in areas subject to typhoons. PMID:20656329

  9. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs. PMID:17070861

  10. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  11. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  12. Sunrise ozone destruction found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    A new mechanism of ozone loss is found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer over the north Pacific. This ozone destruction occurs just after sunrise (hereafter Sunrise Ozone Destruction, SOD) and is commonly found throughout the year. SOD is a predominant ozone loss mechanism in winter, which takes place after sunrise in a few hours with 1∼2 ppbv of ozone depletion for 40∼50 ppbv of background ozone, while, in summer, SOD is weaker than in winter with small ozone depletion for 10∼20 ppbv of background ozone. In summer, daytime ozone destruction (hereafter, DOD) associated with UV photolysis and subsequent HOx reaction is more active. Since DOD is not active in early morning, SOD should be a new ozone loss mechanism. After demonstrating the observational findings, halogen chemistry associated with sea-salt aerosols is described as a possible mechanism.

  13. Marine Pollution and the Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Arthur E., III

    1975-01-01

    Despite a rising tide of contamination, effective controls of marine pollution appear dubious because of conflicting national and economic interests. Since countries can not agree on problems such as national sovereignty, dispute settlement, jurisdiction over oil on the Continental Shelf and international seabed sources, marine pollution will…

  14. The impact of a high magnitude flood on metal pollution in a shallow subtropical estuarine embayment.

    PubMed

    Coates-Marnane, J; Olley, J; Burton, J; Grinham, A

    2016-11-01

    Drought-breaking floods pose a risk to coastal water quality as sediments, nutrients, and pollutants stored within catchments during periods of low flow are mobilized and delivered to coastal waters within a short period of time. Here we use subtidal surface sediment surveys and sediment cores to explore the effects of the 2011 Brisbane River flood on trace metals zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and phosphorus (P) deposition in Moreton Bay, a shallow subtropical bay in eastern Australia. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments in central Moreton Bay derived from the 2011 flood were the highest yet observed in the Bay. We suggest flushing of metal rich sediments which had accumulated on the Brisbane River floodplain and in its estuary during the preceding 10 to 40years of low flows to be the primary source of this increase. This highlights the importance of intermittent high magnitude floods in tidally influenced rivers in controlling metal transport to coastal waters in subtropical regions. PMID:27380395

  15. Genomic and Metabolic Diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the Mesopelagic of Two Subtropical Gyres

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Brandon K.; Chaffin, Mark D.; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Morrison, Hilary G.; Field, Erin K.; Poulton, Nicole J.; Masland, E. Dashiell P.; Harris, Christopher C.; Sczyrba, Alexander; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Koren, Sergey; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2014-01-01

    Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs) are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures. PMID:24743558

  16. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Alejandro; Casas-Valdez, Margarita; Carrillo, Silvia; Hernández, Hugo; Monroy, Alberto; Sanginés, Leonor; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Sargassum meal as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen. The Sargassum algae used in this experiment were collected at the end of spring, when they are more abundant, bigger, and have completed their reproductive cycle. Four tons (wet weigth) were collected manually from the intertidal zone of La Paz bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These algae were sun-dried and ground in a hammer mill to obtain the Sargassum meal. Four fistulated Pelibuey sheep, were fed daily with diets containing the marine algae (MA) at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 %), using a 4 x 4 Latin-square design experiment. Feed intake was not affected (p>0.05). Water consumption and urine excretion increased with MA (p<0.05; r2=0.54 and r2=0.74, respectively). In all treatments dry matter digestibility was of 74%-79%, and crude protein digestibility was of 85%-88%. Acid detergent fiber (59%-65%) and neutral detergent fiber (55%-66%) digestibility were greater in all treatments with MA. Ruminal pH was greater in all groups fed with MA (p<0.05). Ammonium concentration was not influenced (p>0.05) by MA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased in all MA groups (p<0.05). The marine algae Sargassum spp. can be used as a feed supplement for sheep, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where these marine algae are available. PMID:20073352

  17. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Katye E; Fawcett, Sarah E; Peters, Andrew J; Sigman, Daniel M; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-01-26

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean's external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20-80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud "washout") is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  18. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Katye E.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Peters, Andrew J.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Hastings, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean’s external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20–80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud “washout”) is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  19. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Hamish A.; Schultz, Arthur L.; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  20. The niche of an invasive marine microbe in a subtropical freshwater impoundment.

    PubMed

    Hambright, K David; Beyer, Jessica E; Easton, James D; Zamor, Richard M; Easton, Anne C; Hallidayschult, Thayer C

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention in aquatic ecology is focusing on biogeographic patterns in microorganisms and whether these potential patterns can be explained within the framework of general ecology. The long-standing microbiologist's credo 'Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' suggests that dispersal is not limiting for microbes, but that the environment is the primary determining factor in microbial community composition. Advances in molecular techniques have provided new evidence that biogeographic patterns exist in microbes and that dispersal limitation may actually have an important role, yet more recent study using extremely deep sequencing predicts that indeed everything is everywhere. Using a long-term field study of the 'invasive' marine haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, we characterize the environmental niche of P. parvum in a subtropical impoundment in the southern United States. Our analysis contributes to a growing body of evidence that indicates a primary role for environmental conditions, but not dispersal, in the lake-wide abundances and seasonal bloom patterns in this globally important microbe. PMID:24950108

  1. The niche of an invasive marine microbe in a subtropical freshwater impoundment

    PubMed Central

    David Hambright, K; Beyer, Jessica E; Easton, James D; Zamor, Richard M; Easton, Anne C; Hallidayschult, Thayer C

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention in aquatic ecology is focusing on biogeographic patterns in microorganisms and whether these potential patterns can be explained within the framework of general ecology. The long-standing microbiologist's credo ‘Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' suggests that dispersal is not limiting for microbes, but that the environment is the primary determining factor in microbial community composition. Advances in molecular techniques have provided new evidence that biogeographic patterns exist in microbes and that dispersal limitation may actually have an important role, yet more recent study using extremely deep sequencing predicts that indeed everything is everywhere. Using a long-term field study of the ‘invasive' marine haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, we characterize the environmental niche of P. parvum in a subtropical impoundment in the southern United States. Our analysis contributes to a growing body of evidence that indicates a primary role for environmental conditions, but not dispersal, in the lake-wide abundances and seasonal bloom patterns in this globally important microbe. PMID:24950108

  2. Physical transport properties of marine microplastic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballent, A.; Purser, A.; Mendes, P. de Jesus; Pando, S.; Thomsen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Given the complexity of quantitative collection, knowledge of the distribution of microplastic pollution in many regions of the world ocean is patchy, both spatially and temporally, especially for the subsurface environment. However, with knowledge of typical hydrodynamic behavior of waste plastic material, models predicting the dispersal of pelagic and benthic plastics from land sources into the ocean are possible. Here we investigate three aspects of plastic distribution and transport in European waters. Firstly, we assess patterns in the distribution of plastics found in fluvial strandlines of the North Sea and how distribution may be related to flow velocities and distance from source. Second, we model transport of non-buoyant preproduction pellets in the Nazaré Canyon of Portugal using the MOHID system after assessing the density, settling velocity, critical and depositional shear stress characteristics of such waste plastics. Thirdly, we investigate the effect of surface turbulences and high pressures on a range of marine plastic debris categories (various densities, degradation states and shapes tested) in an experimental water column simulator tank and pressure laboratory. Plastics deposited on North Sea strandlines varied greatly spatially, as a function of material composition and distance from source. Model outputs indicated that such dense production pellets are likely transported up and down canyon as a function of tidal forces, with only very minor net down canyon movement. Behaviour of plastic fragments under turbulence varied greatly, with the dimensions of the material, as well as density, playing major determining roles. Pressure was shown to affect hydrodynamic behaviours of only low density foam plastics at pressures ≥ 60 bar.

  3. Habitat partitioning by five congeneric and abundant Choerodon species (Labridae) in a large subtropical marine embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairclough, D. V.; Clarke, K. R.; Valesini, F. J.; Potter, I. C.

    2008-04-01

    The habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of five morphologically similar, diurnally active and abundant Choerodon species in the large subtropical environment of Shark Bay, a "World Heritage Property" on the west coast of Australia, have been determined. The densities of the two life cycle stages of each Choerodon species in those habitats were used in various analyses to test the hypotheses that: (1) habitats are partitioned among these species and between their juveniles and adults; (2) such habitat partitioning is greatest in the case of the two Western Australian endemic species, i.e. Choerodon rubescens and Choerodon cauteroma; and (3) the extent of habitat partitioning between both of these two species and the only species that is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, i.e. Choerodon schoenleinii, will be less pronounced. Initially, catches of each of the five congeneric species, obtained during other studies in Shark Bay by angling, spearfishing and otter trawling, were collated to elucidate the broad distribution of these species in that embayment. Underwater visual census was then used to determine the densities of the juveniles and adults of each Choerodon species at sites representing the four habitat types in which one or more of these species had been caught, i.e. reefs in marine waters at the western boundary of the bay and seagrass, reefs and rocky shorelines in the two inner gulfs. The compositions of the Choerodon species over marine (entrance channel) reefs and in seagrass were significantly different and each differed significantly from those in both inner gulf reefs and rocky shorelines, which were, however, not significantly different. Choerodon rubescens was restricted to exposed marine reefs, and thus occupied a different habitat and location of the bay than C. cauteroma, the other endemic species, which was almost exclusively confined to habitats found in the inner gulfs. Choerodon cauteroma differed from other Choerodon

  4. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. PMID:26330016

  5. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments. PMID:16740278

  6. The effects of pollution on marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The long-term program for pollution monitoring and research in the mediterranean sea (MED POL--PHASE II), which is the scientific/technical component of the mediterranean action plan, is basically divided into two groups of activities, namely monitoring and research. The research component is divided into twelve topics one of which is concerned with the ecosystem modifications in areas influenced by pollutants.

  7. Heavy Metals in Marine Pollution Perspective-A Mini Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, T. M.; Marr, I. L.; Tariq, N.

    Anthropogenic inputs of pollutants such as heavy metals into the marine environment have increased their levels to large extents within past a few decades. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the bottom sediments. As a result, ecosystems such as seaports or other industrialized coastal areas that have chronic inputs of metals have highly contaminated sediments. This characteristic has led to concerns over the ecological effects that may be associated with sediment quality. Of particular concern are toxic effects and the potential for bioaccumulation of metals in biota exposed to the sediments. The availability of heavy metals to the biomass of a polluted region is the prime concern both in terms of the prediction of the effects of metal pollution on an ecosystem and in terms of possible human health risks. With growing interest on environmental issues, several intriguing questions related to heavy metals are often raised. This review addresses the basic concepts, sources, speciation, mode of action, levels, analytical measurement, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biological role and toxicity of heavy metals in the marine environment. Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic and Barium are selected because these metals are common and are often at measurable levels in marine samples. An attempt has been made to answer the queries presented by the environmentalists working on various aspects of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment

  8. Multiscale Covariability of Surface Wind, Humidity and Temperature in the Subtropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fildier, Benjamin; Collins, William

    2016-04-01

    Trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in oceanic subtropical regions are sources of much uncertainty in current global climate model (GCM) simulations. Errors in low cloud fraction and rain amounts are a result of inadequate parameterizations for describing the small-scale boundary layer processes specific to the convective and cloud-formation dynamics of those regions. While most cloud parameterization techniques do consider sub-grid scale variability in specific humidity (q), the significant fluctuations in temperature (T) and wind speed (u) in the boundary layer are still often neglected. In order to better acknowledge the interactions of these fields with cloud and convection, understanding their codependence seems crucial. For example, using the negative correlations between T and q on large scales has helped to improve cloud parameterizations, and wind shear is known to modulate cloud layer decoupling and affect the liquid water path (LWP). While numerous studies document the spatial properties of T , q and u independently through power spectra and multifractal analyses, the covariation between these three variables and their spatial increments - and how these relationships change across spatial scales - has not been adequately and quantitatively characterized. The present work focuses on the spatial covariability and multiscale coupling between fluctuations in q, T and u in the marine boundary layer and seeks to understand which pieces of information are required for better predicting LWP on a variety of scales from a few tens to a few hundred kms. We use remote-sensing measurements of thermodynamic variables from MODIS and surface wind estimates from QuikSCAT. The scale-by-scale covariability of two variables is quantified through their Fourier and wavelet cross spectra, using Haar wavelets; these spectra permit the calculation of multiscale coupling exponents when appropriate. Results from this study are threefold: (1) we quantify the contributions of

  9. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed. PMID:24564165

  10. Monitoring Mediterranean marine pollution using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Drago, Aldo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Human activities contaminate both coastal areas and open seas, even though impacts are different in terms of pollutants, ecosystems and recovery time. In particular, Mediterranean offshore pollution is mainly related to maritime transport of oil, accounting for 25% of the global maritime traffic and, during the last 25 years, for nearly 7% of the world oil accidents, thus causing serious biological impacts on both open sea and coastal zone habitats. This paper provides a general review of maritime pollution monitoring using integrated approaches of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling; focusing on the main results of the MAPRES (Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images) research project on the synergistic use of remote sensing, forecasting, cleanup measures and environmental consequences. The paper also investigates techniques of oil spill detection using SAR images, presenting the first results of "Monitoring of marine pollution due to oil slick", a COSMO-SkyMed funded research project where X-band SAR constellation images provided by the Italian Space Agency are used. Finally, the prospect of using real time observations of marine surface conditions is presented through CALYPSO project (CALYPSO-HF Radar Monitoring System and Response against Marine Oil Spills in the Malta Channel), partly financed by the EU under the Operational Programme Italia-Malta 2007-2013. The project concerns the setting up of a permanent and fully operational HF radar observing system, capable of recording surface currents (in real-time with hourly updates) in the stretch of sea between Malta and Sicily. A combined use of collected data and numerical models, aims to optimize intervention and response in the case of marine oil spills.

  11. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  12. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  13. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  14. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  15. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  16. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  17. Molecular Biomarkers: their significance and application in marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Ray, D; Shrivastava, Amulya N; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the significance of the use of molecular biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tributyltin (TBT) and other toxic metals on the marine ecosystem a suite of biomarkers are being extensively used worldwide. Among the various types of biomarkers, the following have received special attention: cytochrome P4501A induction, DNA integrity, acetylcholinesterase activity and metallothionein induction. These biomarkers are being used to evaluate exposure of various species of sentinel marine organisms (e.g. mussels, clams, oysters, snails, fishes, etc.) to and the effect of various contaminants (organic xenobiotics and metals) using different molecular approaches [biochemical assays, enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA), spectrophotometric, fluorometric measurement, differential pulsed polarography, liquid chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry]. The induction of the biotransformation enzyme, cytochrome P4501A in fishes (Callionymus lyra, Limanda limanda, Serranus sp., Mullus barbatus) and mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by various xenobiotic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs, PCDs is used as a biomarker of exposure to such organic pollutants. The induction of cytochrome P4501A is involved in chemical carcinogenesis through catalysis of the covalent bonding of organic contaminants to a DNA strand leading to formation of DNA adduct. Measurement of the induction of cytochrome P4501A in terms of EROD (7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase) activity is successfully used as a potential biomarker of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants in marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of neurotoxic compounds on marine environment the evaluation of acetylcholinesterase

  18. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size. PMID:21295292

  19. Ciliated Protozoa in marine pollution studies. A conspectus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.G.

    1983-04-01

    The ecological role of the marine ciliates is discussed with reference to the interaction of this group with contaminants. While the ciliates may be of some value in routine screening of potential toxins, simple laboratory bioassays are unlikely to be of predictive value in assessing threats to the marine environment. There is some evidence that ciliates may take part in the transfer and transformation of potential pollutants. Further field and laboratory studies are required in order to identify and quantify the role of ciliates in these processes.

  20. The developing framework of marine ecotoxicology: Pollutants as a variable in marine ecosystems?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Marine ecosystems include a subset in which at least some interrelated geochemical, biochemical, physiological, population and community characteristics are changed by pollutants. Moderate contamination is relatively widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, so the subset of ecosystems with at least some processes affected could be relatively large. Pollutant influences have changed and will probably continue to change on time scales of decades. Biological exposures and dose in such ecosystems are species-specific and determined by how the species is exposed to different environmental media and the geochemistry of individual pollutants within those media. Bioaccumulation models offer significant promise for interpreting such exposures. Biological responses to pollutants need to be more directly linked to exposure and dose. At the level of the individual this might be improved by better understanding relationships between tissue concentrations of pollutants and responses to pollutants. Multi-discipline field and laboratory studies combined with advanced understanding of some basic processes have reduced the ambiguities in interpreting a few physiological/organismic responses to pollutants in nature. Recognition of pollutant-induced patterns in population responses could lead to similar advances. A rational framework for ecotoxicology is developing, but its further advance is dependent upon better integration of ecotoxicology with basic marine ecology and biology.

  1. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems. PMID:26773654

  2. Predicting ecological effects of pollutants: A role for marine mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The major uncertainty in predicting the ecological effects of a pollutant is the relationship between dose and the ecological response. Mesocosms may be used to simulate population-level biological processes and to estimate the nature and shape of dose-related responses to pollutants, for use in predictive evaluations of pollutant impacts. To ensure that responses observed in mesocosm tests are representative it is necessary to confirm that the simulated processes operate at rates similar to those found in the field. Pilot experiments were conducted in small marine mesocosms simulating major processes in two local habitat types: unvegetated sand and sand colonized by the brown macroalga Sargassum. The results showed that for a range of variates (such as the % of egg-bearing harpacticoid copepods, or the chlorophyll a concentration in surface sediments) the mean values for measurements in the tanks over a 9 week period did not consistently converge or diverge from those in the field. Also, for a number of the variates, a modelled decrease of more than about 60% in the mean could be detected with greater than 80% statistical power. This indicates that the effects of a pollutant could be detected with acceptable power. Use of a combination of such variates based on different functional or taxonomic groups for pollutant effects testing could greatly decrease uncertainty about the predicted effects of pollutants discharged to these habitats.

  3. Effects of Asian air pollution transport and photochemistry on carbon monoxide variability and ozone production in subtropical coastal south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Harris, J. M.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Surface ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) measured from a relatively remote coastal station in Hong Kong are analyzed to study the effects of pollutant transport and associated ozone production on CO and ozone variations in the subtropical south China region. CO and ozone concentrations show a common minimum in summer and in the maritime air masses from the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. They have higher values in other seasons and in the continental air masses that have passed over mainland Asia and the East Asian coast. CO shows the maximum monthly median of 457-552 ppbv in winter while ozone shows a maximum of 40-50 ppbv in autumn and a distinct peak of 41-43 ppbv in spring. The CO concentrations especially in the continental air masses (median of 277 to 428 ppbv) are very high when compared with measurements in most parts of the world. This suggests that the south China region is under the strong influence of pollutant transport from the Asian continent and East Asian coast. Ozone and CO show strong positive correlations in the polluted maritime air masses and from late spring to early autumn (May-September) with the linear regression slopes of the ozone-CO plot from 0.08 to 0.22 (with respective standard errors from 0.01 to 0.03). The strong correlations and slopes plus the high CO levels indicate that there is substantial ozone production from pollution in the polluted maritime air masses and in the late spring to early autumn period.

  4. Air pollution and daily clinic visits for migraine in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for migraine and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2011. The relative risk of clinic visits for migraine was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23°C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of migraine occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23°C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased migraine visits except CO and SO2. For the two-pollutant models, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of migraine visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants enhance the risk of clinic visits for migraine. PMID:25965190

  5. Air pollution and daily clinic visits for headache in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (≥23 °C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23 °C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache. PMID:25690001

  6. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23ºC), all air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR. PMID:27294298

  7. Millennial-scale versus long-term dynamics in the surface and subsurface of the western North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, André; Nürnberg, Dirk; Karas, Cyrus; Grützner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Subtropical Gyres are an important constituent of the ocean-atmosphere system due to their capacity to store vast amounts of warm and saline waters. Here we decipher the sensitivity of the (sub)surface North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre with respect to orbital and millennial scale climate variability between ~ 140 and 70 ka, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Using (isotope) geochemical proxy data from surface and thermocline dwelling foraminifers from Blake Ridge off the west coast of North America (ODP Site 1058) we show that the oceanographic development at subsurface (thermocline) level is substantially different from the surface ocean. Most notably, surface temperatures and salinities peak during the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) and early MIS 5e, implying that subtropical surface ocean heat and salt accumulation might have resulted from a sluggish northward heat transport. In contrast, maximum thermocline temperatures are reached during late MIS 5e when surface temperatures are already declining. We argue that the subsurface warming originated from intensified Ekman downwelling in the Subtropical Gyre due to enhanced wind stress. During MIS 5a-d a tight interplay of the subtropical upper ocean hydrography to high latitude millennial-scale cold events can be observed. At Blake Ridge, the most pronounced of these high latitude cold events are related to surface warming and salt accumulation in the (sub)surface. Similar to Termination II, heat accumulated in the Subtropical Gyre probably due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Additionally, a southward shift and intensification of the subtropical wind belts lead to a decrease of on-site precipitation and enhanced evaporation, coupled to intensified gyre circulation. Subsequently, the northward advection of this warm and saline water likely contributed to the fast resumption of the overturning circulation at the end of these high latitude cold events.

  8. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  9. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  10. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    PubMed

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. PMID:26248825

  11. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  12. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

  13. Transport, Evolution and Entrainment of Asian Dust/Pollution into the Pacific Marine Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Kapustin, V.; Vetter, O.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Carmichael, G.; Landing, B.

    2007-05-01

    Various airborne and ship based studies over the past several years have allowed us to measure Asian dust and pollution aerosol from near its source to locations up to 10,000km downwind where it was entrained into the marine boundary layer (MBL). Dust was found to accumulate up to half of the soluble species such as sulfate and nitrate during passage through pollution regions in Asia before being lofted into the free troposphere near Japan. At times, transport in the free troposphere included regions of subsidence in high pressure regions that brought these "rivers" of dust and pollution down to the top of the MBL. Shipboard measurements and lidar data indicated both clear air entrainment and convective activity, associated with the passage of low pressure systems, facilitated dust transport through the inversion. High temperature volatilization of particles in the MBL up to 900C was used to remove most sulfates, nitrates, carbon and sea-salt to leave only dust measured and sized by an optical particle counter. These shipboard data and concurrent chemical measurements revealed the relation between entrainment of pollution and dust into the MBL associated with passage of high pressure systems. Subsequent passage of low pressure systems also revealed scavenging and removal of aerosol through precipitation to the ocean surface. This process appears to be a common removal pathway for dust over the Pacific and a mechanism for supplying the ocean surface with soluble iron and aluminum to the ocean surface. Measurements in the free troposphere and MBL also captured various aspects of these processes. Airborne missions flown north of Hawaii during the NASA PEM-Tropics and IMPEX missions characterized the vertical structure of subsiding dust and pollution. In-flight mapping of the dust/pollution layers and structure using the NASA Langley DIAL LIDAR show a sloping, subsiding Asian air-mass entraining into the marine boundary layer (MBL). In-situ measurements of the aerosol

  14. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  15. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  16. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  17. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  18. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Güimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (≈ 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  19. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx - Part 1: Mean structure and diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, D. A.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric subsidence over the subtropical southeast Pacific (SEP) leads to a low-level anticyclonic circulation, a cool sea surface and a cloud-topped marine boundary layer (MBL). Observations in this region from a major field campaign during October and November 2008, the VOCALS Regional Experiment, provide ample data to characterize the lower atmospheric features over the SEP. The observations are also useful to test the ability of an area-limited, high-resolution atmospheric model to simulate the SEP conditions. Observations and model-results (where appropriate) improve the characterization of the mean state (Part 1) and variability (Part 2) of the lower troposphere including circulation, MBL characteristics and the upsidence wave. Along 20° S the MBL is generally deeper offshore (1600 m at 85° W) but there is also considerable variability. MBL depth and variability decrease towards the coast and maximum inversion strength is detected between 74-76° W. Southeasterly trades prevail within the MBL although the wind speed decreases toward the coast. Above the MBL along the coast of Chile, flow is northerly, has a maximum at 3 km, and extends westward to ~74° W, apparently due to the mechanical blocking exerted by the Andes upon the westerly flow aloft. Mean MBL features along northern Chile (18-25° S) are remarkably similar (e.g., MBL depth just below 1 km) in spite of different SST. Observed diurnal cycles of the temperature at the coast and further offshore exhibit a number of conspicuous features that are consistent with the southwestward propagation of an upsidence wave initiated during late evening along the south Peru coast. Furthermore, the passage of the vertical motion results in either constructive or deconstructive interference with the radiatively-forced diurnal cycle of MBL depth.

  20. A census of marine zooplankton in the tropical/subtropical Atlantic from the surface to 5000 m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, P. H.; Bucklin, A.; Madin, L.; Angel, M. V.; Sutton, T.; Pages, F.; Hopcroft, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Zooplankton from tropical/subtropical waters in the Atlantic Ocean were sampled from the surface to 5000 m, with a particular focus on the mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssopelagic zones. Sampling, on a cruise sponsored by the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and the Census of Marine Life, was conducted at five stations from the northern Sargasso Sea to the equatorial waters northeast of Brazil. Environmental data and zooplankton samples were collected using three Multiple Opening/Closing Nets and Environmental Sensing Systems (MOCNESS): a 10-m opening/closing trawl with 335-um mesh nets sampled from 5000 to 1000 m and two smaller MOCNESS with similar or smaller mesh sampled the upper 1000 m. Ring net and water bottle casts, and blue-water SCUBA diving were also carried out. Samples were analyzed at sea using traditional morphological taxonomic approaches by a team of experts, followed by molecular systematic analysis, including determination of a DNA barcode (i.e., short DNA sequence for species recognition) for each species. Over 500 species were identified onboard ship; more than 1000 specimens were placed in a queue for barcoding; 87 species were barcoded at sea. For several taxonomic groups, a significant fraction of the region's species were collected and identified. Sixty-five species of planktonic ostracods were identified at sea out of the 140 known for the North Atlantic Ocean, with at least six undescribed species collected and the first DNA barcode for a planktonic ostracod obtained. At-sea analysis of samples also yielded identified specimens for more than 40 species of molluscs (pteropods, heteropods, etc.), more than 100 species of jellyfish, several hundred species of copepods, and more than 100 species of fish. In all, taxonomists estimated that at least 12 - 15 new species will be described from this effort. The special deployment of trawls to sample large volumes at great depths for small zooplankton yielded preliminary confirmation that species

  1. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx - Part 1: Mean structure and diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, D. A.; Garreaud, R.

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric subsidence over the subtropical southeast Pacific (SEP) leads to a low-level anticyclonic circulation, a cool sea surface and a cloud-topped marine boundary layer (MBL). Observations in this region from a major field campaign during October and November 2008, the VOCALS Regional Experiment, provide ample data to characterize the lower atmospheric features over the SEP. The observations are also useful to test the ability of an area-limited, high-resolution atmospheric model to simulate the SEP conditions. Observations and model-results (where appropriate) improve the characterization of the mean state (Part 1) and variability (Part 2) of the lower troposphere including circulation, MBL characteristics and the upsidence wave. Along 20° S the MBL is generally deeper offshore (1600 m at 85° W) but there is also considerable variability. MBL depth and variability decrease towards the coast and maximum inversion strength is detected between 74-76° W. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations underestimate MBL height the most near the coast but improve offshore. Southeasterly trades prevail within the MBL although the wind speed decreases toward the coast. Above the MBL along the coast of Chile, flow is northerly, has a maximum at 3 km, and extends westward to ~74° W, apparently due to the mechanical blocking exerted by the Andes upon the westerly flow aloft. Mean MBL features along northern Chile (18-25° S) are remarkably similar (e.g., MBL depth just below 1 km) in spite of different SST. Observed diurnal cycles of the temperature at the coast and further offshore exhibit a number of conspicuous features that are consistent with the southwestward propagation of an upsidence wave initiated during late evening along the south Peru coast. Furthermore, the passage of the vertical motion results in either constructive or deconstructive interference with the radiatively-forced diurnal cycle of MBL depth. Interference is clearly seen in the soundings

  2. Lead pollution in subtropical ecosystems on the SE Gulf of California Coast: a study of concentrations and isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martin F; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Scelfo, Genine; Hibdon, Sharon; Franks, Rob; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Flegal, A Russell

    2008-10-01

    Lead pollution was investigated in environmental matrices and biological indicators collected from two typical subtropical coastal ecosystems in the southeast Gulf of California, Mexico. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) were measured using high resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), respectively. Lead in surface estuary sediments (10.0-34.2microgg(-1)) and particulate Pb (25.0-128.7microgg(-1), >98% of total Pb) in the water column were significantly higher than levels in natural bedrock soils (15.1+/-8.3microgg(-1)) and river runoff (1.9+/-1.4microgg(-1)). Aquatic plants had Pb concentrations between 2.5 and 7.2microgg(-1), while those in macroalgae ranged from 3 to 5microgg(-1). The ranges of mean Pb concentrations in the aquatic animals studied (ranges in microgg(-1)) were as follows: zooplankton 32+/-3, mussels 2.3-3.9, oysters 1.9-7.9, snail 2.0-7.7, barnacles 0.1-18.5, fish 1.4-8.9, crab 6.3-40.2 and polychaetae 8.5-16.7. Pb values in 20-40% of oyster and fish samples and in all samples of crab exceeded acceptable levels for a food source for human consumption. Pb isotope ratios (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb in biota ranged from 1.188 to 1.206 and 2.448 to 2.470, respectively. A plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb for the environmental and biological samples collected from two study areas indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Mexico and used in the past to produce leaded gasoline in use until 1997, natural Pb weathered from the Sierra Madre Occidental mother rock, and the later influence of inputs from a more radiogenic source related to industrial activity in the United States. Statistical software IsoSource results revealed that the Pb contained in environmental matrices and biomonitors is mostly derived from gasoline (20-90%) and US emissions (10-40%). PMID:18789522

  3. Associations between mortality and meteorological and pollutant variables during the cool season in two Asian cities with sub-tropical climates: Hong Kong and Taipei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have found associations between extreme temperatures and human mortality but relatively few studies have been done in sub-tropical and tropical cities, especially in Asia. In this study we examine the impact of cold temperatures, cold waves and other meteorological and environmental variables on cool season mortality in 2 subtropical Asian cities. Methods Separate analysis of daily mortality time-series from Hong Kong and Taipei using Generalized Additive Models with natural mortality as the outcome daily mean temperature as the main explanatory variable and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), respirable suspended particulates (PM10), ozone (O3), seasonality and day of the week controlled as potential confounders. Lags up to 35 days were considered for temperature, and distributed lag models were used to determine the number of lags for final models. Subgroup analyses were also done by gender, age group, cause of death and geographical area of residence. Results Cold temperatures were strongly associated with higher mortality with lagged effects persisting up to 3 weeks in Hong Kong and 2 weeks in Taipei. Cold effects were much stronger for deaths among older people and non-cancer deaths. Prolonged cold spells modestly but significantly raised mortality after accounting for the effects of individual cold days. Higher daily ozone levels were also strongly associated with higher short-term mortality in Taipei and Hong Kong, while relative humidity and solar radiation were weakly and inconsistently associated with mortality. Conclusions Cold temperatures and cold spells substantially increase short-term mortality in sub-tropical Asian cities particularly among the elderly. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adverse health effects of cold temperatures. Interventions including provisions of shelters, cold weather warnings and education about the possible health

  4. Marine biodegradation: Chemical pollutants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of marine pollutants. The citations explore the microbial breakdown of petroleum, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other hazardous materials. The chemical details of biotransformation, and the development of microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants are presented. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. PMID:23992682

  6. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future. PMID:23789087

  7. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. PMID:24433792

  8. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE MARINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine maintenance and repair facilities generate a variety of waste streams during repair and maintenance of mechanical systems, structural components, upholstery, electrical systems, and surfaces of ships and boats. ypical wastes generated from these operations, which present o...

  9. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  10. Genetically Modified Vibrio harveyi Strains as Potential Bioindicators of Mutagenic Pollution of Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Agata; Jasiecki, Jacek; Bogdan, Adam; Szpilewska, Hanna; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2000-01-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. We found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, we developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. We constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, we consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments. PMID:10653723

  11. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects. PMID:26721566

  14. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Spatial variability of three benthic indices for marine quality assessment in a subtropical estuary of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brauko, Kalina Manabe; de Souza, Fernanda Maria; Muniz, Pablo; de Camargo, Maurício Garcia; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2015-02-28

    Indices based on macrobenthic responses to disturbance remain to be adequately tested for the detection of spatial variability by robust sampling designs. We present herein a congruence test to real-world data of the widely used indices AMBI, M-AMBI and BENTIX in tidal flats of a subtropical estuary. We used a hierarchical sampling design to evaluate the spatial variability of the indices in response to distinct levels of sewage contamination. Indices were then tested for correlations with chemical proxies of contamination and for the similarity of responses. BENTIX and M-AMBI produced over- and underestimations of ecological status. We found a low degree of similarity among indices as an expression of the spatial variation of macrofaunal assemblages on their performances. Only AMBI varied at the contamination scale (10(3)m) and was congruent with physical-chemical proxies. Ambiguous responses indicated effects of natural inputs of organic matter rather than environmental quality associated to sewage. PMID:25455787

  20. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. PMID:25678662

  1. Greek Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environmental Behavior toward Marine Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…

  2. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  3. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  4. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change. PMID:27048689

  5. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  6. Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vegter, Amanda C.; Barletta, Mário; Beck, Cathy A.; Borrero, Jose C.; Burton, Harry; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costa, Monica F.; Eriksen, Marcus; Eriksson, Cecilia; Estrades, Andres; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Hardesty, Britta D.; do Sul, Juliana A. Ivar; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Lazar, Bojan; Lebreton, Laurent; Nichols, Wallace J.; Ribic, Christine A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Schuyler, Qamar A.; Smith, Stephen D. A.; Takada, Hideshige; Townsend, Kathy A.; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Wilcox, Chris; Young, Lindsay C.; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Marine wildlife faces a growing number of threats across the globe, and the survival of many species and populations will be dependent on conservation action. One threat in particular that has emerged over the last 4 decades is the pollution of oceanic and coastal habitats with plastic debris. The increased occurrence of plastics in marine ecosystems mirrors the increased prevalence of plastics in society, and reflects the high durability and persistence of plastics in the environment. In an effort to guide future research and assist mitigation approaches to marine conservation, we have generated a list of 16 priority research questions based on the expert opinions of 26 researchers from around the world, whose research expertise spans several disciplines, and covers each of the world’s oceans and the taxa most at risk from plastic pollution. This paper highlights a growing concern related to threats posed to marine wildlife from microplastics and fragmented debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future impacts of plastic pollution.

  7. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-04-23

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  8. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  9. Guides to pollution prevention: The marine maintenance and repair industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Marine maintenance and repair facilities generate a variety of waste streams during repair and maintenance of mechanical systems, structural components, upholstery, electrical systems, and surfaces of ships and boats. Typical wastes generated from these operations, which present opportunities for waste reduction, are oils, coolants, lubricants, and cleaning agents; various chemicals; paints and coatings; as well as dusts from sanding, sand blasting, and polishing and refinishing operations. Both source reduction and recycling opportunities are identified. To help companies in the industry identify opportunities for waste reduction at their own facilities, the guide includes a set of worksheets which take the user step-by-step through an analysis of the on-site waste generating operations and the possibilities for minimizing each waste.

  10. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  11. Fine-scale detection of pollutants by a benthic marine jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Hannah E; Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2016-06-15

    Local sources of pollution can vary immensely on small geographic scales and short time frames due to differences in runoff and adjacent land use. This study examined the rate of uptake and retention of trace metals in Cassiopea maremetens, a benthic marine jellyfish, over a short time frame and in the presence of multiple pollutants. This study also validated the ability of C. maremetens to uptake metals in the field. Experimental manipulation demonstrated that metal accumulation in jellyfish tissue began within 24h of exposure to treated water and trended for higher accumulation in the presence of multiple pollutants. C. maremetens was found to uptake trace metals in the field and provide unique signatures among locations. This fine-scale detection and rapid accumulation of metals in jellyfish tissue can have major implications for both biomonitoring and the trophic transfer of pollutants through local ecosystems. PMID:27068562

  12. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey. PMID:27301687

  13. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia. PMID:15607786

  14. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. PMID:22364923

  15. Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

  16. Differential response of marine organisms to certain metal and agrichemical pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Xu, C.H.

    1984-10-01

    Oocyte maturation of the starfish, fertilization and embryogenesis of sea urchins, and the development of amphioxus and brine shrimps were used to assay the effects of several common metals and agrichemicals frequently found in marine environments. While brine shrimp embryos were tolerant to metals and agrichemicals used here, sea urchins and amphioxus showed a differential response to the common metal pollutants. Starfish oocyte maturation process was affected by agrichemicals. The results show that no one single organism, or its embryonic form, or a particular stage of development, can be used as the indicator for a particular pollutant. However, the use of lower forms of marine organisms can be useful collectively for environmental investigations and the management of waste disposal.

  17. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J., III; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  19. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  20. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  1. Polarimetric radars for detection and identification of marine oil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineva, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The roughness of the sea surface that is responsible for the backscatter is due to the small gravitational waves generated by winds. Oil slicks suppress the waves and backscatter and manifest itself on radar images as dark spots. However, the other processes could be shown on the radar images similarly: upwelling, atmospheric convection, internal waves, calm area, etc. All of them may be falsely interpreted as oil pollution. Polarization SAR data carry additional information directly related to the vector nature of the reflected electromagnetic wave and can assist in the identification of different types of slicks. When polarized wave falls on a surface and reflects from it the reflected wave is also polarized. Sea surface is rough, i.e. consists essentially of a large number of differently oriented elementary areas. Consequently the signals reflected from different elementary areas are characterized by different polarization parameters and total signal carries information about all rough surface scanned [1]. When scanning sea surface, quad-polarization SAR generates scattering matrix for each pixel of radar data, which contains all the information regarding the polarimetric backscattering properties of the study area and that can be used for the classification of SAR images according to different scattering mechanisms. As mentioned above, various surface manifestations (calm area, biogenic film, etc.) may be falsely interpreted as oil slicks. In [2] was proposed a method to distinguish them, for which the following parameters were chosen: the polarization ratio (HH channel to VV) and the difference (VV minus HH channel). Normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) σ0pp can be represented as follows: σp0p = σp0pB + σwb, where σ0Bpp - Bragg scattering, σwb - non-polarized scattering. Thus the polarization ratio (PR) and the polarization difference (PD) can be expressed respectively as: PR = σH0H- = σH0HB-+σwb- σV0 V σV0BV+ σwb PD = σV0V - σH0H = σV0VB +

  2. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  3. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  4. Primary Productivity Changes in the subtropical western North Atlantic During Marine Isotope Stages 11-12: Inferences from Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, M.; Meyers, P. A.; Thunell, R.

    2004-12-01

    The time interval referred to as Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11, ~423 to 362 ka) is characterized by a configuration of earth's orbit similar to that of the Holocene, and is therefore a good analog for our current interglacial. MIS 11 was probably the warmest and longest interglacial of the last 500 kyrs, characterized by sea level possibly 20m higher than today and a maximum in NADW production. In contrast, during MIS 12, sea level was about 140m below present, and the production of NADW was severely reduced. We have examined benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments from ODP Site 1058 (Blake Outer Ridge, 3000m water depth), and Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise, 4584m water depth) spanning the MIS 11-12 time interval at a time resolution of 500 to 3000 years. At both sites the glacial-interglacial transition is accompanied by changes in faunal composition; however, bottom environmental conditions appear to have undergone the most dramatic change at Site 1058. Here, infaunal taxa indicative of organic carbon-rich sediments dominate during glacial MIS 12, and are replaced during MIS 11 by epifaunal species indicative of oligotrophic environments. The beginning of the MIS 12 and MIS 10 glaciation is characterized by large, rapid increases in the relative and absolute abundances of Epistominella exigua both at Site 1058 and Site 1063. In the modern ocean, this species inhabits seasonally deposited aggregates of phytodetritus produced during spring plankton blooms, thus suggesting an increase in surface ocean primary productivity at these times.

  5. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity. PMID:26496620

  6. Effects of global climate change and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Valdemarsen, T.; Holmer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing ocean temperature due to climate change is an important anthropogenic driver of ecological change in coastal systems, where sediments play a major role in nutrient cycling. Our ability to predict ecological consequences of climate change is enhanced by simulating real scenarios especially when the interactions among drivers may not be just additive. Based on predicted climate change scenarios, we tested the effect of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient release from coastal sediments to the water column in a mesocosm experiment. PO43- release rates from sediments followed the same trends as organic matter mineralization rates, and increased linearly with temperature and were significantly higher under organic pollution than under non-polluted conditions. NH4+ release only increased significantly when the temperature rise was above 6 °C, and was significantly higher in organic polluted compared to non-polluted sediments. Nutrient release to the water column was only a fraction from the mineralized organic matter, suggesting PO43- retention and NH4+ oxidation in the sediment. Bioturbation and bioirrigation appeared to be key processes responsible of this behaviour. Considering that the primary production of most marine basins is N-limited, the excess release of NH4+ at temperature rise >6 ° could enhance water column primary productivity, which may lead to the deterioration of the environmental quality. Climate change effects are expected to be accelerated in areas affected by organic pollution.

  7. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  8. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. PMID:25752833

  9. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates

  10. Nitrous acid (HONO) in a polluted subtropical atmosphere: Seasonal variability, direct vehicle emissions and heterogeneous production at ground surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Tao; Wu, Jueqi; Xue, Likun; Chan, James; Zha, Qiaozhi; Zhou, Shengzhen; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Although nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the chemistry of polluted atmospheres, its atmospheric abundances and sources are still not well understood. This paper reports ambient measurements of HONO taken over four select months in different seasons at a suburban site in Hong Kong. The data were analyzed to elucidate the seasonal characteristics, emission ratios and rates of heterogeneous production. The monthly averaged HONO concentrations ranged from 0.35 ± 0.30 ppbv in late spring (May) to 0.93 ± 0.67 ppbv in late autumn (November). The similar variation patterns of HONO, NOx, and traffic flow from midnight to rush hours suggest that the HONO concentration was strongly influenced by vehicle emissions. The emission ratios (HONO/NOx) were derived from an analysis of 21 fresh plumes (NO/NOx > 0.80), with the range of 0.5-1.6%. The large variability in the emission ratios is attributed to the reaction of NO2 on black carbon (BC) emitted from vehicles, based on a strong correlation between the HONO/NOx and concurrently measured BC. The mean conversion rate of NO2 to HONO on ground surface during nighttime estimated on nine select days was 0.52 × 10-2 h-1, which is relatively low compared with other reported values. This paper highlights a large variability in vehicle emission ratios and heterogeneous conversions of NO2 at ground surface. Photochemical models must consider this variability to better simulate the primary sources of HONO and subsequent photochemistry in the lower part of the troposphere.

  11. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, N; Kenkre, V D; Verlecar, X N

    2002-05-01

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es) that may impede the full functioning of bacterial communities in situ. Most notably, DVC were quite low during pre-monsoon (March-May) in pollution-affected locations when compared to relatively less/non-polluted ones. In contrast, their abundance was significantly higher (up to or > 10%) suggesting a substantially higher microbial activity (thus, a larger turnover of organic matter) during monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-February) even in pollution-affected locations. The ease of reliably measuring DVC was useful in realising decreased metabolic functioning of bacteria during pre-monsoon, a season where dispersion of land discharges/effluents is much lower. From laboratory and field analyses of this study it is ascertained that DVC are direct indices of potential bacterial metabolic activity, reliable for sensing metabolic stress experienced by bacterial communities in situ and can be useful for evaluating risks in marine environment through human (industrial) activities. PMID:12108730

  12. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as Bioindicator of Mercury Pollution of Marine Rocky Coasts

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones. PMID:23472204

  13. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  14. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. PMID:26088539

  15. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. PMID:25627195

  16. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  17. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents. PMID:26073800

  18. Intermediate water links to Deep Western Boundary Current variability in the subtropical NW Atlantic during marine isotope stages 5 and 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, H. K.; Hall, I. R.; Bianchi, G. G.; Oppo, D. W.

    2007-09-01

    Records from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1057 and 1059 (2584 m and 2985 m water depth, respectively) have been used to reconstruct the behavior of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) on the Blake Outer Ridge (BOR) from 130 to 60 kyr B.P. (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 and the 5/4 transition). Site 1057 lies within Labrador Sea Water (LSW) but close to the present-day boundary with Lower North Atlantic Deep Water (LNADW), while Site 1059 lies within LNADW. High-resolution sortable silt mean (?) grain size and benthic δ13C records were obtained, and changes in the DWBC intensity and spatial variability were inferred. Comparisons are made with similar proxy records generated for the Holocene from equivalent depth cores on the BOR. During MIS 5e, ? evidence at Site 1057 suggests slower relative flow speeds consistent with a weakening and a possible shoaling of the LSW-sourced shallower limb of the DWBC that occupies these depths today. In contrast, the paleocurrent record from the deeper site suggests that the fast flowing deep core of the DWBC was located close to its modern depth below 3500 m. During this interval the benthic δ13C suggests little chemical stratification of the water column and the presence of a near-uniform LNADW-dominated water mass. After ˜111 kyr B.P. the ? record at Site 1057 increases to reach values similar to Site 1059 for the rest of MIS 5. The strengthening of flow speeds at the shallow site may correspond to the initiation of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation also suggested by a divergence in the benthic δ13C records with Site 1057 values increasing to ˜1.2‰. Coupled suborbital oscillations in DWBC flow variability and paleohydrography persisted throughout MIS 5. Comparison of these data with planktonic δ18O records from the sites and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from the nearby Bermuda Rise suggest a hitherto unrecognized degree of linkage between oscillations in subtropical North

  19. Effects of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, C.; Valdemarsen, T.; Holmer, M.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing ocean temperature due to climate change is an important anthropogenic driver of ecological change in coastal systems. In these systems sediments play a major role in nutrient cycling. Our ability to predict ecological consequences of climate change is enhanced by simulating real scenarios. Based on predicted climate change scenarios, we tested the effect of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient release from coastal sediments to the water column in a mesocosm experiment. PO43- release rates from sediments followed the same trends as organic matter mineralization rates, increased linearly with temperature and were significantly higher under organic pollution than under nonpolluted conditions. NH4+ release only increased significantly when the temperature rise was above 6 °C, and it was significantly higher in organic polluted compared to nonpolluted sediments. Nutrient release to the water column was only a fraction from the mineralized organic matter, suggesting PO43- retention and NH4+ oxidation in the sediment. Bioturbation and bioirrigation appeared to be key processes responsible for this behavior. Considering that the primary production of most marine basins is N-limited, the excess release of NH4+ at a temperature rise > 6 °C could enhance water column primary productivity, which may lead to the deterioration of the environmental quality. Climate change effects are expected to be accelerated in areas affected by organic pollution.

  20. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  1. Biochemical and bioaccumulation approaches for investigating marine pollution using Mediterranean rainbow wrasse, Coris julis (Linneaus 1798).

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Barbara; Copat, Chiara; Pulvirenti, Valentina; Ferrito, Venera; Ferrante, Margherita; Renis, Marcella; Sciacca, Salvatore; Tigano, Concetta

    2012-12-01

    A multibiomarkers approach was used in order to estimate and monitor marine pollution. Coris julis (Linneaus, 1758) was chosen as a sentinel organism, and the specimens were collected from three well-known sites along the Ionic coast of Sicily: the protected marine area (P.M.A) "Cyclop's Islands" of Acitrezza (CT), used as a control site, Riposto (CT), and the industrial site of Augusta (SR). Abiotic levels of contaminants were also detected. High levels of biotic and abiotic accumulation were found at the industrial site in which the presence of genotoxic and oxidative damage were also evidenced, measured by Micronuclei, Alkaline and Fpg-modified Comet assays. The protein expression analysis showed metallothioneins (MTs) as good tissue-specific markers of metal accumulation. Their levels were significantly higher in muscle than in liver tissue for all the sampling sites, with a positive correlation among tissue levels and the degree of pollution at the sites. Conversely, heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) expression was higher in Augusta and Riposto than in the control site, but no significant difference was found between the examined tissues among all sites. PMID:23025894

  2. Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. B.; Zhou, X.; Griffin, D. W.; Paul, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 68 marine samples from various sites impacted by sewage and storm waters were analyzed by both the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F(sup+)-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 x 10(sup4) PFU/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 x 10(sup6) MPN-PCR units/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive by plaque assay but negative by RT-PCR (levels lower than 11.00 PFU/100.0 ml). The host system used for the plaque assay may detect somatic coliphage in addition to the F(sup+)-specific coliphage. When it is used as an indicator of pollution, contamination may be missed with more restrictive systems. The difference in results may be due to the sensitivity, specificity, or inhibition of RT-PCR in marine samples. This study provides information on quantifying PCR results by an MPN method and insights into interpretation of PCR data for detection of viruses in marine environments. PMID:16535737

  3. Bioindicators of marine pollution. January 1974-July 1989 (Citations from Oceanic abstracts). Report for January 1974-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (This updated bibliography contains 296 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment. PMID:16897518

  5. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. PMID:26218303

  6. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  7. Effect of marine pollutants on the acid DNase activity in the hemocytes and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fafandel, Maja; Bihari, Nevenka; Perić, Lorena; Cenov, Arijana

    2008-03-26

    The level of the acid DNase activity in the hemocytes and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to model marine pollutants, a detergent, gasoline and a copper salt, as well as to unknown environmental mixture at selected sampling sites, was investigated. The specific enzyme activity in unexposed mussels from mariculture area was higher in hemocytes than in digestive gland. Concentration and time effect patterns of DNase activity revealed tissue- and pollutant-specific responses to model marine pollutants. Since in some cases the pollutant effect could not be detected by measurement of acid DNase in single tissue only, digestive gland/hemocyte (Hep/Hem) ratio was introduced. The Hep/Hem ratio enabled the detection of pollutant effect at the significance level. Field investigations indicated that the digestive gland is a suitable tissue for discrimination of polluted areas from maricultured area. Additionally, the Hep/Hem ratio enabled differentiation within a group of polluted sampling sites that differ in the type of pollutants and/or environmental conditions. PMID:18276021

  8. IOC/WMO Workshop on Marine Pollution Monitoring (3rd, New Delhi, India, February 11-15, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a summary report of the third IOC/WMO (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/World Meteorological Organization) workshop of marine pollution monitoring. Summaries are presented in nine sections, including: (1) workshop opening; (2) welcoming addresses; (3) reports on the Marine Pollution (Petroleum) Monitoring Pilot Project…

  9. Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past few years, many thousands of compounds have identified in crude oils using techniques such as capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some of these have quite distinctive chemical structures which are closely related to the organic compounds produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These {open_quote}biomarkers{close_quote} have proven to be very useful in petroleum exploration for identifying the likely source rocks from which the oils were derived. They are also very useful in studies of modern day pollution of the marine environment for identifying contamination by crude oil and petroleum-derived products. Although a wide range of hydrocarbons are available for oil spill fingerprinting, most attention has been given to some of the better-studied biomarkers which are readily analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC-MS techniques.

  10. Effects-directed analysis of sediments from polluted marine sites in Norway.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Næs, Kristoffer; Fogelberg, Oscar; Nilsen, Anja Julie; Brack, Werner; Lübcke-von Varel, Urte; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-01-01

    The environmental status of two polluted marine sites in Norway was investigated by a combination of target chemical analysis and effect-directed analysis (EDA). The two selected sites, the Grenland area and Oslo harbor, in addition to two reference sites, were classified according to the Norwegian environmental classification system based upon results of the target chemical analyses. The polluted sites were characterized by high levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). High levels of organotin compounds were also detected in Oslo harbor. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity in extracts of sediments from marine sites close to Oslo, Oslo harbor, and Grenland were investigated using the CALUX (chemical-activated luciferase expression) assay, which showed elevated levels of activity. As expected from the history of dioxin release into the Grenland area, the results were highest in this area. The presence of estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists was also detected in the sediment extracts. Following fractionation of the sediment extracts, EDA was used to tentatively identify the AhR agonists. The compounds responsible for AhR agonist activity in samples from Oslo harbor were isolated in fraction 13, and to a lesser extent in fractions 9-11. In Grenland, the main activity was found in the more polar fractions, namely fractions 14-18. The AhR agonists identified in Oslo harbor were mainly PAH, while in the Grenland area the compounds identified were mainly nitrogen/oxygen-containing polyaromatic compounds (N/O-PAC). PMID:21391090

  11. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  12. Proliferative Responses of Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) T Lymphocytes to Model Marine Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jennifer C. C.; Van de Water, Judith A.; Harvey, James T.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, population declines related to viral outbreaks in marine mammals have been associated with polluted coastal waters and high tissue concentrations of certain persistent, lipophilic contaminants. Such observations suggest a contributing role of contaminant-induced suppression of cell-mediated immunity leading to decreased host resistance. Here, we assessed the effects of the prototypic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), CB-156 and CB-80, on the T-cell proliferative response to mitogen in harbor seal peripheral lymphocytes. Despite the variability associated with our samples from free-ranging harbor seals, we observed a clear suppressive effect of B[a]P (10 uM) exposure on T cell mitogenesis. Exposures to 10 uM CB-156 and CB-80, and 1.0 and 0.1 uM B[a]P, did not produce significant depression in lymphoproliferation. Exposure to the model PAH at 10 uM resulted in a 61% (range 34-97%) average reduction in lymphoproliferation. We were able to rule out a direct cytotoxic effect of B[a]P, indicating that observed effects were due to altered T cell function. Based on our in vitro results, we hypothesize that extensive accumulation of PAH by top-trophic-level marine mammals could alter T cell activation in vivo and impaired cell-mediated immunity against viral pathogens. PMID:15144018

  13. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas, M. I.; Rodríguez, C. G.; Rodríguez, J. D.; Telmo, J.

    2013-12-01

    Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 oC. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons) and consumption.

  14. New Application of Seawater and Electrolyzed Seawater in Air Pollution Control of Marine Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sukheon; Nishida, Osami

    It is the purpose of this paper to introduce the usage of seawater and its electrolysis for the exhaust emission control in marine diesel engines. First, with using only seawater that is naturally alkaline (pH typically around 8.1), the SO2 and SO3 are absorbed by relatively high solubility compared to other components of exhaust pollutants, and PMs (Particulate Matter) are removed through direct contact with the sprayed seawater droplets. Besides, the electrolyzed alkaline seawater by electrolysis, which contains mainly NaOH together with alkali metal ions (i. e. Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+), is used as the absorption medium of NOx and CO2. Conditionally, before the NOx absorption treatment with using the alkaline seawater, nitric oxide (NO) must be adequately oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the acidic seawater in order to increase NOx absorption rate into the alkaline seawater. Because NOx absorption is the most suited to conditions when both volume fractions (NO: NO2 ratio) are of equal portions. Finally, this research would also plan to treat the effluent by applying electro-dialysis and electro-flotation techniques in the future. The way to reduce emissions from the marine diesel engines is to make it attractive from an operating perspective, as well as an environmental perspective.

  15. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  16. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, O.; Busch, J. A.; Cembella, A. D.; Daly, K. L.; Engelbrektsson, J.; Hannides, A. K.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-05-01

    Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  17. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, O.; Busch, J. A.; Cembella, A. D.; Daly, K. L.; Engelbrektsson, J.; Hannides, A. K.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-09-01

    Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  18. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships: Evidence of cloud deepening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2011-02-01

    Ship tracks observed by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) were analyzed to determine the extent to which aerosol plumes from ships passing below marine stratocumulus alter the microphysical and macrophysical properties of the clouds. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery was used to distinguish ship tracks embedded in closed, open, and undefined mesoscale cellular cloud structures. The impact of aerosol on the microphysical cloud properties in both the closed and open cell regimes were consistent with the changes predicted by the Twomey hypothesis. For the macrophysical changes, differences were observed between regimes. In the open cell regime, polluted clouds had significantly higher cloud tops (16%) and more liquid water (39%) than nearby unpolluted clouds. However, in the closed cell regime, polluted clouds exhibited no change in cloud top height and had less liquid water (-6%). Both microphysical (effective radius) and macrophysical (liquid water path) cloud properties contribute to a fractional change in cloud optical depth; in the closed cell regime the microphysical contribution was 3 times larger than the macrophysical contribution. However, the opposite was true in the open cell regime where the macrophysical contribution was nearly 2 times larger than the microphysical contribution because the aerosol probably increased cloud coverage. The results presented here demonstrate key differences aerosols have on the microphysical and macrophysical responses of boundary layer clouds between mesoscale stratocumulus convective regimes.

  19. Interactive visualization of marine pollution monitoring and forecasting data via a Web-based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawiak, M.; Prospathopoulos, A.; Perivoliotis, L.; łuba, M.; Kioroglou, S.; Stepnowski, A.

    2010-08-01

    This work implements a Web-based Geographic Information System (Web GIS) for an existing oil spill monitoring and forecasting service, developed in the framework of the MARCOAST project. This is achieved by remotely presenting the results of the oil spill forecasting module via a dedicated Web GIS, which allows authenticated end users to view the simulation results in a geographical context. A number of Web GIS technologies for presentation of dissimilar types of semi-dynamic geographic data are applied and their respective capabilities for publishing and remote presentation of interactive geospatial information, such as oil spill spread animation overlaid on background data (terrain elevation data, satellite imagery, etc.), are described. More specifically, technologies like ESRI ® ArcIMS ® (Arc Internet Map Server) and Open Source GeoServer with OpenLayers client library are implemented. The capabilities of the system for visualization and mapping are illustrated by specific applications concerning the spreading scenarios of oil spills in two selected areas of the Aegean Sea, Greece. The presented Web GIS offers added value in the form of providing the end user with comprehensive and synthetic, both spatial and temporal, environmental information through a remotely customizable user-friendly graphical interface. In this context, its integration to a marine pollution monitoring and forecasting system could result in an enhanced pollution awareness and emergency management tool.

  20. Report on land-based sources of marine pollution in the Caribbean. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The document presents information gathered during a series of interviews with professionals from governmental agencies in each of the Caribbean nations, with the exception of the U.S. possessions. The report provides, on a nation-by-nation basis, background information regarding the sources of pollution and the agencies within each nation which retain some authority to remedy or otherwise manage these problems. Names of contact persons within these agencies, their phone numbers and addresses are also provided. The audience for the report is persons within organizations in the Caribbean Basin nations working to coordinate activities aimed at identifying and reducing land based sources of marine pollution. The report is a resource for achieving unified environmental efforts in the region. The final section briefly notes factors which may work in favor of regional solutions and those that may not.

  1. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  2. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  3. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    Pollution involving hazardous substances is considered one of the major problems affecting the state of the Baltic marine environment. However, assessment of the vast majority of the hazardous substances (including accepted as pollution indicators) in the environment have not been monitored in Russian Federation yet. Moreover there are no official guideline values for their presence or release in environment. For our investigation we have selected the organotin biocides and widespread pharmaceutical diclofenac. The study is focused on surface marine water and bottom sediments, collected from the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland during the navigation seasons of 2012-2013. Organotin compounds belong to a large group of key marine contaminants. They had been widely used in the world industry as antifouling paints, fungicides and biocides until the middle of 1980s. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are the most hazardous of all organotin compounds, causing such biological effects as shell deformation, endocrine disruption, imposex and intersex phenomena at the concentration of 2 ng/L. The use of TBT in antifouling paints was banned within EU in 2003 and within Russian Federation in 2008. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were analysed as ethyl derivatives using electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI) in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). TBT and TPhT were frequently found above MAC of 1.5 ng/L and 2 ng/g dw respectively in both water and bottom sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Finland water basin. The highest detected concentration detected mainly in coastal areas with dense ship traffic were 670 ng/L (TBT) in water samples, 440 ng/g dw (TBT), 160 ng/g dw (TPhT) in sediment samples. Potential risks from the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP), such as medicine, hormones, means of personal hygiene, etc. reveal in abnormal physiological

  4. Subtropical Biotic Fringing Reefs as Ecological Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a 16-week course in marine biology involving a class-coordinated investigation of a subtropical biotic fringing reef of Hawaii. Describes in detail the development of preliminary hypotheses regarding general cause-effect relationships on the reef, and the exploration of specific areas, such as chemical or physical factors. (CS)

  5. Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2010-09-01

    Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

  6. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 μg/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 μg/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 μg/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 μg/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 μg/g; Se, 0.25-.86 μg/g; Sr, 192-1185 μg/g; U, 0.19-1.66 μg/g; V, 15.80-118.20 μg/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 μg/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 μg/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 μg/g; Mo, 1.34 μg/g; Ni, 31.39 μg/g; Pb, 23.24 μg/g; Se, 0.61 μg/g; Sr, 374.83 μg/g; U, 0.64 μg/g; V, 61.75 μg/g; Zn, 204.75 μg/g; and Zr:76.27 μg/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (≤ 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However

  7. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  8. Reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an Antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Varpe, Øystein; Henden, John A; Skaare, Janneche U

    2007-10-01

    Despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in Antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent Arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. In this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of OCs in this species. In 65 nests, both males and females were caught, and using principal component analyses (PCA) we produced composite measurements (PC1 and PC2) of six highly correlated OCs measured in blood samples. Although the concentrations of OC were below those documented to have reproductive effects in other aquatic birds, we found that the eggs of females with high levels of OCs in the blood hatched later, and their chicks were in poorer condition at hatching, than females with low OC levels. Thus OCs may delay reproduction and reduce foetal growth in the skuas. However, there was no relationship between the parents' OC residues and the occurrence of non-viable eggs, although the proportion of nests containing non-viable eggs was high (47%). Moreover, there were no significant relationships between OCs and reproductive variables in males, even if males had higher OC levels than females, and no associations between OCs and adult return rate between breeding seasons. PMID:17561256

  9. Practical procedures for selected biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis--implications for marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Biomarkers are required to assess the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms in order to monitor ecosystem status, but their use is often limited by their strong variability due to environmental and/or intrinsic biological factors. Accordingly, the main aim of this work was to set up practical procedures for a battery of widely used biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), a phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and a neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), were considered. Several relevant aspects were studied in order to obtain a more realistic interpretation of biomarker responses, including the calculation of the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with a fixed error margin, the selection of the specific organ or tissue where the enzymatic activity is higher for each biomarker, and the influence of tidal height and temperature on the basal enzymatic activity. GST and CAT activities needed a minimum sample size of 12, whereas for GPx and AChE activities a minimum sample size of 14 was required. The gills were the organ with higher GST, GPx and AChE enzymatic activities, whereas the digestive gland showed the highest CAT activity. Also, the low inter-tidal was the recommended tide level whilst no significant effect of temperature was observed on GST, GPx and CAT, and no clear pattern could be identified for AChE. The implications for environmental monitoring are discussed. PMID:23712116

  10. Observations of gas phase hydrochloric acid in the polluted marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Timia A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2014-06-01

    Ship-based measurements of gas phase hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (pCl-), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) were made in the polluted marine boundary layer along the California coastline during spring 2010. These observations are used to assess both the rate of Cl atom production from HCl and the role of direct HCl emissions and subsequent partitioning as a source for pCl-. Observations of HCl made in coastal Southern California are broadly correlated with NOz (NOz ≡ NOy - NOx), peaking at 11 A.M. The observed median HCl mixing ratio in Southern California is 1.3 ppb (interquartile range: 0.53-2.7 ppb), as compared to 0.19 ppb (interquartile range: 0.10-0.38 ppb) measured along the Sacramento River between San Francisco and Sacramento. Concurrent measurements of aerosol ion chemistry indicate that aerosol particles sampled in Northern California are heavily depleted in Cl-, corresponding to a mean pCl- deficit of 0.05 ± 0.03 (1σ) ppb for sub-10 µm aerosol particles. In comparison, aerosols measured in Southern California indicate that over 25% of particles showed an addition of Cl- to the particle population. Observations presented here suggest that primary sources of HCl, or gas phase chlorine precursors to HCl, are likely underestimated in the California Air Resource Board emissions inventory. These results highlight the need for future field observations designed to better constrain direct reactive halogen emissions.

  11. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. PMID:26519572

  12. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    PubMed

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation. PMID:25786771

  13. Numerical modelling for real-time forecasting of marine oil pollution and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dominicis, Michela; Pinardi, Nadia; Bruciaferri, Diego; Liubartseva, Svitlana

    2015-04-01

    Many factors affect the motion and transformation of oil at sea. The most relevant of these are the meteorological and marine conditions at the air-sea interface; the chemical characteristics of the oil; its initial volume and release rates; and, finally, the marine currents at different space scales and timescales. All these factors are interrelated and must be considered together to arrive at an accurate numerical representation of oil evolution and movement in seawater. The oil spill model code MEDSLIK-II is a freely available community model. By using a Lagrangian approach, MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and diffusion of a surface oil slick governed by water currents, winds and waves, which are provided by operational oceanographic and meteorological models. In addition, the model simulates the oil transformations at sea: evaporation, spreading, dispersion, adhesion to coast and emulsification. The model results have been validated using surface drifters and oil slicks observed by satellite in different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. It is found that the forecast skill largely depends on the accuracy of the Eulerian ocean currents: the operational models give useful estimates of currents, but high-frequency (hourly) and high spatial resolution is required, and the Stokes drift velocity has to be often added, especially in coastal areas. MEDSLIK-II is today available at the Mediterranean scale allowing a possible support to oil spill emergencies. The model has been used during the Costa Concordia disaster, the partial sinking of the Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia when it ran aground at Isola del Giglio, Italy. MEDSLIK-II system was run to produce forecast scenarios of the possible oil spill from the Costa Concordia, to be delivered to the competent authorities, by using the currents provided every day by the operational ocean models available in the area. Moreover, MEDSLIK-II is part of the Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety

  14. Bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements and organic pollutants in marine sponges from the South Brittany Coast, France.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Charline; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Sauleau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulation of metallic and organic pollutants in marine sponges with the oyster Crassostrea gigas used as sentinel species. The concentrations of 12 Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs), 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 7 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and 3 organotin derivatives were measured in 7 marine sponges collected in the Etel River (South Brittany, France). Results indicated Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Ti particularly accumulated in marine sponges such as Hymeniacidon perlevis and Raspailia ramosa at higher levels compared to oysters. At the opposite, Cu and Zn accumulated significantly at higher concentrations in oysters. Among PAHs analyzed, benzo(a)pyrene bioaccumulated in H. perlevis at levels up to 17-fold higher than in oysters. In contrast, PCBs bioaccumulated preferentially in oysters. Significant differences exist in the abilities of marine phyla and sponge species to accumulate organic and metallic pollutants however, among the few sponge species studied, H. perlevis showed impressive bioaccumulation properties. The use of this species as bioindicator and/or bioremediator near shellfish farming areas is also discussed. PMID:26634290

  15. Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

  16. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  17. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    PubMed

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed. PMID:27221210

  18. SECOND US/USSR SYMPOSIUM: BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON MARINE ORGANISMS HELD AT TERSKOL, USSR ON JUNE 4-9, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Symposium was conducted under a US/USSR Environmental Agreement, Project 02.06-21 titled 'Effect of Pollutants on Marine Organisms. Papers by American and Soviet specialists present advances in hydrobiological analysis of basic structural components of marine ecosystems and ...

  19. An assessment of persistent organic pollutants in Scottish coastal and offshore marine environments.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynda; Russell, Marie; Walsham, Pam; Phillips, Lesley A; Hussy, Ines; Packer, Gill; Dalgarno, Eric J; Moffat, Colin F

    2011-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediment and biota (fish liver) from around Scotland. The concentrations were investigated using assessment criteria developed by OSPAR and ICES. Organic contaminant concentrations, PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs in sediment, and PCBs and PBDEs in fish liver, were significantly higher in the Clyde compared to all other sea areas. This is mainly due to historic industrial inputs. Highest PCB and PAH concentrations were found in the strata furthest up the Clyde estuary, with concentrations of POPs in these strata being at levels such that there is an unacceptable risk of chronic effects occurring in marine species. Furthermore, for PAHs in Clyde sediment there was a significant negative gradient going from north to south towards the open sea. PAH and PCB concentrations in sediment and biota in all other Scottish sea areas (except for PCBs in sediment from East Scotland) were unlikely to give rise to pollution effects, being below relevant assessment criteria. Although no assessment criteria are available for PBDEs, the concentrations observed in Scottish sediments were low with all congeners below the limit of detection (LoD; 0.03 µg kg(-1) dry weight) in 140 out of a total of 307 samples analysed. Where PBDEs were detected, the dominant congeners were BDE47 and BDE99. PBDEs were detected in fish livers, although concentrations were less than 150 µg kg(-1) lipid weight in all sea areas except the Clyde where concentrations ranged between 8.9 and 2202 µg kg(-1) lipid weight. Few trends were detected in contaminant concentrations in biota or sediment at any Scottish site with more than five years data. Downward trends were detected in PAHs in sediment from the Clyde, Irish Sea and Minches and Malin Sea and PCBs in fish liver from the Moray Firth. Rules were developed for the

  20. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  1. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  2. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. PMID:25016416

  3. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  4. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  5. Impact of the Saharan dust outbreaks on the ambient levels of total suspended particles (TSP) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Guerra, J. C.

    Six years (1998-2003) of measurements of ambient air concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) measured at a rural background monitoring station in Tenerife (Canary Islands), the El Río station (ER, 28°08'35″N, 16°39'20″W, 500 m a.s.l.) were studied. African dust outbreaks were objectively identified using a new quantitative tool, called the African Index. This index indicates the percentage of time that an air mass remained over an African region at one of three possible height intervals of the lower troposphere. After identifying these episodes, a study of the background TSP levels at the ER station and of direct and indirect (those which cause vertical deposition of dust) African air mass intrusion impacts was performed. Taking into account both direct and indirect episodes, a total of 322 days of African dust intrusion were objectively identified (a mean of 54 episodes per year) in the period 1998-2003, some of them caused by "transition episodes" or "return African air masses". A subjective method confirmed that 256 of these days were caused by direct impacts of African dust on the ER station. A mean TSP value of 21.6 μg m -3 was found at the station during this period. All the episodes occurred when the TSP concentration was >28.5 μg m -3. The TSP background (˜14 μg m -3) can be assumed to be representative of the MBL of the Eastern North Atlantic subtropical region. The highest number of dust gravitational settlement (or indirect) episodes occurs in summer, but the highest contribution of these episodes to the TSP levels is in March with a monthly mean TSP contribution of up to 30.5 μg m -3.

  6. Bioreactor-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted Niger Delta marine sediment, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Chikere, Blaise Ositadinma; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2012-03-01

    Crude oil-polluted marine sediment from Bonny River loading jetty Port Harcourt, Nigeria was treated in seven 2.5 l stirred-tank bioreactors designated BNPK, BNK5, BPD, BNO(3), BUNa, BAUT, and BUK over a 56-day period. Five bioreactors were biostimulated with either K(2)HPO(4), NH(4)NO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NPK, urea or poultry droppings while unamended (BUNa) and heat-killed (BAUT) treatments were controls. For each bioreactor, 1 kg (wet weight) sediment amended with 1 l seawater were spiked with 20 ml and 20 mg of crude oil and anthracene which gave a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) range of 106.4-116 ppm on day 0. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in all spiked sediment slurry ranged from 96.6 to 104.4 ppm. TPH in each treatment was ≤14.9 ppm while PAH was ≤6.8 ppm by day 56. Treatment BNO(3) recorded highest heterotrophic bacterial count (9.8 × 10(8) cfu/g) and hydrocarbon utilizers (1.15 × 10(8) cfu/g). By day 56, the percentages of biodegradation of PAHs, as measured with GC-FID were BNK5 (97.93%), BNPK (98.38%), BUK (98.82%), BUNa (98.13%), BAUT (93.08%), BPD (98.92%), and BNO(3) (98.02%). BPD gave the highest degradation rate for PAH. TPH degradation rates were as follows: BNK5 (94.50%), BNPK (94.77%), BUK (94.10%), BUNa (94.77%), BAUT (75.04%), BPD (95.35%), BNO(3) (95.54%). Fifty-six hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates obtained were Micrococcus spp. 5 (9.62%), Staphylococcus spp. 3 (5.78%), Pseudomonas spp. 7 (13.46%), Citrobacter sp. 1 (1.92%), Klebsiella sp. 1 (1.92%), Corynebacterium spp. 5 (9.62%), Bacillus spp. 5 (9.62%), Rhodococcus spp. 7 (13.46%), Alcanivorax spp. 7 (13.46%), Alcaligenes sp. 1 (1.92%), Serratia spp. 2 (3.85%), Arthrobacter spp. 7 (13.46%), Nocardia spp. 2 (3.85%), Flavobacterium sp. 1 (1.92%), Escherichia sp. 1 (1.92%), Acinetobacter sp. 1 (1.92%), Proteus sp. 1 (1.92%) and unidentified bacteria 10 (17%). These results indicate that the marine sediment investigated is amenable to bioreactor

  7. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  8. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris. PMID:24635983

  9. Effects of pollution on the geochemical properties of marine sediments across the fringing reef of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen

    2016-09-15

    The Gulf of Aqaba is of significant strategic and economic value to all gulf-bordering states, particularly to Jordan, where it provides Jordan with its only marine outlet. The Gulf is subject to a variety of impacts posing imminent ecological risk to its unique marine ecosystem. We attempted to investigate the status of metal pollution in the coastal sediments of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. The distribution of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations were determined in trapped and bottom-surface sediments at three selected sites at different depths. In addition, monthly sedimentation rates at varying water depths were also estimated at each sampling site using sediment traps. The high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn were recorded at the Phosphate Loading Birth (PLB) site followed by the Industrial Complex (IC) site indicating their dominant anthropogenic source (i.e., the contribution of industrial activities). However, Fe, Al, and Mn contents were related to inputs from the terrigenous (crustal) origin. Except for Al, Fe and Mn at the PLB site, the concentrations of metals exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing water depth (distance from the shoreline). The PLB site also showed the highest sedimentation rate which decreased with increasing water depth. The Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that Cd was the most enriched element in the sediment (indicating that Cd pollution is widespread), whereas the least enriched metal in sediments was Cu. EF values suggested that the coastal area is impacted by a combination of human and natural sources of metals, where the anthropogenic sources are intense in the PLB site (north of Gulf of Aqaba). The MSS area is potentially the least polluted, consistent with being a marine reserve. The IC sediments have been found to be impacted by human activities but less intensely compared to the PLB area. These results suggested that there are two sources of metals in sediments; the primary source is likely closer to PLB

  10. An on-chip pollutant toxicity determination based on marine microalgal swimming inhibition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cheng-Yu; Wei, Jun-Feng; Li, Ya-Jie; Yang, Yu-Suo; Wang, Yun-Hua; Lu, Ling; Zheng, Guo-Xia

    2016-03-01

    We report the use of microalgal swimming behavior as a sensor signal integrated into microfluidics for a rapid and high-throughput determination of pollutant toxicity. There are two types of chip. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) 12-well chip, used for optimization of experimental conditions (i.e. light level, temperature, initial cellular density and exposure time), can perform twelve parallel tests simultaneously. In a concentration gradient generator (CGG) chip, a CGG connected with diffusible chambers enables a large number of dose-response bioassays to be performed in a simple way. Microalgal swimming was set as a microfluidic bioassay signal and was evaluated as swimming manner, motile percentage (%MOT), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP) and straight line velocity (VSL). Under optimized physical conditions, the toxicities of Cu, Pb, phenol and nonylphenol (NP) towards four mobile marine microalgae, Platymonas subcordiformis, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis, Isochrysis galbana and Isochrysis zhanjiangensis sp. nov, were investigated. In all cases, a toxic response (i.e. a dose-related inhibition of swimming) was detected, and a time of only 2 h was needed to predict EC50 values. The 2h-EC50s showed that I. galbana was the most tolerant and that P. subcordiformis was one of the most sensitive. Based on the relative motile percentage data, the EC50 values for Cu of I. galbana and P. subcordiformis were 6.04 and 1.67 μM, respectively, while for Pb the EC50 values were 15.30 and 3.87 μM, for phenol the EC50 values were 8.69 and 6.08 mM, and for NP the EC50 values were 29.65 and 14.47 μM, respectively. Taking into account all the swimming inhibition parameters, MOT provided more sensitive EC results. The sensitivity differences between the velocity parameters (VCL, VAP and VSL) were ascribed to differences in swimming manner of the different classes of microalgae. PMID:26824675

  11. Marine pollution network euromar-mermaid: Results of the experimental operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, H.-D.; Schroeder, F.; Menzel, R.; Gebhart, E.; Marx, S.; Kohnke, D.; Holzkamm, F.; Nies, H.; Theobald, N.

    1997-09-01

    The need for automated systems to monitor chemical and biochemical variables led to the definition of the EUREKA-EUROMAR project MERMAID. It was realized by several international scientific and industrial partners. Important components were automatic nutrient analyzers and remote-controlled samplers for toxic trace substances in addition to a high-performance data management system with bi-directional telemetry units for remote-controlled network operation. These modules were implemented in the MERMAID network consisting of three sea stations, two of them set up in the Elbe estuary, and one in the Elbe-influenced coastal zone. The latter was at the same time part of the BSH-network. The data were transmitted to shore and processed at GKSS and BSH. While in the preceding project phase the marine pollution network was established and tested, the last MERMAID phase covered its experimental operation. For this purpose, different modules were installed at the three stations. They incorporated meteorological, oceanographic, physical and chemical sensors in addition to automatic analyzers for phosphate, nitrite/nitrate and ammonium as well as specialized samplers for heavy metals and organic micropollutants. Variables were determined directly either continuously by in situ sensors or at variable time intervals by remote-controlled in situ analyzers, or they were determined indirectly by samplers allowing phase-separated multiple sampling with remote or event control of the sampling frequency. In this contribution, the results of nutrient and heavy metal concentration time series measured in 1995 and 1996 are presented together with corresponding meteorological and oceanographic variables. The examples indicate that the transfer of nutrients and contaminants in the estuary and in the coastal zone is strongly influenced by different short- and long-term events, i.e. freshwater discharge rates and wind action. Additionally, in summer, chemical and biological processes

  12. Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Aumento, F; Le Donne, K; Eroe, K

    2005-01-01

    Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed: --those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; --groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming "star" bursts, or "hot spots") emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1 Bq/kg and 0.25 Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2 Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6 Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric nuclear testing

  13. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  14. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  15. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals: Marine Protected Area (MPA) or marine polluted area? The case study of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Casini, Silvia; Caliani, Ilaria; Gaspari, Stefania; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begoña; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2013-05-15

    The concurrence of man-made pressures on cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea is potentially affecting population stability and marine biodiversity. This needs to be proven for the only pelagic marine protected area in the Mediterranean Sea: the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals. Here we applied a multidisciplinary tool, using diagnostic markers elaborated in a statistical model to rank toxicological stress in Mediterranean cetaceans. As a case study we analyzed persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals combined with a wide range of diagnostic markers of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants and genetic variation as marker of genetic erosion in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Finally, a statistical model was applied to obtain a complete toxicological profile of the striped dolphin in the Pelagos Sanctuary and other Mediterranean areas (Ionian Sea and Strait of Gibraltar). Here we provide the first complete evidence of the toxicological stress in cetaceans living in Pelagos Sanctuary. PMID:23465620

  16. Butyltin accumulation in the marine clam Mya arenaria: an evaluation of its suitability for monitoring butyltin pollution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-qiang; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2006-03-01

    The use of Mya arenaria as a new sensitive biomonitor of butyltins pollution in the oceanic system was investigated. Field survey indicated that much higher levels of butyltin compounds were found in M. arenaria compared with the other species investigated. Using Mytilus edulis as a control organism, a 28 days exposure of tributyltin chloride (TBT) to M. arenaria for accumulation and subsequent 28 days breeding in clean seawater for elimination were conducted under laboratory conditions in order to confirm its high accumulation ability and characterize its kinetic behavior to TBT. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of M. arenaria ranged from 15,538 to 91,800 after 28 days exposure. The rapid uptake and low rate to eliminate TBT of M. arenaria displayed first-order kinetics. M. arenaria shows potential as a new bioindicator to monitor TBT pollution in marine environment. PMID:16188291

  17. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  18. Variation in tolerance to common marine pollutants among different populations in two species of the marine copepod Tigriopus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Edmands, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Geographical variation in chemical tolerance within a species can significantly influence results of whole animal bioassays, yet a literature survey showed that the majority of articles using bioassays did not provide detail on the original field collection site of their test specimens confounding the ability for accurate replication and comparison of results. Biological variation as a result of population-specific tolerance, if not addressed, can be misinterpreted as experimental error. Our studies of two marine copepod species, Tigriopus japonicus and Tigriopus californicus, found significant intra- and inter-specific variation in tolerance to copper and tributyltin. Because both species tolerate copper concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those found in coastal waters, difference in copper tolerance may be a by-product of adaptation to other stressors such as high temperature. Controlling for inter-population tolerance variation will greatly strengthen the application of bioassays in chemical toxicity tests. PMID:26070741

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:23830520

  20. Phase lag between Intertropical Convergence Zone migration and subtropical monsoon onset over the northwestern Indian Ocean during Marine Isotopic Substage 6.5 (MIS 6.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaizé, B.; Joly, C.; VéNec-Peyré, M.-T.; Bassinot, F.; Caillon, N.; Charlier, K.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution faunal and isotopic analyses of foraminifera were performed on core MD96-2073 (10°94'N, 52°62'E, 3142 m depth), located close to Socotra Island in the upwelling area of the Somali Basin (NW Indian Ocean). This work focuses on Marine Isotopic Stage 6.5 in order to reconstruct paleo-upwelling changes and their links with the Arabian Sea summer monsoon and the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Correspondence and cluster analyses of planktonic foraminiferal abundances, partly controlled by temperature and water mass productivity, together with an upwelling intensification index, show the occurrence of a strong upwelling between 176 and 165 ka. This upwelling intensification responds to a northward migration of the ITCZ. An isotopic depletion in the planktonic foraminifera δ18O records occurring between 180 and 167 ka is interpreted as proof of a large salinity decrease in the surface waters, probably linked to a strong input of fresh rainfall waters induced by an intense monsoon activity. The lag between the onset of upwelling intensification and the strong monsoonal impact over the same area suggests a decoupling between both phenomena. The migration of the ITCZ is influenced by obliquity and precessional forcing, while the Arabian Sea summer monsoon precipitation depends only on precessional forcing.

  1. Seasonal variation in the abundance of marine plastic debris in the estuary of a subtropical macro-scale drainage basin in South China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Cheung, Lewis Ting On; Fok, Lincoln

    2016-08-15

    Marine plastic debris, including microplastic debris (0.315-5mm) and large plastic debris (>5mm), was collected from 25 beaches in Hong Kong during a wet summer season (June-August 2014) and the following dry winter season (January-March 2015). Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the abundances and weights of seven categories of plastic debris between the two seasons. The results showed that the abundances and weights were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the wet season than in the dry season. Additionally, seasonal differences were detected only at the sites that were located on the west coast of Hong Kong and not at the sites on the east coast. These results suggest that the Pearl River Estuary on the west of Hong Kong plays a prominent role in the abundance and distribution of plastic debris in Hong Kong. In addition, the study indicates that estimates of microplastic abundance may be biased if samples are collected only during the wet or dry season if the sample locations are strongly influenced by a seasonal variation of riverine inputs, such as from the Pearl River. PMID:27110978

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine communities. January 1984-August 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1984-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning biological accumulation of heavy metals by marine organisms. Articles include surveys of marine organisms and their heavy-metal content, with specific references to metal accumulation such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, aluminum, lead, vanadium, copper, arsenic, tin, chromium, zinc, and others. The effects of environmental variables on the bioavailability of metals, and the nature of metal-ion complexation, are also considered. The use of species as pollution indicators is referenced, as well as some discussion of pollutant sources. Toxicity of metals is referenced in related publications. (Contains 147 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Differential fitness of allelic isozymes in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and Littorina neritoides, exposed to the environmental stress of the combined effects of cadmium and mercury pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Batia; Nevo, Eviatar

    1987-07-01

    The present study tested the separate and the interactive pollution effects of cadmium and mercury on the electrophoretically detected allelic isozyme frequencies of the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase for two species of littoral marine gastropods — Littorina punctata and L. neritoides — and the enzyme amino peptidase for L. neritoides. Our results indicate differential survivorship of allelic isozyme genotypes specific for each type of pollutant and for their interaction, as well as trends common to all pollutants. Theoretically the results reflect the adaptive nature of at least some allozymic genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Practically, the results reinforce earlier conclusions that changes in the frequency of allelic isozymes may be used as a genetic monitor of pollution.

  4. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    PubMed

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA. PMID:26174980

  5. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  6. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Rees, Steven D; McGrath, Aaron P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T; Vermeer, Lydia M; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)-100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  7. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  8. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  9. Potential sources of nitrous acid (HONO) and their impacts on ozone: A WRF-Chem study in a polluted subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Junyu; Xu, Zheng; Lv, Mengyao

    2016-04-01

    the Pearl River Delta region. This result highlights the importance of accurately representing HONO sources in simulations of secondary pollutants over polluted regions.

  10. Evaluation of the InSTEC's EDXRF assembly for Marine Sediment Pollution Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Arado, O. Diaz; Rizo, O. Diaz; Lopez-Pino, N.; D'Alessandro, K.; Olivares, S.; Gelen, A.; Casanova, O. A.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-03

    The determination of some heavy elements in marine sediments using the InSTEC's EDXRF assembly was evaluated. The spectrometer's main analytical characteristics were performed using {sup 109}Cd and {sup 238}Pu excitation sources. The system capabilities are tested by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material (CRM) IAEA-356. The results show that the K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Zr and Pb elemental concentrations can be determined in marine sediments with an excellent accuracy and Co, Ni, Sr and Mo concentrations with an acceptable accuracy.

  11. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Ignition Engine (``Marine SI'') regulations.'' \\1\\ 72 FR 14546 (March 28, 2007). \\2\\ 76 FR 24872 (May 3...; not-to-exceed limits; revised jet boat engine standards; and new carbon monoxide emission standards.\\5... locomotives. \\7\\ 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). \\8\\ See 62 FR 67733 (December 30, 1997). The...

  12. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  13. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  14. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew Wells

    Multiple sensors flying in the A-train constellation of satellites were used to determine the extent to which aerosol plumes from ships passing below marine stratocumulus alter the microphysical and macrophysical properties of the clouds. Aerosol plumes generated by ships sometimes influence cloud microphysical properties (effective radius) and, to a largely undetermined extent, cloud macrophysical properties (liquid water path, coverage, depth, precipitation, and longevity). Aerosol indirect effects were brought into focus, using observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the 94-GHZ radar onboard CloudSat. To assess local cloud scale responses to aerosol, the locations of over one thousand ship tracks coinciding with the radar were meticulously logged by hand from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. MODIS imagery was used to distinguish ship tracks that were embedded in closed, open, and unclassifiable mesoscale cellular cloud structures. The impact of aerosol on the microphysical cloud properties in both the closed and open cell regimes were consistent with the changes predicted by the Twomey hypothesis. For the macrophysical changes, differences in the sign and magnitude of these properties were observed between cloud regimes. The results demonstrate that the spatial extent of rainfall (rain cover fraction) and intensity decrease in the clouds contaminated by the ship plume compared to the ambient pristine clouds. Although reductions of precipitation were common amongst the clouds with detectable rainfall (72% of cases), a substantial fraction of ship tracks (28% of cases) exhibited the opposite response. The sign and strength of the response was tied to the type of stratocumulus (e.g., closed vs open cells), depth of the boundary layer, and humidity in the free-troposphere. When closed cellular clouds were identified, liquid water path, drizzle rate, and rain cover fraction (an average

  15. Air pollution history elucidated from anthropogenic spherules and their magnetic signatures in marine sediments offshore of Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Kuo-Hang; Huang, Pin-Ru; Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Lin, Hui-Ling

    2009-03-01

    Kaohsiung City and its neighborhood in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan have suffered serious air pollution since the region became the largest center for heavy-industry on the island. In order to unravel the air pollution history of the region, four 210Pb- and 137Cs-dated sediment box cores recovered in 2006 from offshore of this area were chosen for magnetic and petrographic analyses. The data were used to distinguish changes in concentration, composition and grain size of magnetic particles in the sediments due to inputs of anthropogenic magnetic spherules. Sedimentation rates have been reasonably constant for the last one hundred years, except at the core tops which were affected by a turbidite layer induced by a typhoon in 2005. Down-core profiles of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility ( χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) are similar among the cores, and reflect similar trends to magnetic spherule counts. This reveals that χ and SIRM of modern marine sediments can be used as air pollution indicators for nearby industrialized upwind areas. The studied record indicates that industrialization of the area was gradual during 1950-1980 and boomed afterward, resulting in a high production of airborne magnetic spherules, which is consistent with evidence for poor air quality at that time. Optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) surveys of magnetic extracts indicate that the magnetic spherules have grain sizes ranging from a few micrometers up to 50 μm and consist mainly of iron oxides with variable Si, Al, and Ca contents. X-ray diffraction analysis on magnetic extracts from different depths in the cores further indicates that magnetite and pyrrhotite, which are derived from terrigenous detritus, form the magnetic constituents of the sediments before the area was industrialized. In contrast, during the industrial boom, anthropogenic magnetite and hematite spherules became the dominant magnetic particles in the sediments

  16. The use of the shanny Lipophrys pholis for pollution monitoring: a new sentinel species for the northwestern European marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lima, D; Santos, M M; Ferreira, A M; Micaelo, C; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems by organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a matter of great concern. Mussels have been extensively used as sentinel species in a large number of monitoring programs. However, the use of bivalves as the sole species has some limitations, because they are not as responsive as fish to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor agonists. Hence, for many marine areas, there is the need to validate new sentinel fish species that can be used in the assessment of pollution by organic contaminants. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is an intertidal fish that combines many characteristics required in a sentinel species: is abundant and easy to catch, has a wide geographical distribution and restrict home range. After larvae recruitment to the intertidal rocky shores, they remain in the same area for the rest of the life-cycle, thus reflecting local pollutants exposure. In order to evaluate the species sensitivity to organic contaminants under field conditions, L. pholis were collected at six sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The induction of two biomarkers extensively validated in the assessment of PAHs contamination ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) and Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FACs) was evaluated. In parallel, mussels were collected at the same locations and levels of 16 PAHs and selected heavy metals determined. Overall, the specimens collected in the urban areas showed a significant induction of EROD and FACs (up to a six-fold induction) if compared with the reference sites. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the biomarkers and PAHs levels in mussel tissues. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicate that L. pholis is responsive to organic contaminants such as PAHs, suggesting its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of these contaminants in European marine ecosystems

  17. DNA ADDUCTS IN MARINE MUSSEL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LIVING IN POLLUTED AND UNPOLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a generally applicable 32P-postlabeling assay to examine for the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-amino...

  18. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks. PMID:21225312

  19. Influence of chemical and biological factors on trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the northwater polynya marine food web.

    PubMed

    Fisk, A T; Hobson, K A; Norstrom, R J

    2001-02-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) were measured in zooplankton (6 species), a benthic invertebrate (Anonyx nugax), Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), seabirds (6 species), and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya to examine effects of biological and chemical factors on trophic transfer of POPs in an Arctic marine food web. Strong positive relationships were found between recalcitrant POP concentrations (lipid corrected) and trophic level based on stable isotopes of nitrogen, providing clear evidence of POP biomagnification in Arctic marine food webs. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs), derived from the slope of the POP--trophic level relationship, provided an overall magnification factor for the food web but over and underestimated biomagnification factors (BMFs) based on predator--prey concentrations in poikilotherms (fish) and homeotherms (seabirds and mammals), respectively. Greater biomagnification in homeotherms was attributed to their greater energy requirement and subsequent feeding rates. Within the homeotherms, seabirds had greater BMFs than ringed seals, consistent with greater energy demands in birds. Scavenging from marine mammal carcasses and accumulation in more contaminated winter habitats were considered important variables in seabird BMFs. Metabolic differences between species resulted in lower than expected BMFs, which would not be recognized in whole food web trophic level--POP relationships. The use of sigma POP groups, such as sigma PCB, is problematic because FWMFs and BMFs varied considerably between individual POPs. FWMFs of recalcitrant POPs had a strong positive relationship with log octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow). Results of this study show the utility of using delta 15N to characterize trophic level and trophic transfer of POPs but highlight the effects of species and chemical differences on trophic transfer of POPs that can be overlooked when

  20. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  1. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  2. Stress-70 proteins in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of environmental pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Hamer, B; Hamer, D Pavicić; Müller, W E G; Batel, R

    2004-09-01

    In the present work we have investigated levels of stress-70 proteins in the gills of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected seasonally from subtidal rocky shores at 6 different sites of the Rovinj coastal area (Northern Adriatic, Croatia). 1-D analysis (SDS-PAGE) using monoclonal mouse antibodies anti-HSP70 detected two bands of stress-70 proteins, 70 and 72 kDa constitutively present during the year. 2-D analysis (IEF+SDS-PAGE) proved that the antibodies used detected HSP70 (pI 5.7-5.9) and HSP72 (pI 5.5-5.6). The quantification of stress-70 proteins was possible using 200 ng of external HSP70 protein standard included on every blot. Maximal levels of HSP72 and HSP70 were observed in mussels in summer (September), and minimal levels in winter (December), and only HSP70 showed significant correlation with the sea temperature (r=+0.822, p<0.05). Acclimatization of mussels to a different lower salinity under experimental conditions proved that small changes in sea salinity (Delta=2 psu) could not cause significant stress-70 proteins induction. Results indicated that there are significant differences in HSP70 and HSP72 content in mussels from the control site (S-1) and mussels from other sampling sites with urban and industrial pollution. The usefulness of stress-70 proteins as biomarkers of environmental pollution is discussed. PMID:15196835

  3. Imposex as a biomonitoring tool for marine pollution by tributyltin: some further observations.

    PubMed

    Axiak, Victor; Micallef, Diane; Muscat, Joanne; Vella, Alfred; Mintoff, Bernardette

    2003-03-01

    Imposex, i.e., the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female neograstropods, has been used worldwide as a bioindicator of pollution by the antifouling agent TBT as well as to assess the related ecological impact. The recent total ban on the use of TBT in the maritime industry has been partly based on the use of such a biomarker. This is mainly based on the assumption that no other pollutant, or environmental stress, is able to induce such a biological response. Nonetheless, several authors had challenged this idea. The present paper will present further field observations on imposex in Hexaplex trunculus from Malta (Central Mediterranean) which may help clarify this issue. Furthermore, the incidence of imposex in this species will be related to body burdens and to the environmental levels of organotins as measured analytically. First histological observations will also be presented which may help clarify the ecological significance of this response in this species. Finally a number of alternative scenarios regarding the relationship between imposex and TBT will be discussed. PMID:12605923

  4. Pollution history of the Savannah Estuary. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.; Ertel, J.; Lee, R.; Loganathan, B.; Martin, J.

    1997-09-01

    Dated cores collected from different sites in the Savannah Estuary were analyzed for 16 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 16 pesticides and 3 butylins. Time stratigraphy of the cores were determined by measurements of Pb-210 and Cs-137 activities down the cores. Those chemicals which showed significant temporal changes down dated cores in the Savannah Estuary included mercury, lead, chromium, PAHs, DDT isomers and metabolites, PCBs and dieldrin. The present study used cores from the Savannah Estuary, where the population is relatively low (approximately 150,000) and industrial growth has occurred over the past 30 years. Thus, the concentrations of most anthropogenic chemical found in the cores of the Savannah Estuary were comparatively low. An interesting aspect of the study, which has been noted by many pollution history studies, was the decrease in the concentration of anthropogenic chemicals during the past two decades suggesting that many pollution control laws have been effective, even while industrial and population growth continues in an area. In summation, the authors` studies present evidence of relatively large inputs of anthropogenic chemicals, including mercury, chromium, lead, polycycloic aromatic hydrocarbons, dieldrin, DDT isomers, and polychlorinated biphenyls, during the 1950s and 1960 into the Savannah Estuary followed by a gradual decrease of these chemicals during the past 20 to 30 years.

  5. Water-oil separation performance of technical textiles used for marine pollution disasters.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Mahdi; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi

    2015-07-15

    Oil is principally one of the most important energy sources in the world. However, as long as oil is explored and transported for being used, there will be the risk of the spillage into the marine environment. The use of technical textiles, i.e. fibrous beds, is a conventional separation technique for oil/water emulsion since it is efficient and easy to design. In this paper, the recovery of oil by technical textiles was mathematically modeled based on the structural parameters of textile and the capillary mechanism. Eleven types of commercial technical textiles with different properties were prepared for the experimental program. The experimental design included fiber type (polypropylene and polyester), fabric type (woven and/or nonwoven), fabric thickness and fabric areal density. Consequently, the absorption capacities of different technical textile samples were derived by the use of theoretical and experimental methods. The results show that there is a well fitness between theoretical outputs and experimental data. PMID:25963573

  6. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution. PMID:22763283

  7. Infertility in a marine crustacean: have we been ignoring pollution impacts on male invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongda; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

    2008-06-01

    Invertebrate infertility has been under-explored as a potential ecological issue or biomarker of stress within ecotoxicology. To date, the majority of studies focussing on contaminant induced infertility have centred on vertebrate groups. This study aimed to address the question whether industrial pollution has the ability to influence the sperm counts and testicular morphology of male amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). In addition, the sperm counts of normal and intersex specimens were compared to assess the potential impact of a crustacean with a disrupted endocrine system. Specimens of E. marinus were collected at one industrially impacted (Inverkeithing) and two reference (Thurso and Loch Fleet) sites along the north and eastern coasts of Scotland. Significantly higher sperm counts ( approximately 20%) were observed from normal males collected from reference sites compared to the industrially impacted site. Higher proportions (30%) of intersex specimens were observed at the industrially impacted site compared to 17 and 6% male intersexuality observed at Thurso and Loch Fleet, respectively. Intersex male specimens from Thurso had lower mean sperm counts ( approximately 15%) than normal male specimens, however, this result was not significant (P=0.089). No significant differences in sperm counts were observed between normal and intersex males at Inverkeithing. Our results indicate that industrial pollution does have the potential to affect the sperm counts of male crustaceans. Whether the quality of sperm in Crustacea from contaminated sites is also compromised or whether this is an endocrine mediated effect is yet to be confirmed. To date, many of the studies of endocrine disruption in crustaceans have, surprisingly, focussed on female fecundity parameters, growth and moulting despite many of the vertebrate studies initially focussing on the male gender. Whether this could be an ecological issue needs to be addressed through further field and laboratory

  8. Subtropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The circling clouds of an intense low-pressure system sat off the southeast coast of the United States on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. By the following morning, the storm developed enough to be classified as a subtropical storm, a storm that forms outside of the tropics, but has many of the characteristics--hurricane-force winds, driving rains, low pressure, and sometimes an eye--of a tropical storm. Although it arrived several weeks shy of the official start of the hurricane season (June 1), Subtropical Storm Andrea became the first named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm has the circular shape of a tropical cyclone in this image, but lacks the tight organization seen in more powerful storms. By May 9, the storm's winds reached 75 kilometers per hour (45 miles per hour), and the storm was not predicted to get any stronger, said the National Hurricane Center. Though Subtropical Storm Andrea was expected to remain offshore, its strong winds and high waves pummeled coastal states, prompting a tropical storm watch. The winds fueled wild fires (marked with red boxes) in Georgia and Florida. The wind-driven flames generated thick plumes of smoke that concentrated in a gray-brown mass over Tampa Bay, Florida. Unfortunately for Georgia and Florida, which are experiencing moderate to severe drought, Subtropical Storm Andrea was not predicted to bring significant rain to the region right away, according to reports on the Washington Post Website.

  9. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  10. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean samples.

    PubMed Central

    Baya, A M; Brayton, P R; Brown, V L; Grimes, D J; Russek-Cohen, E; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 microgram of one of a set of chemicals selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmid DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites. PMID:3755317

  11. Pollutant threshold concentration determination in marine ecosystems using an ecological interaction endpoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyou; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Wenting; Yu, Hua; Xing, Wenhui

    2015-09-01

    The threshold concentrations of pollutants are determined by extrapolating single-species effect data to community-level effects. This assumes the most sensitive endpoint of the life cycle of individuals and the species sensitivity distribution from single-species toxic effect tests, thus, ignoring the ecological interactions. The uncertainties due to this extrapolation can be partially overcome using the equilibrium point of a customized ecosystem. This method incorporates ecological interactions and integrates the effects on growth, survival, and ingestion into a single effect measure, the equilibrium point excursion in the customized ecosystem, in order to describe the toxic effects on plankton. A case study showed that the threshold concentration of copper calculated with the endpoint of the equilibrium point was 10 μg L(-1), which is significantly different from the threshold calculated with a single-species endpoint. The endpoint calculated using this method provides a more relevant measure of the ecological impact than any single individual-level endpoint. PMID:25982547

  12. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds.

    PubMed

    Choy, Emily S; Kimpe, Linda E; Mallory, Mark L; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2010-11-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ∑PCB and ∑DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ(15)N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:∑DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. PMID:20801564

  13. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  14. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 1: Culture and protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Vance, M.M.; Harmon, V.L.; Kreeger, K.E.; Kreeger, D.A.; Chapman, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short term (7-d) toxicity test for marine pollutants that is practical to perform at sites remote from a source of test organisms. Laboratory culture methods were developed that allowed successful long-term rearing of populations of the mysid Mysidopsis intii, a species indigenous to the Pacific coast of the United States. Mysidopsis intii was found to have a short life cycle of 20 d at 20 C, making it useful for chronic toxicity tests. A 7-d toxicity test was developed by comparing the sensitivities of various life stages of M. intii to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The most sensitive end point was found to be growth (final body length) of juveniles during the first 7 d after release. The sensitivity of mysids to SDS decreased with increasing age. To allow for shipping newly released juveniles to remote sites, a 7-d test was evaluated starting with 2-d-old mysids. The median lethal concentration for M. intii exposed to SDS at ages from 2 to 9 d was 4.59 mg/L (95% confidence limits, 4.21--5.00), and the maximum acceptable SDS concentration was 4.99 mg/L for both survival and growth.

  15. Detection of dibenzothiophene in mussel, Mytilus edulis, as a marker of pollution by organosulfur compounds in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, S.; Izumi, T.; Ogata, M.

    1983-11-01

    Organosulfur compounds are minor components of crude oil and of some fuel oils. Although the quantity of these compounds depends on the source of production, generally it ranges from 0.002 to nearly 30% in crude oil, found as sulfur containing hydrocarbons. Mussels are a well-known biological monitor of marine pollutants which scientists call ''the mussel watch''. But few reports have been published on organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compounds through GC-MS, and measured the levels of DBT through GC-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), in both mussels and in water of the environment. The calculated concentration ratio of DBT in mussels to that in water ranged up to 500 in the field sample and 800 or higher after and experimental exposure. The estimated biological half-life or DBT from field mussel samples was about 9 days in clean sea water.

  16. Cardiac activity in marine invertebrates in response to pollutants: Automated interpulse duration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundebye, A.K.; Curtis, T.; Depledge, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    The updated method of the Computer-Aided Physiological Monitoring (CAPMON) system was used to study the effects of copper exposure on cardiac activity in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and the common mussel (Mytilus edulis). This new Automated Interpulse Duration Assessment (AIDA) system measures the time interval between heart beats, and was found to be a more sensitive tool for evaluating cardiac responses to pollutant exposure than other techniques. In addition to information regarding heart rate, also obtained by the CAPMON system (as beats per minute), the new system enables frequency distribution analysis of interpulse duration. An experiment involving C. maenas examined the effects of short term (24 h) and chronic exposure (4 weeks) to copper concentrations 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mgl{sup {minus}1} Cu. Subsequent recovery (6 weeks) of cardiac activity was also examined. In a second experiment mussels were exposed to one of five copper concentrations (in the range of 0--0.1 mgl{sup {minus}1} Cu) and `normal` cardiac activity was compared with activity after copper exposure. A dose-response relationship was established between copper concentration and heart rate in crabs. The control group had the longest mean inter-pulse duration, and mean interpulse duration decreased in a concentration-dependent manner for the copper treatments, reflecting an increase in heart rate. Distribution of interpulse duration changed from a variable, rather wide distribution in control crabs, to a sharp-peaked normal distribution in exposed crabs. Results after 4 weeks exposure were not significantly different from those found after 24 h. Return to normal cardiac activity was evident after a 6 week `recovery` period. Results from the mussel experiment showed burst activity followed by a decline in heart rate in response to copper exposure.

  17. Determining provenance of marine metal pollution in French bivalves using Cd, Zn and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Cossa, Daniel; Orians, Kristin J.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) have been used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from the coastlines of France (English Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). The Cd isotopic signatures (δ114Cd = -1.08‰ to -0.52‰) exhibited by bivalves from the coastlines of France, excluding those from NE France, are within the range of those exhibited by bivalves from the USA East coast (δ114Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰). This indicates the high prevalence of industry, as well as the low natural contributions of Cd from North Atlantic waters in both regions. Thus, the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources is similar. These significant anthropogenic contributions are identified for bivalves with a large range in tissue Cd concentrations. Importantly, French bivalves from the Gironde estuary and Marennes-Oléron basin (regions of historic and modern importance for oyster farming, respectively) exhibited the highest Cd levels of the study. Their Cd isotopic signatures indicate historical smelting emissions remain the primary Cd source despite the cessation of local smelting activities in 1986 and subsequent remedial efforts. No significant variability is observed in the δ66Zn values of the French bivalves (∼0.53‰), with the exception of the much heavier compositions exhibited by oysters from the polluted Gironde estuary (1.19-1.27‰). Lead isotopes do not fractionate during processing like Cd and Zn. They can, therefore, be used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as metal sources to French bivalves. Cadmium and Zn isotopes are successfully used here as tracers of anthropogenic processing emissions and are combined with Pb isotope "fingerprinting" techniques to identify metal sources.

  18. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina

  19. Long-term monitoring of a marine geologic hydrocarbon source by a coastal air pollution station in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza; Leifer, Ira; Roberts, Dar

    2010-12-01

    Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990-2008 from a California air pollution station located near the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, were analyzed and clearly showed geologic CH 4 emissions as the dominant local source. Annual COP emissions are conservatively estimated as 0.015 Tg CH 4 year -1 and represent a natural and concentrated geologic methane source (24 m 3 m -2 day -1 gas flux at some active seeps, Clark et al., 2010). For a sense of the scale and potential importance to the regional Southern California methane budget, COP emits an amount equivalent to 8% of the estimated Los Angeles County anthropogenic emissions. Station THC measurements near COP showed a strong wind dependency with elevated levels closely correlated with a sonar-derived spatial distribution of seep field emissions. THC varied seasonally, with a maximum in January and minimum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.24 ppm. The seasonal signal was more readily apparent midday ( R2 = 0.69 harmonic fit), compared to nighttime and morning ( R2 < 0.45). The bimodal diel THC pattern consisted of seasonally-modulated peaks in the morning and evening. THC temporal and spatial trends were consistent with both transport and source emission variations. Long-term, annual seep field emissions consistently decreased on a field-wide basis until the late 1990s, before increasing consistently, most likely as a function of underlying geologic processes. This study demonstrates the value of municipal air quality monitoring stations for insight into local greenhouse gas sources and highlights the non-negligible and variable contribution from marine geologic seepage.

  20. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983

  1. Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. The Bacterial Community Structure of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Environments as the Basis for the Definition of an Ecological Index of Hydrocarbon Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S.; Commendatore, Marta G.; Gil, Mónica N.; Dionisi, Hebe M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities. PMID:24964812

  3. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  4. Monitoring coastal marine waters for spore-forming bacteria of faecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established recreational water quality standards limiting the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci) to ensure that these waters are safe for swimming. In the application of these hygienic water quality standards, it is assumed that there are no significant environmental sources of these faecal indicator bacteria which are unrelated to direct faecal contamination. However, we previously reported that these faecal indicator bacteria are able to grow in the soil environment of humid tropical island environments such as Hawaii and Guam and are transported at high concentrations into streams and storm drains by rain. Thus, streams and storm drains in Hawaii contain consistently high concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria which routinely exceed the EPA and WHO recreational water quality standards. Since, streams and storm drains eventually flow out to coastal marine waters, we hypothesize that all the coastal beaches which receive run-off from streams and storm drains will contain elevated concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the coastal waters at four beaches known to receive water from stream or storm drains for salinity, turbidity, and used the two faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) to establish recreational water quality standards. To determine if these coastal waters are contaminated with non-point source pollution (streams) or with point source pollution (sewage effluent), these same water samples were also assayed for spore-forming bacteria of faecal origin (Cl. perfringens) and of soil origin (Bacillus species). Using this monitoring strategy it was possible to determine when coastal marine waters were contaminated with non-point source pollution and when coastal waters were contaminated with point source pollution. The results of this study are most likely

  5. NO2 seasonal evolution in the north subtropical free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Ojeda, M.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Gómez-Martín, L.; Adame, J. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; González, Y.; Puentedura, O.; Cuevas, E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Kinninson, D.; Tilmes, S.

    2015-09-01

    Three years of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) measurements (2011-2013) have been used for estimating the NO2 mixing ratio along a horizontal line of sight from the high mountain subtropical observatory of Izaña, at 2370 m a.s.l. (NDACC station, 28.3° N, 16.5° W). The method is based on horizontal path calculation from the O2-O2 collisional complex at the 477 nm absorption band which is measured simultaneously to the NO2 column density, and is applicable under low aerosol-loading conditions. The MAXDOAS technique, applied in horizontal mode in the free troposphere, minimizes the impact of the NO2 contamination resulting from the arrival of marine boundary layer (MBL) air masses from thermally forced upwelling breeze during middle hours of the day. Comparisons with in situ observations show that during most of the measuring period, the MAXDOAS is insensitive or very slightly sensitive to the upwelling breeze. Exceptions are found for pollution events during southern wind conditions. On these occasions, evidence of fast, efficient and irreversible transport from the surface to the free troposphere is found. Background NO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr), representative of the remote free troposphere, is in the range of 20-45 pptv. The observed seasonal evolution shows an annual wave where the peak is in phase with the solar radiation. Model simulations with the chemistry-climate CAM-Chem model are in good agreement with the NO2 measurements, and are used to further investigate the possible drivers of the NO2 seasonality observed at Izaña.

  6. Natural attenuation of contaminated marine sediments from an old floating dock - Part I: Spatial and temporal changes of organic and inorganic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2012-03-15

    Temporal and spatial changes of mixed pollutants, including eight heavy metals, 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in surface marine sediments were examined for a one-year period after the removal of an old floating dock in Hong Kong SAR, South China. The sediments from the impacted stations close to the dock were highly polluted with zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), and were moderately polluted with TBT and total PAHs, based on their effects range-low (ERL) guideline values, while those collected in the reference stations away from the dock were lower than the ERL. Strong, positive correlations were found between the organic pollutants and heavy metals only in the impacted stations, suggesting that the old floating dock was a significant source of mixed pollutants. There was no significant decline in the levels of total PAHs, TBT and heavy metals and "hot spots" of contamination were still detected a year after the removal of the dock. However, the profiles of 16 PAHs in the impacted stations changed 6 months after the removal of the dock, with decreases of certain low-molecular-weight PAHs, especially fluorene, as a sign of biodegradation in situ. Further, principal component analysis (PCA) based on an integrated dataset of the pollutants together with general sediment properties showed that the temporal changes of the biodegradable low-molecular-weight PAHs were highly associated with the pH value and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, while heavy metals were independent of time and other sediment properties during natural attenuation in the dock area. PMID:22326320

  7. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  8. Diversity of benzylsuccinate synthase-like (bssA) genes in hydrocarbon-polluted marine sediments suggests substrate-dependent clustering.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Marqués, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    The potential of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine sediments was determined through the detection of a functional biomarker, the bssA gene, coding for benzylsuccinate synthase, the key enzyme of anaerobic toluene degradation. Eight bssA clone libraries (409 sequences) were constructed from polluted sediments affected by the Prestige oil spill in the Atlantic Islands National Park and from hydrocarbon-amended sediment microcosms in Mallorca. The amplified products and database-derived bssA-like sequences grouped into four major clusters, as determined by phylogenetic reconstruction, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and a subfamily prediction tool. In addition to the classical bssA sequences that were targeted, we were able to detect sequences homologous to the naphthylmethylsuccinate synthase gene (nmsA) and the alkylsuccinate synthase gene (assA), the bssA homologues for anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene and alkane degradation, respectively. The detection of bssA-like variants was determined by the persistence and level of pollution in the marine samples. The observed level of gene diversity was lower in the Mallorca sediments, which were dominated by assA-like sequences. In contrast, the Atlantic Islands samples, which were highly contaminated with methylnaphthalene-rich crude oil, showed a high proportion of nmsA-like sequences. Some of the detected genes were phylogenetically related to Deltaproteobacteria communities, previously described as the predominant hydrocarbon degraders at these sites. Differences between all detected bssA-like genes described to date indicate separation between marine and terrestrial sequences and further subgrouping according to taxonomic affiliation. Global analysis suggested that bssA homologues appeared to cluster according to substrate specificity. We observed undetected divergent gene lineages of bssA homologues, which evidence the existence of new degrader groups in these environments. PMID:23563947

  9. Diversity of Benzylsuccinate Synthase-Like (bssA) Genes in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Sediments Suggests Substrate-Dependent Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The potential of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine sediments was determined through the detection of a functional biomarker, the bssA gene, coding for benzylsuccinate synthase, the key enzyme of anaerobic toluene degradation. Eight bssA clone libraries (409 sequences) were constructed from polluted sediments affected by the Prestige oil spill in the Atlantic Islands National Park and from hydrocarbon-amended sediment microcosms in Mallorca. The amplified products and database-derived bssA-like sequences grouped into four major clusters, as determined by phylogenetic reconstruction, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and a subfamily prediction tool. In addition to the classical bssA sequences that were targeted, we were able to detect sequences homologous to the naphthylmethylsuccinate synthase gene (nmsA) and the alkylsuccinate synthase gene (assA), the bssA homologues for anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene and alkane degradation, respectively. The detection of bssA-like variants was determined by the persistence and level of pollution in the marine samples. The observed level of gene diversity was lower in the Mallorca sediments, which were dominated by assA-like sequences. In contrast, the Atlantic Islands samples, which were highly contaminated with methylnaphthalene-rich crude oil, showed a high proportion of nmsA-like sequences. Some of the detected genes were phylogenetically related to Deltaproteobacteria communities, previously described as the predominant hydrocarbon degraders at these sites. Differences between all detected bssA-like genes described to date indicate separation between marine and terrestrial sequences and further subgrouping according to taxonomic affiliation. Global analysis suggested that bssA homologues appeared to cluster according to substrate specificity. We observed undetected divergent gene lineages of bssA homologues, which evidence the existence of new degrader groups in these environments. PMID:23563947

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MARINE POLLUTION RESEARCH HELD IN GULF BREEZE, FLORIDA ON JANUARY 27-29, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium papers discuss how man's activities have affected natural resources of a coastal environment. Participants, representing international aspects of coastal pollution, reviewed current status of research and procedures planned to minimize offshore coastal damage. Subje...

  11. Marine sponges with contrasting life histories can be complementary biomonitors of heavy metal pollution in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Muricy, Guilherme; Rocha, Rafael Chávez; Miekeley, Norbert F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared the usefulness of a long-living sponge (Hymeniacidon heliophila, Class Demospongiae) and a short-living one (Paraleucilla magna, Class Calcarea) as biomonitors of metallic pollution. The concentrations of 16 heavy metals were analyzed in both species along a gradient of decreasing pollution from the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay to the less impacted coastal islands in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil (SW Atlantic). The levels of most elements analyzed were higher in H. heliophila (Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Hg, Ni, and Sn) and P. magna (Ni, Cu, Mn, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Zn, and V) collected from the heavily polluted bay when compared with the cleanest sites. Hymeniacidon heliophila accumulates 11 elements more efficiently than P. magna. This difference may be related to their skeleton composition, histological organization, symbiont bacteria and especially to their life cycle. Both species can be used as a biomonitors of metallic pollution, but while Hymeniacidon heliophila was more effective in concentrating most metals, Paraleucilla magna is more indicated to detect recent pollutant discharges due to its shorter life cycle. We suggest that the complementary use of species with contrasting life histories can be an effective monitoring strategy of heavy metals in coastal environments. PMID:24442965

  12. Direct Evidence for PCB Destruction in the Subtropical Troposphere by OH Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandalakis, M.; Berresheim, H.; Stephanou, E.

    2003-04-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production and use were banned by the mid-1970s, PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants in nearly all environmental compartments. Because of their high persistence and toxicity PCBs can pose toxic effects on animals and humans, decades after their release into the environment. It has been supported that warm temperatures at the tropical and subtropical regions of the earth favor the volatilization of PCBs, which are subsequently transported to colder areas of high latitude. This process, known as "global distillation effect", could cause an enhancement of PCB concentrations in the plant biomass and the marine mammals of Earth's polar regions. It has been experimentally established, that chemical reactions of PCBs with OH radicals might be the dominant loss processes in the atmosphere1. Nevertheless, PCBs atmospheric removal by OH radicals has never been positively demonstrated under real atmospheric conditions, mainly due to the difficulties to measure simultaneously the concentration of OH radicals and PCBs in the atmosphere. By applying elaborated sampling and analytical techniques2,3, under real atmospheric conditions, we achieved the simultaneous determination of OH radicals and PCBs congeners and demonstrated for the first time that PCB removal from the troposphere of subtropical regions is due to a large extent to reactions with OH radicals. References 1. Anderson, P. N. &Hites, R. A. OH radical reactions: The major removal pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls from the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 1756-1763 (1996). 2. Berresheim, H., Elste, T., Plass-Dülmer, C., Eisele, F. L. &Tanner, D. J. Chemical ionization mass spectrometer for long-term measurements of atmospheric OH and H2SO4. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 202, 91-109 (2000). 3. Mandalakis, M., M. Tsapakis, and E.G. Stephanou, Optimization and application of high-resolution gas chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of

  13. Characterizations of wet mercury deposition to a remote islet (Pengjiayu) in the subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2013-10-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg0 oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg0 emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer (MBL) where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  14. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  15. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  16. Predictable pollution: an assessment of weather balloons and associated impacts on the marine environment--an example for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Owen R; Hamann, Mark; Smith, Walter; Taylor, Heidi

    2014-02-15

    Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the probability of ocean endpoints for released weather balloons and predict pathways post-release. In addition, we use 21 months of data from beach cleanup events to validate our results and assess the abundance and frequency of weather balloon fragments in the GBRWHA. We found between 65% and 70% of balloons land in the ocean and ocean currents largely determine final endpoints. Beach cleanup data revealed 2460 weather balloon fragments were recovered from 24 sites within the GBRWHA. This is the first attempt to quantify this problem and these data will add support to a much-needed mitigation strategy for weather balloon waste. PMID:24434000

  17. DNA adducts in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis living in polluted and unpolluted environments. Chapter 12. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Garg, A.; Krca, S.; Gupta, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generally applicable (32)P-postlabeling assay was used to examine the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-aminofluorene showed exclusively one adduct which was identified to be dG-C8-2-aminofluorene. Under the same experimental conditions, Diesel-2 oil did not induce any detectable adducts. When mussel digestive gland DNA was collected and analyzed from one unpolluted site, two moderately impacted sites, and one site heavily impacted by cannery wastewaters, mussel DNA from the unpolluted and only one moderately polluted site showed the presence of 6 to 10 adducts. This indicates they were not related to the pollution. This was further supported by the absence of dose-related adducts. Clear evidence for the presence of pollution-related DNA adducts was, however, found in juvenile mussels collected from an oil refinery site. One major and three minor adducts were detected in these mussels with no adducts detected in juvenile mussels from an unpolluted site.

  18. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  19. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  20. Short‐term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-01-01

    Summary The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (T‐RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel‐polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T‐RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T‐RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area. PMID:21255357

  1. Transcription of a novel P450 gene varies with some factors (pollutant exposure, temperature, time, and body region) in a marine oligochaete (Thalassodrilides sp.).

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel, full-length CYP gene (CYP4V30) was identified in the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. CYP4V30 mRNA expression was studied in worms exposed to PAH-polluted (Σ16PAHs; 37441ng/g dry weight) or unpolluted (Σ16PAHs; 19ng/g dry weight) sediment. CYP4V30 expression was much higher in worms exposed to contaminated sediments than in those exposed to unpolluted sediments at some temperatures (20 and 25°C) and exposure durations (11-fold increase at 20°C, 10-day exposure), but not at 15°C or other exposure durations (P<0.05). CYP4V30 mRNA expression was higher in the middle of the body than in the posterior (P<0.05). The variation in transcriptional response with exposure time, temperature, and body region indicates that these factors should be considered when monitoring marine sediment pollution. PMID:27251443

  2. Application of passive sampling devices for screening of micro-pollutants in marine aquaculture using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Hernando, María Dolores; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2009-02-15

    Knowledge on the presence of micro-pollutants, in particular emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, biocides or some pesticides, in semi-enclosed coastal areas, where fish farms are installed, is very limited. This article shows data on the presence of micro-pollutants over 1 year monitoring campaign carried out in a fish farm placed on the Mediterranean Sea. With this work, the results of the development of an analytical procedure which, makes use of passive sampling techniques (with polar organic chemical integrative samplers, POCIS, pharmaceutical configuration) and of the LC-QLIT-MS system, are presented. The development of the analytical procedure entail laboratory-based calibration with the samplers POCIS, for calculating uptake rates and sampling rates of compounds representative of a wide range of polarity (4.56>or=logK(ow)>or=-0.12). The uptake of the target compounds in the sampler POCIS, follows a linear pattern for most compounds, and sampling rates varied from 0.001 to 0.319l/d. The calibration experiments have shown that POCIS pharmaceutical configuration could be used for sampling other non-target compounds, such as pesticides and biocides with a logK(ow)pollutants in the water column, during the field study. An analytical method was developed with the LC-QLIT-MS system and validated to ensure a satisfactory performance for the detection of the target micro-pollutants in water. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved were between 0.01 and 1.50 microg/l. During the monitoring campaign, among the selected compounds, metronidazole, erythromycin, simazine, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, trimethoprim, carbaryl, flumequine, TCMTB and diphenyl sulphone (DPS) were detected. Most of target compounds found were at average concentrations which ranged from 0.01 to 75 ng/l. Irgarol

  3. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber. PMID:25678322

  4. Magnetometry as a tool to estimate the pollution of marine environment around the small shipwrecks (Gulf of Gdańsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwizdała, Magdalena; Jeleńska, Maria; Łęczyński, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Shipwrecks may pose a serious source of contamination for marine environment. This is a very important reason to use all available methods to estimate the pollution extent of marine environment due to wrecks presence, even these small. In this paper we present, the results of magnetic analysis carried out on surface sediment samples collected around the small shipwrecks (Munin and Abille) in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea). Data shows a small amount of magnetic materials in the deposits from environment around shipwrecks. However, a relatively large variation of magnetic susceptibility (χ) occurred. In the samples from the area of Abille wreck, the main carrier of magnetic information is magnetite with a small amount of maghemite or hematite. Whereas the samples around Munin wreck divide into two groups, in terms of magnetic mineralogy - magnetite and maghemite. The values of χ were in the range of 5- 8 × 10-8m3/kg. However, sediments collected around Munin wreck were more diversified. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility have been obtained in sediments on SW of Munin wreck (χ = 12.92 × 10-8m3/kg), while the lowest values were recorded on NE of shipwreck (χ = 3.07 × 10-8m3/kg). The direction of spatial variability of magnetic susceptibility were coincided with near-bottom water currents distribution in the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. This correlation between the distribution of magnetic susceptibility and hydrodynamic condition around shipwrecks, allows to determine the direction of contaminant transport.

  5. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:25817311

  6. Microphysical and macrophysical responses of marine stratocumulus polluted by underlying ships: 2. Impacts of haze on precipitating clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2012-06-01

    The 94-GHz cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite was used to examine the precipitation response of marine stratocumulus clouds to the increased aerosol burden from oceangoing vessels. Aerosol plumes generated by ships sometimes influence cloud microphysics and, to a largely undetermined extent, precipitation. To assess this response, the locations of over one thousand ship tracks coinciding with the radar were meticulously logged by hand from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Although precipitation detectable by the radar was infrequent, drizzle rates were often suppressed (72% of cases) and lighter in the ship tracks compared to the clouds adjacent to them. Ship plumes primarily decreased average rain rates through reducing the spatial coverage of precipitation. However, larger liquid water paths in ship tracks seldom coincided with the reduced cloud water sink from the suppression of precipitation (in less than 20% of cases). The sign and strength of the precipitation response was primarily tied to the mesoscale convective structure of the clouds. When closed cellular clouds were identified, significant decreases in the relative average liquid water path, rain rate (an average relative decrease of 68%), and rain cover fraction were observed in ship tracks compared to the surrounding clouds. The opposite occurred in the open cell regime where it was more common to find enhanced precipitation in the perturbed clouds. Ship plumes ingested into this regime resulted in significantly deeper and brighter clouds with higher liquid water amounts and rain rates (an average relative increase of 89%).

  7. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  8. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. Hearing before the National Ocean Policy Study of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, July 29, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A hearing on the disposal of plastic wastes in the marine environment brought testimony from representatives of the fishing industry, the shipping industry, the plastics industry, and environmental groups. The disposal of plastics in the ocean is so ubiquitous that it can be compared to nonpoint sources of pollution such as acid rain or agricultural runoff. In that respect, it may be one of the most difficult sources of pollution to effectively monitor or to control and is a problem of immense proportions. The impacts are not confined to aesthetics, as each year hundreds of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals perish as they consume or become entangled in plastic debris. Even human life is threatened when vessels become disabled as their propellers become fouled in plastic debris.

  9. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded. PMID:25765474

  10. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 2: Protocol evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, V.L.; Langdon, C.J.

    1996-10-01

    The sensitivity of the Pacific coast mysid Mysidopsis intii to pollutants was compared in 7-d toxicity tests with that of the Gulf coast mysid M. bahia and the Pacific coast mysid Holmesimysis costata. Survival and growth responses of M. intii to zinc (maximum acceptable toxicant concentration [MATC] survival and growth, 152 {micro}g/L) were as sensitive as survival of both M. bahia (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L) and H. costata (MATC survival, 152 {micro}g/L). In contrast, the 7-d test for M. intii was less sensitive (MATC growth and survival, 4.99 mg/L) than the test for H. costata (MATC survival, 1.99 mg/L) when sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the toxicant. Interlaboratory evaluation of the 7-d test for M. intii exposed to SDS indicated that the test was reliable. The mean test results for the group of participating laboratories were not significantly different from those of a group of three in-house tests, indicating that shipping and handling did not affect mysid sensitivity to SDS. Mysid growth was not as sensitive to SDS as survival in the interlaboratory tests. Although there were significant differences in median lethal concentration (LC50) values among participating laboratories, coefficients of variation of LC50 and MATC survival values among laboratories were 10.3 and 37%, respectively. These coefficients were comparable to those reported for interlaboratory tests with H. costata.

  11. Isoform-specific responses of metallothioneins in a marine pollution biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards different stress stimulations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Priscilla T Y; Park, T J; Wang, Yu; Che, C M; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are commonly used as biomarker for metal pollution assessment in marine ecosystems. Using integrated genomic and proteomic analyses, this study characterized two types of MT isoform in the digestive gland of a common biomonitor, the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, towards the challenges of a metal (cadmium; Cd) and a non-metal oxidant (hydrogen peroxide; H2 O2 ) respectively. The two isoforms differed in their deduced protein sequences, with 73 amino acids for MT10-I and 72 for MT10-II (a novel type), but both consisted of a high percentage (27.4 to 29.2%) of cysteine. Two-dimensional gel and Western blot showed that the MT proteins were present in multiple isoform spots, and they were further validated to be MT10-I and MT10-II using MS analysis coupled with unrestricted modifications searching. Expression of mRNA revealed that MT10-I responded promptly to Cd but had a lagged induction to H2 O2 treatments, while MT10-II was exclusively induced by Cd treatment over the course of exposure. Expression of the MT proteins also showed a delayed response to H2 O2 , compared to Cd treatments. This study uncovered the potential different functional roles of various MTs isoforms in P. viridis and thus advances the resolution of using MTs as biomarkers in future applications. PMID:24838682

  12. Evaluation of the global protein synthesis in Mytilus galloprovincialis in marine pollution monitoring: seasonal variability and correlations with other biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pytharopoulou, Sofia; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Sazakli, Eleni; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2006-10-25

    Protein synthesis down-regulation is a life-saving mechanism for many organisms exposed to xenobiotics that threaten normal life. The present study was designed to assess the spatial and seasonal variability of global protein synthesis, determined in the microsomal fraction of digestive glands from caged Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels exposed for 30 days in a relatively clean region and two unevenly polluted areas (Stations 1 and 2) along the Gulf of Patras (Greece). The in vivo activity of translating ribosomes was evaluated by analyzing the translating ribosomes, polysome content, which may serve as an indicator of the efficiency of the protein-synthesizing machinery. To correlate with classical biomonitoring strategies, various biomarkers were measured in digestive glands, including metallothionein content, heavy-metal content, and lysosomal membrane stability. In parallel, gill cells were examined for micronucleus frequency. Metal ion concentrations were also estimated in the surrounding waters as a measure of metal exposure. Substantially lower polysome content was recorded in caged mussels collected from Station 1, in particular during the winter and spring sampling. As verified by chemical analysis of the seawater and measurement of other biomarkers, Station 1 was more contaminated than Station 2. Polysome content was found negatively correlated with metallothionein levels, micronucleus frequency and cytosolic Cu and Hg in all seasons. In addition, negative correlations were obtained between polysome content and lysosomal membrane stability in winter and spring. A progressive increase in polysomes was observed from winter to autumn, in particular in samples from Station 1. A non-uniform trend was detected in 80S ribosomal monosomes, whereas the seasonal changes in ribosomal subunits were opposite to those found in polysome content. Comparisons between seasonal and local site-specific influences on polysome content provides evidence that winter and spring

  13. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  14. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  15. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  16. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging

  17. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport. PMID:27016676

  18. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to a Remote Islet in the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean with an area of 1.14 km^2, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L^-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L^-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m^-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L^-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m^-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg(0) oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  19. Reducing the uncertainty in subtropical cloud feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Timothy A.; Norris, Joel R.

    2016-03-01

    Large uncertainty remains on how subtropical clouds will respond to anthropogenic climate change and therefore whether they will act as a positive feedback that amplifies global warming or negative feedback that dampens global warming by altering Earth's energy budget. Here we reduce this uncertainty using an observationally constrained formulation of the response of subtropical clouds to greenhouse forcing. The observed interannual sensitivity of cloud solar reflection to varying meteorological conditions suggests that increasing sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability in the future climate will have largely canceling effects on subtropical cloudiness, overall leading to a weak positive shortwave cloud feedback (0.4 ± 0.9 W m-2 K-1). The uncertainty of this observationally based approximation of the cloud feedback is narrower than the intermodel spread of the feedback produced by climate models. Subtropical cloud changes will therefore complement positive cloud feedbacks identified by previous work, suggesting that future global cloud changes will amplify global warming.

  20. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of trace metals in humid subtropical soil.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, several physicochemical properties of sub-tropical soil (up to 20 cm depth) like water holding capacity, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, texture, pH, and electrical conductivity were determined along with the trace metals, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, in order to evaluate inter-relations among the trace metals and the soil properties. The contribution of the trace metals to ecotoxicological risk was assessed using various tools. Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were found to be lower than the world average, but Co, Ni, and Pb had higher contents. The trace metal concentrations were utilized to obtain the pollution index and the potential ecotoxicological aspects. The trace metals were shown to have come from similar origin and their retention in the soil was contributed by properties like organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, clay content and water holding capacity of the soil. The pollution index showed that the trace metals had the sequence of Pb (considerably polluted) > Co, Ni (moderately polluted) > Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn (unpolluted). The composite ecological risk index was the highest in agricultural land with irrigation and fertilizer use, and was the lowest in the forest land. PMID:26254205

  1. FUNGI AND HYDROCARBONS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrocarbons from various sources--anthropogenic pollution, marine seeps, marine algae, atmospheric fallout and terrestrial runoff--enter the ocean daily. These complex hydrocarbon mixtures are dispersed and degraded by abiotic and biogenic processes. Most commonly, bacteria are ...

  2. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  3. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  4. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles. PMID:27465566

  5. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated ‘peat deposit-lake sediment’ alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles.

  6. Tropical/Subtropical Peatland Development and Global CH4 during the Last Glaciation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Lan, Jianghu; Sheng, Enguo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Bin; Yu, Keke; Ye, Yuanda; Cheng, Peng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan; Wang, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of peatland development over the tropical/subtropical zone during the last glaciation is critical for understanding the glacial global methane cycle. Here we present a well-dated 'peat deposit-lake sediment' alternate sequence at Tengchong, southwestern China, and discuss the peatland development and its linkage to the global glacial methane cycle. Peat layers were formed during the cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-2 and -4, whereas lake sediments coincided with the relatively warm MIS-3, which is possibly related to the orbital/suborbital variations in both temperature and Asian summer monsoon intensity. The Tengchong peatland formation pattern is broadly synchronous with those over subtropical southern China and other tropical/subtropical areas, but it is clearly in contrast to those over the mid-high Northern Hemisphere. The results of this work suggest that the shifts of peatland development between the tropical/subtropical zone and mid-high Northern Hemisphere may have played important roles in the glacial/interglacial global atmospheric CH4 cycles. PMID:27465566

  7. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  8. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  9. Dangers in the ocean: the traveler and marine envenomation. II. Marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Fenner, P J

    1998-12-01

    Envenomation both from jellyfish and other marine animals causes human deaths and severe morbidity in many countries in the world having tropical, or subtropical waters. In part II the world distribution of venomous marine vertebrates is discussed, together with simple first aid and effective medical treatment. Suggestions are made for the awareness and prevention of marine envenomation. With travel becoming more popular than ever, general practitioners and travel medicine consultants must routinely advise their patients on the worldwide hazards of marine envenomation. PMID:9876198

  10. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  11. Enhancement of phytoplankton chlorophyll by submesoscale frontal dynamics in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Levine, Naomi M.

    2016-02-01

    Subtropical gyres contribute significantly to global ocean productivity. As the climate warms, the strength of these gyres as a biological carbon pump is predicted to diminish due to increased stratification and depleted surface nutrients. We present results suggesting that the impact of submesoscale physics on phytoplankton in the oligotrophic ocean is substantial and may either compensate or exacerbate future changes in carbon cycling. A new statistical tool was developed to quantify surface patchiness from sea surface temperatures. Chlorophyll concentrations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre were shown to be enhanced by submesoscale frontal dynamics with an average increase of 38% (maximum of 83%) during late winter. The magnitude of this enhancement is comparable to the observed decline in chlorophyll due to a warming of ~1.1°C. These results highlight the need for an improved understanding of fine-scale physical variability in order to predict the response of marine ecosystems to projected climate changes.

  12. Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre properties across two Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Downy, F.; Andersson, M. A.; Chapman, M. R.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N.; Lenton, T. M.; Grützner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salinity increase in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period. Here we investigate the Gulf Stream - subtropical gyre system properties over Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles 14 to 12, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5. During the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum a positive gradient in surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera δ18O (Globigerinoides ruber) can be observed between the Gulf Stream and subtropical gyre, due to decreasing temperature, increasing salinity, and a change from summer to year-round occurrence of G. ruber. We assess whether this gradient was a common feature during stadial-interstadial climate oscillations of Marine Isotope Stage 3, by comparing existing G. ruber δ18O from ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and new data from ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) between 54 and 46 ka. Our results suggest that this gradient was largely absent during the period studied. During the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 we infer a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream, influencing both ODP Sites 1056 and 1060. A Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials is also suggested by the large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling planktonic foraminifera species, especially G. ruber, and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflata at site 1056, which we associate with strong summer stratification and Gulf Stream presence. A major reduction in this vertical δ18O gradient from 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 at 48.5 ka suggests site 1056 was situated within the subtropical gyre in this mainly cold period, from which we infer a migration of the Gulf Stream to a position nearer to the continental shelf, indicative of a narrower Gulf Stream with possibly reduced transport.

  13. Periodical Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    In order to foster improvements in bibliographical control, this study attempts to provide some information on the periodicals in which articles on tropical and subtropical agriculture are published. The periodicals in which publications most frequently appear are listed, and the extent of bibliographic scattering and language of publication are…

  14. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  15. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  16. Marine pollution risk in a coastal city: use of an eco-genotoxic tool as a stress indicator in mussels from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Asli; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas, such as bays, estuaries, and harbors, are heavily polluted since these areas are the settlements to which toxic chemicals from industrial and domestic wastes are discharged. The genetic damage was evaluated using bioindicator mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caused by toxic chemicals (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in İzmir and Çandarlı Bays (the Eastern Aegean Sea) through comet assay. Three sampling sites from the two bays were selected and the study was conducted during the spring and autumn periods. The highest levels of DNA damage expressed as %Tail-DNA were observed in İzmir Bay (34.60 % Tail-DNA) in the spring. Analysis of the correlation between PAHs and metals in mussels and %T-DNA in the hemolymph and gill cells showed a statistically significant positive correlation between %T-DNA and ∑PAH, chromium (p < 0.05). This study determined the pollution level of the İzmir and Çandarlı Bays by using the DNA damage to the mussel, which can identify the effects of environmental pollutants at the cellular levels. These results confirm that comet assay can be used to determine the temporal and spatial differences of DNA damage, and as a suitable tool for the measurement of genotoxicity in regions with low pollutant concentrations. PMID:27146544

  17. AMERICAN-SOVIET SYMPOSIUM ON CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT (1ST) HELD AT ODESSA, USSR ON MAY 24-28, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This symposium, organized under a U.S.-U.S.S.R. Environmental Agreement (Project 02.06-21), focuses on the impact of chemical pollution on the world's oceans. Soviet and American specialists discuss the fate of heavy metals in estuaries and the Gulf of Mexico; transport of natura...

  18. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (< 200ng/g-pellet) of PCBs in urban and industrialized areas mainly in the United States, Japan, and some European countries. These countries are prone to legacy pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written

  19. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  20. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  1. Gravitational Motions in a Large Subtropical Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, C. L.; Imberger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical lakes and reservoirs are characterized by a definite, but moderate vertical thermal stratification, so that vertical mixing is the result of a balance between the surface buoyancy flux and wind stirring and horizontal exchanges are the result of a series of gravitational motions: differential mixing, cooling, heating, and absorption. Here we report on two field experiments carried out in Lake Argyle, Australia's second largest artificial lake by volume, in May 2012 and November 2013 that illustrate the delicate balance that exists in subtropical lakes between buoyancy and inertia and how this balance interacts with the resident biology. The field experiments were conducted using a state-of-the-art real-time field technology that allows instant comparison of field data and 3D numerical modelling results of all physical variables at micro and fine scales and phytoplankton concentration at the group level. The results demonstrate that subtropical lakes present special opportunities and challenges for mitigation of water quality problems in face of global warming.

  2. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  3. Estimating baseline toxicity of PAHs from marine chronically polluted sediments and bioaccumulation in target organs of fish hypothetically exposed to them: a new tool in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Nieto, Elisa; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    In soils and sediments contaminated by Hydrophobic Organic Compounds (HOCs), the total concentrations are less indicative of potential exposure and distribution than the associated freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) or chemical activity. Therefore, these two parameters are increasingly used to assess sediment contamination with regard to their (1) partitioning into the water column, (2) bioaccumulation and (3) baseline toxic potential. In this work, sediments from a chronically polluted coastal area, with similar total PAH concentrations, were studied using PDMS coated glass jars (obtaining Cfree(SW) and chemical activity) to predict baseline toxicity and potential bioaccumulation from these sediments. The results indicate that, on the one hand, the chemical activity of the sediments differed by up to one order of magnitude and was below the level at which lethal baseline toxicity is expected, but is still a cause for concern due to the presence of other pollutants and different mechanisms of action. On the other hand, the combination of Cfree measurements and Biota to Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) allowed concentrations in different target organs of benthic flatfish, hypothetically exposed to these chronically polluted sediments, to be estimated. This new approach allows us to predict the concentration in biological tissues under the study of Cfree(SW) in sediments, as a useful tool in risk assessment. PMID:26105528

  4. Assesment of trace elements and organic pollutants from a marine oil complex into the coral reef system of Cayo Arcas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cram, Silke; Ponce De León, Claudia A; Fernández, Pilar; Sommer, Irene; Rivas, Hilda; Morales, Luis Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Possible contaminants produced by the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) marine oil complex in the vicinity of the Cayo Arcas (Mexico) coral reef ecosystem were evaluated by analyzing sediments and sea water for hydrocarbons and metal elements. We found that the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sea water were generally low, with the highest values detected near the oil station; the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was generally below the detection limit. The hydrocarbons found in the sediments seem to have a pyrogenic origin, and were probably produced by marine traffic in the study area. The total PAH concentration did not exceed the NOAA criteria, although levels of some individual PAHs did. The only metal detected in the sea water at high concentrations was nickel. The Ni/V ratio in the sediments indicates the contribution of crude oil to the system. The high content of Ni and Zn was attributed to the ballast waters from the oil tankers that load at the station's monobuoys. The presence of fine sediments that commonly originate from terrestrial ecosystems supported this assumption. PMID:16741791

  5. Scales of Spatial Heterogeneity of Plastic Marine Debris in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Miriam C.; Titmus, Andrew J.; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20–40°N, 120–155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m−2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m−2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  6. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Titmus, Andrew J; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2) and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2), but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2). Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  7. Gulf Stream-Subtropical Gyre Properties Across Two Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B.; Chapman, M.; Elderfield, H.; McCave, I. N. N.; Gruetzner, J.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that salinity increases in the subtropical gyre system may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to stronger overturning circulation and high-latitude warming following meltwater events during the Last Glacial period (Schmidt et al., 2006). Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotopes (δ18O) measured on the surface dwelling Globigerinoides ruber show a positive gradient going from the Gulf Stream into the subtropical gyre during the Holocene as well as the Last Glacial Maximum (Keigwin, 2004). This gradient is due to decreasing temperatures, increasing salinity and a change from a summer to year round occurrence of G. ruber(Keigwin, 2004). During rapid climate oscillations between 54 and 46 ka of Marine Isotope Stage 3, including Heinrich ice-rafting event 5, this gradient may have been largely absent; G. ruber δ18O of ODP Site 1060 (subtropical gyre location) and ODP Site 1056 (Gulf Stream location) are virtually identical. Lower G. ruber δ18O that characterize the major warm DO interstadials 14 and 12 suggest a mainly summer occurrence of this species and indicate a more zonal and wider Gulf Stream influencing both ODP Sites. A large vertical δ18O gradient between shallow dwelling G. ruber and the deep dwelling species Globorotalia inflataat site 1056 is associated with strong summer stratification, supporting a Gulf Stream presence during these major interstadials. From about 51 ka until the end of Heinrich event 5 G. ruber δ18O is increased and the δ18O gradient between G. ruber and G. inflata is greatly reduced, suggesting a more year round occurrence of G. ruber and absence of summer stratification at site 1056, associated with subtropical gyre conditions. From this we infer that the Gulf Stream may have taken up a position nearer to the continental shelf during this cold period, where it may have been narrower with reduced transport.

  8. Wandering albatrosses document latitudinal variations in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants and mercury to Southern Ocean predators.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Tartu, Sabrina; Meillère, Alizée; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2014-12-16

    Top marine predators are effective tools to monitor bioaccumulative contaminants in remote oceanic environments. Here, we used the wide-ranging wandering albatross Diomedea exulans to investigate potential geographical variations of contaminant transfer to predators in the Southern Ocean. Blood concentrations of 19 persistent organic pollutants and 14 trace elements were measured in a large number of individuals (N = 180) of known age, sex and breeding status from the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Wandering albatrosses were exposed to a wide range of contaminants, with notably high blood mercury concentrations. Contaminant burden was markedly influenced by latitudinal foraging habitats (inferred from blood δ(13)C values), with individuals feeding in warmer subtropical waters having lower concentrations of pesticides, but higher concentrations of mercury, than those feeding in colder subantarctic waters. Sexual differences in contaminant burden seemed to be driven by gender specialization in feeding habitats, rather than physiological characteristics, with females foraging further north than males. Other individual traits, such as adult age and reproductive status, had little effect on blood contaminant concentrations. Our study provides further evidence of the critical role of global distillation on organic contaminant exposure to Southern Ocean avian predators. In addition, we document an unexpected high transfer of mercury to predators in subtropical waters, which merits further investigation. PMID:25423551

  9. Validation of a GC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 86 persistent organic pollutants in marine sediments by pressurized liquid extraction followed by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Conde-González, J E; Marques, J C; Vílchez, José Luis

    2011-08-01

    A multiresidue method for the analysis of 86 persistent pollutants in marine sediments at ultra-trace level has been developed and validated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS/MS QqQ). The compounds analyzed belong to various families such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenylethers, organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides and other pesticides such as urons, and triazines. The analytes have very different polarities and log K(ow) values, which is an important parameter in the optimization of a SBSE method. Due to PLE high efficiency and throughput rates, along with the proven ability for multiresidue analysis and excellent sensitivity of SBSE, we present an efficient method. The limits of quantification obtained ranged from 0.014 to 1.0 ng g(-1), with detection limits below pg g(-1) levels. In order to validate the proposed methodology, quality parameters such as recovery, linearity and reproducibility were studied. Recoveries ranged from 63% to 119%, reproducibility (in terms of Relative Standard Deviation for ten determinations) was lower than 35% in all cases, and determination coefficients higher than 0.990 for all analytes. The main factors that affect PLE, SBSE and GC-MS/MS procedures were optimized. The method was applied to the analysis of nine marine sediments obtained from the nine main submarine wastewater discharge points (emissaries) presents along the coast of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). PMID:21723584

  10. The annual silica cycle of the North Pacific subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Li, Binglin; Jones, Janice L.; Updyke, Brett

    2011-10-01

    . Annual silica production at HOT is nearly 4-fold lower than estimates at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea from the 1990s, but annual silica export at the base of the euphotic zone is similar between the two gyres indicating very different balances between silica production and its loss in surface waters. On a relative basis, BATS is a more productive system with respect to silica, where biogenic silica is recycled with high efficiency in surface waters; in contrast the NPSG is a lower productivity system with respect to silica, but where lower recycling efficiency leads to a much higher fraction of new silica production. The two gyres show contrasting long-term trends in diatom biomass as biogenic silica concentrations at HOT have been increasing since 1997, but they have been decreasing at BATS suggesting very different forcing of decadal trends in the contribution of diatoms in carbon cycling between these gyres. Combining the data from both gyres indicates that globally subtropical gyres produce 13 Tmol Si a -1, which is only 51% of previous estimates reducing the contribution of subtropical gyres to 5-7% of global annual marine silica production.

  11. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal. PMID:27165413

  12. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  13. Subtropical Productivity from Profiling Floats and Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Johnson, K. S.; Karl, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007 profiling floats equipped with dissolved oxygen and nitrate sensors have been released from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) sites and can be calibrated using time-series observations. More recent deployments have also included bio-optical and pH sensors. Gliders with oxygen sensors and bio-optics have been intermittently deployed near HOT Station ALOHA since 2008 and at BATS since 2014. While gliders maintain a restricted survey region near the time-series stations, profiling floats drifted widely across the subtropical gyres. Multiple floats and gliders enables a cotemporaneous comparison of biogeochemical processes across gyres. These platforms enable observations on spatial scales from submesoscale to basin scale and on temporal scales from diel to interannual. Here, I focus on the spatiotemporal variability of nitrate and oxygen mass balances in the North Pacific and North Atlantic subtropical gyres using a data-assimilating and float-tracking 1D upper ocean model.

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  17. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  18. Deglacial hydrological and thermal evolution of subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrology of South America has changed dramatically during the rapid climate fluctuations of the last deglaciation, being the focus of several studies in recent years. However, much attention has been paid to the tropics, leaving an almost complete lack of data for the subtropical latitudes. Here we present high-resolution biomarker-based records of terrigenous organic matter input (as an indicator of hydrological changes on land) and of continental mean annual temperatures (MAT) from subtropical South America covering the last deglaciation. These data were obtained from marine sediment core GeoB6211-2, retrieved from the Brazilian continental margin at 32.51°S, 50.24°W, 657 m water depth. The core is characterized by high sedimentation rates (ca. 70 cm/kyr) for most of the deglaciation, likely fostered by high supply of terrigenous materials. We applied recently developed indices based on the relative abundances of several species of soil- and marine-derived tetraether molecules. The results are then compared with stable oxygen isotope data from planktic foraminifera from the same core. Using the BIT index (Hopmans et al., 2004) we estimated the supply of terrigenous organic matter to the core site. BIT values are generally high during the deglaciation and decrease rapidly at the early Holocene, in accordance with other parameters. However, terrigenous biomarkers exhibit strong centennial to millennial scale variability during deglacial times, displaying distinct maxima near 14.5 kyr BP, between 17 and 16 cal kyr BP coincident with Heinrich event 1, and around 18.5 cal kyr BP. These variations indicate a strong link between oceanic conditions and continental climate in South America. Continental MAT estimated using the method of Weijers et al. (2007) shows a warming of 5°C across the deglaciation, generally parallel to the temporal evolution of Antarctic ice-core records. But centennial to millennial scale variability with amplitudes of 1-2°C observed in

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in a marine bivalve on the Marennes-Oléron Bay and the Gironde Estuary (French Atlantic Coast) - part 1: bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Acosta, A; Budzinski, H; Le Menach, K; Thomas-Guyon, H; Bustamante, P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) the relevance of using the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as a sentinel organism, at a juvenile stage, for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and persistent organic pollutant (polychlorobiphenyl, PCB, polybromodimethylether, PBDE, and organochlorine pesticide, OCP) contamination, 2) the potential levels of chemical organic contamination in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and their potential sources and 3) the potential influence of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens in oysters. To this end, juvenile oysters purchased from an oyster hatchery were transplanted to a reference site, in Bouin, and to different transplantation sites in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, the first oyster production area in France, and in the Gironde Estuary, the biggest estuary in Occidental Europe. Transplantations were done during summer and winter. Whole oyster soft tissues from each site were analysed for PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs. Results obtained with a transplantation period of 3months suggest that C. gigas, at the juvenile stage, is a relevant sentinel organism for short-term assessment of contamination for these contaminants. In addition, no significant effects of physiological factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of contaminants (PAHs and OPCs, and PCBs and PBDEs) and three groups of sites: 1) the reference site, 2) Les Palles (LP) and Boyard (BOY) in winter and 3) all the other sites. The group of LP and BOY was clearly defined by the levels of PAHs and OCPs, suggesting higher levels of contamination of these chemical compounds on these sites, potentially due to local contamination sources. In addition, no relevant effects of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Results suggest also a predominance of contaminants related to agricultural activities along the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and therefore

  20. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk. PMID:25534629

  1. Coastal fog along subtropical western South America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R.

    2013-12-01

    The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile, along the western coast of subtropical South America, are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north-central Chile. In this work we document the annual cycle and interannual variability of fog frequency in this region, based on a 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount. The number of foggy days minimizes during austral winter and then increases rapidly to reach a maximum in spring (the growing season of FJBR trees). The comparison of the lifting condensation level and the inversion base height gives a useful framework to understand the fluctuations in cloud frequency at several time scales. The mean annual cycle of the fog-frequency follows closely the annual cycle of the nearby marine Sc amount and lower tropospheric stability (LTS). The springtime fog frequency, nearby marine cloud amount and LTS are also well correlated at interannual timescales. Colder than normal sea surface temperatures and warmer than normal air temperatures aloft near 30°S strengthen the temperature inversion and lead to a more persistent cloud deck and higher than normal fog frequency at FJBR. La Niña years produce temperature anomalies very similar to the pattern described before and consequently they are associated with higher than normal springtime fog frequency at FJBR. Conversely, El Niño years are associated with less foggy conditions at FJBR. Interestingly, ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in north-central Chile are opposite to ENSO-related anomalies in fog-frequency. We also discuss the overall impact of ENSO in FJBR ecosystems as well as the prospects of FJBR in future climate scenarios driven by increased greenhouse gases. Alongshore variations of rainfall, cloud frequency

  2. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  3. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  4. Two different deglaciation processes in the subtropical Pacific at MIS 5/6 and 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Y.; Asahi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Deglaciation process is one of the results that the tropical climate forcing impact on the global changes by its large heat capacity. However, the deglacial fluctuation has poorly been explored in the tropical Pacific area due to less resolution records from the marine deposits. The Okinawa region is available to represent the high-resolution paleocenographic records of the tropical-subtropical Pacific during the late Quaternary, because of the oscillation between the Kuroshio Current continuing from the North Equatorial Current and central water of the subtropical gyre in this region. Two IMAGES cores were collected from the Okinawa Trough (under the Kuroshio Current) and Ryukyu Trench (under the central water of the subtropical gyre), respectively. Both cores MD982196 (Okinawa Trough) and MD012398 (Ryukyu Trench) covered over the records until Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7. Here, we aim to demonstrate the deglacial fluctuations of the surface and intermediate waters during two glacial-interglacial shifts, MIS 6 to 5 and MIS 2 to 1, based on the comprehensive analyses of the oxygen isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios of two planktic foraminiferal faunas (surface and upper intermediate species), and faunal assemblages of planktic foraminifera. The glacial-interglacial cycles were clearly confirmed in whole of the Okinawa region by the planktic δ18O curves. Surface Mg/Ca paleo-temperature showed a same trend as the δ18O curve. However, the paleo-temperature of the upper intermediate water showed unique fluctuation: temperature increased from late MIS 6 to 5e, whereas decreased from MIS 2 to Holocene. Moreover, the temperature difference (dT) between the surface and intermediate layers defined these phenomena. Fast warming of intermediate layer proitor to the deglaciation MIS 5/6 delayed a stratification of water column, while cooling of this layer make a large dT during MIS 1/2. Intriguingly, the faunal compositions of planktic foraminifera changed through the shifts of the

  5. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  6. Short-Term Effects of the 2008 Cold Spell on Mortality in Three Subtropical Cities in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiyan; Yao, Zhibin; Zhang, Yonghui; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Lao, Xiangqian; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Huang, Cunrui; Baum, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of extreme cold events on mortality in subtropical regions. Objective: In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of the 2008 cold spell on mortality and the possibility of mortality displacement in three subtropical cities in China. Methods: Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data were collected from 2006 to 2009 in Guangzhou, Nanxiong (no air pollutants), and Taishan. We used a polynomial distributed lag model (DLM) to analyze the relationship between the 2008 cold spell and mortality. To observe the mortality displacement of the cold spell, we estimated the cumulative effects at lag0, lag0–6, lag0–13, lag0–20, and lag0–27 separately. Results: During the 2008 cold spell, the cumulative risk of nonaccidental mortality increased significantly in Guangzhou [relative risk (RR) = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.14] and Taishan (RR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.40) when lagged up to 4 weeks after the cold spell ended. Estimated effects at lag0–27 were more pronounced for males than for females, for respiratory mortality than for cardiovascular mortality, and for the elderly (≥ 75 years of age) than for those 0–64 years of age. Most of the cumulative RRs increased with longer lag times in Guangzhou and Taishan. However, in Nanxiong, the trend with cumulative RRs was less consistent, and we observed no statistically significant associations at lag0–27. Conclusion: We found associations between the 2008 cold spell and increased mortality in the three subtropical cities of China. The lag effect structure of the cold spell varied with location and the type of mortality, and evidence of short-term mortality displacement was inconsistent. These findings suggest that extreme cold is an important public health problem in subtropical regions. PMID:23128031

  7. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

  8. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  9. Millennial-scale climate instabilities in the subtropical Atlantic during MIS 6 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinwald, A.; Billups, K.

    2012-12-01

    We have constructed a high resolution (~200 year) planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope record spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 and 7 in the subtropical Atlantic (ODP Site 1059). The record fills a gap in a ~1 million year long time series of millennial-scale surface ocean hydrography in this region. Our ultimate goal is to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale climate signals in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic are linked to external driving factors such as the harmonics of precession. Results show that longer-term trends in the oxygen isotope data spanning MIS 6-7 closely follow precessional forcing allowing us to refine the original age model of Grützner et al. (2002). High frequency variations are superimposed on the long-term trend during both the glacial MIS 6 and the interglacial MIS 7. Spectral analyses indicate high concentration of power at millennial-scale periodicities of 10.9 kyr, 5.2 kyr, and 2.8 kyr. These periodicities are close to those expected from harmonics of precessional forcing during this interval of time (11.5 kyr, 5.8 kyr, 2.8 kyr). We will show the evolution of the millennial-scale periodicities in this region over the past 1 million years by splicing the record into published ones and unifying the age model.

  10. Understanding subtropical cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change simulations of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, T. A.; Norris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Subtropical marine boundary layer clouds over the eastern subtropics are poorly simulated by climate models and contribute substantially to inter-model differences in climate sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to better understand inter-model differences in projected cloud changes and to constrain the cloud feedback to warming. To do this, we compute independent relationships of cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud-top height, and cloud radiative effect) to interannual variations in sea surface temperature, estimated inversion strength, horizontal surface temperature advection, free-tropospheric humidity, and subsidence using observations and as simulated by models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Each relationship is considered to be independent because it represents the association between some cloud property and a meteorological parameter when the other parameters are held constant. We approximate modelled cloud trends in climate change simulations as the sum of the simulated cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the respective meteorological trends. We compare these estimated cloud trends to the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the simulated meteorological trends. This method allows us to better understand the sources of inter-model differences in projected cloud changes, including whether cloud/meteorology relationships or meteorological trends dominate the spread of cloud changes. We approximate the true cloud trend due to climate change as the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the multi-model mean meteorological trends. The results may provide an observational and model constraint on climate sensitivity.

  11. Effects of Hypoxia on the Phylogenetic Composition and Species Distribution of Protists in a Subtropical Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Emma; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-07-01

    Tolo Harbor, a subtropical semi-enclosed coastal water body, is surrounded by an expanding urban community, which contributes to large concentrations of nutrient runoff, leading to algal blooms and localized hypoxic episodes. Present knowledge of protist distributions in subtropical waters during hypoxic conditions is very limited. In this study, therefore, we combined parallel 454 pyrosequencing technology and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analyses to reveal the protist community shifts before, during, and after a 2-week hypoxic episode during the summer of 2011. Hierarchical clustering for DGGE demonstrated similar grouping of hypoxic samples separately from oxic samples. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphate (DIN:PO4) concentrations significantly affected OTU distribution in 454 sequenced samples, and a shift toward a ciliate and marine alveolate clade II (MALV II) species composition occurred as waters shifted from oxic to hypoxic. These results suggest that protist community shifts toward heterotrophic and parasitic tendencies as well as decreased diversity and richness in response to hypoxic outbreaks. PMID:26979838

  12. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Lim, David K Y; Garg, Sourabh; Timmins, Matthew; Zhang, Eugene S B; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schuhmann, Holger; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species. PMID:22792403

  13. Isolation and Evaluation of Oil-Producing Microalgae from Subtropical Coastal and Brackish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Lim, David K. Y.; Garg, Sourabh; Timmins, Matthew; Zhang, Eugene S. B.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Schuhmann, Holger; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species. PMID:22792403

  14. Tidal influence on subtropical estuarine methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Katrin; Grinham, Alistair; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-05-01

    The relatively unstudied subtropical estuaries, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, represent an important gap in our understanding of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These systems are likely to form an important component of GHG budgets as they occupy a relatively large surface area, over 38 000 km2 in Australia. Here, we present studies conducted in the Brisbane River estuary, a representative system within the subtropical region of Queensland, Australia. This is a highly modified system typical of 80% of Australia's estuaries. Generally, these systems have undergone channel deepening and straightening for safer shipping access and these modifications have resulted in large increases in tidal reach. The Brisbane River estuary's natural tidal reach was 16 km and this is now 85 km and tidal currents influence double the surface area (9 km2 to 18 km2) in this system. Field studies were undertaken to improve understanding of the driving factors behind methane water-air fluxes. Water-air fluxes in estuaries are usually calculated with the gas exchange coefficient (k) for currents and wind as well as the concentration difference across the water-air interface. Tidal studies in the lower and middle reaches of the estuary were performed to monitor the influence of the tidal stage (a proxy for kcurrent) on methane fluxes. Results for both investigated reaches showed significantly higher methane fluxes during the transition time of tides, the time of greatest tidal currents, than during slack tide periods. At these tidal transition times with highest methane chamber fluxes, lowest methane surface water concentrations were monitored. Modelled fluxes using only wind speed (kwind) were at least one order of magnitude lower than observed from floating chambers, demonstrating that current speed was likely the driving factor of water-air fluxes. An additional study was then conducted sampling the lower, middle and upper reaches during a tidal transition period

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution by atmospheric corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharafi, F.M.; Ismail, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is monitored by outdoor exposure of several commercial alloys including steel, Al, Cu, and brass (Cu-30Zu) alloys. Three districts of Kuwait were selected for this study including of residential, industrial, and marine areas. The atmospheric pollution level could be monitored directly by observation of the corrosion of the test alloys.

  16. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue contains summaries of articles, reports, patents, documents, and other materials relating to oil pollution published during the period 1974 to 1976. Subject coverage includes aquatic and terrestrial oil pollution with emphasis on the marine environment. A list of the p...

  17. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  18. Structure and taxonomic composition of free-living nematode and macrofaunal assemblages in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Z; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-08-30

    The spatial and seasonal taxonomic composition patterns of macrofauna and nematodes in a eutrophic subtropical harbour, previously suffered from sewage pollution, were studied in relation to a number of sediment parameters. In the polluted, inner-harbour area, levels of organic contents and heavy metals were high, whereas species number, abundance and diversity of nematodes and macrofauna were the lowest in comparison to the cleaner, outer-harbour area. Different taxonomic composition patterns of nematodes and macrofaunal assemblages were found between inner-harbour and outer-harbour area, which was highly correlated with sediment nutrient levels. Different responses of macrofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution suggested that macrofauna might be more tolerant than nematodes to eutrophic conditions due to their ability to modify the sediment. The present findings indicated the usefulness of studying both nematode and macrofaunal communities, in order to reveal different aspects of the benthic ecosystems in response to organic enrichment. PMID:24467853

  19. Arctic seabirds transport marine-derived contaminants.

    PubMed

    Blais, Jules M; Kimpe, Lynda E; McMahon, Dominique; Keatley, Bronwyn E; Mallory, Mark L; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2005-07-15

    Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants is generally assumed to be the main vector for arctic contamination, because local pollution sources are rare. We show that arctic seabirds, which occupy high trophic levels in marine food webs, are the dominant vectors for the transport of marine-derived contaminants to coastal ponds. The sediments of ponds most affected by seabirds had 60 times higher DDT, 25 times higher mercury, and 10 times higher hexachlorobenzene concentrations than nearby control sites. Bird guano greatly stimulates biological productivity in these extreme environments but also serves as a major source of industrial and agricultural pollutants in these remote ecosystems. PMID:16020729

  20. Enhanced Primary Productivity at the Subtropical Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llido, J.; Garcon, V.; Lutjeharms, J.; Sudre, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Subtropical Convergence is one of the major frontal systems in the world ocean. It is not just simply a biogeographical boundary, but forms a unique biological habitat of its own. Ocean colour satellite data indicate that it is a region of enhanced chlorophyll a and thus a potential key region of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. Ship crossings sometimes show peaks in chlorophyll a at the front, but at other times these peaks are absent. If the normal mode of primary productivity at the front consists of intermittent bloom events, as these observations suggest, organisms endemic to this habitat may have to be adapted to a boom-or-bust situation. We have studied the presence of chlorophyll a using daily SeaWiFS images and showed that bloom events with limited spatial and temporal scales are indeed the norm. A coupled physical-biological model simulates this process with a fair degree of verisimilitude. We use this model to investigate the physico-biogeochemical requirements for bloom events and demonstrate that in most cases the limiting factor is intensity of vertical stratification combined with light availability.

  1. Modeling the drift of massive icebergs to the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    New evidence from high-resolution seafloor bathymetry data indicates that massive (>300m thick) icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) drifted south to the tip of Florida during the last deglaciation. This finding is particularly exciting as it contradicts evidence from marine sediments that icebergs were mainly confined to the subpolar North Atlantic (50 - 70N) at this time. Indeed, the freshwater released from icebergs melting in the subpolar gyre is repeatedly cited as a main trigger for a slow-down of the Atlantic MOC in the past, and the possible cause of any climate cooling related to the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the future. Using a sophisticated iceberg model (MITberg), coupled to a high (18-km; 1/6 deg.) resolution ocean model (MITgcm), we investigate the ocean circulation dynamics required to allow icebergs to drift to the southern tip of Florida. We find that icebergs only reach this location if they turn right at the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and stay inshore of the Gulf Stream all the way to Florida. Modern-day circulation dynamics do not readily allow this to happen as cold, southward flowing, Labrador Current Water (important for iceberg survival) has little penetration south of Cape Hatteras. However, when a liquid meltwater flood is released from Hudson Bay at the same time, icebergs are rapidly transported (inshore of the Gulf Stream) in a narrow, buoyant, coastal current all the way to southern Florida. The meltwater and icebergs result in a significant freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic and weaken the strength of the Gulf Stream, suggesting such an event would have a large cooling effect on climate. We are only able to simulate the flow of meltwater and icebergs to the subtropics by modeling ocean circulation at a resolution that is 5 - 10 times higher than the majority of existing paleoclimate models; at lower resolutions the narrow, coastal boundary currents important for iceberg transport to the subtropics are

  2. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  3. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  4. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  8. Interannual variability of trace gases in the subtropical winter stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.J.; Russell, J.M. III

    1999-04-01

    Measurements of water vapor and methane from the Halogen Occultation Experiment instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to study the interannual variability of trace gas distributions in the atmosphere. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms influencing trace gas distributions in the subtropics. The study highlights the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) dependence of subtropical tracer distributions more clearly than in previous studies. There is a strong correlation between the equatorial wind QBO and the slope of the tracer isolines in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, with steeper subtropical isoline slopes in the easterly phase compared with the westerly phase. This is particularly so in the lower stratosphere. Two possible mechanisms for the QBO signal in subtropical isoline slopes are identified: advection by the mean circulation and isentropic mixing. A comparison between the QBO signal in the slope of the tracer isolines and the isentropic tracer gradients is proposed as a method of determining which process is dominant. The authors suggest that the behavior of these two data diagnostics provides a stringent constraint on computer models of the atmosphere. On the basis of these diagnostics three height regions of the subtropical atmosphere are identified. (1) Below 450--500 K isentropic mixing associated with tropospheric disturbances penetrating the lower stratosphere is dominant. (2) In the region 500--750 K the data suggest that advection by the mean meridional circulation is important and that the role of isentropic mixing by eddies is relatively small. (3) Above 750 K isentropic mixing becomes increasingly important with height, and both advection and mixing are influential in determining the subtropical tracer distributions.

  9. BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY OF POLLUTANTS TO MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the rates of uptake, by a Thalassia testudinum ecosystem, of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn which were leached from sewage sludge by seawater. The experimental design used aerated flowing seawater which passes over a 0.1 cu m bed of sewage slu...

  10. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  11. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  12. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  13. 49 CFR 172.322 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... freight container or portable tank loaded on a motor vehicle or rail car. This mark may be displayed in... Symbol (fish and tree): Black on white or suitable contrasting background. (2) The symbol and border...

  14. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  15. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  16. [Toxocariasis in children from a subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria De Los Angeles; Martin, Graciela; Chamorro, Myrian Del Carmen; Mario Alonso, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Toxocariasis is present worldwide but people living in areas with sanitary deficiencies are considered at the highest risk of infection, particularly children. The aim of this work was to know clinical and immunological aspects of infantile toxocariasis in a subtropical region in Argentina. For this purpose, 182 children of both sexes, 0-16 years old and with eosinophilia higher than 10%, living in Resistencia City (Northeast Argentina) were studied. Clinical examination, personal and epidemiological data recording, parasitological fecal examination and dosage of Toxocara canis IgG and IgM levels by EIE were performed; all positive sera were confirmed by Western Blot. Out of 182 children, 122 were positive for T. canis-IgG (67.0%); 28.8% lack of potable drinking water at home, 58.8% lack of sewerage facilities, 91.1% referred a close contact with dogs or cats, 30.0% had a history of geophagia and 86.7% lived along streets without pavement. The clinical forms of the infection were: 77.8% asymptomatic, 6.7% ocular larva migrans and 15.5% visceral larva migrans. In 22 children the serological follow up until 18 months after treatment showed 10 children without change in IgG levels, in 11 it decreased but remained high, and in one it increased. There were 19 children with high levels of T. canis-IgM; in 8 it decreased along treatment, in one it remained stable and 10 of them became negative. There was one child considered as a re-infection case. Results highlight the importance that health authorities should assign to this infection in regions with sanitary deficiencies, where toxocariasis is usually not recognized as a relevant public health problem. PMID:16042133

  17. Subtropical Gyre Variability as Seen from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    A satellite multi-sensor approach is used to analyse the biological response of open ocean regions of the subtropical gyres to changes in physical forcing. Thirteen years (1998-2010) of SeaWiFS chlorophyll a (Chl-a), combined with concurrent satellite records of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea level height, were analysed to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of Chl-a concentration within these immense so-called ocean deserts. The seasonal variability of Chl-a within the gyres is driven mostly by the warming/cooling of surface waters. Summer warming promotes shallower mixed layers and lower Chl-a due to a reduction of vertical mixing and consequently a decrease in nutrient supply. The opposite happens during the winter cooling period. Therefore, long-term trends in SST have the potential to cause an impact on the interannual variability of Chl-a. Our analyses show that, during the 13 whole years of SeaWiFS data record, the North Pacific, Indian Ocean, and North Atlantic gyres experienced a decrease in Chl-a of 9%, 12%, and 11%, respectively, with corresponding SST increases of 0.27 C, 0.42 C, and 0.32 C. The South Pacific and South Atlantic gyres also showed warming trends but with weak positive trends in Chl-a that are not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the warming of surface waters in these two gyres are counterbalanced by other interacting physical and biological driving mechanisms, as indicated in previous studies.

  18. The Relationship between the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and the East Asian Surface Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Kim, Ga-Young; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The tropospheric ozone is known as one of the short-lived climate pollutants and the greenhouse gases, but little is known about it. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the relationship between the western North Pacific subtropical high and the East Asian surface ozone. For the study, we used the trajectory enhanced tropospheric ozone residual (TTOR) for 9 years (2005-2013) and GEOS-Chem model data for 41 years (1971-2011). Despite the short period, the observation well shows the ozone concentration changes according to the WNPSH strength and the model as well. WNPSH enhances the convection along the East Asian monsoon band and the surface ozone concentration decreases. The ozone concentration increases in the area around the rainband. Depending on the location of the rain band, the ozone concentration changes. This study indicates that the ozone concentration is affected by not only the emission of ozone precursors and but also the meteorological condition.

  19. Moisture sources for subtropical cyclogenesis over Southwestern South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzo, Luiz Felippe; Gimeno, Luis; da Rocha, Rosmeri P.

    2014-05-01

    Subtropical cyclones are non-frontal low pressure systems that present a hybrid thermal structure, with a low tropospheric warm core and an upper level cold core. These systems ideally develop in a tropical-like environment, with weak vertical wind shears and high sea surface temperature; however, subtropical cyclogenesis is possible even when these conditions are not met. Over the soubtropical South Atlantic Ocean, near the eastern coast of South America, these cyclones generally occur over relatively cool waters (around 23oC). As the local source of heat and moisture associated to surface turbulent fluxes is reduced, remote source regions may play an important role in the development of such systems. To investigate this hypothesis, a composite analysis of moisture source and sink regions was carried out for 112 cyclogeneses days, in the period of 1979-2008, using the Lagragian FLEXPART model and data from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The cyclones were tracked over the RG1 cyclogenetic area (30.5oS-21oS, 49.5oW-35.5oW) using an algorithm based on relative vorticity of horizontal wind field at 925 hPa, and the subtropical ones were selected by applying the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS) methodology. The Lagrangean analysis shows that most of the moisture available for these subtropical cyclogeneses in summer (DJF), autumn (MAM) and spring (SON) originates in the South Atlantic around the latitude 15oS and is advected to the RG1 by the South Atlantic Subtropical High flow. During autumn, an important contribution is seen from the region to the south of RG1, due to enhanced transient anticyclones activity. The moisture transported by the South Atlantic Low Level Jet does not contribute significantly for the subtropical cyclogeneses, as the air parcels lose most of its moisture content by precipitation over the continent, before reaching RG1. As expected, the local source of moisture presents a negative anomaly in all season's composites. A case study of the Hurricane Catarina

  20. Ocean Pollution Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Ocean Pollution Research Center (OPRC) is a University of Miami center based at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and with significant involvement by the College of Engineering. It was formed in 1992 out of concerns for potential oil spills placing at risk the fragile ecosystems of the Florida Keys. OPRC's scope also includes the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the South Atlantic Bight. Focus is on the physical transport of oil spills and information management for response operations. Studies of the fates and effects of oil spills are also undertaken.

  1. Large eddy simulation of the influence of CCN and thermodynamic conditions on marine stratocumulus cloud development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Yum, S. S.

    2009-09-01

    The marine stratocumulus topped boundary layer, which prevails in the subtropical oceanic regions where the subsidence inversion associated with the descending branch of the Hadley-Walker cell dominates, is thought to be an important component of the climate system. High albedo (30-40%) of stratocumulus clouds compared to the ocean background (10%) gives rise to large deficits in the absorbed solar radiation flux. Since cloud radiative properties are highly dependent on cloud microphysical properties, which are in turn dependent on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) distribution, understanding the influence of anthropogenic CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics is a key to accurately assess the climatic impact of marine stratocumulus clouds. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is good for studying stratocumulus clouds in the boundary layer because it explicitly resolves turbulent scale eddies and can provide information on detailed microphysical structure that is difficult to be measured over the ocean. We employ the CIMMS (Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma) 3D LES model with explicit bin microphysics. We examine the microphysical and dynamical evolution of stratocumulus clouds under different CCN loadings for four different thermodynamic conditions (the key differences are in moisture content and temperature inversion height). Contrasting results of daytime and nocturnal simulations are also examined. Three different measured CCN spectra that represent maritime, continental, and polluted air masses are used as input CCN spectra for the model; the concentrations at 1% supersaturation are 163, 1023, and 5292 cm-3, respectively. The grid spacing is 75 m in the horizontal and 25 m in the vertical, to make the total domain size of 3×3×1.25 km. Total simulation time is 6 hrs. The large-scale subsidence is prescribed by w= -Dz, where the large-scale divergence D = 5×10-6 s-1 is assumed. For the clouds formed under

  2. Phylogenetic inferences reveal a large extent of novel biodiversity in chemically rich tropical marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Gerwick, William H; Paul, Valerie J

    2013-03-01

    Benthic marine cyanobacteria are known for their prolific biosynthetic capacities to produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites with biomedical application and their ability to form cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In an effort to provide taxonomic clarity to better guide future natural product drug discovery investigations and harmful algal bloom monitoring, this study investigated the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical natural product-producing marine cyanobacteria on the basis of their evolutionary relatedness. Our phylogenetic inferences of marine cyanobacterial strains responsible for over 100 bioactive secondary metabolites revealed an uneven taxonomic distribution, with a few groups being responsible for the vast majority of these molecules. Our data also suggest a high degree of novel biodiversity among natural product-producing strains that was previously overlooked by traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches. This unrecognized biodiversity is primarily due to a lack of proper classification systems since the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical, benthic marine cyanobacteria has only recently been analyzed by phylogenetic methods. This evolutionary study provides a framework for a more robust classification system to better understand the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical marine cyanobacteria and the distribution of natural products in marine cyanobacteria. PMID:23315747

  3. Management of photoperiod to control caprine reproduction in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fitz-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Duarte, Gerardo; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo; Carrillo, Evaristo; Flores, José Alfredo; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Malpaux, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive seasonality is observed in some breeds originating from or adapted to subtropical latitudes. In 'photoperiodic flexible breeds', such as Australian cashmere goats, the annual breeding season can be manipulated through nutrition, whereas in 'photoperiodic rigid breeds', such as Creole goats from subtropical Mexico, sexual activity can be controlled by altering the photoperiod. In males from the latter breed, artificial long days, whether or not accompanied by the administration of melatonin, stimulate sexual activity during the non-breeding season. These treated males are able to induce the sexual activity of anoestrous females through the male effect under intensive or extensive conditions. Photoperiodic treatments and the male effect can be easily integrated into different breeding management systems in subtropical latitudes. PMID:15315746

  4. A seasonal intrusion of subtropical water in the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Mathijs W.; de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman

    2005-09-01

    An episode of subtropical water intruding in the tropical waters north of Madagascar during the austral summer of 2001 is documented by a combination of satellite derived surface chlorophyll and sea surface height observations and simultaneous in-situ observations of velocity, chemical and biological tracers. A westward jet clearly of subtropical origin is found in the Comoros basin as a continuation of the South Equatorial Current. Further west, a strong anticyclonic Mozambique eddy is formed north of the narrows, that propagates southward into the Channel. The phenomenon documented here seems to occur each austral summer, and may be part of the adjustment to the seasonal variations in the wind forcing over the subtropical and tropical gyres.

  5. Subtropical stratocumulus and its effect on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Peter M.

    Despite widespread recognition of the importance of subtropical stratocumulus clouds to the planetary energy budget, the strength and even the sign of stratocumulus response to increased levels of greenhouse gases is still unknown. In this study, we attempt to address some of the causes for this uncertainty. One challenge to assessing stratocumulus response to warming is that stratocumulus behavior is determined both by small-scale local processes and by the large-scale circulation. We present a new method which sidesteps this range-of-scales difficulty by explicitly resolving fine-scale detail in the stratocumulus region while implicitly including the effects of the large-scale circulation. The results of this model suggest that stratocumulus feedback acts to cool the planet. Another reason why stratocumulus response to climate change is uncertain is that processes in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer are not well understood or parameterized due to a dearth in measurements of key quantities. We improve this situation by deriving estimates of the diurnal cycle of entrainment from shipboard measurements taken during the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 cruise. Comparison between these observations and values derived from several existing entrainment parameterizations is better than expected, suggesting that entrainment should be relatively well captured by models. The EPIC data is also used to construct a diurnal cycle of buoyancy flux profiles under the assumption of well-mixed conditions. These profiles, in conjunction with a comparison of the difference between cloudbase and lifting condensation level, suggest that drizzle is acting during EPIC to limit early-morning turbulent mixing. We also perform a more in-depth comparison between a large-eddy simulation (LES) and the EPIC data. The LES was found to reproduce many features of the EPIC observations. In particular, budgets of boundary-layer moisture and energy, the diurnal cycle of

  6. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  7. Picoeukaryotic diversity and distribution in the subtropical-tropical South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenxue; Huang, Bangqin; Liao, Yu; Sun, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of picoeukaryotes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, although these organisms are vital components of their environment. Here, we used a culture-independent approach to assess the 18S rDNA diversity of picoeukaryotes at six sampling sites along a transcontinental section of the South China Sea. The Alveolata group comprised 58.6% of the clones and was mainly represented by the novel marine alveolates (MALV)-I (18.8%) and MALV-II (30.6%), corresponding to 66.5% of all operational taxonomic units. Sequences affiliated with seven clades of the novel marine stramenopiles (MAST) were widely distributed in different clone libraries. We report an entirely new group representing the deepest evolutionary branch of the Hacrobia; this finding suggests the existence of novel picoeukaryotes at a high taxonomic level. Many phylotypes could not be taxonomically assigned, indicating the presence of numerous previously unknown groups. Horizontally, picoeukaryotic assemblages in the coastal water characterized with the rare occurrence of MALV-I were distinct from offshore communities. Vertically, MAST-4 were mainly retrieved in surface waters; however, the Radiolaria (Rhizaria) were mainly detected in clone libraries from depths of 60 m. Our findings further emphasize the immense diversity of picoeukaryotes, especially in the subtropical-tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. PMID:24849025

  8. Mapping the Origins of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Logendran, V.; Evans, D. G.; Peters, A.; Nelson, N. B.

    2010-12-01

    The chromophoric or "light-absorbing" fraction of dissolved organic matter plays a significant role in the regulation of the underwater light field. In the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, it's origins vary, and include contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources. Furthermore, within the fraction of marine-origin CDOM, there are distinctions between that of local origin and that coming from other regions via transport through water masses or through atmospheric deposition. As the optical and chemical properties of CDOM depend largely on its source, an analysis of its origins could lead to a better understanding of processes in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. For this analysis, we have used absorption data from CDOM measurements collected repeatedly for a number of years at the BATS site in the Sargasso Sea. Samples have been collected at the same series of depths ranging from surface waters to 4200 meters. The samples were analyzed using a dual beam spectrophotometer to obtain absorption spectra. The slope parameter, S, provides more in depth information about the source of CDOM than does the absorption spectra alone, and thus we have used it as well as the slope ratio, Sr, for differentiating between different types of CDOM. Slope ratios were obtained by selecting portions of the spectral slope at wavelength ranges, which have been found to be indicative of CDOM originating from a particular source. For example, it can be used to distinguish marine CDOM formed locally in the Sargasso Sea from that which has been formed further north in the Atlantic and then subducted and transported to the Sargasso. There are various other methods for ascertaining the sources of CDOM, and the most comprehensive model for CDOM in the North Atlantic is likely obtained using a combination of all of them. Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMS) have been performed on samples from the same site in the Sargasso Sea to corroborate findings from the S and Sr analyses

  9. Analysis of the origin of the distribution of CO in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, V.; Dils, B.; Baray, J. L.; de MazièRe, M.; Attié, J. L.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Senten, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Clain, G.; Delmas, R.

    2010-11-01

    We show carbon monoxide (CO) distributions at different vertical levels over the subtropical southern Indian Ocean, analyzing an observation campaign using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectrometry performed in 2007 at Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E). The CO pollution levels detected by the FTIR measurements during the campaign show a doubling of the CO total columns during the Southern Hemisphere biomass burning season. Using correlative data from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument and back trajectories analyses, we show that the potential primary sources for CO throughout the troposphere in 2007 are southern Africa (June-August) and South America (September-October). A secondary potential contribution from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia was identified in the upper troposphere, especially in July and September. We examine the relation between the Asian monsoon anticyclone seasonal cycle and this result. We also investigate the relative contribution of different areas across the globe to the CO concentration in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean in 2007 using backward simulations combining the Lagrangian model FLEXPART 6.2, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2.1) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv3.2-FT2000). We confirm the predominance of the African and South American contributions in the CO concentration in the southern subtropical Indian Ocean below 11 km. We show that CO transported from Australia makes only a small contribution to the total CO concentration observed over Reunion Island, and that the long-range transport of CO coming from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia is important, especially from June until September in the upper troposphere.

  10. African Equatorial and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrences Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plumes and Other Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Guan, Hong; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian Ocean to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased Atlantic ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to Atlantic Ocean regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both equatorial and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into either easterly equatorial plumes or westerly mid- troposphere plumes. Equatorial plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian Ocean, and (2) the eastward extension of an Equatorial African easterly jet.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  12. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web. PMID:21742351

  15. Modified and controlled atmosphere storage of tropical and subtropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter addresses the use of modified atmosphere (MA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for the preservation and maintenance of postharvest quality of subtropical fruits. There have been great technological advances in this area of storage, especially in improving the quality and shelf-li...

  16. Solar heating of swimming pools for the subtropical coastal belt

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J.; Dobson, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to heating a swimming pool to obtain all-year-round use or alternatively to extend the use of the pool into the winter period. The report has been prepared for Durban and other parts of the subtropical Coastal Belt as a guide for advising those who may consider using solar energy for such an undertaking.

  17. Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.

  18. Documentation in the Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennen, Patrick W.

    1974-01-01

    A six month study of serial literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture at 51 land-grant universities and the National Agricultural Library showed wide ranges of coverage. The results present a strong case in favor of division of subject fields among libraries within regional areas in the United States. (Author/LS)

  19. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  20. The Northern Monsoons and the Southern Subtropical Anticyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechoso, C. Roberto; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai; Neelin, J. David

    2014-05-01

    The reasons for the different seasonal evolution of subtropical highs in the southern and northern hemisphere differs are demonstrated. In the northern hemisphere, the subtropical anticyclones are stronger and better defined in the boreal summer than in winter. By contrast, in the southern hemisphere the subtropical anticyclones are notably stronger in the austral winter than in summer, particularly over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. It is shown that this seasonal asymmetry of the climate system is due to the seasonal asymmetry in the interhemispheric effects of the summer monsoons. The intensification of the northern anticyclones in the boreal summer is consistent with the "monsoon heating" paradigm, according to which heating over continents generates a Rossby wave response and adiabatic descent over the oceanic regions to the west. The summer heating over northern continents also produces subsidence over the tropical southern hemisphere via an interhemispheric meridional overturning circulation. Suppressed convection and diabatic cooling over these regions of subsidence generate stationary barotropic Rossby waves that propagate beyond the tropics enhancing the subtropical highs. The interhemispheric effects of summer southern monsoons are much weaker. Our methodology for research is based on performing AGCM runs in which a control simulation is compared to an idealized experiment with artificially weakened summer monsoons in the northern hemisphere. This weakening is achieved by synchronizing the seasonal cycles in the model's external and boundary conditions across hemispheres, i.e., by shifting in the northern hemisphere only both the insolation at the top of the atmosphere and the sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover by one-half the seasonal cycle (6 months). We use the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 (CAM4). According to the results, the interhemispheric response to the northern summer monsoons

  1. TECHNIQUES FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYZING THE MARINE MACROBENTHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents guidelines for the quantitative assessment of the effects of marine pollution on benthic community structure and population dynamics. The sampling design addresses the number and location of stations, survey frequency, sampling gear, replication of samples, s...

  2. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  3. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  5. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  6. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

  7. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  8. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  9. Subtropical versus subpolar freshwater routing: The pathways of icebergs and meltwater in the North Atlantic during deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediment records reveal episodes of increased ice rafted debris (IRD) to the subpolar N. Atlantic (40N-50N) during deglaciation that are linked to the calving of enormous numbers of icebergs from the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. There is considerable interest, and uncertainty, as to whether meltwater from these icebergs freshened the ocean sufficiently to weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Very recently, hundreds of iceberg scours have been observed along the east coast of the United States as far south as Florida. The iceberg scours are oriented SSW along the coast and are observed in water depths up to several hundred meters deep, indicating that massive (up to 300m thick) icebergs once drifted along the east coast of N. America into the subtropics during deglaciation. A newly developed iceberg model (MITberg) is coupled to an eddy-permitting ocean model to show that icebergs are carried south to Florida by coastally-confined meltwater currents caused by the sudden release of large volumes of meltwater from Hudson Bay and/or Gulf of St. Lawrence. When meltwater fluxes exceed 2.5Sv simulated icebergs drift as far south as Miami, Florida, and thousands are carried into the center of the subtropical gyre by narrow meltwater filaments and instabilities along the boundary current. When the meltwater flood ends, icebergs can no longer drift into the subtropics, and quickly become confined to the subpolar gyre where the majority of IRD is found. Our results indicate that icebergs and meltwater from the north did not always directly freshening the subpolar gyre, but were periodically transported south of the main subpolar deep water formation regions that regulate AMOC strength and climate. Dating the observed iceberg scours will tell us exactly how active and persistent this coastally-confined meltwater pathway was during deglaciation and help us unravel why there is not always a clear relationship between increased high latitude

  10. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  11. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  12. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  13. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    PubMed

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants. PMID:24494523

  14. 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA', A CYTOGENETIC MODEL FOR MARINE GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic toxicants are present in polluted marine environments and may represent a long-term threat to populations of marine organisms. A cytogenetic model is useful to study the effects of these toxicants. The polychaeta, Neanthes arenaceodentata, was chosen as such a model becau...

  15. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  16. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  17. The marine biologist--Bob Endean.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2006-12-01

    Bob Endean was a dedicated marine biologist with an extensive knowledge of coral reef communities in the Great Barrier Reef and fauna in subtropical Queensland waters. He commenced a study of venomous and poisonous marine animals dangerous to man at a time when the field was new, employing a variety of techniques to investigate the venom apparatus, mode of delivery of venom or toxin, mode of toxic action on excitable tissues, and biochemistry of venom or toxin. Determination of the pharmacological properties of crude venom from Conus marine snails advanced characterization of conotoxins by later workers. A study of four types of nematocysts from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri provided information as to their structure, function, and mechanism of discharge; myotoxins T1 and T2 were isolated from microbasic mastigophores. Endean studied poisonous stonefish (Synanceia trachynis) and, with Ann Cameron, scorpionfish (Notesthes robusta); investigations of ciguatera and of paralytic shellfish poisoning were initiated. He organized the collection of Australian frogs which led to the isolation of caerulein by Erspamer in Italy. Endean highlighted the ecological danger of the population explosion of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) and provided the impetus for the creation of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. PMID:16952385

  18. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Ángel Francisco González; Sierra, Ángel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  19. Response of epiphytic bryophytes to simulated N deposition in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Qi, Jin-Hua

    2012-11-01

    A field manipulation experiment was conducted in a subtropical montane cloud forest in southwestern China to determine the possible responses of epiphytic bryophytes to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition from community to physiology level, and to find sensitive epiphytic bryophytes that may be used as indicators for assessing the degree of N pollution. N addition had significantly negative effects on species richness and cover of the epiphytic bryophyte community. Harmful effects of high N loads were recorded for chlorophyll, growth, and vitality of the species tested. The decline of some epiphytic bryophytes may result from detrimental effects on degradation to photosynthetic pigments. Bazzania himalayana (Mitt.) Schiffn., Bazzania ovistipula (Steph.) Mizut., and Homaliodendron flabellatum (Sm.) Fleisch. are candidates in atmospheric nitrogen monitoring. Epiphytic bryophytes in the montane cloud forest are very sensitive to increasing N deposition and often difficult to recover once they have been destroyed, providing early detection of enhanced N pollution for trees or even the whole forest ecosystem. The inference that increasing N pollution may lead to loss of biodiversity is a concern to the developing economy in western China, and should alert the government to the adverse impacts caused by increased industrial pollution during the process of China's West Development. PMID:22580567

  20. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan's largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006-2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), PM2.5-10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%-17%) and 4% (95% CI = 1%-7%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5-10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO₂ and O₃ both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5-10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5-10 remained significant when SO₂ or O₃ was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed. PMID:27011197

  1. Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of antibiotics in subtropical shallow Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Wu, Qinglong L; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Bi-Ying

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of 43 commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics in both aqueous and sedimentary phases in a large subtropical shallow lake, Lake Taihu. In the aqueous phase, sulfonamides (2.64-344 ng L(-1)), lincomycin (ND to 53.8 ng L(-1)) and florfenicol (0.15-963 ng L(-1)) were the main compounds with high concentrations and detection frequencies. In the sedimentary phase, fluoroquinolones (ND to 174 ng g(-1), dry weight) and tetracyclines (ND to 39.6 ng g(-1), dry weight) were the predominant compounds. Antibiotic concentrations in Lake Taihu were generally lower relative to data documented in previous studies on China and other countries. The composition of antibiotics showed that livestock wastewater might be the main source of antibiotics in Lake Taihu, followed by domestic wastewater. Antibiotics in the lake water showed slight spatial variation in summer and significant spatial variation in winter; whereas, antibiotic concentrations in the sediments varied obviously, with high concentrations found in the sites close to potential pollution sources. Mass balance showed that sediments are an important sink and potential source for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines. In addition to antibiotics' physicochemical properties, the spatiotemporal distribution of antibiotics in the lake was influenced by both pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. The environmental risk assessment results showed that sulfamethoxazole could pose high risks on the algae in the aquatic ecosystem, followed by tetracyclines (algae) and fluoroquinolones (bacteria). Overall, our study reveals complex compositions and clear spatiotemporal dynamics in Lake Taihu, which were the consequence of pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. PMID:27048777

  2. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Stuart A.; Roberts, Christopher D.; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E.; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D.; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A.; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales.

  3. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2008-02-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and paramaterized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We focus on a case study in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. An upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found in this case study to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  4. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Legras, B.

    2007-05-01

    Vertical (cross-isentropic) mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and parametrized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS). We have investigated cases in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. Upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s-1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  5. Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

    2014-04-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife. PMID:24496035

  7. Influence of Subtropical Region Strawberry Cultivars on Jelly Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Curi, Paula Nogueira; de Sousa Tavares, Bruna; de Almeida, Aline Botelho; Pio, Rafael; Peche, Pedro Maranha; de Souza, Vanessa Rios

    2016-06-01

    At the end of the production period of strawberries grown in subtropical regions, postharvest durability is severely diminished due to rising temperatures which compromises the commercialization of fresh fruit. An ideal option would be to process strawberries in the form of preserves, jams, and jellies. Along this line it becomes extremely important to conduct a survey of which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of jelly, as well as to understand what the consumer profile is for this product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different strawberry cultivars grown in subtropical regions of Brazil (Camarosa, Festival, San Andreas, Oso Grande, Camino Real, and Albion) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The strawberry cultivars presented different physicochemical characteristics which resulted in jellies with different physicochemical and rheological characteristics. In this study, however, we verified that all cultivars have potential to be processed in the form of jelly due to good acceptance of all formulations prepared. In general consumers prefer a lighter-colored strawberry jelly, with a less intense red color, more acidic, and less consistent/firm. PMID:27115540

  8. Ocean-to-Ocean Dissimilarities of Salty Subtropical Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Each ocean basin displays its own 'personality', reflecting its degree of isolation or connectivity to the global ocean, its place in the interocean exchange network and associated ocean overturning circulation systems, as well as regional circulation and air-sea exchange patterns. While dissimilarities are most notable in the northern hemisphere (the salty North Atlantic vs the fresher North Pacific; as well as the salty Arabian and the fresher Bay of Bengal, a miniature Atlantic/Pacific analog?) far removed from the grand equalizing interocean link of the circum-Antarctic belt, and where large continental blocks impose contrasting forcing, the southern hemisphere ocean basins also display differences. Ocean to ocean dissimilarities are evident in the dry subtropical climate belt, marked by deserts on land and salty surface ocean water. The subtropical sea surface salinity maximum (SSS-max) patterns of 5 the subtropical regimes (the North and South Atlantic, North and South Pacific, and the southern Indian Ocean) display significant dissimilarities in their relative position within their ocean basin, in the structure and seasonality of the SSS-max pattern. The near synoptic coverage of Aquarius and Argo profilers are further defining interannual variability. The South Atlantic SSS-max is pressed against the western boundary, whereas in the other regimes the SSS-max falls within the eastern half of the ocean basin, though the western South Pacific displays a secondary SSS-max. For further details see: A. Gordon, C. Giulivi, J. Busecke, F. Bingham, submitted to the SPURS Oceanography special issue.

  9. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  10. 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA' (POLYCHAETA: ANNELIDA), A PROPOSED CYTOGENETIC MODEL FOR MARINE GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic toxicants are present in polluted marine environments and may represent a long-term threat to populations of marine organisms. This paper presents details of an in vivo application of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis to a marine polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceode...

  11. Predictive Modeling of a Fecal Indicator at a Subtropical Marine Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Model Builder (VBMB) is a software tool that can be used to develop predictive models at beaches based on microbial data and observations (explanatory variables) that describe hydrometeorological and biogeochemical conditions. During the summer of 2008, a study...

  12. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound: Devil's Hole, Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Rachel J; Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A; Denman, Carmen C; Andersson, Andreas J; Kledzik, Andrew L; Vergin, Kevin L; McNally, Sean P; Treusch, Alexander H; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole, Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community changes, including both direct counts and rRNA gene sequencing. During stratification, the surface waters were dominated by the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the suboxic bottom waters, cells from the order Chlorobiales prevailed, with gene sequences indicating members of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris--anoxygenic photoautotrophs that utilize sulfide as a source of electrons for photosynthesis. Transitional zones of hypoxia also exhibited elevated levels of methane- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria relative to the overlying waters. The abundance of both Thaumarcheota and Euryarcheota were elevated in the suboxic bottom waters (> 10(9) cells l(-1)). Following convective mixing, the entire water column returned to a community typical of oxygenated waters, with Euryarcheota only averaging 5% of cells, and Chlorobiales and Thaumarcheota absent. PMID:24589037

  13. Chemical fate of Bunker C fuel oil in a subtropical marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.L.; Van Vleet, E.S.

    1996-12-31

    On August 10, 1993, a major oil spill occurred when approximately 1.2 million liters of Bunker C (No. 6) fuel oil spilled from the fuel tanker Bouchard 155 after it collided with the phosphate freighter Balsa 37 in a shipping channel at the entrance to Tampa Bay, Florida. Although early hydrodynamic conditions with ebbing tides caused most of the oil to be carried several kilometers out of Tampa Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico, subsequent onshore winds and spring tides caused significant quantities of the oil to be deposited on nearby beaches and in mangrove, seagrass and estuarine habitats north of the mouth of Tampa Bay.

  14. A numerical study of a marine subtropical stratus cloud layer and its stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, C.-H.; Arakawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    A model for numerical simulation of stratus cloud layers is constructed by combining a second-order closure, turbulent transfer model with a thermal radiative transfer model. The turbulent transfer model allows water vapor saturation. The combined turbulence-radiation model is applied to both a horizontally uniform one-dimensional case and a horizontally nonuniform two-dimensional case. In the latter, the dynamics of mesoscale circulations are also incorporated. Results of the two-dimensional simulation show that the layer cloud instability occurs where the sea surface temperature is high and the large-scale subsidence is weak. The simulated instability is analyzed in view of an instability criterion, the eddy kinetic energy budget, and evaporative cooling near the cloud top.

  15. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  16. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  17. Relationship between the seasonal change in fluorescent dissolved organic matter and mixed layer depth in the subtropical western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yuko; Hama, Takeo; Ishii, Masao; Saito, Shu

    2010-06-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of marine humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMM) were determined in the subtropical western North Pacific to evaluate the controlling factors of FDOMM behaviors. The observations were conducted at 4 stations (15-30°N) along 137°E in a subtropical area between January 2006 and April 2007. The florescence intensity of FDOMM was low (0.14-0.25 quinine sulfate units (QSU)) in the surface layer probably due to photodegradation, and increased with depth (0.90-1.10 QSU at 1000 m), irrespective of season and station. In the surface layer, the thickness of the water mass with low fluorescence intensity (<0.3 QSU) showed the seasonal change by being deeper in winter and shallower in summer, depending on the mixed layer depth (MLD). The average fluorescence intensity within the mixed layer also varied seasonally at midlatitudes; the intensity in summer was 40.8-53.8% of that in winter. Since the MLD was very much shallower in summer than in winter, FDOMM in the mixed layer would be kept within a shallow depth during the summer where intensive photodegradation could occur. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was at its maximum at the water surface and decreased with depth, being adverse to FDOMM. Thus, the ratio of fluorescence intensity to TOC concentration was lowest (0.002-0.003) in surface water, which implies that FDOMM is not quantitatively important to the dissolved organic carbon pool. However, considering the possible difference in the stabilities of FDOMM against photochemical and microbial degradation, it is conceivable that photobleached FDOMM is one of the important organic groups constituting marine dissolved organic matter.

  18. Secondary nitrogen limitation in a subtropical lake impacted by non-point source agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Havens, K E

    1995-01-01

    A 20-year history of nutrient limitation was quantified for Lake Okeechobee, a nutrient-impacted lake in Florida, USA. Limiting status (nitrogen versus phosphorus) was estimated from deviations between trophic state index (TSI) parameters, calculated from routine monitoring data. The lake is presently nitrogen-limited. However, historical trends in the TSI deviations indicate that contemporary nitrogen limitation is a secondary, unnatural condition that has arisen due to excessive phosphorus loading. Prior to 1980, there was evidence of lake-wide limitation by phosphorus, rather than nitrogen. The finding of secondary nitrogen limitation in Lake Okeechobee has important management implications. Phosphorus loads are presently being reduced in order to reduce in-lake concentrations and create phosphorus-limited conditions (nitrogen limitation is undersirable because it has favored bloom-forming cyanobacteria). The present results indicate that this long-term management goal is ecologically sound; it is consistent with the concept of restoration of the lake. PMID:15091513

  19. Denitrification and N2O emission in an N-saturated subtropical forest catchment, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2010-05-01

    N2O emission in upland soils is an important N sink in chronically N polluted subtropical forests. Future studies are planned to confirm and further characterize denitrification as main N removal process in this ecosystem. 15N and 18O natural abundance of NO3 as well as Ar:N2 ratios will be analyzed along hydrological flowpaths and compared to in situ N2O emissions and process rates. Apportionment of nitrification and denitrification in N2O production will be studied in a 15N labeling experiment. N2O product stoichiometry of nitrification and denitrification will be investigated in laboratory. Biological N-turnover together with hydrological modeling, constrained by mass balance approaches will be used to scale N removal to the landscape level. Keywords: Denitrification, N2O, watershed, subtropical forest, N-removal References: Zhang, W., Mo, J. M., Yu, G. R., Fang, Y. T., Li, D. J., Lu, X. K., et al. 2008. Emissions of nitrous oxide from three tropical forests in Southern China in response to simulated nitrogen deposition. Plant Soil, 306, 221-236

  20. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Migration of the subtropical front as a modulator of glacial climate.

    PubMed

    Bard, Edouard; Rickaby, Rosalind E M

    2009-07-16

    Ice cores extracted from the Antarctic ice sheet suggest that glacial conditions, and the relationship between isotopically derived temperatures and atmospheric PCO(2) have been constant over the last 800,000 years of the Late Pleistocene epoch. But independent lines of evidence, such as the extent of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, sea level and other temperature records, point towards a fluctuating severity of glacial periods, particularly during the more extreme glacial stadials centred around 340,000 and 420,000 years ago (marine isotope stages 10 and 12). Previously unidentified mechanisms therefore appear to have mediated the relationship between insolation, CO(2) and climate. Here we test whether northward migration of the subtropical front (STF) off the southeastern coast of South Africa acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas current, which controls the transport of heat and salt from the Indo-Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Using a new 800,000-year record of sea surface temperature and ocean productivity from ocean sediment core MD962077, we demonstrate that during cold stadials (particularly marine isotope stages 10 and 12), productivity peaked and sea surface temperature was up to 6 degrees C cooler than modern temperatures. This suggests that during these cooler stadials, the STF moved northward by up to 7 degrees latitude, nearly shutting off the Agulhas current. Our results, combined with faunal assemblages from the south Atlantic show that variable northwards migration of the Southern Hemisphere STF can modulate the severity of each glacial period by altering the strength of the Agulhas current carrying heat and salt to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. We show hence that the degree of northwards migration of the STF can partially decouple global climate from atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide, P CO(2), and help to resolve the long-standing puzzle of differing glacial amplitudes within a consistent range of atmospheric

  6. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  7. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  8. Iron stable isotopes track pelagic iron cycling during a subtropical phytoplankton bloom

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Michael J.; Hutchins, David A.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Milne, Angela; Nasemann, Philipp; Nodder, Scott D.; Sander, Sylvia G.; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Boyd, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    The supply and bioavailability of dissolved iron sets the magnitude of surface productivity for ∼40% of the global ocean. The redox state, organic complexation, and phase (dissolved versus particulate) of iron are key determinants of iron bioavailability in the marine realm, although the mechanisms facilitating exchange between iron species (inorganic and organic) and phases are poorly constrained. Here we use the isotope fingerprint of dissolved and particulate iron to reveal distinct isotopic signatures for biological uptake of iron during a GEOTRACES process study focused on a temperate spring phytoplankton bloom in subtropical waters. At the onset of the bloom, dissolved iron within the mixed layer was isotopically light relative to particulate iron. The isotopically light dissolved iron pool likely results from the reduction of particulate iron via photochemical and (to a lesser extent) biologically mediated reduction processes. As the bloom develops, dissolved iron within the surface mixed layer becomes isotopically heavy, reflecting the dominance of biological processing of iron as it is removed from solution, while scavenging appears to play a minor role. As stable isotopes have shown for major elements like nitrogen, iron isotopes offer a new window into our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, thereby allowing us to disentangle a suite of concurrent biotic and abiotic transformations of this key biolimiting element. PMID:25535372

  9. Quantifying subtropical North Pacific gyre mixed layer primary productivity from Seaglider observations of diel oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Doney, Scott C.; Karl, David M.

    2015-05-01

    Using autonomous underwater gliders, we quantified diurnal periodicity in dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and temperature in the subtropical North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Station ALOHA during summer 2012. Oxygen optodes provided sufficient stability and precision to quantify diel cycles of average amplitude of 0.6 µmol kg-1. A theoretical diel curve was fit to daily observations to infer an average mixed layer gross primary productivity (GPP) of 1.8 mmol O2 m-3 d-1. Cumulative net community production (NCP) over 110 days was 500 mmol O2 m-2 for the mixed layer, which averaged 57 m in depth. Both GPP and NCP estimates indicated a significant period of below-average productivity at Station ALOHA in 2012, an observation confirmed by 14C productivity incubations and O2/Ar ratios. Given our success in an oligotrophic gyre where biological signals are small, our diel GPP approach holds promise for remote characterization of productivity across the spectrum of marine environments.

  10. Iron stable isotopes track pelagic iron cycling during a subtropical phytoplankton bloom.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Michael J; Hutchins, David A; Lohan, Maeve C; Milne, Angela; Nasemann, Philipp; Nodder, Scott D; Sander, Sylvia G; Strzepek, Robert; Wilhelm, Steven W; Boyd, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    The supply and bioavailability of dissolved iron sets the magnitude of surface productivity for ∼ 40% of the global ocean. The redox state, organic complexation, and phase (dissolved versus particulate) of iron are key determinants of iron bioavailability in the marine realm, although the mechanisms facilitating exchange between iron species (inorganic and organic) and phases are poorly constrained. Here we use the isotope fingerprint of dissolved and particulate iron to reveal distinct isotopic signatures for biological uptake of iron during a GEOTRACES process study focused on a temperate spring phytoplankton bloom in subtropical waters. At the onset of the bloom, dissolved iron within the mixed layer was isotopically light relative to particulate iron. The isotopically light dissolved iron pool likely results from the reduction of particulate iron via photochemical and (to a lesser extent) biologically mediated reduction processes. As the bloom develops, dissolved iron within the surface mixed layer becomes isotopically heavy, reflecting the dominance of biological processing of iron as it is removed from solution, while scavenging appears to play a minor role. As stable isotopes have shown for major elements like nitrogen, iron isotopes offer a new window into our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, thereby allowing us to disentangle a suite of concurrent biotic and abiotic transformations of this key biolimiting element. PMID:25535372

  11. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  12. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  13. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  14. Effects of Man's Activities on the Marine Environment; Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce.

    This report, prepared for the Committee on Commerce and the National Ocean Policy Study Committee, describes many aspects of water pollution, both national and international. Specific sections are devoted to: (1) assessing man's influence on the oceans, (2) activities that generate marine pollution, (3) specific marine pollutants, (4) policy for…

  15. Exploring Globorotalia truncatulinoides coiling ratios as a proxy for subtropical gyre dynamics in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean during late Pleistocene Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Hudson, C.; Kunz, H.; Rew, I.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the use of the coiling direction of planktic foraminifer Globorotalia truncatulinoides in sediment cores from the northwestern subtropical Atlantic Ocean as a proxy for variations in the intensity of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre over the past 280 kyr. Core-top sediments from the study region are dominated by the left coiling variety consistent with the deep permanent thermocline at the study sites (KNR140-37PC and Ocean Drilling Program Site 1059). Downcore G. truncatulinoides (sinistral) maxima occur in conjunction with 14 out of the 25 (Northern and Southern Hemisphere) precession maxima contained in the study interval. The agreement between the dominance of left coiling tests and the precession index of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, supports a link between a deep thermocline in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic and northward flow of equatorially sourced warm surface currents, a situation analogous to the Late Holocene. Interglacial marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5 lacks G. truncatulinoides (s) minima attesting to the relative stability of the western boundary during an interval of prolonged global warmth. G. truncatulinoides (s) disappear during the glacial extremes of MIS 2, 6, and 8 implying a weaker western boundary current at these times. Our results support that the coiling direction of this species is sensitive to variations in hydrography of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre. Because of the association between G. truncatulinoides (s) and precession maxima in both hemispheres, results support the importance of oceanic heat transport in half-precession climate variability in the North Atlantic.

  16. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warmer world: Insights from Marine Isotope Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.; Scott, G.; Bostock, H.; Bowen, M.; Crundwell, M.; Hayward, B. W.; Howard, W.; Martínez, J. I.; Moy, A.; Neil, H.; Sabaa, A.; Sturm, A.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoceanographic archives derived from 17 marine sediment cores reconstruct the response of the Southwest Pacific Ocean to the peak interglacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 125 ka). Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates were obtained from the Random Forest model—an ensemble decision tree tool—applied to core-top planktonic foraminiferal faunas calibrated to modern SSTs. The reconstructed geographic pattern of the SST anomaly (maximum SST between 120 and 132 ka minus mean modern SST) seems to indicate how MIS 5e conditions were generally warmer in the Southwest Pacific, especially in the western Tasman Sea where a strengthened East Australian Current (EAC) likely extended subtropical influence to ca. 45°S off Tasmania. In contrast, the eastern Tasman Sea may have had a modest cooling except around 45°S. The observed pattern resembles that developing under the present warming trend in the region. An increase in wind stress curl over the modern South Pacific is hypothesized to have spun-up the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, with concurrent increase in subtropical flow in the western boundary currents that include the EAC. However, warmer temperatures along the Subtropical Front and Campbell Plateau to the south suggest that the relative influence of the boundary inflows to eastern New Zealand may have differed in MIS 5e, and these currents may have followed different paths compared to today.

  17. Combined environmental stress from shrimp farm and dredging releases in a subtropical coastal lagoon (SE Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Mohedano, J G; Páez-Osuna, F; Amezcua-Martínez, F; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Ramírez-Reséndiz, G; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2016-03-15

    Nutrient pollution causes environmental damages on aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Eutrophication produces impacts in coastal ecosystems, affecting biota and ecosystem services. The Urias coastal lagoon (SE Gulf of California) is a sub-tropical estuary under several environmental pressures such as nutrient inputs from shrimp farm effluents and dredging related to port operations, which can release substances accumulated in sediments. We assessed the water quality impacts caused by these activities and results showed that i) nitrogen was the limiting nutrient, ii) shrimp farm effluents increased particulate organic matter and chlorophyll a in the receiving stations, and iii) dredging activities increased nitrite and reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations. The co-occurrence of the shrimp farm releases and dredging activities was likely the cause of a negative synergistic effect on water quality which mainly decreases dissolved oxygen and increases nitrite concentrations. Coastal zone management should avoid the co-occurrence of these, and likely others, stressors in coastal ecosystems. PMID:26895596

  18. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n=534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo watershed were collected every two-three w...

  19. Abundance and Distribution of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Degradation Genes and the Corresponding Bacterial Community Structure at Dimethyl Sulfide Hot Spots in the Tropical and Subtropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shotaro; Omori, Yuko; Wong, Shu-Kuan; Ijichi, Minoru; Kaneko, Ryo; Kameyama, Sohiko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Hamasaki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is mainly produced by marine phytoplankton but is released into the microbial food web and degraded by marine bacteria to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other products. To reveal the abundance and distribution of bacterial DMSP degradation genes and the corresponding bacterial communities in relation to DMS and DMSP concentrations in seawater, we collected surface seawater samples from DMS hot spot sites during a cruise across the Pacific Ocean. We analyzed the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA), which are responsible for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and DMSP assimilation, respectively. The averaged abundance (±standard deviation) of these DMSP degradation genes relative to that of the 16S rRNA genes was 33% ± 12%. The abundances of these genes showed large spatial variations. dddP genes showed more variation in abundances than dmdA genes. Multidimensional analysis based on the abundances of DMSP degradation genes and environmental factors revealed that the distribution pattern of these genes was influenced by chlorophyll a concentrations and temperatures. dddP genes, dmdA subclade C/2 genes, and dmdA subclade D genes exhibited significant correlations with the marine Roseobacter clade, SAR11 subgroup Ib, and SAR11 subgroup Ia, respectively. SAR11 subgroups Ia and Ib, which possessed dmdA genes, were suggested to be the main potential DMSP consumers. The Roseobacter clade members possessing dddP genes in oligotrophic subtropical regions were possible DMS producers. These results suggest that DMSP degradation genes are abundant and widely distributed in the surface seawater and that the marine bacteria possessing these genes influence the degradation of DMSP and regulate the emissions of DMS in subtropical gyres of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:25862229

  20. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  1. Glacial and Holocene terrestrial temperature variability in subtropical east Australia as inferred from branched GDGT distributions in a sediment core from Lake McKenzie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltering, Martijn; Atahan, Pia; Grice, Kliti; Heijnis, Henk; Taffs, Kathryn; Dodson, John

    2014-07-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distributions observed in a sediment core from Lake McKenzie were utilized to quantitatively reconstruct the pattern of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) from coastal subtropical eastern Australia between 37 and 18.3 cal ka BP and 14.0 cal ka BP to present. Both the reconstructed trend and amplitude of MAAT changes from the top of the sediment core were nearly identical to a local instrumental MAAT record from Fraser Island, providing confidence that in this sediment core branched GDGTs could be used to produce a quantitative record of past MAAT. The reconstructed trend of MAAT during 37 to 18.3 cal ka BP and timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Lake McKenzie record were in agreement with previously published nearby marine climate records. The amplitude of lower-than-present MAAT during the LGM potentially provides information on the latitude of separation of the Tasman Front from the East Australian current in the subtropical western Pacific. The Lake McKenzie record shows an earlier onset of near modern day warm temperatures in the early Holocene compared to marine records and the presence of a warmer than present day period during the mid-Holocene.

  2. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  3. The behaviors of microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jundong; Tan, Zhi; Peng, Jinping; Qiu, Qiongxuan; Li, Meimin

    2016-02-01

    Despite the pollution of microplastics being internationally recognized, the understanding of their behaviors in marine environment is still developing. Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment, with the potential to cause harm to marine ecosystem. Here, we would classify the behaviors of microplastics as physical behaviors (i.e. migration, sedimentation and accumulation), chemical behaviors (i.e. degradation and adsorption) and biobehaviors (i.e. ingestion, translocation and biodegradation), and a further discussion on their behavioral mechanisms were presented to better understand their impacts for the marine environment. PMID:26559150

  4. Response of bacterial communities to environmental changes in a mesoscale subtropical watershed, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Nengwang; Hou, Liyuan; Ma, Ying; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-02-15

    This study used 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing (16S-pyrotag) to investigate both planktonic and benthic bacterial communities in two main tributaries (North River and West River) of the Jiulong River Watershed (JRW), a mesoscale subtropical watershed that has experienced intensive human perturbation in recent decades. The results of 16S-pyrotag showed that benthic bacterial communities were clearly more diverse and uniform than surface bacterioplankton communities. The results of taxonomic assignments indicated that Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in planktonic than in benthic communities, whereas the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Delta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Nitrospira were higher in sediment than in water samples. In particular, several sewer- and fecal-pollution bacterial indicators were observed in water samples, implying that the water bodies of the JRW were contaminated by fecal pollution. Using the typical freshwater bacteria (TFB) taxonomic framework, 57.6 ± 10%, 27.6 ± 10.9% and 10.4 ± 6.9% of sequences recovered from planktonic communities could be assigned to lineages, clades and tribes of TFB, respectively. The relatively lower abundance of TFB implied that some unknown or unique autochthonous bacterioplankton populations occurred in the JRW. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and one way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) analysis demonstrated that planktonic bacterial community structures were significantly different between North River and West River, whereas benthic communities from these two tributaries were grouped together. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry were the key drivers of both α- and β-diversity patterns of bacterioplankton communities. Overall, our results indicate that the diversity, composition and structure of planktonic bacterial communities are sensitive to water chemistry (e.g., nutrient

  5. [Contribution of Base Flow to Total Nitrogen Loading in Subtropical Agricultural Catchments].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiu-mei; Li, Wei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xin-liang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-04-15

    With the fast development of economics and improvement of people's living standard, non-point source pollution of the agricultural catchments in subtropical China has become more and more severe, where water quality deterioration has become a main barrier for sustainable development and ecological restoration. The process of ecohydrology in catchment is greatly influenced by the process of base flow in channel. This study selected the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments located in Changsha County, Hunan Province, to quantify and compare the contribution of base flow to total nitrogen (TN) loading from January 2011 to December 2013, through field observation and model estimation. The results suggested that the Tuojia catchment with higher intensity of rice agriculture had the greater volume of base flow, higher average flow-weighted TN concentration in base flow, and greater monthly TN loading via base flow [15.2 mm · month⁻¹, 4.14 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.54 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively] than those in the Jianshan catchment with lower intensity [11.4 mm · month⁻¹, 1.72 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.20 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively]. The base flow contribution to TN loading showed an apparently seasonal pattern. During rice-growing seasons, the contributions of base flow to TN loading were 23.2% and 18.6% in the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments, respectively, lower than those in the fallow seasons (46.9% and 40.0% correspondingly. These results suggested that rice agriculture increased the contribution of base flow in the fallow season to TN loading. Therefore, to alleviate the suffering of non-point source pollution in the rice agriculture catchments, reasonable management measure of rice fields should be implemented to decrease contrihution of base flow to TN loading. PMID:27548958

  6. [Interception Effect of Ecological Ditch on Nitrogen Transport in Agricultural Runoff in Subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yi; Zhong, Yuan-chun; He, Yang; Xiao, Run-fin; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-05-15

    Interception effects of an ecological ditch, used to control agricultural non-point source pollution in subtropical China, on nitrogen transport in surface runoff were studied by monthly measuring the runoff volume and concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO₃⁻-N) and total nitrogen (TN) at the ditch inlet and outlet from 2013 to 2014. In addition, differences of NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal were compared between 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the study ecological ditch worked effectively in N removal with average NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 77.8%, 58.3%, and 48.7%; and their interception rates were 38.4, 59.6, and 171.1 kg · a⁻¹, respectively. The average proportion of NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N in TN was 47.5% at inlet, and 33.6% at outlet, which was significantly lower than that at inlet (P < 0.01). All hydrophytes in the ecological ditch were replaced by Myriophyllum aquaticum in 2014, which led to the increased average NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 30.5% and 18.2%, respectively, Compared to in 2013. The vegetation of Myriophyllum aquaticum was beneficial to the improvement of N interception in ecological ditch. These findings clearly demonstrated that ecological ditch can substantially reduce N loss from surface runoff and be used as an important technique to prevent agricultural non-point N pollution. PMID:27506024

  7. Origin of millennial-scale climate signals in the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, I am testing the hypothesis that millennial-scale climate signals in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic are linked to external driving factors such as the harmonics of precession. The test is based on the observation that the precession period is not stationary through time. For example, between 900 and 340 Ka the time interval between successive precession minima (or maxima) ranges primarily from 17 kyr to 21 kyr with discrete intervals lasting up to ~30 kyr (spectral power centered on the 23 kyr and 19 kyr periodicities). After 340 Ka, however, precession minima (or maxima) consistently occur at longer intervals, between 21 kyr and 25 kyr (spectral power focused at the 23 kyr period). If in proxy records millennial-scale variations reflect the harmonics of precession, I expect that the millennial-scale periodicity associated with the 19 kyr precession period (e.g., the 4.8 kyr peak) loses power as the primary orbital peak loses power at 340 Ka. First order tests of this idea can be made using published planktic foraminiferal δ18O records from ODP Site 1059 (Hagen and Keigwin, 2002; Oppo et al., 2001) in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic spanning Marine Isotope Stages 2-6 (~20-150 Ka) and Site 1058 spanning MIS 12-22 (~450-900 Ka, Weirauch et al., 2008). After filtering the records to remove the 100 kyr cycle, the older time slice contains both precession peaks (23 and 19 kyr). Significant (95% confidence interval) suborbital peaks occur at 12 kyr, 5.7 kyr and 5.0 kyr, which are close to the periodicities of the expected harmonics. The younger time slice shows only one precession peak centered at ~23 kyr and significant (95% confidence interval) sub-orbital peaks at 11.2 kyr, and 5 kyr. Only the 11.2 kyr peak agrees with the expected period of the second harmonic of the 23 kyr precession peak. We are currently generating high resolution planktic foraminiferal stable isotope records in this region to span MIS 7, which, together with data from

  8. Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and Beach Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.

    2006-12-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a beach is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB beach monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a beach without point source loads and also to improve beach health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly beach monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat Beach on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby beaches monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat Beach is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat Beach, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other beaches the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only beach allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this beach facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the

  9. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  10. On the fractional solubility of copper in marine aerosols: Toxicity of aeolian copper revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.

    2010-10-01

    Paytan et al. (2009) argue that the atmospheric deposition of aerosols lead to copper concentrations that are potentially toxic to marine phytoplankton in a large area of tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. A key assumption in their model is that all marine aerosols (mineral dust and anthropogenic particles) have a high (40%) fractional solubility of copper. Our data show that the fractional solubility of copper for Saharan dust over the Sargasso Sea and Bermuda is significantly lower (1-7%). In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols with non-Saharan sources have significantly higher values (10-100%). Hence, the potential Cu toxicity in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic should be re-estimated, given the low fractional solubility of Cu in the Saharan dust that dominates aerosol deposition to this region.

  11. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  12. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  13. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    PubMed

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  14. Downscaling Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in a Subtropical Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This research was conducted by downscaling study to understand phosphorus (P)-deficient status of different plankton and the role of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in subtropical Feitsui Reservoir. Results from field survey showed that bulk APA (1.6~95.2 nM h-1) was widely observed in the epilimnion (0~20 m) with an apparent seasonal variations, suggesting that plankton in the system were subjected to P-deficient seasonally. Mixed layer depth (an index of phosphate availability) is the major factor influencing the variation of bulk APA and specific APA (124~1,253 nmol mg C-1 h-1), based on multiple linear regression analysis. Size-fractionated APA assays showed that picoplankton (size 0.2~3 um) contributed most of the bulk APA in the system. In addition, single-cell APA detected by enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assay indicated that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors of APA. Thus, we can infer that bacteria play an important role in accelerating P-cycle within P-deficient systems. Light/nutrient manipulation bioassays showed that bacterial growth was directly controlled by phosphate, while picocyanobacterial growth is controlled by light and can out-compete bacteria under P-limited condition with the aid of light. Further analysis revealed that the strength of summer typhoon is a factor responsible for the inter-annual variability of bulk and specific APA. APA study demonstrated the episodic events (e.g. strong typhoon and extreme precipitation) had significant influence on APA variability in sub-tropical to tropical aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the results herein will allow future studies on monitoring typhoon disturbance (intensity and frequency) as well as the APA of plankton during summer-to-autumn in subtropical systems.

  15. Integrated Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Surface Sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the Coastal Waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: Comparison among Typical Marine Sediment Quality Indices

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2014-01-01

    The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short) were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF) showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals. PMID:24709993

  16. Massive icebergs & freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Condron, A.

    2013-12-01

    New evidence from high-resolution seafloor bathymetry and a state-of-the-art numerical ocean circulation model shows that a significant amount of iceberg-laden meltwater flowed south from northern hemisphere ice sheets in a narrow coastal boundary current along the U.S. Atlantic margin, to the southern tip of Florida, following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). It is commonly assumed that meltwater would freshen the subpolar North Atlantic (50° - 70°N), but have little or no penetration to subtropical latitudes, south of 40°N. Using a combination of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and a state-of-the-art, high-resolution numerical ocean model, we are able to trace the pathway of icebergs and meltwater released from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) along the southern U.S. Atlantic margin. The bathymetry data show numerous well-defined relict iceberg scours from Cape Hatteras to the southern tip of Florida (~24.5°N) in water depths of 170 - 380 m, and are traceable for more than 30 km along the margin, suggesting that icebergs up to 300m thick reached these subtropical locations. The scour marks are oriented SSW along regional bathymetric contours and decrease in size and abundance moving south along the margin, concordant with increased iceberg melt as the distance from the ice calving margin increased. Our numerical model simulations confirm that iceberg laden meltwater can penetrate into the subtropical North Atlantic by flowing south, inshore of the Gulf Stream, as a narrow coastal boundary current that can significantly freshen this region and reduce the northward heat transport of the Gulf Stream. This evidence suggests a stronger influence of cold meltwater in the southern latitudes than previously recognized and highlights a distinct shift in paleocirculation patterns, including major adjustments in the Gulf Stream, since the LGM. Our findings strongly indicate that the freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic by icebergs and meltwater played an

  17. Productivity of pure- and crossbred cattle in a subtropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zyl, J. G. E.; Schoeman, S. J.; Coertze, R. J.; Groeneveld, H. T.

    1991-06-01

    The influence of different breeds of sire and dam types on cow productivity in an arid, subtropical environment was studied. Cows with calves sired by Simmentaler, Hereford and Bonsmara bulls were more ( P<0.05) productive than those with calves sired by Afrikaner bulls. Simmentaler sires were superior ( P<0.05) to Bonsmara sires. Crossbred cows of predominant (>50%) Bos taurus breeding were generally superior to crossbreds of predominant B. indicus breeding and purebreds. Crossbreeding systems to utilize breed effects to optimise cow productivity within environmental constraints are discussed.

  18. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  19. Climate Response to a Geo-Engineered Brightening of Subtropical Boundary Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. A.; Ming, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Enhancing the albedo of low-level marine clouds by injecting them with sea salt aerosols has been proposed as a means of mitigating rising temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change. Using a coupled mixed layer ocean-atmospheric general circulation model, we study the climate response to such a geo-engineering scheme, in which three marine subtropical regions containing persistent stratocumulus decks are seeded. It is found that a five fold increase in the sea-salt aerosol concentration below 800 hPa in these three regions, located in the North Pacific (NP), South Pacific (SP), and South Atlantic (SA), results in an average radiative flux perturbation of -8.6 W m-2 within the seeded regions and a global mean of -0.7 W m-2. Despite the highly localized nature of the seeding, resulting cooling is spread not only to other parts of the Tropics but also to the mid- and high latitudes, indicating that significant changes in large-scale circulation take place. The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.53K. Temperature reductions over most of the equatorial Pacific appear to excite enhanced La Niña conditions, with the precipitation response strongly resembling La Niña patterns. The global mean change in precipitation is a 2.2% decrease, in accordance with thermodynamic constraints associated with the global mean temperature decrease. Additionally, local cooling near the equator due to seeding results in a reduction of poleward atmospheric energy transport. Model runs in which only one of NP, SP, or SA is seeded indicate a certain degree of non-linearity in the climate response to cloud seeding, with SP being significantly more potent at reducing temperature than NP or SA; this result is robust to at least one other prior GCM study (Jones et al 2009) of marine deck enhancement geo-engineering. Analysis of the linear sum of the NP, SP, and SA runs indicates a mostly linear response in all latitudes except for the Northern high latitudes, where the linear sum and

  20. Climate-driven regime shift of a temperate marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wernberg, Thomas; Bennett, Scott; Babcock, Russell C; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Cure, Katherine; Depczynski, Martial; Dufois, Francois; Fromont, Jane; Fulton, Christopher J; Hovey, Renae K; Harvey, Euan S; Holmes, Thomas H; Kendrick, Gary A; Radford, Ben; Santana-Garcon, Julia; Saunders, Benjamin J; Smale, Dan A; Thomsen, Mads S; Tuckett, Chenae A; Tuya, Fernando; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Wilson, Shaun

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem reconfigurations arising from climate-driven changes in species distributions are expected to have profound ecological, social, and economic implications. Here we reveal a rapid climate-driven regime shift of Australian temperate reef communities, which lost their defining kelp forests and became dominated by persistent seaweed turfs. After decades of ocean warming, extreme marine heat waves forced a 100-kilometer range contraction of extensive kelp forests and saw temperate species replaced by seaweeds, invertebrates, corals, and fishes characteristic of subtropical and tropical waters. This community-wide tropicalization fundamentally altered key ecological processes, suppressing the recovery of kelp forests. PMID:27387951

  1. THE TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS AT THE NATIONAL GERMPLASM REPOSITORY IN MIAMI, FL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Subtropical and Tropical USDA, ARS, National Germplasm Repositories (NGR) in Miami, FL; Mayaguez, PR; and Hilo, HI are responsible for the collections of subtropical and tropical fruits, nuts, grasses, and ornamentals for the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). The NPGS is respons...

  2. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Stuart A; Roberts, Christopher D; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    [1] Observations show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales. PMID:26074634

  3. Tropical/subtropical Upper Paleocene Lower Eocene fluvial deposits in eastern central Patagonia, Chile (46°45'S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Troncoso, A.

    2000-11-01

    A succession of quartz-rich fluvial sandstones and siltstones derived from a mainly rhyolitic source and minor metamorphic rocks, located to the west, represent the first Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits described in Chilean eastern central Patagonian Cordillera (46°45'S). This unit, exposed 25 km south of Chile Chico, south of lago General Carrera, is here defined as the Ligorio Márquez Formation. It overlies with an angular unconformity Lower Cretaceous shallow marine sedimentary rocks (Cerro Colorado Formation) and subaerial tuffs that have yielded K-Ar dates of 128, 125 and 123 Ma (Flamencos Tuffs, of the Divisadero Group). The Ligorio Márquez Formation includes flora indicative of a tropical/subtropical climate, and its deposition took place during the initial part of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Cenozoic optimum. The underlying Lower Cretaceous units exhibit folding and faulting, implying a pre-Paleocene-Lower Eocene contractional tectonism. Overlying Oligocene-Miocene marine and continental facies in the same area exhibit thrusts and normal faults indicative of post-Lower Miocene contractional tectonism.

  4. Episodes of intensified biological productivity in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean during the termination of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Iris; Friedrich, Oliver; Edgar, Kirsty M.; Sexton, Philip F.

    2015-08-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is an ~500 kyr interval of pronounced global warming from which the climate system recovered in <50 kyr. The deep-sea sedimentary record can provide valuable insight on the marine ecosystem response to this protracted global warming event and consequently on the ecological changes during this time. Here we present new benthic foraminiferal assemblage data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1051 in the subtropical North Atlantic, spanning the MECO and post-MECO interval (41.1 to 39.5 Ma). We find little change in the species composition of benthic foraminiferal assemblages during the studied interval, suggesting that the rate of environmental change was gradual enough that these organisms were able to adapt. However, we identify two transient intervals associated with peak warming (higher-productivity interval (HPI)-1; 40.07-39.96 Ma) and shortly after the MECO (HPI-2; 39.68-39.55 Ma), where benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates increase by an order of magnitude. These HPIs at Site 1051 appear to coincide with intervals of strengthened productivity in the Tethys, Southern Ocean, and South Atlantic, and we suggest that an intensified hydrological cycle during the climatic warmth of the MECO was responsible for eutrophication of marine shelf and slope environments.

  5. An Integrative Study of Photochemical Air Pollution in Hong Kong: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong is situated in the Pearl River delta of Southern China. This region has experienced phenomenal economic growth in the past 30 years. Emissions of large amount of pollutants from urban areas and various industries coupled with subtropical climate have led to frequent occurrences of severe photochemical air pollution. Despite the long-term control efforts of the Hong Kong government, the atmospheric levels of ozone have been increasing in the past decade. To obtain an updated and more complete understanding of photochemical smog, an integrative study has been conducted during 2010-2014. Several intensive measurement campaigns were carried out at urban, suburban and rural sites in addition to the routine observations at fourteen air quality monitoring stations in Hong Kong. Meteorological, photochemical, and chemical-transport modeling studies were conducted to investigate the causes/processes of elevated photochemical pollution . The main activities of this study were to (1) examine the situation and trends of photochemical air pollution in Hong Kong, (2) understand some underlying chemical processes in particular the poorly-understood heterogeneous processes of reactive nitrogen oxides, (3) quantify the local, regional, and super-regional contributions to the ozone pollution in Hong Kong, and (4) review the control policy and make further recommendations based on the science. This paper will give an overview of this study and present some key results on the trends and chemistry of the photochemical pollution in this polluted subtropical region.

  6. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Although the Environmental Protection Agency proposed controls in the early 1970s, marine vessel emissions remain largely unregulated, in part, because industry, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Administration questioned the safety, cost, and effects on interstate commerce. The Coast Guard and EPA attempted to resolve some of these issues but discontinued their efforts when EPA reduced its overall budget and the Coast Guard perceived no state interest in regulating vessel emissions. Efforts resumed when the Coast Guard became aware of a growing state movement to regulate vessel emissions; it then requested a study by the National Research Council. The study found that additional operating experience, testing, and studies were necessary. The Coast Guard then began developing safety standards in 1987 and EPA proposed a national ozone strategy.

  7. Pathways of marine debris in statistical and diagnostic ocean circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximenko, N.; Hafner, J.; Lumpkin, R.

    2012-04-01

    Statistical and diagnostic models are used in this study to describe long-term dynamics of objects floating at the sea surface. The statistical model is based of the particle displacement probability density function, derived from trajectories of drifting buoys, and is supplemented by the probability of running aground. This model reveals five main areas of debris accumulation in the subtropical ocean, all confirmed with direct observations. It also reveals the global pattern of shores impacted by marine debris, correlated with dominant winds. The diagnostic model (SCUD - Surface CUrrents from Diagnostic) utilizes satellite data of altimetry and QuikSCAT/ASCAT winds to assess near-real time surface velocities and its parameters are optimized using drifter trajectories. Numerical experiments with various sources and life times of the model debris help to understand main pathways of the tracer and distributions of its properties within and across individual oceans. Applications of statistical and diagnostic models help to assess probable motion of the debris, generated in Japan by tsunami of March 11, 2011. The timeline, derived from the statistical model, and maps, computed with SCUD, are used to coordinate operational at-sea and on-coast observations and preparations for the debris impact. Most of debris is drifting from Japan towards east, while dispersing over increasing area. After passing Hawaii in the north it is expected to recirculate into the so-called North Pacific Garbage Patch - the area, located between Hawaii and California, where convergent surface currents collect all floating waste. Only a small fraction of tsunami debris, on the edge of the debris field, will "touch" Hawaii and US/Canada west coast. Yet the amount and composition may be anomalous. Mixed with the older waste, tsunami debris will slowly leak from the patch, polluting Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Marine yeasts as biocontrol agents and producers of bio-products.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Guanglei; Zhao, Shoufeng; Li, Jing; Peng, Ying

    2010-05-01

    As some species of marine yeasts can colonize intestine of marine animals, they can be used as probiotics. It has been reported that beta-glucans from marine yeast cells can be utilized as immuno-stimulants in marine animals. Some siderophores or killer toxins produced by marine yeasts have ability to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria or kill pathogenic yeasts in marine animals. The virulent factors from marine pathogens can be genetically displayed on marine yeast cells, and the yeast cells displaying the virulent factors can stimulate marine animals to produce specific antibody against the pathogens. Some marine yeast cells are rich in proteins and essential amino acids and can be used in nutrition for marine animals. The marine yeast cells rich in lipid can be used for biodiesel production. Recently, it has been reported that some strains of Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from marine environments can produce nanoparticles. Because many marine yeasts can remove organic pollutants and heavy metals, they can be applied to remediation of marine environments. It has been shown that the enzymes produced by some marine yeasts have many unique properties and many potential applications. PMID:20195858

  9. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  10. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  11. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific. PMID:26473178

  12. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic <4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic >4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  13. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic <4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic >4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  14. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniel; Uibel, Stefanie; Takemura, Masaya; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2011-01-01

    The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

  15. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

  16. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  17. Indoor air quality of a museum in a subtropical climate: the Oscar Niemeyer museum in Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Carneiro, Barbara H B; Paralovo, Sarah L; Campos, Vania P; Tavares, Tania M; Evangelista, Heitor; Van Grieken, Rene; Godoi, Ana F L

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of damage to indoor cultural heritage, in particular by pollutants, is nowadays a major and growing concern for curators and conservators. Nevertheless, although many museums have been widely investigated in Europe, the effects of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in museums under tropical and subtropical climates and with different economic realities are still unclear. An important portion of the world's cultural heritage is currently in tropical countries where both human and financial resources for preserving museum collections are limited. Hence, our aim is to assess the damage that can be caused to the artwork by pollution in hot and humid environments, where air quality and microclimatic condition differences can cause deterioration. As a case study, particulate matter as well as gases were collected at the Oscar Niemeyer Museum (MON) in Curitiba, Brazil, where large modern and contemporary works of art are displayed. NO2, SO2, O3, Acetic Acid, Formic Acids and BTEX, in the ambient air, were sampled by means of passive diffusive sampling and their concentrations were determined by IC or GC-MS. The particulate matter was collected in bulk form and analyzed with the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and aethalometer. The chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis. The gaseous and particulate matter levels were then compared with the concentrations obtained for the same pollutants in other museums, located in places with different climates, and with some reference values provided by international cultural heritage conservation centers. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could contribute to the chemical reactions taking place on the surfaces of artifacts and which could potentially cause irreversible damage to the

  18. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5–10) and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan’s largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006–2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), PM2.5–10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%–17%) and 4% (95% CI = 1%–7%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5–10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5–10 remained significant when SO2 or O3 was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed. PMID:27011197

  19. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.C.; Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C.; Richmond, R.H.; Power, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  20. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  1. Relationship of tropical-cyclone-induced remote precipitation with tropical cyclones and the subtropical high

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Ding, Zhiying; You, Sangjie; Xu, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    This study concerns the precipitation induced by a tropical cyclone (TC) before the TC arrives, which will be referred to as TC remote precipitation (TRP). Based on the distribution characteristics of the non-rotational wind and the divergent-wind vertical circulation related to TC, the subtropical high, and TRP of 45 TRP events during June, July, and August of 2000‒2009, the relationships among these three entities (TC, subtropical high, and TRP) can be categorized into four patterns. The first pattern accounts for the highest proportion of the TRP events (59%), and a conceptual model is then provided for this pattern. The primary characteristics of this model are as follows: TC, the subtropical high, and TRP can interact with each other through the divergent-wind secondary circulation at both sides of the ridge line of the subtropical high (between the subtropical high and TC, and between the subtropical high and TRP). At the upper level (150 or 200 hPa), the northward non-rotational wind from the TC converged toward the subtropical high ridge line and subsided, and at 950 hPa the divergent wind from the ridge line of the subtropical high converged toward TC; these constructed the secondary circulation between TC and the subtropical high. In the meantime, the southward nonrotational wind at the upper level (150 or 200 hPa) from TRP and the divergent wind at 950 hPa from the subtropical high ridge line toward TRP constructed the secondary circulation between TRP and the subtropical high. As TC and TRP interacted with each other, the subtropical high ridge line was usually under the downdraft area of the whole atmosphere. The other three patterns are different from the first pattern mainly in terms of the intensity and position of the non-rotational-wind secondary circulation. The numerical simulation of the Beijing 7•21 rainstorm confirmed the relationship among TC, the subtropical high, and TRP, indicating that when the interaction weakened, the TRP also

  2. Relationship of tropical-cyclone-induced remote precipitation with tropical cyclones and the subtropical high

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Ding, Zhiying; You, Sangjie; Xu, Haiming

    2015-12-01

    This study concerns the precipitation induced by a tropical cyclone (TC) before the TC arrives, which will be referred to as TC remote precipitation (TRP). Based on the distribution characteristics of the non-rotational wind and the divergent-wind vertical circulation related to TC, the subtropical high, and TRP of 45 TRP events during June, July, and August of 2000‒2009, the relationships among these three entities (TC, subtropical high, and TRP) can be categorized into four patterns. The first pattern accounts for the highest proportion of the TRP events (59%), and a conceptual model is then provided for this pattern. The primary characteristics of this model are as follows: TC, the subtropical high, and TRP can interact with each other through the divergent-wind secondary circulation at both sides of the ridge line of the subtropical high (between the subtropical high and TC, and between the subtropical high and TRP). At the upper level (150 or 200 hPa), the northward non-rotational wind from the TC converged toward the subtropical high ridge line and subsided, and at 950 hPa the divergent wind from the ridge line of the subtropical high converged toward TC; these constructed the secondary circulation between TC and the subtropical high. In the meantime, the southward nonrotational wind at the upper level (150 or 200 hPa) from TRP and the divergent wind at 950 hPa from the subtropical high ridge line toward TRP constructed the secondary circulation between TRP and the subtropical high. As TC and TRP interacted with each other, the subtropical high ridge line was usually under the downdraft area of the whole atmosphere. The other three patterns are different from the first pattern mainly in terms of the intensity and position of the non-rotational-wind secondary circulation. The numerical simulation of the Beijing 7•21 rainstorm confirmed the relationship among TC, the subtropical high, and TRP, indicating that when the interaction weakened, the TRP also

  3. Energetically consistent large-eddy simulations of subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers under idealized climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z.; Schneider, T.; Teixeira, J.; Pressel, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    How subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds respond to climate change is one of the central uncertainties in climate projections. Large-eddy simulations (LES) have been used to study this response. However, the sea surface temperature (SST) or surface fluxes are usually prescribed explicitly in these simulations, and the surface energy budget may not be closed. We present LES experiments that satisfy energetic and large-scale dynamical constraints. The SST is allowed to evolve interactively with radiative and heat fluxes at sea surface so that the surface energy budget is closed. The free troposphere is relaxed towards a radiative-convective equilibrium profile representing the deep tropics, and the subsidence velocity is set to be consistent with the dynamical constraints of the tropical circulations. The LES is coupled with the RRTMG radiation scheme and a warm-rain microphysics scheme. Representative cases of cumulus and stratocumulus under current climate conditions are tested and compared with reanalysis data, validating the capacity of this LES configuration to realistically represent the subtropical MBL cloud regimes. We have investigated the steady-state subtropical MBL cloud responses over a wide range of climates with this energetically consistent LES configuration and have compared the results to those from simulations with prescribed SST increase of 4K/2xCO2. While both sets of simulations show dissipation of stratocumulus under warming induced by quadrupling CO2, the simulated cumulus responses are different. With prescribed SST, surface latent heat flux (LHF) increases so strongly that the surface energy balance constraint is violated, resulting in a deepening of the cumulus layer. With the energetically consistent configuration, the increase of LHF is modest and the cumulus layer shallows with reduced liquid water path (LWP). The cumulus shortwave response to warming differs correspondingly. The contrasting results highlight the importance of

  4. Origin of millennial-scale climate instabilities in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Scheinwald, A.; Dahl, P.

    2013-12-01

    We have generated a high resolution (~250-500 year) planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope record (Globigerinoides ruber white, senso lato) spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 through 8 in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 172 Site 1059). The record fills a gap in an about 1.3 million year long time series of millennial-scale surface ocean hydrography in this region. We test the hypothesis that sub-orbital climate signals are linked to a response to precession forcing in tropical latitudes. Power spectra provide evidence for an increase in the length of half precession cycles as the 19 kyr precession period disappears from the insolation forcing at about 320 Ka in first order support of the hypothesis. In the time series, half precession (and quarter precession cycles when present) are evident as double (and quadruple) peaks within the given precession framework. However, in the time series there is no match between the amplitude modulation of the precession signal and its harmonics. During the time interval between 340-0 Ka (MIS 9-1) when the temporal resolution is high (250 year time step), the power spectra also contain significant peaks in the Dansgaard-Oeschger band (~1-8-1.5 kyr). Comparison of filter output with the time series, however, illustrates that there are only few instances where these types of variations are distinct in the foraminiferal δ18O record. We conclude that the evolution of half precession cycles over the time interval is largely consistent with a response to low latitude insolation, such as introduced by insolation maxima at the equinoxes and solstices (e.g., Short et al., 1991). Our analysis also shows that quarter precession cycles are present in the time series, at least intermittently, but we cannot uniquely tie them to changes in the primary precession signal. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating variations in the original time series to guide interpretations of significant peaks in

  5. Origin of millennial-scale climate signals in the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, Katharina; Scheinwald, Andre

    2014-06-01

    We present a high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope record (Globigerinoides ruber) spanning marine oxygen isotope stages (MISs) 6 through 8 in the northwestern subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 172 Site 1059). The record fills a gap to produce an about 1.3 Myr long continuous time series of high-frequency (> ~1/12 kyr) surface ocean hydrography, the first of this kind. We test the hypothesis that the suborbital climate signals (i.e., half and quarter precession cycles) are linked to precession forcing in tropical latitudes. Semiprecession cycles present between 0 and 320 ka are of the right periodicity to relate to the dominant precession forcing (23 kyr). These cycles are evident as double peaks within the given precession framework, and there is good match in the amplitude modulation of the filter output and the δ18O time series. Quarter precession cycles dominate the suborbital spectra between 320 ka and 1.3 Ma. Periodicities are close to those expected from the harmonics of the dominant precession peaks in the δ18O record, but present in the time series only intermittently, and their amplitude modulation does not match that of the primary precession period. Thus, only the half precession cycles evidence a response to low-latitude insolation such as that introduced by insolation maxima at the equinoxes or solstices during the course of a precession cycle. Additionally, we find well-defined, rapid (~1.5-2 kyr) variations across the first of the interglacial maxima of MIS 7 adding to evidence of non-ice sheet-related forcing factors in driving climate instabilities.

  6. Export stoichiometry and migrant-mediated flux of phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Landry, Michael R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Styles, Renée M.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Karl, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Export processes play a major role in regulating global marine primary production by reducing the efficiency of nutrient cycling and turnover in surface waters. Most studies of euphotic zone export focus on passive fluxes, that is, sinking particles. However, active transport, the vertical transfer of material by migrating zooplankton, can also be an important component of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) removal from the surface ocean. Here we demonstrate that active transport is an especially important mechanism for phosphorus (P) removal from the euphotic zone at Station ALOHA (Hawaii Ocean Time-series program; 22°45'N, 158°W), a P-stressed site in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Migrant excretions in this region are P-rich (C 51:N 12:P 1) relative to sinking particles (C 250:N 31:P 1), and migrant-mediated P fluxes are almost equal in magnitude (82%) to P fluxes from sediment traps. Migrant zooplankton biomass and therefore the importance of this P removal pathway relative to sinking fluxes has increased significantly over the past 12 years, suggesting that active transport may be a major driving force for enhanced P-limitation of biological production in the NPSG. We further assess the C:N:P composition of zooplankton size fractions at Station ALOHA (C 88:N 18:P 1, on average) and discuss migrant-mediated P export in light of the balance between zooplankton and suspended particle stoichiometries. We conclude that, because active transport is such a large component of the total P flux and significantly impacts ecosystem stoichiometry, export processes involving migrant zooplankton must be included in large-scale efforts to understand biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Microbial community structure and function on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fontanez, Kristina M.; Eppley, John M.; Samo, Ty J.; Karl, David M.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2015-05-19

    Sinking particles mediate the transport of carbon and energy to the deep-sea, yet the specific microbes associated with sedimenting particles in the ocean's interior remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we used particle interceptor traps (PITs) to assess the nature of particle-associated microbial communities collected at a variety of depths in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Comparative metagenomics was used to assess differences in microbial taxa and functional gene repertoires in PITs containing a preservative (poisoned traps) compared to preservative-free traps where growth was allowed to continue in situ (live traps). Live trap microbial communities shared taxonomic and functional similaritiesmore » with bacteria previously reported to be enriched in dissolved organic matter (DOM) microcosms (e.g., Alteromonas and Methylophaga), in addition to other particle and eukaryote-associated bacteria (e.g., Flavobacteriales and Pseudoalteromonas). Poisoned trap microbial assemblages were enriched in Vibrio and Campylobacterales likely associated with eukaryotic surfaces and intestinal tracts as symbionts, pathogens, or saprophytes. The functional gene content of microbial assemblages in poisoned traps included a variety of genes involved in virulence, anaerobic metabolism, attachment to chitinaceaous surfaces, and chitin degradation. The presence of chitinaceaous surfaces was also accompanied by the co-existence of bacteria which encoded the capacity to attach to, transport and metabolize chitin and its derivatives. Distinctly different microbial assemblages predominated in live traps, which were largely represented by copiotrophs and eukaryote-associated bacterial communities. Predominant sediment trap-assocaited eukaryotic phyla included Dinoflagellata, Metazoa (mostly copepods), Protalveolata, Retaria, and Stramenopiles. In conclusion, these data indicate the central role of eukaryotic taxa in structuring sinking particle microbial assemblages, as

  8. Microbial community structure and function on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanez, Kristina M.; Eppley, John M.; Samo, Ty J.; Karl, David M.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2015-05-19

    Sinking particles mediate the transport of carbon and energy to the deep-sea, yet the specific microbes associated with sedimenting particles in the ocean's interior remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we used particle interceptor traps (PITs) to assess the nature of particle-associated microbial communities collected at a variety of depths in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Comparative metagenomics was used to assess differences in microbial taxa and functional gene repertoires in PITs containing a preservative (poisoned traps) compared to preservative-free traps where growth was allowed to continue in situ (live traps). Live trap microbial communities shared taxonomic and functional similarities with bacteria previously reported to be enriched in dissolved organic matter (DOM) microcosms (e.g., Alteromonas and Methylophaga), in addition to other particle and eukaryote-associated bacteria (e.g., Flavobacteriales and Pseudoalteromonas). Poisoned trap microbial assemblages were enriched in Vibrio and Campylobacterales likely associated with eukaryotic surfaces and intestinal tracts as symbionts, pathogens, or saprophytes. The functional gene content of microbial assemblages in poisoned traps included a variety of genes involved in virulence, anaerobic metabolism, attachment to chitinaceaous surfaces, and chitin degradation. The presence of chitinaceaous surfaces was also accompanied by the co-existence of bacteria which encoded the capacity to attach to, transport and metabolize chitin and its derivatives. Distinctly different microbial assemblages predominated in live traps, which were largely represented by copiotrophs and eukaryote-associated bacterial communities. Predominant sediment trap-assocaited eukaryotic phyla included Dinoflagellata, Metazoa (mostly copepods), Protalveolata, Retaria, and Stramenopiles. In conclusion, these data indicate the central role of eukaryotic taxa in structuring sinking particle microbial assemblages, as well as

  9. Bacterial dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation genes in the oligotrophic north pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Gifford, Scott M; Wilson, Samuel T; Sharma, Shalabh; Karl, David M; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-04-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an organic sulfur compound that is rapidly metabolized by marine bacteria either by cleavage to dimethylsulfide (DMS) or demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate. The abundance and diversity of genes encoding bacterial DMS production (dddP) and demethylation (dmdA) were measured in the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) between May 2008 and February 2009 at Station ALOHA (22°45'N, 158°00'W) at two depths: 25 m and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; ∼100 m). The highest abundance of dmdA genes was in May 2008 at 25 m, with ∼16.5% of cells harboring a gene in one of the eight subclades surveyed, while the highest abundance of dddP genes was in July 2008 at 25 m, with ∼2% of cells harboring a gene. The dmdA gene pool was consistently dominated by homologs from SAR11 subclades, which was supported by findings in metagenomic data sets derived from Station ALOHA. Expression of the SAR11 dmdA genes was low, with typical transcript:gene ratios between 1:350 and 1:1,400. The abundance of DMSP genes was statistically different between 25 m and the DCM and correlated with a number of environmental variables, including primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, particulate DMSP, and DMS concentrations. At 25 m, dddP abundance was positively correlated with pigments that are diagnostic of diatoms; at the DCM, dmdA abundance was positively correlated with temperature. Based on gene abundance, we hypothesize that SAR11 bacterioplankton dominate DMSP cycling in the oligotrophic NPSG, with lesser but consistent involvement of other members of the bacterioplankton community. PMID:22327587

  10. Microbial community structure and function on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Fontanez, Kristina M.; Eppley, John M.; Samo, Ty J.; Karl, David M.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Sinking particles mediate the transport of carbon and energy to the deep-sea, yet the specific microbes associated with sedimenting particles in the ocean's interior remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we used particle interceptor traps (PITs) to assess the nature of particle-associated microbial communities collected at a variety of depths in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Comparative metagenomics was used to assess differences in microbial taxa and functional gene repertoires in PITs containing a preservative (poisoned traps) compared to preservative-free traps where growth was allowed to continue in situ (live traps). Live trap microbial communities shared taxonomic and functional similarities with bacteria previously reported to be enriched in dissolved organic matter (DOM) microcosms (e.g., Alteromonas and Methylophaga), in addition to other particle and eukaryote-associated bacteria (e.g., Flavobacteriales and Pseudoalteromonas). Poisoned trap microbial assemblages were enriched in Vibrio and Campylobacterales likely associated with eukaryotic surfaces and intestinal tracts as symbionts, pathogens, or saprophytes. The functional gene content of microbial assemblages in poisoned traps included a variety of genes involved in virulence, anaerobic metabolism, attachment to chitinaceaous surfaces, and chitin degradation. The presence of chitinaceaous surfaces was also accompanied by the co-existence of bacteria which encoded the capacity to attach to, transport and metabolize chitin and its derivatives. Distinctly different microbial assemblages predominated in live traps, which were largely represented by copiotrophs and eukaryote-associated bacterial communities. Predominant sediment trap-assocaited eukaryotic phyla included Dinoflagellata, Metazoa (mostly copepods), Protalveolata, Retaria, and Stramenopiles. These data indicate the central role of eukaryotic taxa in structuring sinking particle microbial assemblages, as well as the rapid

  11. On the Recurrence of Enigmatic Nannoplankton Blooms in the Subtropical South Atlantic during the Early Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, L. V.; Kelly, D. C.; Meyers, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic cooling and expansion of Antarctic ice sheets was accompanied by a global reorganization in ocean circulation during the early Oligocene. Such a change in the ocean-climate system is expected to alter the pelagic ecosystem through elevated rates of extinction and increased biogeographic provincialism. A well documented, but poorly understood, example of this provincialism is the recurrence of unusual chalks composed of the nannofossil genus Braarudosphaera across the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean. Here we present preliminary findings from a study of the paleoceanographic conditions that fostered these Braarudosphaera "blooms" at Deep Sea Drilling Site 516 (Rio Grande Rise, southwestern Atlantic). Within the early Oligocene stratigraphy at this site, there are four chalky (recrystallized) layers in which braarudosphaerids compose ~70% of the nannofossil assemblages. Astronomical tuning was performed on conventional benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records encompassing the four layers to determine the timing of their recurrence. A strong astronomical rhythm is preserved with the blooms occurring during nodes in the theoretical obliquity solution. In addition, planktic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) records were generated for the study section using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and conventional gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The SIMS-based δ13C record for the thermocline-dwelling genus Catapsydrax registers substantial (~1.5‰) decreases during the blooms, signaling pulsed increases in the upwelling of 13C-depleted waters. By contrast, the IRMS-based δ13C record for this same genus show no appreciable change in hydrographic conditions during the blooms. We attribute the invariant nature of the IRMS-based δ13C record to the smoothing effects of diagenesis. These results demonstrate how marine plankton respond to changing oceanographic conditions driven by astronomical forcing of ice-sheet dynamics.

  12. High-resolution ocean pH dynamics in four subtropical Atlantic benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, C. A.; Clemente, S.; Sangil, C.; Hernández, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of ocean pH are largely unknown in coastal environments and ocean acidification studies often do not account for natural variability yet most of what is known about marine species and populations is found out via studies conducted in near shore environments. Most experiments designed to make predictions about future climate change scenarios are carried out in coastal environments with no research that takes into account the natural pH variability. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to provide reliable measures of pH oscillation, seawater pH was measured over time using moored pH sensors in four contrasting phytocenoses typical of the north Atlantic subtropical region. Each phytocenosis was characterized by its predominant engineer species: (1) Cystoseira abies-marina, (2) a mix of gelidiales and geniculate corallines, (3) Lobophora variegata, and (4) encrusting corallines. The autonomous pH measuring systems consisted of a pH sensor; a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution continuous pH data at each of the study sites. The pH variation observed ranged by between 0.09 and 0.24 pHNBS units. A clear daily variation in seawater pH was detected at all the studied sites (0.04-0.12 pHNBS units). Significant differences in daily pH oscillations were also observed between phytocenoses, which shows that macroalgal communities influence the seawater pH in benthic habitats. Natural oscillations in pH must be taken into account in future ocean acidification studies to put findings in perspective and for any ecological recommendations to be realistic.

  13. Oil spill effects on macrofaunal communities and bioturbation of pristine marine sediments (Caleta Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina): experimental evidence of low resistance capacities of benthic systems without history of pollution.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Agustina; Gonzalez, Emilia; Franco, Marcos; Commendatore, Marta; Nievas, Marina; Militon, Cécile; Stora, Georges; Gilbert, Franck; Esteves, José Luis; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The Patagonian coast is characterized by the existence of pristine ecosystems which may be particularly sensitive to oil contamination. In this study, a simulated oil spill at acute and chronic input levels was carried out to assess the effects of contamination on the macrobenthic community structure and the bioturbation activity of sediments sampled in Caleta Valdés creek. Superficial sediments were either noncontaminated or contaminated by Escalante crude oil and incubated in the laboratory for 30 days. Oil contamination induced adverse effects on macrobenthic community at both concentrations with, for the highest concentration, a marked decrease of approximately 40 and 55 % of density and specific richness, respectively. Besides the disappearance of sensitive species, some other species like Oligochaeta sp. 1, Paranebalia sp., and Ostracoda sp. 2 species have a higher resistance to oil contamination. Sediment reworking activity was also affected by oil addition. At the highest level of contamination, nearly no activity was observed due to the high mortality of macroorganisms. The results strongly suggest that an oil spill in this protected marine area with no previous history of contamination would have a deep impact on the non-adapted macrobenthic community. PMID:25647496

  14. Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Brooks, Barbara; Crahan, Katie K.; Hegg, Dean A.; Eck, Thomas F.; O'Neill, Norm; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kenneth D.

    2006-01-01

    In August/September of 2001, the R/P FLIP and CIRPAS Twin Otter research aircraft were deployed to the eastern coast of Oahu, Hawaii, as part of the Rough Evaporation Duct (RED) experiment. Goals included the study of the air/sea exchange, turbulence, and sea-salt aerosol particle characteristics at the subtropical marine Pacific site. Here we examine coarse mode particle size distributions. Similar to what has been shown for airborne dust, optical particle counters such as the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CSASP) and the Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) within the Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument systematically overestimate particle size, and consequently volume, for sea salt particles. Ground-based aerodynamic particle sizers (APS) and AERONET inversions yield much more reasonable results. A wing pod mounted APS gave mixed results and may not be appropriate for marine boundary layer studies. Relating our findings to previous studies does much to explain the bulk of the differences in the literature and leads us to conclude that the largest uncertainty facing flux and airborne cloud/aerosol interaction studies is likely due to the instrumentation itself. To our knowledge, there does not exist an in situ aircraft system that adequately measures the ambient volume distribution of coarse mode sea salt particles. Most empirically based sea salt flux parameterizations can trace their heritage to a clearly biased measurement technique. The current "state of the art" in this field prevents any true form of clear sky radiative "closure" for clean marine environments.

  15. Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Odell, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Papers in this Special Feature stem from a symposium on large-scale ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals convened at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in June 2006. Major changes are occurring in multiple aspects of the marine environment at unprecedented rates, within the life spans of some individual marine mammals. Drivers of change include shifts in climate, acoustic pollution, disturbances to trophic structure, fisheries interactions, harmful algal blooms, and environmental contaminants. This Special Feature provides an in-depth examination of 3 issues that are particularly troublesome. The 1st article notes the huge spatial and temporal scales of change to which marine mammals are showing ecological responses, and how these species can function as sentinels of such change. The 2nd paper describes the serious problems arising from conflicts with fisheries, and the 3rd contribution reviews the growing issues associated with underwater noise. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Subtropical Indian Ocean SST dipole events and southern African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reason, C. J. C.

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is used to examine how the regional atmospheric circulation and rainfall over southern Africa respond to a recently observed dipole in subtropical sea surface temperature (SST) over the South Indian Ocean. Observations suggest that when SST is warm to the south of Madagascar and cool off Western Australia, increased summer rains occur over large areas of southeastern Africa. The model results suggest that this SST pattern leads to increased rainfall via enhanced convergence of moister than average air over the region. Increased evaporation occurs over the warm pole in the South West Indian Ocean and this moist air is advected towards Mozambique and eastern South Africa as a result of the low pressure anomaly generated over this pole which strengthens the onshore flow.

  17. Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

  18. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O

    2007-09-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg(-1), which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl(2), demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. PMID:17321651

  19. Modulation of subtropical stratospheric gravity waves by equatorial rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Naftali Y.; Boos, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Internal gravity waves influence a variety of phenomena in Earth's stratosphere and upper troposphere, including aviation weather turbulence and circulations that set high-altitude distributions of ozone and greenhouse gases. Here coupling between the dominant mode of subseasonal variability of the equatorial atmosphere—the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO)—and subtropical stratospheric gravity waves created by flow over topography is documented for the first time. We use three different meteorological data sets to show that during boreal winter, the MJO modifies the vertical distribution of internal gravity wave drag induced by the Tibetan Plateau and the deposition of momentum into the stratosphere. This interaction, however, has no significant impact on the vertically integrated wave drag. Our findings raise new questions about how future changes in tropical rainfall might affect stratospheric variability and highlight the importance of local processes over Tibet for the circulations that set distributions of climatically important high-altitude trace gases.

  20. Subtropical circulation, Tibetan Plateau, and Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. X.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of the land-air-sea interaction in summer subtropics and their impacts on climate were revealed. It was shown that different kind of diabatic heating plays different roles in the formation of the subtropical circulation where the surface sensible heating associated with the land-sea distribution plays a fundamentally important role, and the three spatial- scales of atmospheric forcing contribute in various ways to the formation of aridity/desert over the western parts of continents and wet/monsoon over the eastern parts. Thus monsoon and desert coexist as twin features. It was identified that the onset of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) consists of three dynamically consequential stages: the onset first occurs over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB) in early May, which is followed by the onset over the South China Sea in mid-May, and the Indian Monsoon onset in early June. During such an onset progression, the formation, maintenance and evolution of the South Asian High (SAH) play a significant role in generating the upper tropospheric dumping. In the lower troposphere, the development of the BOB monsoon onset vortex, the ASM onset barrier, the cross equatorial SST gradient and the forced convection over the eastern Arabian Sea also regulate the onset evolution. In winter the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can inspire a stationary dipole-type atmospheric wave, forming a specific climate pattern in Asia. In spring, such a dipole circulation forms the unique persistent rainfall over Southern China. The TP forcing can also anchor the ASM onset over the BOB by generating the unique short- life BOB SST warm pool and modulating the SAH in the upper troposphere. In summer the thermal forcing of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateau plays a significant role in controlling the Asian monsoon by transporting water vapor from the sea to the land for the genesis of continental monsoon. The TP thermal forcing also modulates the regional climate variability in different time scales.