Science.gov

Sample records for pollution control technology

  1. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  2. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING POLLUTANTS FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's efforts in developing technology for controlling pollutants from coal combustion. SO2, NOx, and particles are the predominant pollutants emitted from the combustion of coal. One goal of current EPA research and development is to reduce the costs ...

  4. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  6. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  7. ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

  8. PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES OF POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary cost estimates of air and water pollution control technologies for geothermal energy conversion facilities. Costs for solid waste disposal are also estimated. The technologies examined include those for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions and fo...

  9. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  10. AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

  11. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  12. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  13. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  14. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  15. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  16. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  18. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  19. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment... pollutant control technology (BCT). The effluent limitations are described at § 450.21....

  20. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  1. Advanced technology for controlling pollutant emissions from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.; Diehl, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine combustor technology for the reduction of pollutant emissions is summarized. Variations of conventional combustion systems and advanced combustor concepts are discussed. Projected results from far term technology efforts aimed at applying the premixed prevaporized and catalytic combustion techniques to aircraft combustion systems indicate a potential for significant reductions in pollutant emission levels.

  2. EPA'S ADAPTIVE CONTROLS SYSTEM RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. n general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission leve...

  3. Energy technology characterizations handbook: Environmental pollution and control factors, third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    Energy technologies and pollution control technologies are reviewed. Technology characterizations are given for the following energy sources: nuclear energy, synthetic fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas, solar energy, geothermal energy, and hydroelectric energy. Air, water, and solid waste pollution control devices and mechanisms are presented for coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers and for synthetic fuel production from coal and oil shale.

  4. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The current effort of EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  5. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  6. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  7. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  8. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT...

  9. HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

  10. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  11. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  12. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS PROGRAM (HAP-PRO): AUTOMATED HAP AND VOC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), version 1.0, automated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and volatile organic compound (VOC) control technology assessment software, designed to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air tox...

  13. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  14. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  15. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  16. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies. Report for October 1991-March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  17. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. PMID:26878632

  18. Best demonstrated available technology (bdat) for pollution control and waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the most current equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment that attempt to meet the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Technology for pollution control and waste treatment used by the EPA to develop current effluent standards, and pollution control methods used by industry to meet those standards are considered. Standards for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are discussed. BDAT (Best Demonstrated Available Technology) is an acronym for best currently available technology as defined by the EPA. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system. PMID:12540045

  20. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

  1. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

  2. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  3. Engineering Related Technology: A Laboratory and Curriculum Design for the Newly Emerging Technology of Pollution-Corrosion Measurement and Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, F. K.; And Others

    In order to meet the educational needs for a separate curriculum at the secondary level for technological training related to pollution and corrosion measurement and control, a 3-year, 1080-hour vocational program was developed for use in an area vocational high school. As one of four programs in the technology careers area, this curriculum design…

  4. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for pollution control and waste treatment. January 1976-July 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1976-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the most current equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment that attempt to meet the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Technology for pollution control and waste treatment used by the EPA to develop current effluent standards, and pollution control methods used by industry to meet those standards are considered. Standards for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are discussed. BDAT (Best Demonstrated Available Technology) is an acronym for best currently available technology as defined by the EPA. (Contains 199 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Best Demonstrated Available Technology for pollution control and waste treatment. January 1989-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 89-Jan 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the most current equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment that attempt to meet the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Technology for pollution control and waste treatment used by the EPA to develop current effluent standards, and pollution control methods used by industry to meet those standards are considered. Standards for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are discussed. BDAT (Best Demonstrated Available Technology) is an acronym for best currently available technology as defined by the EPA. (Contains 185 citations with title list and subject index.)

  6. Best demonstrated available technology for pollution control and waste treatment, January 1985-July 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 85-Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the most current equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment that attempt to meet the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Technology for pollution control and waste treatment used by the EPA to develop current effluent standards, and pollution control methods used by industry to meet those standards are considered. Standards for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are discussed. BDAT (Best Demonstrated Available Technology) is an acronym for best currently available technology as defined by the EPA. (The bibliography contains 268 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

  7. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  8. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  9. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  10. Manpower Requirements for Pollution Control and Water Resources in Indiana and a Related Pollution Control Technology Curriculum. Manpower Report 69-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the trained manpower needed to cope with Indiana's mounting problems in air and water pollution control, liquid and solid waste disposal, and water supply and resources. This report contains data concerning the present employment, current job opportunities, and projected manpower needs for related…

  11. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. urrent approaches involve control of over flows, treatment, and combinations of the two. ontrol may involve maximizing treatment wit...

  12. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A.; Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. |; Jones, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  13. Pollution control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McVorvey, A.F.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a pollution control apparatus for a motor vehicle having an engine discharging exhaust gases into a muffler and out through a tail pipe. It comprises: means to spray water into the exhaust gases into produce a mist of water droplets containing dissolved and entrained pollutants in the exhaust gases and connected to the muffler, means to separate the water droplets from the exhaust gas mist and pass cleaned exhaust gases from the muffler and out through the tail pipe.

  14. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3). PMID:22468544

  15. Innovation for Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic Controls Inc.'s refuse-fired steam generating facility led to the development of an air pollution equipment control device. The device is currently marketed by two NASA/Langley Research Center employees. It automatically senses and compensates for the changes in smoke composition when refuse is used as a fuel by adjusting the precipitator's voltage and current to permit maximum collection of electrically charged dust particles. The control adapts to any electrostatic precipitator and should have extensive commercial applications.

  16. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  17. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  18. Air pollution control in an age of prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

  19. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH, ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program consists of pilot projects, one of which is climate change technology verification. ETV was established on the assumption that numerous technologies suitable for mitigating a variety of environmental problems are currently...

  20. Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor

    2007-01-01

    The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the…

  1. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  2. Genetic engineering and the development of new pollution control technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.B.; Robinson, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a number of research topics that are likely to contribute to new pollution treatment techniques. These include the basic mechanisms underlying microbical co-metabolism and oligotrophy; molecular genetics in filamentous fungi, in strict anaerobes and in archaebacteria; directed evolution of enzymes and metabolic pathways; and studies to advance understanding of dehalogenations by microbes.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR METAL FINISHING POLLUTION CONTROL: THREE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the objective of bringing information concerning performance and cost of new wastewater treatment technologies to the attention of the metal finishing community. Many novel approaches to treatment of electroplating wastewater have been eva...

  4. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-11-15

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  5. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technologies, such as hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, precipitation and activated carbon adsorption, which have... 29001 EDB Hydrolysis. Thenarsazine Oxide 006 12601 Organoarsenic Precipitation. Dowicil 75 007 17901 NR4... Activated Carbon. Dichlorvos 012 84001 Phosphate Hydrolysis. Landrin-2 013 Carbamate Activated Carbon....

  6. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technologies, such as hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, precipitation and activated carbon adsorption, which have... 29001 EDB Hydrolysis. Thenarsazine Oxide 006 12601 Organoarsenic Precipitation. Dowicil 75 007 17901 NR4... Activated Carbon. Dichlorvos 012 84001 Phosphate Hydrolysis. Landrin-2 013 Carbamate Activated Carbon....

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technologies, such as hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, precipitation and activated carbon adsorption, which have... 29001 EDB Hydrolysis. Thenarsazine Oxide 006 12601 Organoarsenic Precipitation. Dowicil 75 007 17901 NR4... Activated Carbon. Dichlorvos 012 84001 Phosphate Hydrolysis. Landrin-2 013 Carbamate Activated Carbon....

  8. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. McLaron

    2004-12-01

    Powerspan has conducted pilot scale testing of a multi-pollutant control technology at FirstEnergy's Burger Power Plant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. The technology, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO), simultaneously removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and mercury (Hg) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Powerspan's ECO{reg_sign} pilot test program focused on optimization of Hg removal in a 1-MWe slipstream pilot while maintaining greater than 90% removal of NO{sub x} and 98% removal of SO{sub 2}. This Final Technical Report discusses pilot operations, installation and maintenance of the Hg SCEMS instrumentation, and performance results including component and overall removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM and Hg from the flue gas and removal of captured Hg from the co-product fertilizer stream.

  9. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  10. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT&E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  12. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  13. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution. PMID:1549

  14. Automated Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Patterned after the Cassini Resource Exchange (CRE), Sholtz and Associates established the Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), an Internet-based concept that automates the auctioning of "pollution credits" in Southern California. An early challenge of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Cassini mission was allocating the spacecraft's resources. To support the decision-making process, the CRE was developed. The system removes the need for the science instrument manager to know the individual instruments' requirements for the spacecraft resources. Instead, by utilizing principles of exchange, the CRE induces the instrument teams to reveal their requirements. In doing so, they arrive at an efficient allocation of spacecraft resources by trading among themselves. A Southern California RECLAIM air pollution credit trading market has been set up using same bartering methods utilized in the Cassini mission in order to help companies keep pollution and costs down.

  15. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  16. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  17. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  18. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 2. Technical report. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 104-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  19. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 101-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  20. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  1. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  2. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  3. Pollution Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    BHA Group Inc.'s PrecipTech Power Guard SQ-200 automatic voltage controller, combined with a remote computer, is an automatic management system for smoke-cleaning precipitators. It is the second generation of the SQ 100 developed at Langley Research Center, and was commercialized by two NASA employees. An electrostatic precipitator cleans the smoke by removing particulate matter from smokestack gases before gases are expelled into the atmosphere. Smokestack gas is passed through a precipitator chamber and exposed to an electrostatic field; dust particles in the gas become electrically charged, migrate to collection surfaces and are "captured." Developed under a NASA program seeking a way to dispose refuse, the system monitors sparking, automatically adjusts to changes in operating conditions and does not require a skilled operator.

  4. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.84 Section 434.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL... pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  5. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, Juergen; Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  6. Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) by denitrifying bacteria: a perspective autotrophic nitrogen pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Ru; Li, Wei; Lu, Huifeng; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2014-12-01

    The nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is an important discovery in the fields of microbiology and geology, which is a valuable biological reaction since it can convert nitrate into nitrogen gas, removing nitrogen from wastewater. The research on NAFO can promote the development of novel autotrophic biotechnologies for nitrogen pollution control and get a deep insight into the biogeochemical cycles. In this work, batch experiments were conducted with denitrifying bacteria as biocatalyst to investigate the performance of nitrogen removal by NAFO. The results showed that the denitrifying bacteria were capable of chemolithotrophic denitrification with ferrous salt as electron donor, namely NAFO. And the maximum nitrate conversion rates (qmax) reached 57.89 mg (g VSS d)−1, which was the rate-limiting step in NAFO. Fe/N ratio, temperature and initial pH had significant influences on nitrogen removal by NAFO process, and their optimal values were 2.0 °C, 30.15 °C and 8.0 °C, respectively. PMID:25461924

  7. D&D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-02-27

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX{reg_sign} to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX{reg_sign} is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX{reg_sign} chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign}, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign} will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  8. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  9. D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called "D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention" and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX® to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX® is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX® chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX®, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX® will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated. Encapsulation Technologies, LLC has developed a

  10. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  11. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  12. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  13. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges.

  14. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  15. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION INITIATIVE (TDI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pollution prevention (P2) technologies save money and help prevent the release of toxic and hazardous wastes into the environment, many companies are reluctant to install new equipment or change the current processes. Some of the reluctance is initiated by lack of time a...

  17. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  18. The economics of pollution control in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, T.K.

    1980-02-01

    The Japanese approach to pollution control expenditures is based on the polluter-pays principle, an economic concept introduced by OECD in 1972. Under the PPP, costs are borne by the polluter rather than by the government. Costs are then passed on to the consumer in increased prices. Japan has extended the original PPP to include payment for restoration of polluted environments, administration of monitoring and surveillance programs, and compensation for victims of pollution. The total investment for pollution control by industry in Japan during 1965-75 is reported. Available data indicate that the high costs of pollution control have not caused a major shock to Japan's economic growth. (1 drawing, 3 graphs, 5 references, 1 table)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: MOBILE SOURCE RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN CLEAR FUEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.’S, UNIVERSAL FUEL CELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  20. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  1. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  2. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  3. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies. PMID:25312333

  4. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  5. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  6. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Combustor research programs are described whose purpose is to demonstrate significantly lower exhaust emission levels. The proposed EPA regulations covering the allowable levels of emissions will require a major technological effort if these levels are to be met by 1979. Pollution reduction technology is being pursued by NASA through a combination of in-house research, contracted progams, and university grants. In-house research with the swirl-can modular combustor and the double-annular combustor has demonstrated significant reduction in the level of NO(x) emissions. The work is continuing in an attempt to further reduce these levels by improvements in module design and in air-fuel scheduling. Research on the reduction of idle emissions has included the conversion of conventional duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and exploration of the potential improvements possible with fuel staging and variable combustor geometry.

  7. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury

  8. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL POLLUTION CONTROL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on energy requirements in municipal pollution control facilities for several major areas of interest. (1) Pumping energy for filtration and granular carbon adsorption of secondary effluent - Pumping requirements are developed for all elements of t...

  9. CHOOSING OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...

  10. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  13. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  14. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  15. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  16. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  17. 40 CFR 434.74 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 and 434.72(b)(2), a pre-existing discharge must comply... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.74 Section 434.74 Protection...

  18. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  19. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  20. LSST control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolivar, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The necessary controls technology required for precise attitude, shape, and pointing control of large space systems (LSS) is defined. The major controls tasks are summarized with emphasis on: (1) the selection of typical antenna and platform configurations, and the definition of models and performance requirements; (2) evaluating the applicability of state-of-the-art control techniques to the control of large antennas and platforms; and (3) identifying the need for and initiating the development of advanced control concepts required for LSS.

  1. ELKINS MINE DRAINAGE POLLUTION CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1964 several federal agencies in cooperation with the State of West Virginia initiated a project to demonstrate methods to control the pollution from abandoned underground and surface mines in the Roaring Creek-Grassy Run Watersheds near Elkins, West Virginia. The Roaring Cree...

  2. CHOOSING OPTIMUM FINANCIAL STRATEGIES: POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report alerts decision makers to qualifications for and availability of financial assistance from federal, state and local governments, and illustrates that it is well worth the time to analyze the special methods of financing pollution control expenditures and the available ...

  3. SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

  4. RESOURCES ALLOCATION TO OPTIMIZE MINING POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive model for mine drainage simulation and optimization of resource allocation to control mine acid pollution in a watershed has been developed. The model is capable of: (a) Producing a time trace of acid load and flow from acid drainage sources as a function of clima...

  5. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  6. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  7. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  8. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  9. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  10. AFWAL control technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, V. O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of space oriented control technology programs which are applicable to flexible large space structures is presented. The spacecraft control activity is interdisciplinary with activities in structures, structural dynamics and control brought together. The large flexible structures to be controlled have many physical factors that influence the final controllability of the vehicle. Factors are studied such as rigidity of both structural elements and joints, damping inherent in both material and discrete dampers located throughout the structure, and the bandwidth of both sensors and actuators used to sense motion and control are the physical factors that are interdisciplinary and influence control.

  11. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION (P2) TOOLS & TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk Management ORD's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) will develop tools and methodologies to scientifically and systematically assist in making more quantitative decisions about the most preferred pollution prevention options. The types of research to be c...

  13. 21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room (also known as scrubber room) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  15. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  16. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  17. Volatile organic compounds emission control in industrial pollution source using plasma technology coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Chen, Rui; Xia, Ni; Li, Xiaoyang; He, Xianxian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Carr, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) effluents, which come from many industries, are triggering serious environmental problems. As an emerging technology, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is a potential technology for VOCs emission control. NTP coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 is used for toluene removal from a gaseous influent at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. NTP is generated by dielectric barrier discharge, and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 can be prepared by sol-gel method in the laboratory. In the experiment, the different packed materials were packed into the plasma reactor, including γ-Al2O3, TiO2/γ-Al2O3 and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3. Through a series of characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, the results show that the particle size distribution of F-TiO2 is relatively smaller than that of TiO2, and the pore distribution of F-TiO2 is more uniformly distributed than that of TiO2. The relationships among toluene removal efficiency, reactor input energy density, and the equivalent capacitances of air gap and dielectric barrier layer were investigated. The results show that the synergistic technology NTP with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in greater enhancement of toluene removal efficiency and energy efficiency. Especially, when packing with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 in NTP reactor, toluene removal efficiency reaches 99% and higher. Based on the data analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the experimental results showed that NTP reactor packed with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in a better inhibition for by-products formation effectively in the gas exhaust. PMID:25428439

  18. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  19. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  20. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  2. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  4. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  8. VITRIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION AIR POLLUTION CONTROL RESIDUES USING CORNING, INC. PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted to vitrify municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor air pollution control residue (APC) under the USEPA Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. uplicate demonstration was conducted using a process developed by Corning Inc. in a cold cr...

  9. GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

  10. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  11. SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

  12. Teaching Applied Chemistry in a Pollution Control Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses rationale behind and content of a course (Industrial Pollution Control Techniques) combining knowledge from fields of industrial chemistry and chemical engineering and utilizing this knowledge in the context of understanding pollution problems and potential methods of pollution control. (Author/SK)

  13. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  14. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume II. Oil-shale industry pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-28

    The present volume is the second major deliverable of the title study. This volume is organized into three parts: (A) Gaseous Effluents Control Technology and Sewage Engineering; (B) Liquid Effluents Control Technology and Sewage Engineering; and (C) Solid Waste Disposal Technology. In Part A, the key types of gaseous effluents and particulates controls are qualitatively described. These types of controls are: Baghouses; Cyclones; Wet Collection Devices; Water Sprays; and Electrostatic Precipitation. In addition to the above control technologies applicable in general to most gaseous effluents and particulates, specific treatment has been given to the control technologies particularly applicable to three specific gaseous pollutants of great concern to the oil shale industry. These pollutants are: Hydrocarbons; NO/sub x/; and Sulfur. Part B qualitatively describes the key types of control technologies applicable to liquid effluents. These technologies are: Ion Exchange; Precipitation and Coagulation (Flocculation); Distillation; Steam Stripping; Sedimentation; Filtration; Adsorption; Reverse Osmosis; Flotation; Air Stripping Ammonia Removal; Stabilization Ponds; Chemical Oxidation; Biological (Trickling) Filtration; Activated Sludge; and Nitrogen (Ammonia) Wastewater Controls. A systematic effort was made in the description of each technology to address two key issues: Operating principles of the controls method and field of applications of the controls method. The Part C of the present study focuses on technologies applicable to treatment of hazardous solid wastes. Again, operating principles and field of application are discussed, whereas numerical performance data are omitted.

  15. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, anddemonstrates air pollution prevention a...

  16. FIRST ORDER ESTIMATES OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from 'stationary point sources.' This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes 'mobile s...

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  18. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  19. Pipe burnout oven with pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1982-03-30

    A batch type pipe burnout oven is provided with improved pollution control and heat recovery features. The oven is elongated with an end opening for introduction of a movable support or cart with pipe supported thereon. The oven is brought to burnout temperature faster than prior art ovens and an improved system is provided for pollution control by incineration of hydrocarbon fumes together with recovery of heat which results in superior fuel economy. The oven is provided with a pair of oppositely positioned plenums along the sides thereof which supply heated air in large volume and high velocity through a plurality of nozzle slots to the pipe-containing chamber and are themselves supplied from a recirculation burner chamber on the top of the oven. A relatively small volume of air, laden with volatile, combustible fumes, is withdrawn from the oven at a relatively low velocity by an exhaust fan. This fume-laden air is passed through a gas-fired incinerator in a combustion chamber where the fumes are completely burned and the combustion products raised to a temperature of about 1400* F. These combustion products are passed through a heat exchanger in the burner chamber on top of the oven and then through another heat exchanger to preheat combustion air for the gas-fired burners prior to being exhausted to atmosphere.

  20. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

  1. The soot pollution and control in Shanxi Province

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S.

    1997-12-31

    According to China`s energy resource structure, the energy policy in which coal dominates is not likely to alter significantly in the long-term. Shanxi is a big coal-energy province. It is the national coal-energy base because it has the advantages of abundant coal resources and many coal types of high quality and easy mining. Coal production and sales in Shanxi has ranked first in China since 1980, especially the latter occupying 70% of the entire coal sales in China. Meanwhile, Shanxi is a big coal consumption province in China. At present, the total coal combustion quantity is about 70 million tons and coke making is about 10 million tons per year. The dust and SO{sub 2} emission to the air produced by coal burning is over 1 million tons and greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is over 100 billion M{sup 3} per year, which has caused serious air pollution to the cities and some industrial areas. Some control of the soot pollution is still the main task of air pollution control. The main controlling channels include: (1) Reduce coal burning quantity through developing high efficiency burning oven to improve thermal efficiency, recovering combustible gas and surplus heat, improving operator`s training, etc.; (2) Develop high efficiency S-removal, N-removal and dust removal equipment; (3) Perfect and practice clean coal technology, including coal washing and selecting, briquetting, coal water slurry, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, etc.

  2. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection...

  4. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection...

  6. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection...

  8. 40 CFR 412.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.32 Section 412.32 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection...

  10. 40 CFR 437.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.10(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.12 Section 437.12 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection...

  12. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.12 Section 445.12 Protection...

  13. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 445.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.22 Section 445.22 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 444.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 444.14 Section 444.14 Protection...

  17. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection...

  18. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  20. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  1. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (solid waste pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses pollution by solid wastes including garbage, scrap, junked automobiles, spoil, sludge, containers; Disposal methods such as composts or land application, injection wells, incineration, sanitary landfills; Mining wastes; Processing for separation and materials recovery; Solid waste utilization; Recycling; Biological and ecological effects; Superfund (Records of Decision, etc.); SITE technology; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use. The discussion includes disposal of concentrated or pure liquids such as brines, oils, chemicals, and hazardous materials.

  2. MULTI-POLLUTANT WET SCRUBBER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of fine PM standards, EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule, and Clean Air Mercury Rule are leading to a focus on future reductions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury emissions from power plants. Wet scrubber-based technologies are capable of pro...

  3. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao

    2011-12-01

    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention. PMID:22468505

  4. Pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of CO, HC, and smoke emissions while maintaining acceptable NO(x) emissions without affecting fuel consumption, durability, maintainability, and safety was accomplished. Component combustor concept screening directed toward the demonstration of advanced combustor technology required to meet the EPA exhaust emissions standards for class P2 turboprop engines was covered. The combustion system for the Allison 501-D22A engine was used, and three combustor design concepts - reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel were evaluated.

  5. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  6. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  7. Steps Towards Controlling the "Export" of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Results of a five year study to measure the movement of sulfur pollutants across Europe found these pollutants move hundreds or thousands of kilometers before being deposited in large quantities in countries far from where they originate. The need for cooperation among countries to control sulfur pollutants is stressed. (Author/MA)

  8. Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S; Taylor, Margaret R; Hounshell, David A

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. We use patent data to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus "forcing" innovation. We also demonstrate that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to approximately 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale. PMID:16408687

  9. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

  10. Enzymatic technologies for remediation of hydrophobic organic pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Eibes, G; Arca-Ramos, A; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide there are numerous contaminated sites as a result of the widespread production and use of chemicals in industrial and military activities as well as poor schemes of waste disposal and accidental spillages. The implementation of strategies for decontamination and restoration of polluted sites has become a priority, being bioremediation with biological agents a promising alternative. Enzyme-based technologies offer several advantages over the use of microbial cells, provided that the biocatalyst meets specific requirements: efficiency to remove the target pollutant/s, non-dependency on expensive coenzymes or cofactors, enzyme stability, and an affordable production system. In this mini-review, the direct application of enzymes for in situ soil bioremediation is explored, and also novel ex situ enzymatic technologies are presented. This new perspective provides a valuable insight into the different enzymatic alternatives for decontamination of soils. Examples of recent applications are reported, including pilot-scale treatments and patented technologies, and the principles of operation and the main requirements associated are described. Furthermore, the main challenges regarding the applicability of enzymatic technologies for remediation of hydrophobic organic pollutants from soil are discussed. PMID:26293336

  11. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: ADD-ON NOX CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is EPA's cooperating partner for the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Program, one of a dozen ETV pilot programs. Verification of ...

  13. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  14. 40 CFR 434.74 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 and 434.72(b)(2), a pre-existing... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.74 Section 434.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  15. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  16. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  17. Thermal control system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  18. Contemporary and futuristic views of pollution control devices in foundries.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R

    2015-10-01

    Foundry practices are used in contemporary world to produce large volume of components and products. Foundry practices involve the melting of metals and pouring the molten metal into the cavities called molds. On solidification, the metals which assume the shape of molds are removed as castings. Foundries that employ these practices were growing in large number till the middle part of the twentieth century in the world. After the middle part of the twentieth century, the world community begun to realize that, foundries were emitting pollutants which were affecting the health of humans. In order to overcome this situation, several countries in the world promulgated laws stipulating the maximum level of pollutants that can emit by foundries. These laws affected the functioning and growth of foundries. In order to sustain amidst these constraints, foundries begun to install energy efficient melting technologies and pollution control devices (PCDs). In this back ground, this paper reports to assess the contemporary scenario and project the future needs for sustaining the foundries. During the conduct of this literature review, it was discernable that, research papers have reported three categories of researches. In the first category of research papers, the researches reporting the achievement of cleaner production technologies in foundries using PCDs have appeared. In the second category of research papers, the application of cleaner production technology in foundries located in different countries has been examined. In the third category of research papers, the application of efficient melting technologies and PCDs in different clusters of foundries located in different parts of world has been explored. Subsequently implementation technics of Environmental Management System in cleaner production technics in foundries has been described the analysis of the information and knowledge drawn from these three categories of papers has revealed that, researches exploring the

  19. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  20. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL - STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. Current approaches involve control of overflows, treatment, and combinations of the two. Control may involve maximizing treatment wi...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. PART I. AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, directed towards the process and design engineer, describes types, quantities, and sources of emissions, presents the latest control device alternatives, and estimates costs for implementing the air pollution control systems. Emphasis is placed on explanation of...

  2. POLLUTION CONTROL GUIDANCE FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pol...

  3. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  4. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Jerry

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  5. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  6. Control Center Technology Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Conference papers and presentations are compiled and cover evolving architectures and technologies applicable to flight control centers. Advances by NASA Centers and the aerospace industry are presented.

  7. LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) conducts research at the basic level as well as bench- and pilot-scale to exploreinnovative solutions to current and future land pollution problems. LRPCD programs include field evaluation and demonstration of innovativ...

  8. Insensitive control technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    THe investigation of two insensitive controller synthesis techniques was reported. The finite dimensional inverse approach produces a time varying insensitive controller and/or parameter identifier by constructing inverse functions derived from a finite number of input output pair relationships. The MD/IM concept relies on the information matrix theory that was developed in the estimation and identification field. The MD/IM synthesis technique is based on the hypothesis that minimizing the information matrix will reduce system identifiability and consequently system sensitivity to uncertain parameters. The controllers designed with both techniques were evaluated on a realistic C-5A aircraft flight control problem. Results indicate that the FDI controller is more suited to trajectory type problems because of its time varying nature. The MD/IM controller performed as well as the top-rated controllers of the initial effort and has direct application to aircraft flight control problems.

  9. Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1968-01-01

    Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  11. DESIGN MANUAL: SWIRL AND HELICAL BEND POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This design manual contains descriptions of design procedures and operating experience to date, including results obtained, for secondary flow pollution control devices. Two types of combined sewer overflow regulators are described: the swirl and the helical bend regulator/separa...

  12. Financing under the California Pollution Control Financing Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Seegmiller, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The California Pollution Control Financing Authority (CPCFA) provides California industry with a method of financing facilities needed to control and eliminate pollution hazards to the environment. The program enables private companies to utilize funds received from the sale of CPCFA bonds for the acquisition, construction, or installation of pollution control facilities and, when possible, to meet environmental requirements imposed by public agencies. Subsequent changes in federal and state law authorized CPCFA to finance municipal and biomass resource recovery projects. Most bonds sold by the CPCFA pay interest to investors that is exempt from both federal and state income taxes. The insurance of these tax-exempt bonds has resulted in significant reductions in pollution control project financing costs for companies which otherwise would have to secure private taxable financing for their projects.

  13. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  14. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  15. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  16. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY RCRA Subtitle C Hazardous Waste Landfill § 445.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  18. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  19. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  20. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power, or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free-living population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. We found that information from CalFit could substantially alter exposure estimates. For instance, on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people's time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of enhancing epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

  1. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  2. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 50-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  3. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  4. Control Structures Interaction (CSI) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    Control Structures Interaction (CSI) technology for control of space structures is being developed cooperatively by JPL, LaRC and MSFC for NASA OAST/RM. The mid-'90s goal of JPL's CSI program is to demonstrate with analysis, ground and flight tests, the super quiet structures needed for large diffraction-limited instruments such as optical stellar interferometers and large advanced successors to the Hubble Space Telescope. Microprecision CSI technology is intended as a new "building block" for use by the designers of large optical systems. The thrust of the microprecision CSI technology effort is to achieve nanometer-levels of space structure stability/accuracy with designs which employ otherwise conventional spacecraft technologies. JPL design experiences have indicated the following CSI technology development areas are especially applicable to large optical system projects: (1) Active structural members; (2) Control/structures design methods; (3) Microdynamic effects characterization; and (4) Ground and flight test validation of CSI methods.

  5. Chlorofluorocarbons: Pollution control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pollution control methods. References discuss the technologies used to destroy CFCs as well as conservation techniques to reduce the emission of ozone-depleting chemicals. The phase-out of CFCs, and environmentally safe alternatives are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  7. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  8. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  9. AFWAL space control technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, V. O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of space oriented control technology programs which are applicable to flexible large space structures is presented. The spacecraft control activity is interdisciplinary with activities in structures, structural dynamics and control brought together. The large flexible structures to be controlled have many physical factors that influence the final controllability of the vehicle. Factors are studied such as rigidity of both structural elements and joints, damping inherent in both material as well as discrete dampers located throughout the structure, and the bandwidth of both sensors and actuators used to sense motion and control it. Descriptions of programs both in-house and contracted are given.

  10. The research and development of an air pollutant monitoring system based on DOAS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Han-peng; Zheng, Ming; Meng, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This article illuminates a kind of sensor used in measuring the concentrations of the main pollutants in flue gas streams (Dust, SO2 and NOx) based on the UV-DOAS technology in air pollutant monitoring. Using the high-level embedded microprocessors and complex programmable logic device, the sensor completes system measurement, management and signal communication, and spectrum inversion and data saving are processed by PC at the same time. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technology is used in the flue gas pollutant factor analysis through the sensor construction. The absorption spectra of SO2, NOx and smoke dust are inverted to reduce the interference of other factors in flue gas streams. At the same time, the effect of light source fluctuation and optical transmission ratio is considered and removed in the measurement system. The result shows that the monitoring accuracy of concentration of sulfur dioxide and smoke dust achieves +/-2%, the concentration of nitrogen oxides accuracy achieves +/-3%, which meets the requirements of the national standard. The sensor can be directly installed in a flue. As a result, process of measuring is simplified and measurement accuracy is improved. Further more, this method increases the stability of the system and reduces the maintenance costs. Measurement data is transferred through data bus between the sensor and upper PC to realize remote control and real-time measurement. Considering the severe conditions in measuring the main pollutants in flue gas streams, applications of anti-interference and anti-corrosion etc. are taken in the system design.

  11. POLLUTION CONTROL FOR UTILITY POWER GENERATION, 1990-2020

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses pollution control for utility power generation between the years 1990 and 2020, when the major anticipated environmental challenges facing the utility industry will be acid deposition control in the near term and global warming mitigation in the longer term. T...

  12. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution. PMID:26722715

  13. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...

  14. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop manufactured by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 501-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  15. Pollution Reduction Technology Program, Turboprop Engines, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. D.; Herman, A. S.; Tomlinson, J. G.; Vaught, J. M.; Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust pollutant emissions were measured from a 501-D22A turboprop engine combustor and three low emission combustor types -- reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel, operating over a fuel-air ratio range of .0096 to .020. The EPAP LTO cycle data were obtained for a total of nineteen configurations. Hydrocarbon emissions were reduced from 15.0 to .3 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle, CO from 31.5 to 4.6 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle with an increase in NOx of 17 percent, which is still 25% below the program goal. The smoke number was reduced from 59 to 17. Emissions given here are for the reverse flow Mod. IV combustor which is the best candidate for further development into eventual use with the 501-D22A turboprop engine. Even lower emissions were obtained with the advanced technology combustors.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS: INTERIM TECHNICAL REPORT FOR SERDP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incentives for implementing new pollution-control technologies for oxides of nitrogen (NO) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are both regulatory and economic. Of immediate concern, given considerable regulatory pressure, e.g., the p...

  17. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  19. Controlling Light Pollution in the Third World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J.

    2001-12-01

    Third world countries and those on the way toward development share the same problems as those facing industrialized countries. The public must be made aware of the unnecessary waste of energy, the exclusion of the beauty of the night sky, the interference with the natural day and night cycles of flora and fauna, and in the neighborhood of astronomical observatories the interference with some of the most exciting research activities of modern science. Authorities, in particular municipalities, have to replace the fixtures of public lighting by shielded fixtures, which do not emit light upwards. This results in substantial savings in money and energy. Third world countries face additional problems. These include; 1. The network of electrical energy in areas which never had that service before. Cerro Tololo in Chile and Llano del Hato in Venezuela are good examples. During the site surveys which led to the establishment of these observatories no lights were seen anywhere nearby. 2. The rapid and uncontrolled growth of the population leads to a rapidly expanding suburban development with its demand of new public lighting. This is enhanced by the fact that most of the young people of the rural population move to the cities. 3. In many cases outdoor light fixtures are imported and hence costly. In addition manufacturers prefer to unload their stock of obsolete fixtures in the third world. 4. Education has to start out at a lower level than is the case in industrialized countries. 5. Often one finds a certain resistance to rules imposed by the developed world which until not too long ago they did not have anyway. 6. Air pollution of the northern hemisphere, produced by industrialized countries, frequently spills over into the tropics, and thus enhances the backscatter from the sky.

  20. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  1. Anaesthetic pollution. Potential sources, their identification and control.

    PubMed

    Barker, J P; Abdelatti, M O

    1997-11-01

    Anaesthetic gases escape into the ambient air mainly from the anaesthetic breathing system but there are many other important sources of anaesthetic pollution. These include the filling of vaporisers, inhalational induction techniques, leaks around the patient's face mask, leaks from monitoring equipment and loose-fitting or perishing equipment. The control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) regulations together with the recent implementation of the occupational exposure standards (OES) for anaesthetic gases require that any risk to health workers from anaesthetic exposure be assessed, control measures implemented, the environment monitored and OES not exceeded. The installation of costly scavenging equipment is believed to have reduced the levels of pollution in operating theatres, but several independent reports suggest that their use has not been wholly effective. Many sources of pollution remote from scavenging equipment may be responsible for the ineffective control of anaesthetic pollution. During an initial COSHH assessment in our hospital, using an infra-red analyser specifically designed for leak testing and background monitoring, we have identified several controllable sources of pollution. These included leaks from an ill-fitting face mask, loose connections in the anaesthetic breathing system, leaks from the laryngeal mask at the end of the operation and a leak of more than 5400 ppm N2O was found near the unscavenged gas outlet at the back of the multigas monitor. Leak testing, using infra-red analysers with their rapid response, has been recommended as an important aid in the identification of hidden sources of pollution, most of which we believe are amenable to control and remedy. PMID:9404171

  2. Pollution Control's Man in the Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Directs attention to the rise of environmental coordinator positions in industry. Administrative personnel and their responsibilities in two large firms are enumerated--A. J. von Frank, Director of Environmental Control for Allied Chemical Corporation and Jerome Wilkenfeld, Director of Environmental Health for Hooker Chemical Company. (BL)

  3. 40 CFR 432.57 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT...

  4. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT...

  5. 40 CFR 438.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided at 40 CFR 125... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  6. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  7. Pollution technology program, can-annular combustor engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1976-01-01

    A Pollution Reduction Technology Program to develop and demonstrate the combustor technology necessary to reduce exhaust emissions for aircraft engines using can-annular combustors is described. The program consisted of design, fabrication, experimental rig testing and assessment of results and was conducted in three program elements. The combustor configurations of each program element represented increasing potential for meeting the 1979 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards, while also representing increasing complexity and difficulty of development and adaptation to an operational engine. Experimental test rig results indicate that significant reductions were made to the emission levels of the baseline JT8D-17 combustor by concepts in all three program elements. One of the Element I single-stage combustors reduced carbon monoxide to a level near, and total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) and smoke to levels below the 1979 EPA standards with little or no improvement in oxides of nitrogen. The Element II two-stage advanced Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) concept met the standard for THC and achieved significant reductions in CO and NOx relative to the baseline. Although the Element III prevaporized-premixed concept reduced high power NOx below the Element II results, there was no improvement to the integrated EPA parameter relative to the Vorbix combustor.

  8. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  9. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  10. Attitude control and stabilization technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on attitude control and stabilization technology discipline for the Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: attitude control technologies for multi-user accommodation; flexible dynamics and control; computational control techniques; and automatic proximity operations.

  11. The fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant, originates from the coal that is burned, and leaves through the output streams that include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent fmdings on the fa...

  12. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  13. CHOOSING THE OPTIMUM FINANCIAL STRATEGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL INVESTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication was designed to alert industry to qualifications for and availability of financial assistance from federal, state and local governments, and will illustrate that it is well worth the time to analyze the special methods of financing pollution control expenditures ...

  14. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  15. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  16. Pollution Control Companies U.S.A., 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    This book is intended to serve as a useful guide and directory to the present industries embracing the field of environmental control, with emphasis on the prevention and abatement of pollution in its broadest aspects. The volume is divided into two sections: the first section is an alphabetical listing of approximately 1,500 companies or company…

  17. APPCD - INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS)COST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language which is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It was developed over the past several years...

  18. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  19. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  20. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  1. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  2. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  3. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops. PMID:16187411

  4. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-noise pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the noise pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  5. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-air pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  6. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  7. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  8. Pollution by metals: Is there a relationship in glycemic control?

    PubMed

    González-Villalva, Adriana; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; García-Pelaez, Isabel; Ustarroz-Cano, Martha; López-Valdez, Nelly; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-09-01

    There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms. Zinc, magnesium and chromium deficiency is associated with increased risk of diabetes. This review summarizes some metals involved in glycemic control and pretends to alert health professionals about considering environmental metals as an important factor that could explain the poor glycemic control in patients. Further studies are needed to understand this poorly assessed problem. PMID:27552445

  9. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  10. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOEpatents

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  11. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  12. The use of gas separation membranes for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, B.W.; Stull, D.; Pellegrino, J.

    1993-04-01

    Rocky Flats is considering the use of a fluidized bed oxidation unit (FBU) for the destruction of mixed waste. Public concerns about the health effects of such destruction have been intense. In order to allay such concerns and minimize the possible health impacts of the proposed mixed waste destruction, RFP has been investigating novel methods of air pollution control. Among the most promising of these techniques is the use of gas separation membranes, which is described in this report.

  13. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR EXXON DONOR SOLVENT DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other Pollution Control Technical Manuals (PC...

  14. 40 CFR 432.117 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.117 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.27 Section 432.27...

  16. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.37 Section 432.37...

  17. 40 CFR 438.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided at 40 CFR 125... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 438.13 Section 438.13...

  18. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.87 Section 432.87...

  19. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.17 Section 432.17...

  20. 40 CFR 432.57 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.57 Section 432.57...

  1. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.47 Section 432.47...

  2. 40 CFR 432.127 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.127 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.107 Section...

  4. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, J

    2015-03-01

    All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made. PMID:25022549

  5. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  6. Space Station displays and controls technology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  7. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  8. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  9. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  10. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  11. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  12. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  13. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  14. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  15. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  18. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  19. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  20. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  1. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  2. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  3. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  5. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  6. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  8. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  10. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  11. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  12. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  13. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  14. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  15. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  16. Integrated flue gas treatment condensing heat exchanger for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Warchol, J.J.; Schulze, K.H.; Carrigan, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Condensing heat exchangers recover both sensible and latent heat from flue gases. Using Teflon{reg_sign} to cover the heat exchanger tubes and inside surfaces that are exposed to the flue gas ensures adequate material lifetime in the corrosive environment encountered when the flue gas temperature drops below the acid dew point. A recent design improvement, called the integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) concept, offers the ability to remove pollutants from the flue gas, as well as recover waste heat. It has been shown to remove SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, particulates, and trace emissions. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is undertaking an extensive program to optimize this technology for a variety of flue gas applications. This paper summarizes the current status of IFGT technology and the development activities that are in progress.

  17. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPENDICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is one of six technical handbooks prepared by EPA to help government officials granting permits to build synfuels facilities, synfuels process developers, and other interested parties. They provide technical data on waste streams from synfuels facilities and technolo...

  18. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments. Planteamientos alternos para el control de la contaminacion y el manejo de desechos: instrumentos regulatorios y economicos

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines ways in which developed and developing countries control pollution and manage urban wastes. It addresses pollution issues of concern to local, provincial, and national governments, as well as nongovernmental organizations. Two approaches to pollution management are discussed: direct regulation and economic incentives. Direct regulation sets standards and enforces them through permits, licenses, and controls on land or water use. Economic incentives encourage polluters to adopt control measures and are more flexible and cost effective. Such incentives include charging fees to enterprises for pollution discharges or providing government subsidies for pollution control technology. The author tells how economic incentives can supplement direct regulation and why such incentives, when properly used, offer advantages over direct regulation. The author discusses how governments have used economic incentives to deal with specific environmental issues and what factors policymakers must address when they plan pollution controls.

  19. Ex-Situ Remediation Technologies for Environmental Pollutants: A Critical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pollution and the global health impacts from toxic environmental pollutants are presently of great concern. At present, more than 100 million people are at risk from exposure to a plethora of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants. This review is an exploration of the ex-situ technologies for cleaning-up the contaminated soil, groundwater and air emissions, highlighting their principles, advantages, deficiencies and the knowledge gaps. Challenges and strategies for removing different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and priority organic pollutants, are also described. PMID:26423074

  20. Advanced control technology for LSST antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    The control technology for the realization of large space system technology (LSST) antenna systems was identified and developed. Emphasis was directed at the control of LSST wrap-rib offset-feed antenna. The overall dynamic and control performance of offset-feed antenna was evaluated. Quantitative definitions of control problems were provided and control concepts for future development were identified.

  1. A new integrated evaluation method of heavy metals pollution control during melting and sintering of MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Yang, Tianhua; Wang, Lei; Wang, Weiyun

    2015-05-30

    Evaluations of technologies for heavy metal control mainly examine the residual and leaching rates of a single heavy metal, such that developed evaluation method have no coordination or uniqueness and are therefore unsuitable for hazard control effect evaluation. An overall pollution toxicity index (OPTI) was established in this paper, based on the developed index, an integrated evaluation method of heavy metal pollution control was established. Application of this method in the melting and sintering of fly ash revealed the following results: The integrated control efficiency of the melting process was higher in all instances than that of the sintering process. The lowest integrated control efficiency of melting was 56.2%, and the highest integrated control efficiency of sintering was 46.6%. Using the same technology, higher integrated control efficiency conditions were all achieved with lower temperatures and shorter times. This study demonstrated the unification and consistency of this method. PMID:25725342

  2. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  3. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced. PMID:19159968

  4. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  5. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vehlow, J.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  6. Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss

    2009-07-15

    Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Cofala, J.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Like other Central European countries, Poland faces the twin challenges of improving environmental quality while also promoting economic development. The study examines the cost of achieving alternative emission standards and the savings in abatement cost that might be achieved with policies that rely on economic incentives rather than with rigid command and control measures. A central element of the analysis is a dynamic model of least-cost energy supply in Poland that allows examination at a national level of the effects of different pollution standards and policies.

  8. Technical Assistance Project for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request for technical assistance from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in its response to this request through the Technical Assistance Project. Discussion with the MPCA identified the following as the highest-priority questions: What is the effect of (1) size of Renewable Energy Reserve (RER) and (2) duration of allocation award on (a) NOx emissions in Minnesota and (b) retail electricity prices? What data is available on the response of wind energy development to financial incentives? This report addresses those questions.

  9. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., sedimentation, and pollution. 436.574 Section 436.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  10. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., sedimentation, and pollution. 436.574 Section 436.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  11. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., sedimentation, and pollution. 436.574 Section 436.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  12. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., sedimentation, and pollution. 436.574 Section 436.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  13. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  14. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

  16. Controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention. Report for January 1994--May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; Whitaker, D.; Brockmann, C.; Bayer, C.; Sojka, P.

    1998-12-31

    The paper is an overview of EPA research into controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention (P2). The research focused on four approaches for P2: (1) developing methods and tools that can be used by others to evaluate emissions from equipment or products; (2) developing generic P2 solutions to IAQ problems; (3) identifying high-emitting raw materials or components of products; and (4) evaluating claimed low-emitting materials. Test method guidelines for measuring emissions from office equipment were developed and then evaluated by testing four dry-process copiers in one chamber and conducting a four-laboratory evaluation using one of the copiers. For aerosol consumer products, measurement methods and models were developed that can be used to better understand aerosol behavior so that more efficacious and less toxic products can be developed. As a generic solution for improved IAQ through P2, an innovative spray nozzle for use with precharged aerosol containers was developed and evaluated. The new design allows for the reformulation of selected aerosol consumer products using water and air in place of volatile organic compound solvents and hydrocarbon propellants, respectively.

  17. Controlled Structures Technology Steering Committee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on controlled structures technology presented at the steering committee workshop on 22-23 Jan. 1992 are included. Topics addressed include: interferometer testbed; middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment; middeck active control experiment; multivariable identification for control; strain actuated aeroelastic control; sensor/actuator technology development; input command shaping; and other research projects. A description of the organization and committee are included.

  18. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  19. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.12 Section 445.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  20. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  1. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  2. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  3. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED...

  4. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED...

  5. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  6. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE...

  8. 40 CFR 445.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.22 Section 445.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  9. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  10. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  11. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  12. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  13. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  15. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  16. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE...

  17. 40 CFR 444.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 444.14 Section 444.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  19. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  20. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

  1. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  2. Pollution-control equipment (Chile). Air-pollution-control equipment, September 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Chile relies upon imports to satisfy its needs for equipment for environmental control. Despite the lack of specific statistics that could provide precise information, environmental specialists evaluate the U.S. position as quite promising in terms of sales prospects. As far as current market share in domestic market it is estimated that U.S. products have 40% of the Chilean market. U.S. imports should grow at least 30%, at the same growth rate of the total market.

  3. Applications of aerospace technology in the public interest: Pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.; Johnson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study of selected NASA contributions to the improvement of pollution measurement examines the pervasiveness and complexity of the economic, political, and social issues in the environmental field; provides a perspective on the relationship between the conduct of aerospace R and D and specific improvements in on site air pollution monitoring equipment now in use; describes the basic relationship between the development of satellite-based monitoring systems and their influence on long-term progress in improving environmental quality; and comments on how both instrumentation and satellite remote sensing are contributing to an improved environment. Examples of specific gains that have been made in applying aerospace R and D to environmental problem-solving are included.

  4. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  5. Motorcycle pollution control in Taiwan, Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Hsiao, H.C.; Walsh, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The Taiwan EPA has developed a comprehensive approach to motor vehicle pollution control. Building on its early adoption of US `83 standards for light duty vehicles (starting July 1, 1990) it recently moved to US `87 requirements, which include the 0.2 gram per mile particulate standard, as of July 1, 1995. Heavy duty diesel particulate standards almost as stringent as US `90, 6.0 grams per brake horsepower hour NO{sub x} and 0.7 particulate, using the US transient test procedure, went into effect on July 1, 1993. It is intended that US`94 standards, 5.0 NO{sub x} and 0.25 particulate, will be adopted soon. Clearly the most distinctive feature of the Taiwan program, however, is its motorcycle control effort, reflecting the fact that motorcycles dominate the vehicle fleet and are a substantial source of emissions. This paper will summarize Taiwan`s extensive efforts to address this problem.

  6. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  7. Applicability of modelling tools in watershed management for controlling diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Erturk, A; Gurel, M; Baloch, M A; Dikerler, T; Ekdal, A; Tanik, A; Seker, D Z

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is hard to analyze, control and manage by its nature. Watershed models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are recently developed tools that aid analysis of diffuse sources of pollution. However, their applications are not always easy and straightforward. Turkey is a typical example of a mountainous country rich in rivers and streams. Due to the complex geomorphology, land-use and agricultural practices in most of the watersheds in Turkey, modelling, analyzing and managing diffuse pollution has been a challenge. The complex watershed structure forces the modellers to work with spatially high resolution data. Apart from the data, the models themselves may also cause operational problems. These issues and their probable solutions form the basis of the discussions in this paper. It acts as a guideline for modelling and analyzing diffuse pollution by emphasizing the referred problems and difficulties. Design of an Information Technology-based system tool for watershed and/or water quality modelling, which would be suitable for countries having watersheds with similar structure and problems to those of Turkey, is also outlined. PMID:17711010

  8. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  9. Regaining Control Over Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Living in postindustrial, 21st-century society means being surrounded by the accoutrements of information technology. Information technology is in people's offices, cars and homes. One third of adults do not deal well with information technology, according to the research of Larry Rosen, psychology professor, author, and pundit. Rosen is the Paul…

  10. Status and trends in active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The emergence of highly reliable fly-by-wire flight control systems makes it possible to consider a strong reliance on automatic control systems in the design optimization of future aircraft. This design philosophy has been referred to as the control configured vehicle approach or the application of active control technology. Several studies and flight tests sponsored by the Air Force and NASA have demonstrated the potential benefits of control configured vehicles and active control technology. The present status and trends of active control technology are reviewed and the impact it will have on aircraft designs, design techniques, and the designer is predicted.

  11. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  12. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

  13. Neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.

    1998-07-01

    This paper documents efforts by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to pilot test the use of neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool for reducing stack emissions from a natural gas-fired power generating facility. The project was funded in part by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VI. combustion control is quickly becoming an emerging alternative for reducing utility plant emissions without installing costly end of pipe controls. The LCRA estimates that the technology has the potential to improve the thermal efficiency of a large utility boiler by more than 1 percent. preliminary calculations indicate that a 1% improvement in thermal efficiency at the 430 MW gas-fired utility boiler could results in an estimated energy savings of 142, 140 mmBtus and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions of 8,774 tons per year. This paper describes the process that were undertaken to identify and implement the pilot project at LCRA's Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant, located in Marble Falls, Texas, Activities performed and documented include lessons learned, equipment selection, data acquisition, model evaluation and projected emission reductions.

  14. Active control technology and the use of multiple control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Needed criteria for active control technology applications in commercial transports are lacking. Criteria for redundancy requirements, believed to be consistent with certification philosophy, are postulated to afford a discussion of the relative value of multiple control surfaces. The control power and frequency bandpass requirements of various active control technology applications are shown to be such that multiple control surfaces offer advantages in minimizing the hydraulic or auxiliary power for the control surface actuators.

  15. Photovoltaic energy systems: environmental concerns and control technology needs

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Perry, P.; Wilenitz, I.

    1982-11-01

    Technical and commercial readiness for alternate photovoltaic energy systems, and waste streams from three different photovoltaic systems are examined. This analysis suggests that some uncontrolled waste streams could be declared toxic or hazardous under various provisions of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Resource and Conservation Recovery Acts. Although some processes could emit large quantities of pollutants, these can be controlled using available technology. Other processes may emit small quantities of more toxic pollutants which will probably not be directly controlled unless significant health hazards are identified. Environmental problems in installation and operation are probably associated with large central-station applications; no significant effects are expected from small decentralized applications. Decommissioning of broken or degraded photovoltaic systems will generate large quantities of solid waste which can be simply disposed of in a landfill or perhaps recycled.

  16. Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pittman, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

  17. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  19. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  20. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  1. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  2. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  3. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  4. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  5. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  6. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  7. Pollution control by spray dryer and electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.R.

    1983-02-08

    A combination spray drying and electron beam treatment for effluent gases provides air pollution control for even high sulfur coals. Liquid and a reagent are injected into the effluent gas in the spray dryer, thereby cleansing the effluent gas, decreasing its temperature, and increasing its moisture content. The spray drying decreases the temperature at least to below 100/sup 0/ C and, most preferably, to between 60 and 70/sup 0/ C. The decreased temperature, increased moisture content effluent gas including both reacted compounds and unreacted reagent is conveyed into an irradiation chamber, whereat radiation causes the gaseous sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides to convert into mist and/or solid particles. The unreacted reagent may then react with the acid mist. The effluent gases are then subjected to dry particular collection.

  8. Analysis of control methods: mercury and cadmium pollution.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, A

    1975-01-01

    Physical system conceptual models are developed to illustrate the various interconnecting pathways of metal flow. Economic use of mercury and cadmium, as representative toxic heavy metals, is inventoried, and the losses of each from the pathways of economic use are compared. Distinctions are made between high volume consumers and industries that are responsible for a large percent of total emissions or effluent loads. The pathways of the metals in the environment are traced via the conceptual models. A global mass balance is presented for mercury. The problem of high local concentrations vs. global metal flow is reviewed. Impacts of the metals on human health are categorized by type of effect. Available control strategies and abatement measures are evaluated with respect to the effectiveness of each on the problems of metal pollution, as illustrated by the physical models. PMID:1227855

  9. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  10. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  11. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  12. Oceanic biogeochemical controls on global dynamics of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Dachs, Jordi; Lohmann, Rainer; Ockenden, Wendy A; Méjanelle, Laurence; Eisenreich, Steven J; Jones, Kevin C

    2002-10-15

    Understanding and quantifying the global dynamics and sinks of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important to assess their environmental impact and fate. Air-surface exchange processes, where temperature plays a central role in controlling volatilization and deposition, are of key importance in controlling global POP dynamics. The present study is an assessment of the role of oceanic biogeochemical processes, notably phytoplankton uptake and vertical fluxes of particles, on the global dynamics of POPs. Field measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and furans (PCDFs) are combined with remote sensing estimations of oceanic temperature, wind speed, and chlorophyll, to model the interactions between air-water exchange, phytoplankton uptake, and export of organic matter and POPs out of the mixed surface ocean layer. Deposition is enhanced in the mid-high latitudes and is driven by sinking marine particulate matter, rather than by a cold condensation effect. However, the relative contribution of the biological pump is a function of the physical-chemical properties of POPs. It is concluded that oceanic biogeochemical processes play a critical role in controlling the global dynamics and the ultimate sink of POPs. PMID:12387392

  13. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  14. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  15. Controls on metal leaching from secondary Pb smelter air-pollution-control residues.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtech; Sebek, Ondrej; Grygar, Tomás; Klementová, Mariana; Bezdicka, Petr; Slavíková, Halka

    2008-11-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues are among the most toxic waste materials from secondary Pb metallurgy. Two distinct APC residues collected from bag-type filters of one Czech secondary Pb smelter were subjected to leaching experiments to determine the mineralogical and geochemical controls on leaching of metallic contaminants (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn). A kinetic 720-h leaching test in deionized water at a liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio of 10 L kg(-1) and a 48-h leaching test at various L/S ratios (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 L kg(-1)) were performed and coupled with the mineralogical investigation of solid residues (TEM/EDS, XRD) and PHREEQC-2 speciation-solubility modeling. The rapid release of contaminants into the solution at all the L/S ratios showed the rapid dissolution of primary phases. The leaching at high L/S ratios, representing long-term predictions of leaching behavior, showed that primary alkaline sulfates and chlorides (Na3Pb2(S04)3Cl and KCl.2PbCl2) were dissolved and anglesite (PbSO4) was formed as their final and stable alteration product. Primary amorphous PbSO3 partly crystallized during leaching and oxidized to anglesite. These results are consistent with the mineralogical investigation of soils exposed for decades to Pb smelter emissions, where only anglesite was detected. The leaching experiments showed thatwashing residues at L/S >50 accompanied by spontaneous anglesite precipitation can be an alternative for improved technological treatment of these residues. Although this process would require further treatment of contaminated effluent, the newly precipitated anglesite is more favorable than the primary APC residue phases for an efficient metallurgical recovery of Pb. PMID:19031875

  16. Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

    2009-02-28

    In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  18. 40 CFR 123.28 - Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of disposal of pollutants into... PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.28 Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. State law must provide authority to issue permits to control the disposal of...

  19. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  20. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  1. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  2. SUMMARY REPORT: CONTROL AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY: ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technology Transfer ummary Report is one of a series of reports that summarizes a pollution control technology for the metal finishing industry. he 45-page report is intended to promote an understanding of the use of ion exchange in the metal finishing industry. The sections...

  3. Waste minimization versus air pollution controls for a leather finishing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Galligan, J.P.; Korn, D.L.; Serfass, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    This article presents a case study of a leather finishing company faced with meeting the requirements of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under the Federal Clean Air Act. A Comprehensive Plan Approval Permit Application, including a BACT demonstration addressing each of the facility`s VOC emitting leather coating lines was performed and submitted to the State environmental regulatory agency. The BACT demonstration was a top-down analysis of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of available, technically feasible air pollution control alternatives. It concluded that a waste minimization plan consisting of coating reformation and process equipment modification represented BACT for the facility on the basis that it was the second most stringent alternative in terms of total VOC control, required the least energy use, generated no liquid VOC waste, and was the most cost effective alternative identified.

  4. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of current technology in terms of stage of maturity, of sensing, support systems, and information extraction was assessed relative to oil spills, waste pollution, and inputs to pollution trajectory models. Needs for advanced techniques are defined and the characteristics of a future satellite system are determined based on the requirements of U.S. agencies involved in pollution monitoring.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  10. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  11. Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling for both coarse and fine fractions was conducted in a semi-residential site (AECD) in Dhaka from February 2005 to December 2006. The samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental compositions. The resulting data set were analyzed for sources by Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA-PMF). From previous studies, it is found that, the air quality became worse in the dry winter period compared to the rainy season because of higher particulate matter concentration in the ambient air. Therefore, seasonal source contributions were determined from seasonally segregated data using EPA-PMF modeling so that further policy interventions can be undertaken to improve air quality. From the source apportionment results, it is observed that vehicular emissions and emission from brick kiln are the major contributors to air pollution in Dhaka especially in the dry seasons, while contribution from emissions from metal smelters increases during rainy seasons. The Government of Bangladesh is considering different interventions to reduce the emissions from those sources by adopting conversion of diesel/petrol vehicles to CNG, increasing traffic speed in the city and by introducing green technologies for brick production. However, in order to reduce the transboundary effect it is necessary to take action regionally.

  12. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  13. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  14. Advanced information technologies for assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone: Conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Loague, K.; Ellsworth, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    The information age has ushered in an awareness of and concern for global environmental problems such as climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources. Nonpoint source pollutants also pose a threat to sustainable agriculture, which is viewed as the most viable means of meeting the food demands of a world population that is expected to reach 9.4 billion by the middle of the next century. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales would provide a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities. Assessing NPS pollutant is a multidisciplinary problem. To address the problem, advanced information technologies and methodologies are needed that draw from all areas of science and are applied in a spatial context. It was from this setting that the 1997 Joint AGU Chapman/SSSA Outreach Conference Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling for Assessing Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone (19--24 Oct. 1997, Riverside, CA) materialized. The objective of the conference was to examine current multidisciplinary technologies and methodologies for assessing NPS pollutants in the vadose zone, and to explore new conceptual approaches. It was the conference`s goal to provide a forum to stimulate multidisciplinary interaction to enhance the development of techniques for the real-time measurement and modeling of NPS pollution in the vadose zone and subsurface waters.

  15. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE-BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane--Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec.

  16. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  17. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  18. SOURCEBOOK: NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, a compilation of available information on the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from stationary sources, is provided to assist new source permitting activities by regulatory agencies. he sources covered are combustion turbines, internal combustion engines, non...

  19. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic......

  20. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  1. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

  2. 75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion... On June 16, 2009 (74 FR 28467), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP... topcoats; and that Ventura County Air Pollution Control District's (VCAPCD) rule has more stringent...

  3. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD or... May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26102), we finalized a limited approval and limited disapproval of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (``SJVUAPCD'' or ``District'') Rules 2020 (Exemptions)...

  4. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  5. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District...

  6. 40 CFR 123.28 - Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. 123.28 Section 123.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.28 Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. State law must...

  7. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3 Section 40.140-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All applications for grants under section...

  8. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section 40.145-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person in the United States shall on...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274.926 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean...

  10. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  11. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    1996-10-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP. PMID:24193733

  12. Air pollution control and heat recovery system for industrial ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-30

    A system of air pollution control and heat recovery is provided for an arrangement of industrial ovens, especially for drum manufacture. A plurality of paint bake ovens of various capacities, lengths and heat input are provided for multi-stage processing in the manufacture of drums and lids therefor. A supply of high temperature water is provided for multi-stage cleaning and rinsing in the manufacturing operation. The combined exhaust from the oven is preheated in a heat exchanger and then all of the combustible components are burnt off by passing through the flames of an incinerator grid burner. The effluent from the burner first passes through the heat exchanger to preheat said oven exhaust gases and then through hot water coils to provide all of the necessary hot water for the system. High pressure hot water (275/sup 0/) is provided in this heat exchange operation. The hot gasses from the last heat exchanger, completely free of combustible contaminates, are mixed with fresh air to supply hot air for the dryers used in the process. There is a substantially complete recovery of heat and the gasses discharged to atmosphere meet air quality standards.

  13. Public avenues to private spaces: Democratic politics and the control of automobile pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Automobile pollution policy is an institutional concern because it represents the political problem of addressing one of the ill-effects of mass driving within urban regions. In the United States, where automobility is most pervasive, the social and cultural institutions that make driving an ineluctable feature of everyday life tend to be taken for granted. On the one hand, an idealogy of individualism appears to forestall critical discussion on these aspects within civil society; on the other, reliance on technological solutions and a prevailing culture of interest-group politics help contract the space for normative reasoning within policy discourse. Ironically, though, the more people drive, the more [open quotes]auto[close quotes]-inflicted the problems of air pollution, and the more likely it is that the contradictions of these non-participatory and technocratic forms could generate crises of policy. The predicament of automobile pollution policy then comprises a paralysis in the state's continued capacity to response to what it perceives to be a double-gesture made by its citizens; they demand clean air but are unwilling to take responsibility for achieving it, especially if it involves setting limits on automobile usage. Using both theoretical arguments and empirical and historical evidence from California, this dissertation argues that official readings of automobile pollution control are constricted because they rely on an individualist metaphor which only generates elaborate techniques of risk management in response, thus moving away from a shared public effort towards normative discourse. Yet, it its also critical of approaches that would shift the blame to individual motorists and their vehicles by implying that the problem arises from the employment of a few [open quotes]gross emitters[close quotes] that need to be selectively targeted.

  14. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  16. Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

  17. Avionics and controls research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A. (Editor); Mciver, D. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop provided a forum for industry and universities to discuss the state-of-the-art, identify the technology needs and opportunities, and describe the role of NASA in avionics and controls research.

  18. Current submarine atmosphere control technology.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, W

    1998-01-01

    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application. PMID:11876194

  19. Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langehough, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of this control has been to develop the control technology required to identify the sophistication required for the Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) control system. An angle of attack, bank angle command control technique has been developed which uses either on-off thruster or proportional thruster. An angle of attack adaptive controller was included to minimize the reactor control system (RCS) usage due to payload center of gravity uncertainties. The guidance and control techniques were verified using a detail six degrees-of-freedom simulation. Mission sensitivity was developed for uncertainties in the entry state, mass properties, atmosphere, aerodynamic, and sensor.

  20. Instrumentation and Control. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in instrumentation and controls is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  1. Progress in emission control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Partial contents of this book include: Ozone precursor emissions from alternatively fueled vehicles; Cycle resolved measurements of diesel particulate by optical techniques; A lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions; Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks; A non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents; Some problems in the improvement of measurement of transient emissions; and Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks.

  2. Thermal Control Technologies for Complex Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control is a generic need for all spacecraft. In response to ever more demanding science and exploration requirements, spacecraft are becoming ever more complex, and hence their thermal control systems must evolve. This paper briefly discusses the process of technology development, the state-of-the-art in thermal control, recent experiences with on-orbit two-phase systems, and the emerging thermal control technologies to meet these evolving needs. Some "lessons learned" based on experience with on-orbit systems are also presented.

  3. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  4. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

  6. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  7. Hot metal runner system with air pollution controls

    SciTech Connect

    La Bate, M.D.

    1982-10-26

    A runner for hot metal as from a blast furnace is formed of a series of interconnected modular units which are prefabricated, preferably from refractory based materials. A plurality of flat slab-like covers are positioned continuously on the runners formed of the interconnected modular units so as to confine fumes , gas, smoke and other air pollutants. Live steam is introduced at selected locations along the runners to collect, absorb and mix with the fumes, gases and air pollutants. Vacuum devices in communication with the covered runners remove the air, steam and pollutants and direct them through scrubbers and/or precipitron equipment to remove the air pollutants before the air entrained in the system is released to the atmosphere.

  8. Advanced control technology for LSST platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technology in the design, mechanization, and analysis of control systems for large flexible space structures was examined. The focus of the platform control effort was on pointing control. The reason for this emphasis was because of the unique problems in this area posed by multiple independent experiment packages operating simultaneously on a single platform. Attitude control and stationkeeping were also addressed for future consideration.

  9. Operation of a 1/10 scale mixed water incinerator air pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated by site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the CIF air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing commercial and DOE incinerators, on-site air pollution control experience, and recommendations from contracted consultants. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, known as the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF) was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its current mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Due to the nature of the wastes to be incinerated at the CIF, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas stream before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber.

  10. Air pollution control system testing at the DOE offgas components test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Speed, D.; VanPelt, W.; Burns, H.H.

    1997-06-01

    In 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. A key component of this technical support program includes the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a pilot-scale offgas system test bed. The primary goal for this test facility is to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the planned CIF Air Pollution Control System (APCS). To accomplish this task, the OCTF has been equipped with a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system equipment components and instrumentation. In addition, the OCTF design maximizes the flexibility of APCS operation and facility instrumentation and sampling capabilities permit accurate characterization of all process streams throughout the facility. This allows APCS equipment performance to be evaluated in an integrated system under a wide range of possible operating conditions. This paper summarizes the use of this DOE test facility to successfully demonstrate APCS operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. These types of facilities are needed to permit resolution of technical issues associated with design and operation of systems that treat and dispose combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste throughout and DOE complex.

  11. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  12. Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

  13. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Indoor air pollution: Sources and control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning indoor air pollution in residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Indoor air quality assessment, health hazard evaluation, and contaminant identification and measurement are discussed. Indoor air pollution control methods and equipment are evaluated. Air quality analyses of energy efficient buildings are presented. Indoor air pollution from radon and asbestos are discussed in other bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Drying oven with heat reclamation and air pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-23

    A system of drying ovens is disclosed with associated means for heat reclamation and air pollution control. The ovens are primarily for drying or baking paint or other coatings on pipes or the like where the emissions are primarily hydrocarbons. In this system of ovens, hydrocarbon fumes are concentrated at the ends of the oven. Solvent laden fumes are, therefore, collected where the concentration is the highest. The exhaust from the oven is located at the central portion and leads to a combustion/incineration chamber where it is exhausted to atmosphere after incineration and a major part of the heat is recovered and recirculated to the oven. In a sequence of ovens, the exhaust from one oven is circulated to the next at a high linear velocity, but low volume (At 25% lel) and heated to a high temperature (1400/sup 0/F.) by in-line incineration of the fumes. The low volume, high velocity, high temperature gasses are mixed with a high volume, low velocity, low temperature exhaust collected from the end of that oven. This incineration and mixing and recirculation of gasses is repeated in each succeeding oven and no gasses are exhausted to atmosphere until the last oven. In the last oven, in sequence, a burner is provided to incinerate fumes recirculated at one end of the oven and the exhaust goes to atmosphere through an incinerator/heat exchanger where the reclaimed heat is supplied to outside air being fed to support combustion in the incinerator at one end of the last oven.

  19. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  20. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    2003-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

  1. Noise Pollution Control System in the Hospital Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Gallo, LM; Olivera, JM

    2016-04-01

    Problems related to environmental noise are not a new subject, but they became a major issue to solve because of the increasing, in complexity and intensity, of human activities due technological advances. Numerous international studies had dealt with the exposure of critical patients to noisy environment such as the Neonatal Intensive Care Units; their results show that there are difficulties in the organization in the developing brain, it can damage the delicate auditory structures and can cause biorhythm disorders, specially in preterm infants. The objective of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a control system that includes technical-management-training aspects to regulate the levels of specific noise sources in the neonatal hospitalization environment. For this purpose, there were applied different tools like: observations, surveys, procedures, an electronic control device and a training program for a Neonatal Service Unit. As a result, all noise sources were identified -some of them are eliminable-; all the service stable staff categories participated voluntarily; environmental noise measurements yielded values between 62.5 and 64.6 dBA and maximum were between 86.1 and 89.7 dBA; it was designed and installed a noise control device and the staff is being trained in noise reduction best practices.

  2. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  3. Vulnerability assessment and application of bacterial technology on urban rivers for pollution eradication.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Ahmad, Fiaz; Arslan, Chaudhry; Saifullah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    To protect against the environmental pollution, the present research was undertaken to enumerate the Bacterial Technologies (BTs) on the restoration of polluted urban rivers, that is, Fenghu-Song Yang River (FSR) and Xuxi River (XXR). Experimental research accounted for the physiochemical parameters (pH; temperature; dissolved oxygen (DO); chemical oxygen demand (COD); total phosphorus (TP); total nitrogen (TN); and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N)) before and after the BT operation. The results declared that the BT is efficient to restore the polluted rivers up to reliable condition. These results were analyzed by using multivariate statistical techniques (principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)). These techniques interpreted the complex data sets and expressed the point source information about the water quality of these rivers at SA5, SA6, and SB3 under highly polluted regions. For better understanding, water quality index (WQI) was applied to compute the single numeric value. WQI results are evidence of the above results which prove the water quality of both rivers faced under outrageous condition (below 50 WQI scores) before the BT treatment, but, after the treatment, the rivers were restored from fair to good level (above 50 WQI scores) and overall output of these scores was quite similar to detect the point source of pollution. These results described an abrupt recovery of the urban rivers up to reliable condition for aquatic organism and clear effluents from the rivers. PMID:26495290

  4. Vulnerability Assessment and Application of Bacterial Technology on Urban Rivers for Pollution Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Ahmad, Fiaz; Arslan, Chaudhry; Saifullah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    To protect against the environmental pollution, the present research was undertaken to enumerate the Bacterial Technologies (BTs) on the restoration of polluted urban rivers, that is, Fenghu-Song Yang River (FSR) and Xuxi River (XXR). Experimental research accounted for the physiochemical parameters (pH; temperature; dissolved oxygen (DO); chemical oxygen demand (COD); total phosphorus (TP); total nitrogen (TN); and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N)) before and after the BT operation. The results declared that the BT is efficient to restore the polluted rivers up to reliable condition. These results were analyzed by using multivariate statistical techniques (principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA)). These techniques interpreted the complex data sets and expressed the point source information about the water quality of these rivers at SA5, SA6, and SB3 under highly polluted regions. For better understanding, water quality index (WQI) was applied to compute the single numeric value. WQI results are evidence of the above results which prove the water quality of both rivers faced under outrageous condition (below 50 WQI scores) before the BT treatment, but, after the treatment, the rivers were restored from fair to good level (above 50 WQI scores) and overall output of these scores was quite similar to detect the point source of pollution. These results described an abrupt recovery of the urban rivers up to reliable condition for aquatic organism and clear effluents from the rivers. PMID:26495290

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  6. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  7. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  8. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  9. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects have been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.

  10. Analyzing remediation technologies for Department of Energy sites contaminated with DNAPL pollutants. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Papatyi, A.F.

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy is in the process of conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for a site contaminated with Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) pollutants at their Paducah Kentucky facility. This thesis effort focuses on acquiring insight into a number of remediation technology trains that are candidates for the Paducah site. This insight is used to recommend and justify the screening of candidate technology trains. The research makes use of two decision analysis models (one is deterministic, the other is probabilistic) built to provide a quantitative assessment of the candidate technology trains. Dominance considerations and multi-attribute utility theory are utilized to make the quantitative assessments and to gain insight into each candidate technology train. The results of the analysis provide the DOE with a rational justification for screening 55 of the 58 candidate technology trains from further consideration.

  11. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2004-10-29

    This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

  12. Air Pollution Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The purpose of this guide is to help school administrators and instructors in planning and developing new programs in the air pollution control field, or in evaluating those in existence. It contains course outlines for technical specialization courses as well as necessary basic science and communication courses. Also included are plans for…

  13. 76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management... following local rules: PCAPCD Rule 236 (Wood Products and Coating Operations), PCAPCD Rule 238...

  14. 76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation......... 12/17/92 08/24/07 On September 17, 2007, the submittal for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... December 13, 1994 (59 FR 64132), EPA approved into the SIP a previous version of Rule 4402, SJVUAPCD...

  15. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD... March 27, 1997 (62 FR 14639). The SDAPCD adopted revisions to the SIP- approved version on December...

  16. 78 FR 53249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... Action On November 9, 2012 (77 FR 67322), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the...

  17. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution... proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the... sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). DATES: Any comments on this proposal must arrive by...

  18. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... earlier version of Rule 102 into the SIP on June 29, 1999 (64 FR 34558). PCAPCD adopted revisions to...

  19. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California... July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39366), we published a limited approval and limited disapproval of the...

  20. 76 FR 75795 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... earlier version of PCAPCD Rule 218 into the SIP on July 18, 1996 (61 FR 37390). The PCAPCD...

  1. 75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the.... Proposed Action On November 19, 2008 (73 FR 69593), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into...

  2. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 75857 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or...

  4. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... various air pollution sources. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the... February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7142), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP....

  5. 77 FR 2643 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control... FR 54993), EPA proposed a limited approval and limited disapproval of the following rule that...

  6. 77 FR 67322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... FR 2643). III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under the Clean Air Act, the Administrator is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of...

  7. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  8. 40 CFR 123.28 - Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. 123.28 Section 123.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER..., however, that CWA excludes certain types of well injections from the definition of “pollutant.” If...

  9. 40 CFR 123.28 - Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. 123.28 Section 123.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER..., however, that CWA excludes certain types of well injections from the definition of “pollutant.” If...

  10. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1.169-1 Section 1.169-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.169-1 Amortization of pollution...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  15. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    PubMed

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. PMID:25837297

  16. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  17. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  18. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...