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Sample records for pollution ii road traffic

  1. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25194272

  2. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  3. Comparison of modeled traffic exposure zones using on-road air pollution measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled traffic data were used to develop traffic exposure zones (TEZs) such as traffic delay, high volume, and transit routes in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA). On-road air pollution measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxid...

  4. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  5. Redistribution of traffic related air pollution associated with a new road tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Christine T; Rose, Nectarios; Gillett, Robert; Walter, Scott; Marks, Guy B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a new road tunnel on the concentration and distribution of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), specifically nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), and to determine its relationship to change in traffic flow. We used continuously recorded data from four monitoring stations at nonroadside locations within the study area and three regional monitors outside the area. The four monitors in the study area were in background locations where smaller pollutant changes were expected compared with changes near the bypassed main road. We also deployed passive samplers to assess finer spatial variability in NO(2) including application of a land use regression model (LUR). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Analysis of the continuously recorded data showed that the tunnel intervention did not lead to consistent reductions in NO(2) or PM over the wider study area. However, there were significant decreases in NO(2), NO(x), and PM(10) in the eastern section of the study area. Analysis of passive sampler data indicated that the greatest reductions in NO(2) concentrations occurred within 100 m of the bypassed main road. The LUR model also demonstrated that changes in NO(2) were most marked adjacent to the bypassed main road. These findings support the use of methods that highlight fine spatial variability in TRAP and demonstrate the utility of traffic interventions in reducing air pollution exposures for populations living close to main roads. PMID:22289123

  6. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  7. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  8. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  9. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts. PMID:26233744

  10. Contribution of Urban Road Traffic to PM2.5 Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of PM2.5 measurements from EPA's NAAQS monitoring sites across the US. The few measurements that exist show increased PM2.5 mass levels at near-road sites, consistent with measurements of other pollutants emitted by motor vehicles.

  11. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. PMID:25146911

  12. Non-stationary spatio-temporal modeling of traffic-related pollutants in near-road environments.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Owais; Berrocal, Veronica J; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    A problem often encountered in environmental epidemiological studies assessing the health effects associated with ambient exposure to air pollution is the spatial misalignment between monitors' locations and subjects' actual residential locations. Several strategies have been adopted to circumvent this problem and estimate pollutants concentrations at unsampled sites, including spatial statistical or geostatistical models that rely on the assumption of stationarity to model the spatial dependence in pollution levels. Although computationally convenient, the assumption of stationarity is often untenable for pollutants concentration, particularly in the near-road environment. Building upon the work of Fuentes (2001) and Schmidt et al. (2011), in this paper we present a non-stationary spatio-temporal model for three traffic-related pollutants in a localized near-road environment. Modeling each pollutant separately and independently, we express each pollutant's concentration as a mixture of two independent spatial processes, each equipped with a non-stationary covariance function with covariates driving the non-stationarity and the mixture weights. PMID:27494957

  13. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions. PMID:22910003

  14. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  15. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  16. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  17. The magnetic way of quantifying road traffic pollution in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.

    2003-12-01

    The steadily increasing number of motor vehicles requires continuous air quality monitoring in large urban and sub-urban areas. We present a fast and simple method for analysing samples of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic measurements, which is suitable for systematic pollution monitoring of extensive areas at low costs. Representative samples have been collected in Switzerland at sites with variable exposure to pollution sources. Atmospheric PM consists of natural and of anthropogenic components which both contain magnetic mineral fractions with specific magnetic properties. Our method relies on the analysis of the remanent magnetisation of PM samples. Detailed demagnetisation curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM) of these samples have been modelled using a linear combination of appropriate model functions, which represent the contribution of different magnetic mineral sources to the total magnetisation. Two magnetic components C1 and C2 with well-defined magnetic properties have been identified in all samples. The low-coercivity component C1 predominates in less polluted sites, whereas the concentration of the higher coercivity component C2 is large in urban areas. Once the coercivity distributions of C1 and C2 have been characterised, a simple method has been developed to quantify C1 and C2. This method is based on four-step demagnetisation curves, which can be measured in 12 minutes using a 2G cryogenic magnetometer with an in-line AF degausser. Our results are confirmed by independent chemical investigations at the same sites. The magnetic contribution of C2 is shown to be proportional to the chemically estimated total PM10 mass contribution of exhaust emissions. The mass concentration of traffic related elements in PM10 such as Fe, Ba, Cu, Mo, Br and elemental carbon also correlates with our results. Traffic is the most important PM pollution source in Switzerland: it includes exhaust emissions and abrasion products released

  18. Study on the Traffic Air Pollution inside and outside a Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Chanzhen; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Heng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Limin; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the vehicle induced air pollution situations both inside and outside the tunnel, the field measurement of the pollutants concentrations and its diurnal variations was performed inside and outside the Xiangyin tunnel in Shanghai from 13:00 on April 24th to 13:00 on April 25th, 2013. The highest hourly average concentrations of pollutants were quantified that CO, NO, NO2 and NOX inside the tunnel were 13.223 mg/m3, 1.829 mg/m3, 0.291 mg/m3 and 3.029 mg/m3, respectively, while the lowest ones were 3.086 mg/m3, 0.344 mg/m3, 0.080 mg/m3 and 0.619 mg/m3. Moreover, the concentrations of pollutants were higher during the daytime, and lower at night, which is relevant to the traffic conditions inside the tunnel. Pollutants concentrations inside the tunnel were much higher than those outside the tunnel. Then in a case of slow wind, the effect of wind is much smaller than the impact of pollution sources. Additionally, the PM2.5 concentrations climbed to the peak sharply (468.45 µg/m3) during the morning rush hours. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 inside the tunnel were 37.09–99.06 µg/m3 and 22.69–137.99 µg/m3, respectively. Besides, the OC/EC ratio ranged from 0.72 to 2.19 with an average value of 1.34. Compared with the results of other tunnel experiments in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China, it could be inferred that the proportion of HDVs through the Xiangyin tunnel is relatively lower. PMID:25386920

  19. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  20. High Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Indoor Noise and Air Pollution from Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by collinearity. Citation: Foraster M, Künzli N, Aguilera I, Rivera M, Agis D, Vila J, Bouso L, Deltell A, Marrugat J, Ramos R, Sunyer J, Elosua R, Basagaña X. 2014. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic. Environ Health Perspect 122:1193–1200; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307156 PMID:25003348

  1. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  2. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  3. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  4. Contribution of the road traffic to air pollution in the Prague city (busy speedway and suburban crossroads)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondráček, J.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.; Andělová, L.; Vodička, P.; Bízek, V.; Tsai, C.-J.; Chen, S.-C.; Smolík, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two measurement campaigns near busy freeway and suburban crossroad (different traffic intensity) were carried out in Prague city. Both of the two traffic related campaigns were supported with simultaneous measurements at suburban background site to compare measured values with corresponding city background. Extensive set of aerosol instrumentation was used during both campaigns at both measurement sites. Two aerosol spectrometer sets (SMPS and APS) were used to monitor aerosol particle number size distribution. Two BLPI provided information about mass size distribution and chemical composition of collected size resolved aerosol samples. The crossroad campaign was also supported by two EC/OC field analysers providing information about elemental and organic carbon concentrations. Consequent chemical analysis of collected size resolved samples comprised of ion chromatography (water soluble ions), PIXE (elements) and RBS (carbon). Results obtained from spectrometers and BLPIs showed that the main contribution of traffic in ultrafine size range can be attributed to direct exhaust emissions, while the coarse fraction was dominated mainly by regional background aerosol with small traces of brake and tyre abrasion as well as the resuspension of the road dust. Chemical analysis demonstrated that most of the water soluble ions can be found in fine fraction of mass distribution and mostly comes from regional background and long range transport. Most of major elements were found in coarse fraction of mass size distribution and it can be attributed to three different sources: abrasion of different vehicle parts (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), resuspension of the road dust (Si, Al, Ca) and long range transport or regional background (Ca and K). Elemental carbon concentration (diesel engine emissions) was found to be proportional to traffic intensity.

  5. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  6. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  7. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  8. Work-related road traffic injury: a multilevel systems protocol

    PubMed Central

    Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne M; Griffin, Mark A; McClure, Roderick J; Heller, Gillian; Sim, Malcolm R; Stevenson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Background Although road traffic injury is reported as the leading cause of work-related death in Australia, it is not clear, due to limitations in previous methods used, just how large a burden it is. Many organisations are unaware of the extent of work-related road traffic injury and, importantly, what can be done to reduce the burden. The proposed research will (i) estimate the prevalence of work-related road traffic injury and (ii) identify the organisational determinants associated with work-related road traffic injury. Methods and design The current study is designed to enumerate the problem and identify the individual driver-level, the supervisor-level and organisational-level factors associated with work-related road traffic injury. The multilevel systems protocol will involve a series of cross-sectional surveys administered to drivers of fleet vehicles (n=1200), supervisors of the drivers (n=1200) and senior managers (n=300) within the same organisation. Discussion The novel use of the multilevel systems protocol is critical to be able to accurately assess the specific determinants of driving safety within each context of an organisation. Results The results are expected to highlight that reducing injury in the workplace requires more than just individual compliance with safety procedures. It will also establish, for the first time, an occupational translation taskforce to ensure that the research findings are adopted into work-place practice and thereby directly contribute to reductions in work-related road traffic injury. PMID:24478230

  9. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  10. Road Traffic and Childhood Leukemia: The ESCALE Study (SFCE)

    PubMed Central

    Amigou, Alicia; Sermage-Faure, Claire; Orsi, Laurent; Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Nelken, Brigitte; Robert, Alain; Michel, Gérard; Margueritte, Geneviève; Perel, Yves; Mechinaud, Françoise; Bordigoni, Pierre; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic is a source of environmental exposures, including benzene, which may be related to childhood leukemia. Objectives A national registry–based case–control study [ESCALE (Etude Sur les Cancers et les Leucémies de l’Enfant, Study on Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors of Childhood Cancers and Leukemia)] carried out in France was used to assess the effect of exposure to road traffic exhaust fumes on the risk of childhood leukemia. Methods Over the study period, 2003–2004, 763 cases and 1,681 controls < 15 years old were included, and the controls were frequency matched with the cases on age and sex. The ESCALE data were collected by a standardized telephone interview of the mothers. Various indicators of exposure to traffic and pollution were determined using the geocoded addresses at the time of diagnosis for the cases and of interview for the controls. Indicators of the distance from, and density of, main roads and traffic nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations derived from traffic emission data were used. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Acute leukemia (AL) was significantly associated with estimates of traffic NO2 concentration at the place of residence > 27.7 μg/m3 compared with NO2 concentration < 21.9 μg/m3 [OR = 1.2; confidence interval (CI), 1.0–1.5] and with the presence of a heavy-traffic road within 500 m compared with the absence of a heavy-traffic road in the same area (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0–3.6). There was a significant association between AL and a high density of heavy-traffic roads within 500 m compared with the reference category with no heavy-traffic road within 500 m (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.2), with a significant positive linear trend of the association of AL with the total length of heavy-traffic road within 500m. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that living close to heavy-traffic roads may increase the risk of

  11. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injuries represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients involved in motor traffic crashes and attended in six public hospitals of Tanzania mainland between April 2014 and September 2014. Results A total of 4675 road traffic injury patients were seen in studied hospitals, 76.6% were males. Majority (70.2%) were between 18 - 45 years age group. Motorcycles were the leading cause of road traffic crashes (53.4%), and drivers (38.3%) accounted for majority of victims. Fractures accounted for 34.1%, and injuries were severe in 2.2% as determined by the Kampala trauma score II (KTS II). Majorities 57.4% were admitted and 2.2% died at the casualty. Factors associated with mortality were; using police vehicles to hospital (P = 0.000), receiving medical attention within 2 to 10 hours after injury (P = 0.000), 18 - 45 years age group (P = 0.019), not using helmet (P = 0.007), severe injuries (P = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injury (P = 0.000). Conclusion Road traffic Injuries in Tanzania are an important public health problem, predominantly in adult males, mostly due to motorcycle crashes. It is therefore important to reinforce preventive measures and pre-hospital emergency service is urgently needed. PMID:27217872

  12. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme.

  13. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    PubMed

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

  14. Traffic flow on realistic road networks with adaptive traffic lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.; Rojas, Omar

    2011-04-01

    We present a model of traffic flow on generic urban road networks based on cellular automata. We apply this model to an existing road network in the Australian city of Melbourne, using empirical data as input. For comparison, we also apply this model to a square-grid network using hypothetical input data. On both networks we compare the effects of non-adaptive versus adaptive traffic lights, in which instantaneous traffic state information feeds back into the traffic signal schedule. We observe that not only do adaptive traffic lights result in better averages of network observables, they also lead to significantly smaller fluctuations in these observables. We furthermore compare two different systems of adaptive traffic signals, one which is informed by the traffic state on both upstream and downstream links and one which is informed by upstream links only. We find that, in general, both the mean and the fluctuation of the travel time are smallest when using the joint upstream-downstream control strategy.

  15. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  16. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  17. Subjective Response to Road Traffic Noise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, I. D.; Langdon, F. J.

    A study consisting of acoustic measurements at fourteen sites in the London area and 1200 interviews dealing with the effects of the noise conditions prevailing at each of these sites has been carried out with the object of developing acceptability criteria for traffic noise from roads in residential areas. Dissatisfaction with the noise…

  18. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  19. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  20. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Iraj; Zokaei, Mojtaba; Sandrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise is one of the main important sources in urban noise pollution, which causes various physiological and psychological effects that can cause disturbs in performance, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and impact on job performance. This study was conducted to verify the impact of road traffic noise on reaction time in terms of extraversion and sex. Methods: Traffic noise was measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and then the recorded noise was emitted towards participants in an acoustic room. The participants were 80 (40 cases and 40 controls) students. Personality type was determined by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questioner. Reaction time before and after exposure to traffic noise was measured. Results: Reaction time before exposure to traffic noise did not differ (P=0.437) significantly between introverts and extraverts. However, it was increased significantly in both groups after exposure to traffic noise (P<0.01). Introvert’s reaction time was more increased than that of extraverts. Conclusion: Traffic noise augmented reaction time of both males and females. This study also revealed that exposure to traffic noise leads to increase in reaction time. PMID:26634199

  1. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Oleśnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wrocław to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. PMID:19282074

  2. Assessment of traffic noise pollution from 1989 to 2003 in Lanzhou City.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoxia; Tian, Yujun; Ju, Tianzhen; Ren, Zhengwu

    2006-12-01

    On the basis of the continuous traffic noise data observed at 142 sites distributed in 52 roads from 1989 to 2003, the characteristics of traffic noise and effect factors were analyzed through traffic noise indices, such as Lep, L10, L50, L90, TNI, and Pn. Our findings allow us to reach a number of conclusions as follows: Firstly, traffic noise pollution was serious, and its fluctuant characteristic was obvious, resulting in a great intrusion to public in Lanzhou City during last 15 years. Secondly, traffic noise made a distinction between trunk lines and secondary lines, west-east direction roads and north-south direction roads. Thirdly, spatial character and time rule of traffic noise were obvious. In addition, traffic volume, traffic composition, road condition, and traffic management were identified as the key factors influencing traffic noise in this city. PMID:17036256

  3. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Hansson, A. A.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  4. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  5. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  6. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. Methods To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Results Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China’s road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Conclusion Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China. PMID:27071008

  7. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  8. The effects of road traffic noise on mental performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Noise is one of the more widespread pollutions of road transportation system, which can cause deterioration in performance. This experimental study was designed to assess the effect of road traffic noise on performance with regard to extra/introversion and sex of participants. The personality trait of extra/introversion has been remarked as relevant factor to mental performance. Results Thirty six (26 males and 10 females) medical sciences students of Tehran University participated in the study. The students were placed in an unechoing room and performed the Cognitrone test from Vienna Test System in quiet condition and under road traffic noise (71 dBA). The results of this study pointed out that noise increased the percentage of sum of correct answers but had no effect on the speed of performance. Furthermore this study showed that performance was enhanced in extroverts (P=0.001) but no significant difference was found in introverts (P ≤0.05). Conclusions The regression analysis revealed that extra/introversion was more important than sex to predict the performance parameters. PMID:23394722

  9. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Treibich, Carole

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. In addition to income, the analysis considers the sociodemographic population structure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement as potential factors. An original panel data set covering 25 Indian states is analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Time and state fixed-effects account for unobserved heterogeneity across states and time. The rising motorization, urbanization and accompanying increase in the share of vulnerable road users, that is, pedestrians and two-wheelers, are the major drivers of road traffic crash fatalities in India. Among vulnerable road users, women form a particularly high-risk group. Higher expenditure per police officer is associated with a lower fatality rate. The results suggest that India should focus, in particular, on road infrastructure investments that allow the separation of vulnerable from other road users on improved road rule enforcement and should pay special attention to vulnerable female road users. PMID:22936645

  10. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  11. A macro traffic flow model accounting for road capacity and reliability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T. Q.; Shi, W. F.; Yang, X. B.; Wang, Y. P.; Lu, G. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Based on existing traffic flow models, in this paper we develop a macro traffic flow model taking into consideration road capacity to study the impact of the road capacity on traffic flow. The numerical results show that the road capacity destroys the stability of uniform flow and produces stop-and-go traffic under a moderate density and that the road capacity enhances the traffic risk coefficient and reduces the traffic system’s reliability. In addition, the numerical results show that properly improving the road condition can enhance the road capacity, reduce the traffic risk coefficient and enhance the traffic system’s reliability.

  12. Traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a traffic-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Seno, Tadachika

    1994-06-01

    A deterministic cellular automaton model is presented to simulate the traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a two-dimensional traffic flow. The effect of a crosscut road on the traffic flow is investigated by the use of a computer simulation. The traffic jam appears when a shock (discontinuous interface of different car densities) is formed. The condition for shock formation is derived for car densities p y and p x of the crosscut road and its crossing streets. The phase diagram and the dependence of the traffic flow on the car densities are shown. Also, we study the shock structure and the scaling of its width. The width Δ w of the shock scales with the system size L as Δ w ≈ L{1}/{2}. We present a self-consistent mean-field theory for the traffic flow.

  13. The Research of Road Traffic Based on Floating Car Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyou; Jian, Meng; Tang, Rui

    Based on the analysis of floating car traffic information acquisition and processing system structure and construction frame, combining the Zibo floating car features and road conditions, using historical data provided by Zibo city bus companies, adopting the ArcGIS Engine of ESRI company as a map components, putting forward the nearest point estimate map matching algorithms, combining data fusion technology based on Kalman filter and road running speed calibration algorithm, predicting road traffic running status in certain period and express it in the GIS map, this paper completed the design, the practice has proved the suggested method is feasible.

  14. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  15. A public health perspective of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  16. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors. PMID:24946571

  17. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  18. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  19. Nonintrusive system for road traffic detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, M F; Briz, S; Durán, L

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the number, type, and velocity of the vehicles that drive along a road is extremely important to manage efficiently the traffic flow and also to estimate the environmental impact that the road may have in the surroundings. In this work the development and preliminary tests for a nonintrusive instrument and method for traffic characterization have been carried out. The system is part of a methodology to estimate the contaminants emitted to air due to urban and suburban road traffic. Based on a set of ultrasonic sensors, the system has shown reliability and accuracy in the determination of the number, type, and velocity of vehicles in a suburban road with several lanes and two ways. The success of this system lies on the method and data processing which overcomes the intrinsic noise problems of ultrasonic sensors. The developed system is easy to install and does not interfere with the road traffic. It is also of low cost, has no moving parts, and requires small power supply. The proposed system is an ideal tool to perform traffic studies where portability and low costs are required, for example, in environmental impact assessments studies. PMID:21361639

  20. Nonintrusive system for road traffic detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte, M. F.; Briz, S.; Durán, L.

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the number, type, and velocity of the vehicles that drive along a road is extremely important to manage efficiently the traffic flow and also to estimate the environmental impact that the road may have in the surroundings. In this work the development and preliminary tests for a nonintrusive instrument and method for traffic characterization have been carried out. The system is part of a methodology to estimate the contaminants emitted to air due to urban and suburban road traffic. Based on a set of ultrasonic sensors, the system has shown reliability and accuracy in the determination of the number, type, and velocity of vehicles in a suburban road with several lanes and two ways. The success of this system lies on the method and data processing which overcomes the intrinsic noise problems of ultrasonic sensors. The developed system is easy to install and does not interfere with the road traffic. It is also of low cost, has no moving parts, and requires small power supply. The proposed system is an ideal tool to perform traffic studies where portability and low costs are required, for example, in environmental impact assessments studies.

  1. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants – including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...

  2. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan. PMID:22768706

  3. Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Moustaki, M

    2000-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus, behavioral factors can be distinguished as (i) those that reduce capability on a long-term basis (inexperience, aging, disease and disability, alcoholism, drug abuse), (ii) those that reduce capability on a short-term basis (drowsiness, fatigue, acute alcohol intoxication, short term drug effects, binge eating, acute psychological stress, temporary distraction), (iii) those that promote risk taking behavior with long-term impact (overestimation of capabilities, macho attitude, habitual speeding, habitual disregard of traffic regulations, indecent driving behavior, non-use of seat belt or helmet, inappropriate sitting while driving, accident proneness) and (iv) those that promote risk taking behavior with short-term impact (moderate ethanol intake, psychotropic drugs, motor vehicle crime, suicidal behavior, compulsive acts). The classification aims to assist in the conceptualization of the problem that may also contribute to behavior modification-based efforts. PMID:11297224

  4. A dynamic traffic simulator for roads affected by natural hasards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.

    2012-04-01

    This work focuses on the issue of natural hazards threatening roads. Nowadays, risk estimations of rock falls or landslides affecting whole sections of road are generally quite accurate and under relatively good control. Mitigation measures provide intervention means to reduce the hazards along roads. However, as classical models of risk calculation on communication routes do not take into account the dynamic traffic parameters, little is known on the way of reducing the risk at road level. It is not known precisely what really happens on the road when an event occurs and how vehicles interact. A dynamic traffic simulator in development provides information on factors having an impact on the risk level related to the road. Variables such as visibility, curvature radius of turns or vehicle type were included in the model. Varying these variables within dynamic traffic simulations can suggest solutions to minimize the risks for road users. These simulations can provide answers to various questions, such as: does speed have a significant impact on the risk incurred by drivers? Is it possible to significantly reduce the risk with appropriate speeds? The simulation is performed with the MATLAB © software. The model is yet to be calibrated and validated through in situ tests.

  5. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  6. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  7. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  8. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  9. [BTX monitoring nearby main road traffic in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Ye, Cong-Lei; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Zheng, Ni-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin; Huang, Zu-Zhao

    2012-11-01

    In order to study the levels of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene, etc) nearby the main roads of Guangzhou from November 2010 to December 2010 during the Asian Games, BTX and conventional pollutants such as NO2, O3 in the air were monitored by the DOAS system nearby Huangsha Road, which is in the Liwan District of Guangzhou City. The results showed that, during the entire period, BTX showed a high concentration in the evening and the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and phenol were 15.9 microg x m(-3), 61.3 microg x m(-3), 6.5 microg x m(-3), 16.9 microg x m(-3), 0.88 microg x m(-3), respectively. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene were close to those in other cities, and the ratio of toluene to benzene was in range of 1.2-6.16. Throughout the monitoring period, the correlation coefficient of benzene and toluene was 0.86 and it rose to 0.985 during the high concentration period, indicating that they had the same source in this region. The correlation coefficient between toluene and CO was 0.78, indicating that traffic emissions was the major source of benzene and toluene. Based on the combination of wind speed, wind direction and other meteorological data, it was found that the weather condition was an important factor which affected the BTX concentration, and some possible point sources were suggested nearby the site. PMID:23323398

  10. Can road traffic law enforcement permanently reduce the number of accidents?

    PubMed

    Bjørnskau, T; Elvik, R

    1992-10-01

    In this paper it is argued that conventional analyses of road user adaptation to traffic law enforcement, based on parametric rational-choice theory, are flawed. Such analyses only consider road-user actions as a response to enforcement level and penalty size and do not simultaneously consider enforcement as a response to road-user behaviour. If each party is considered a rational agent who adapts to the other's behaviour, the proper way to analyze the outcomes is by the way of game theory. A game-theoretic model is presented and the main implications are: (i) most attempts at enforcing road traffic legislation will not have any lasting effects, either on road-user behaviour or on accidents; (ii) imposing stricter penalties (in the form of higher fines or longer prison sentences) will not affect road-user behaviour; (iii) imposing stricter penalties will reduce the level of enforcement; (iv) implementing automatic traffic surveillance techniques and/or allocating enforcement resources according to a chance mechanism, and not according to police estimates of violation probability, can make enforcement effects last, but both alternatives are difficult to implement. Relevant empirical studies are reviewed, and they seem to support the conclusions arrived at by the game-theoretic model. PMID:1520433

  11. Respiratory Health before and after the Opening of a Road Traffic Tunnel: A Planned Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christine T.; Rose, Nectarios; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Cortes-Waterman, Adriana; Belousova, Elena; Toelle, Brett G.; Sheppeard, Vicky; Marks, Guy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The construction of a new road tunnel in Sydney, Australia, and concomitant reduction in traffic on a major road presented the opportunity to study the effects of this traffic intervention on respiratory health. Methods We made measurements in a cohort of residents in the year before the tunnel opened (2006) and in each of two years afterwards (2007–2008). Cohort members resided in one of four exposure zones, including a control zone. Each year, a respiratory questionnaire was administered (n = 2,978) and a panel sub-cohort (n = 380) performed spirometry once and recorded peak expiratory flow and symptoms twice daily for nine weeks. Results There was no consistent evidence of improvement in respiratory health in residents living along the bypassed main road, despite a reduction in traffic from 90,000 to 45,000 vpd. Residents living near tunnel feeder roads reported more upper respiratory symptoms in the survey but not in the panel sub-cohort. Residents living around the tunnel ventilation stack reported more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and had lower spirometric volumes after the tunnel opened. Air pollutant levels measured near the stack did not increase over the study period. Conclusion The finding of adverse health effects among residents living around the stack is unexpected and difficult to explain, but might be due to unmeasured pollutants or risk factors or an unrecognized pollutant source nearby. The lack of improvement in respiratory health among people living along the bypassed main road probably reflects a minimal change in exposure due to distance of residence from the road. PMID:23209560

  12. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  13. Spatial patterns monitoring of road traffic injuries in Karachi metropolis.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Muhammad U

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to assess the pattern of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities in Karachi metropolis. Assessing the pattern of RTIs in Karachi at this juncture is important for many reasons. The rapid motorisation in the recent years due to the availability of credit has significantly increased the traffic volume of the city. Since then, the roads of Karachi have continuously developed at a rapid pace. This development has come with a high human loss, because the construction of multilevel flyovers, signal-free corridors and the resulting high-speed traffic ultimately increase the severity of injuries. The reasons for this high proportion are inadequate infrastructure, poor enforcement of safety regulations, high crash severity index and greater population of vulnerable road user groups (riders and pedestrians). This research is the first of its kind in the country to have a geocoded database of fatalities and injuries in a geographical information system for the entire city of Karachi. In fact, road crashes are both predictable and preventable. Developing countries should learn from the experience of highly motorised nations to avoid the high burden of RTIs by adopting road safety and prevention measures. PMID:20589551

  14. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  15. Traffic-related air pollution modeling during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: the effects of an odd-even day traffic restriction scheme.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    2011-04-15

    An integrated urban air quality modeling system was applied to assess the effects of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) on traffic-related air pollution in the urban area of Beijing (UAB) before, during and after the 2008 Olympic Games. Using traffic flow data retrieved from an on-line traffic monitoring system, concentration levels of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and Linkage Roads (LRs), the main roads distributed around the UAB, were predicted for the pre- (10th-19th, July), during- (20th July-20th September) and post-TRS (21st-30th, September) periods. A widely used statistical framework for model evaluation was adopted, the dependences of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction were investigated, and the model predictions turned out reasonably satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs decreased significantly during the TRS period, by about 35.8, 38.5, 34.9 and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7, 31.8, 44.0 and 34.7% for PM(10), about 30.3, 31.9, 32.3 and 33.9% for NO(2), and about 36.7, 33.0, 33.4 and 34.7% for O(3), respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM(10), for the evening peak for NO(2), and for the afternoon peak for O(3). Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) conformed to the China National Ambient Air Quality Standards Grade II during the Games. In addition, notable reduction of concentration levels was achieved in different regions of Beijing, with the traffic-related air pollution in the downwind northern and western areas relieved most significantly. The TRS policy was therefore effective in alleviating traffic-related air pollution and improving short-term air quality in Beijing during the Games. PMID:21353290

  16. Traffic disruption and recovery in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.

    2014-05-01

    We study the impact of disruptions on road networks, and the recovery process after the disruption is removed from the system. Such disruptions could be caused by vehicle breakdown or illegal parking. We analyze the transient behavior using domain wall theory, and compare these predictions with simulations of a stochastic cellular automaton model. We find that the domain wall model can reproduce the time evolution of flow and density during the disruption and the recovery processes, for both one-dimensional systems and two-dimensional networks.

  17. On-road traffic emissions in a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura E.; Gómez, Darío R.; Osses, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    A new annual bottom-up emission inventory of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases from on-road mobile sources was developed for 2006 for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, within a four-year regional project aimed at providing tools for chemical weather forecast in South America. Under the scarcity of local emission factors, we collected data from measuring campaigns performed in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia and compiled a data set of regional emission factors representative of Latin American fleets and driving conditions. The estimated emissions were validated with respect to downscaled national estimates and the EDGAR global emission database. Our results highlight the role of older technologies accounting in average for almost 80% of the emissions of all species. The area exhibits higher specific emissions than developed countries, with figures two times higher for criteria pollutants. We analyzed the effect on emissions of replacing gasoline by compressed natural gas, occurring in Argentina since 1995. We identified (i) a relationship between number of vehicles and a compound socioeconomic indicator, and (ii) time-lags in vehicle technologies between developed and developing countries, which can be respectively applied for spatial disaggregation and the development of projections for other Latin American cities. The results may also be employed to complement global emission inventories and by local policy makers as an environmental management tool.

  18. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  19. The Measurement of Dry Deposition and Surface Runoff to Quantify Urban Road Pollution in Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01–5.14 g/m2·day and 78–87% of these solids are in the 75–300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads. PMID:24135820

  20. Fast and optimized methodology to generate road traffic emission inventories and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blond, N.; Ho, B. Q.; Clappier, A.

    2012-04-01

    Road traffic emissions are one of the main sources of air pollution in the cities. They are also the main sources of uncertainties in the air quality numerical models used to forecast and define abatement strategies. Until now, the available models for generating road traffic emission always required a big effort, money and time. This inhibits decisions to preserve air quality, especially in developing countries where road traffic emissions are changing very fast. In this research, we developed a new model designed to fast produce road traffic emission inventories. This model, called EMISENS, combines the well-known top-down and bottom-up approaches to force them to be coherent. A Monte Carlo methodology is included for computing emission uncertainties and the uncertainty rate due to each input parameters. This paper presents the EMISENS model and a demonstration of its capabilities through an application over Strasbourg region (Alsace), France. Same input data as collected for Circul'air model (using bottom-up approach) which has been applied for many years to forecast and study air pollution by the Alsatian air quality agency, ASPA, are used to evaluate the impact of several simplifications that a user could operate . These experiments give the possibility to review older methodologies and evaluate EMISENS results when few input data are available to produce emission inventories, as in developing countries and assumptions need to be done. We show that same average fraction of mileage driven with a cold engine can be used for all the cells of the study domain and one emission factor could replace both cold and hot emission factors.

  1. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  2. Alcohol and Hospitalized Road Traffic Injuries in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Lydia R.; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol’s role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence. PMID:25191146

  3. Modeling and formal analysis of urban road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Camelia; Machado, José; Aştilean, Adina

    2013-10-01

    Modern life in cities leads to complex urban traffic road and, sometimes, to go from one point to another, in a city, is a hard and very complex task. The use of assisted systems for helping drivers on their task of reaching the desired destination is being common, mainly systems like GPS location systems or other similar systems. The main gap of those systems is that they are not able to assist drivers when some unexpected changes occur, like accidents, or another unexpected situations. In this context, it would be desirable to have a dynamic system to inform the drivers, about everything that is happening "online". This work is inserted in this context and the work presented here is one part of a bigger project that has, as main goal, to be a dynamic system for assisting drivers under hard conditions of urban road traffic. In this paper is modeled, and formally analyzed, the intersection of four street segments, in order to take some considerations about this subject. This paper presents the model of the considered system, using timed automata formalism. The validation and verification of the road traffic model it is realized using UPPAAL model-checker.

  4. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  5. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  6. A quantitative study of sediment delivery and stream pollution from different forest road types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary J.; Noske, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify, and enable the prediction of, sediment delivery and water pollution impacts from a spectrum of forest roads. Ten 100-200 m long sections of forest road were selected to incorporate a wide range of the key physical site factors that are likely to affect the rate of sediment generation. Each road section was permanently instrumented for 1 year to measure rainfall and runoff continuously. Suspended load, bedload, and traffic were integrated measurements over 2- to 3-week site-service intervals. Total annual sediment load (normalized for slope) varied about 25-fold, from 216 mg m-2 per millimetre of rain for a high-quality gravel surfaced road with minimal traffic to 5373 mg m-2 per millimetre of rain for an unsurfaced road on an erodible subsoil with moderate light-vehicle traffic. For the seven gravel-surfaced roads in this study, truck traffic (axles/week) explained 97% of the variation in annual sediment delivery (per unit of rainfall) from the road. Equations are proposed that allow annual sediment delivery rates to be estimated when net rainfall, road slope, road area, and truck traffic are known. Roads produce runoff rapidly and were found to deliver sediment for about the same duration as rainfall is falling, in this study varying between 5 and 10% of the time. The patterns of sediment delivery measured from the experimental roads (frequency, duration, and intensity) in this study are similar to levels that have been shown to alter the composition of in-stream macroinvertebrate communities in small (e.g. <10 l s-1), clean, mountain streams. However, in larger well-mixed streams (e.g. >500 l s-1), dilution is sufficient to prevent concentrations reaching critical levels that are likely to result in biological impacts. Copyright

  7. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  8. Road traffic casualties: understanding the night-time death toll.

    PubMed

    Plainis, S; Murray, I J; Pallikaris, I G

    2006-04-01

    A disproportionate number of fatal injuries occur after dark. The paper presents some statistics of road traffic injuries in a novel way which suggests that low luminance plays a major role in this effect. A sound physiological explanation for this is advanced based on the poor temporal characteristics of rod photoreceptors. It is argued that processing information based on low luminance, low contrast targets is much slower than that for high contrast bright targets. To test the idea, simple visual reaction times were measured under typical low visibility conditions encountered on non-lit roads and were found to be substantially longer than under optimal conditions. It is shown that longer reaction times translate into significantly increased stopping distances. This important point has received insufficient attention in the road safety literature, by the Highways Agency, the police, injury prevention officials, and the UK Highway Code. PMID:16595429

  9. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  10. Estimation of road traffic emission factors from a long term tracer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belalcazar, Luis Carlos; Fuhrer, Oliver; Ho, Minh Dung; Zarate, Erika; Clappier, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Road traffic emissions, one of the largest source categories in megacity inventories, are highly uncertain. It is essential to develop methodologies to reduce these uncertainties to manage air quality more effectively. In this paper, we propose a methodology to estimate road traffic emission factors (EFs) from a tracer experiment and from roadside pollutants measurements. We emitted continuously during about 300 non-consecutive hours a passive tracer from a finite line source placed on one site of an urban street. At the same time, we measured continuously the resulting tracer concentrations at the other side of the street with a portable on-line gas chromatograph. We used n-propane contained in commercial liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a passive tracer. Propane offers several advantages to traditional tracers (SF6, N2O, CFCs): low price, easily available, non-reactive, negligible global warming potential, and easy to detect with commercial on-line gas chromatographs. The tracer experiment was carried out from January to March 2007 in a busy street of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Traffic volume, weather information and pollutant concentrations were also measured at the measurement site. We used the results of the tracer experiment to calculate the dilution factors and afterwards we used these dilution factors, the traffic counts and the pollutant concentrations to estimate the EFs. The proposed method assumes that the finite emission line represents the emission produced by traffic in the full area of the street and therefore there is an error associated to this assumption. We use the Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) model MISKAM to calculate this error and to correct the HCMC EFs. EFs for 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO are reported here. A comparison with available studies reveals that most of the EFs estimated here are within the range of EFs reported in other studies.

  11. Do unpaved, low-traffic roads affect bird communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammides, Christos; Kounnamas, Constantinos; Goodale, Eben; Kadis, Costas

    2016-02-01

    Unpaved, low traffic roads are often assumed to have minimal effects on biodiversity. To explore this assertion, we sampled the bird communities in fifteen randomly selected sites in Pafos Forest, Cyprus and used multiple regression to quantify the effects of such roads on the total species richness. Moreover, we classified birds according to their migratory status and their global population trends, and tested each category separately. Besides the total length of unpaved roads, we also tested: a. the site's habitat diversity, b. the coefficient of variation in habitat (patch) size, c. the distance to the nearest agricultural field, and d. the human population size of the nearest village. We measured our variables at six different distances from the bird point-count locations. We found a strong negative relationship between the total bird richness and the total length of unpaved roads. The human population size of the nearest village also had a negative effect. Habitat diversity was positively related to species richness. When the categories were tested, we found that the passage migrants were influenced more by the road network while resident breeders were influenced by habitat diversity. Species with increasing and stable populations were only marginally affected by the variables tested, but the effect of road networks on species with decreasing populations was large. We conclude that unpaved and sporadically used roads can have detrimental effects on the bird communities, especially on vulnerable species. We propose that actions are taken to limit the extent of road networks within protected areas, especially in sites designated for their rich avifauna, such as Pafos Forest, where several of the affected species are species of European and global importance.

  12. Impact of wind direction on near-road pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Snyder, Michelle; Isakov, Vlad; Kimbrough, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to roadway emissions is an emerging area of research because of recent epidemiological studies reporting association between living within a few hundred meters of high-traffic roadways and adverse health effects. The air quality impact of roadway emissions has been studied in a number of field experiments, most of which have not fully considered the impact of wind direction on near-road concentrations. This paper examines the role of wind direction by using a dispersion model to analyze data from three field studies that include measurements under varying wind directions: 1) a tracer study conducted adjacent to highway 99 in Sacramento, CA in 1981-82, 2) a field study next to a highway in Raleigh, North Carolina in 2006, and 3) a field study conducted next to a depressed highway in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2010. We find that wind direction is an important variable in characterizing exposure to roadway emissions. Under stable conditions, the near-surface concentrations at receptors up to 100 m from the road increase with wind angle before dropping off at angles close to parallel to the road. It is only for pollutants with short life times does the maximum concentration occur when the wind direction is normal to the road. We also show that current dispersion models are reliable tools for interpreting observations and for formulating plans for field studies.

  13. Respiratory and dermatological diseases in children with long-term exposure to road traffic immissions.

    PubMed

    Ising, H; Lange-Asschenfeldt, H; Lieber, G F; Weinhold, H; Eilts, M

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of allergies can be stimulated by adjuvant effects--i.e. air pollutants such as NO(2) and particles from diesel exhausts as well as noise--the latter especially during night-time. During sleep, noise signals which are associated with danger (i.e. lorry noise) have the potential to trigger stress reactions even if the noise level is low. Increases of cortisol in the first half of the night seem to play an important role. In a blind interview study, the combined effects of chronic exposure to traffic related air pollution and noise, upon the risk of skin and respiratory diseases in children were studied. All children between 5-12 years, who had consulted one of two participating paediatricians were included in the study. The paediatricians diagnoses of 400 children were analysed together with their parents answers regarding the density of road traffic on their street and several confounding factors. Multiple regression analyses resulted in relative risks of asthma, chronic bronchitis and neurodermitis, which increased significantly with increasing traffic load. A comparison with the literature on such effects caused by air pollution alone, showed that traffic noise during the night might have an adjuvant effect on the pathogenesis of the mentioned diseases. PMID:12804211

  14. Road traffic and adverse effects on respiratory health in children.

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, M; Reitmeir, P; Dold, S; Wulff, A; Nicolai, T; von Loeffelholz-Colberg, E F; von Mutius, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine whether road traffic in a big city has a direct effect on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Of all 7445 fourth grade children (aged 9-11 years) in Munich, 6537 were examined. Of the children with German nationality and the same residence during the past five years and known exposure data, 4678 questionnaires and 4320 pulmonary function tests could be analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Variables of pulmonary function by forced expiration and respiratory symptoms reported in a questionnaire; census data on car traffic collected in the school district. RESULTS--Density of car traffic ranged from 7000 to 125,000 cars per 24 hours. Multiple regression analysis of peak expiratory flow showed a significant decrease of 0.71% (95% confidence interval 1.08% to 0.33%) per increase of 25,000 cars daily passing through the school district on the main road. Maximum expiratory flow when 25% vital capacity had been expired was decreased by 0.68% (1.11% to 0.25%). In contrast, response to cold air challenge was not increased. The adjusted odds ratio for the cumulative prevalence of recurrent wheezing with the same exposure was 1.08 (1.01 to 1.16). Cumulative prevalence of recurrent dyspnoea was increased, with an odds ratio of 1.10 (1.00 to 1.20). Lifetime prevalence of asthma (odds ratio 1.04; 0.89 to 1.21) and recurrent bronchitis (1.05; 0.98 to 1.12) were not significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of road traffic diminish forced expiratory flow and increase respiratory symptoms in children. Images FIG 1 PMID:7691304

  15. Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157539.html Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women ... suggests. Both short- and long-term exposure to pollution from vehicles was linked to a higher risk ...

  16. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species. PMID:26398211

  17. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise.

    PubMed

    Crovo, Jenna A; Mendonça, Mary T; Holt, Daniel E; Johnston, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species. PMID:26398211

  18. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off. PMID:23083396

  19. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  20. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management. PMID:23323399

  1. A basic neural traffic noise prediction model for Tehran's roads.

    PubMed

    Givargis, Sh; Karimi, H

    2010-12-01

    We present an artificial neural network model to predict hourly A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (L(Aeq,1h)) for roads in Tehran at distances less than 4 m from the nearside carriageway edge. Our model uses the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) approach. Data were obtained from 50 sampling locations near five roads in Tehran at nearside carriageway edge distances of less than 4 m. The data were randomly assigned to training, testing, and holdout subsets. Model training was carried out using the training and testing subsets and comprised 60% and 20% of the data, respectively. Model validation was performed using the remaining 20% of data as a holdout subset. We examine the overall model efficiency using non-parametric tests, such as the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the training step and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for two independent samples for the validation step. Our results indicate that a neural network approach can be applied for traffic noise prediction in Tehran in a statistically sound manner. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test detects no significant difference between the absolute testing set errors of the developed neural network and a calibrated version of the CORTN model. PMID:20678858

  2. Epidemiology of Karachi road traffic crash mortality in 2013.

    PubMed

    Jooma, Rashid; Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2015-05-01

    Road Traffic Crash (RTC) is the eighth leading cause of death globally. In a recent World Health Organization report, there were 5,192 RTC deaths reported from Pakistan in 2010. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center (RTIRPC) is a unique public-private public health enterprise in Karachi, and collects data from five major public and private hospitals' emergency departments in the city. Cumulatively, 1130 deaths were recorded in the year 2013. Males accounted for 981 (86.8%) deaths. The most vulnerable decades of life were twenties and thirties; accounting for 307 (27.2%) of all deaths. In terms of involvement of vehicle type in fatalities; over half 577 (51.1%) of all fatalities involved motorbikes, while the second most common type of vehicle involved were buses/coasters which accounted for 108 (9.6%) fatalities. In the burgeoning cities of developing countries, road injury and fatality surveillance can fulfill a vital role in highlighting the human cost of rapid motorization. PMID:26028391

  3. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  4. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  5. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road.

    PubMed

    McClure, Christopher J W; Ware, Heidi E; Carlisle, Jay; Kaltenecker, Gregory; Barber, Jesse R

    2013-12-22

    Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale-thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals-alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off-during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our 'Phantom Road' and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites-suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals. PMID:24197411

  6. Genotoxicity Biomarkers Associated with Exposure to Traffic And Near-Road Atmospheres: A Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity Biomarkers Associated with Exposure to Traffic And Near-Road Atmospheres: A Review Diesel and gasoline emissions, which are the primary components of traffic exhaust, are known or possible human carcinogens, re...

  7. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  8. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  9. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ögren, Mikael; Barregard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year) and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year) were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure. PMID:27171440

  10. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    PubMed

    Ögren, Mikael; Barregard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year) and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year) were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure. PMID:27171440

  11. Noise sensitivity and road traffic annoyance in a population sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Y.; Rylander, R.

    1991-12-01

    Noise sensitivity was studied in a random sample of the population of Gothenburg, Sweden. The selected population of 805 persons received a mailed questionnaire comprising questions on self-reported noise sensitivity, attitudes to noise, annoyance due to environmental noises and the effect of noise on daily activities. The response rate was 56%. Noise sensitivity was most common in older age groups. Noise-sensitive individuals were more annoyed by road traffic noise, and also reported interference with daily activities to a higher extent than non-sensitive persons. Listening to music while working or reading was also less common in the noise-sensitive group.

  12. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part II: traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof; Blocken, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Flow and dispersion of traffic-emitted pollutants were studied in a generic urban neighborhood for various avenue-tree layouts by employing 3D steady RANS simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model. In comparison to the tree-free situation quantitative and qualitative changes with flow reversal in the wind field were observed. Low to moderate increases (<13.2%) in the neighborhood-averaged pollutant concentration were found at pedestrian level. An approximately 1% increase in the neighborhood-averaged concentration was obtained with each percent of the street canyon volumes being occupied by vegetation for occupation fractions between 4 and 14%. The overall pattern of concentration changes relative to the tree-free situation was similar for all avenue-tree layouts. However, pronounced locally restricted decreases or increases in concentration (-87 to +1378%) occurred. The results indicate the necessity to account for existing or planned avenue-trees in neighborhood scaled is dispersion studies. Their consideration is prerequisite for reliable urban air quality assessment. PMID:25463712

  13. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  14. Mobile system for on-road measurements of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katulski, Ryszard J.; Namieśnik, Jacek; Sadowski, Jarosław; Stefański, Jacek; Szymańska, Krystyna; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2010-04-01

    The paper presents a prototype of a mobile monitoring system for measuring the levels of the main traffic air pollutants (C6H6, NO2, NOx, CO, and CO2,) in cities. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the fact that it can be utilized to monitor emissions from urban traffic along roads and areas where traditional monitoring stations cannot be placed. In the proposed system, the monitoring device can be mounted on any moving vehicle (such as a car, bus, or truck) rather than be attached to a dedicated van, as most systems of this kind found in literature are. Analyzers used in this system are small portable structures that contain an electronic instrument to measure, record, and transmit relevant data on concentrations of the pollutants to a website. The model outcome for carbon monoxide obtained in functional tests in real conditions is also presented here. Data on temporal changes of carbon monoxide concentration are compared against meteorological parameters and speed of the vehicle. Spatial interpolation techniques are applied to obtain a nonplanar visualization of carbon monoxide and benzene concentrations in the main arteries of a city.

  15. Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Hansell, Anna L.; Gulliver, John; Morley, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B.; Beevers, Sean D.; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Kelly, Frank J.; Tonne, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Aims Road traffic noise has been associated with hypertension but evidence for the long-term effects on hospital admissions and mortality is limited. We examined the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on hospital admissions and mortality in the general population. Methods and results The study population consisted of 8.6 million inhabitants of London, one of Europe's largest cities. We assessed small-area-level associations of day- (7:00–22:59) and nighttime (23:00–06:59) road traffic noise with cardiovascular hospital admissions and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in all adults (≥25 years) and elderly (≥75 years) through Poisson regression models. We adjusted models for age, sex, area-level socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, air pollution, and neighbourhood spatial structure. Median daytime exposure to road traffic noise was 55.6 dB. Daytime road traffic noise increased the risk of hospital admission for stroke with relative risk (RR) 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.09] in adults, and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04–1.14) in the elderly in areas >60 vs. <55 dB. Nighttime noise was associated with stroke admissions only among the elderly. Daytime noise was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in adults [RR 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00–1.07) in areas >60 vs. <55 dB]. Positive but non-significant associations were seen with mortality for cardiovascular and ischaemic heart disease, and stroke. Results were similar for the elderly. Conclusions Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was associated with small increased risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, particularly for stroke in the elderly. PMID:26104392

  16. Road traffic accidents in Greece: recent trends (1981-1991).

    PubMed

    Kardara, M; Kondakis, X

    1997-10-01

    This study describes trends of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Greece over the past 11-year period. All casualties that occurred in Greece during the period 1981-1991 are analyzed. Trends in severity (as judged by the proportion of fatal or serious casualties) are studied. The rate 'casualty per registered vehicle' is also used and is mainly based on the number of road users killed or seriously injured. The total number of deaths presents a considerable increase by about 32%, but an important reduction of serious injuries was observed during the same period. The number of fatal injuries increased significantly only in drivers whereas no such increase is observed in passengers and pedestrians. In all three categories of road users, serious injuries decreased significantly with a similar linear regression slope. RTAs in Greece are also becoming less severe in all categories of road users. Accidents per registered vehicle decrease significantly in all road user groups and age groups. The slope of this decrease is rather exponential, suggestion that any further increase of the number of registered vehicles will be followed by a similar increase of the number of casualties so that the rate will tend to remain stable. This represents a very challenging situation of how to keep the number of casualties as low - or, at least, as stable - as possible despite high vehicle densities. There is uncertainty about the factors that led to the observed decreases, as it was difficult to single out effects of specific measures, because of data limitations. An improved data collection system is necessary in order to enable a more thorough analysis of casualty trends not fully addressed in this study. PMID:9384265

  17. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as “Bicycle Boulevards.” We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. Methods We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes – a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. Results We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and

  18. [Urban air pollutant exposure among traffic policemen].

    PubMed

    Priante, E; Schiavon, I; Boschi, G; Gori, G; Bartolucci, G B; Soave, C; Brugnone, F; Clonfero, E

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to dusts and benzene was studied in 65 traffic policemen. Samples of total dusts showed that mean personal exposure was 0.44 (SD = 0.30) mg/m3, with peaks of about 2 mg/m3. Exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), the main compound occurring in emissions from diesel engines, which was estimated from concentrations in dusts collected with high-flow samplers, was 0.28 (SD = 0.19) ng/m3 (range: 0.06-1.24 ng/m3). The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41 (SD = 20) micrograms/m3, although a level of 100 micrograms/m3 was slightly exceeded in one subject. In urine samples collected before and after workshifts, two biological indicators of exposure to benzene were measured, urinary benzene and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA). The mean values of urinary benzene before and after workshift were similar (98, SD = 81 and 83, SD = 55 ng/l; n = 63; Wilcoxon's T-test = not significant), while a moderate increase in the metabolite was observed (MA = 0.08, SD = 0.11; 0.11, SD = 0.09 mg/g creatinine, in pre- and post-shift samples respectively; Wilcoxon's T-test, z = 3.00; p < 0.01). The levels of exposure to dusts and 1-NP deriving from diesel engine emissions were comparable to those of other occupational groups with this type of risk (garage mechanics, workers operating diesel engine machinery, etc.). Traffic police exposure to benzene was similar to that of the whole population of Padova (40 micrograms/m3, mean annual 24-hour value). However, the values of urinary MA, like those reported by other authors for non-smoker controls, increased after the workshift, indicating low occupational exposure to this pollutant. It should be noted that traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of other occupational categories, e.g., fuel pump distributors. PMID:9102558

  19. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Christopher J. W.; Ware, Heidi E.; Carlisle, Jay; Kaltenecker, Gregory; Barber, Jesse R.

    2013-01-01

    Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale—thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals—alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off—during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our ‘Phantom Road’ and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites—suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals. PMID:24197411

  20. Community response to road traffic noise in Kumamoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Yamashita, T.; Izumi, K.

    1991-12-01

    The present study used the same questionnaire and noise measurement method as was employed in the Muroran-Gothenburg Joint Study. The object was to investigate the difference in community response owing to different environmental and/or social factors, such as climate, house structure, nationality and characteristics of the cities, by directly comparing data from Kumamoto (or Kyushu), Muroran (or Hokkaido) and, in the near future, Gothenburg. For the survey, an area along a main road in Kumamoto was selected, which had a traffic volume greater than 60 000 vehicles/day in 1989. The interview method was used in the survey. Day-long measurements were conducted at the reference point in the area and 10-minute simultaneous measurements were also conducted at the road shoulder and in front of the houses. The following main conclusions can be presented. (1) noise exposure in front of the wall facing the road may be greater than that in front of the wall of the living room. (2) Leq contributes most to TV/radio disturbance in Kumamoto, but contributes least in Muroran; this difference appears to be dependent upon the difference in noise exposure and window type: 96 dB(A) maximum noise level and single pane in Kumamoto vs. 86 dB(A) and double pane in Muroran.

  1. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  2. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  3. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  4. Evaluation of the social and economic burden of road traffic noise-attributed myocardial infarction in Bulgarian urban population.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2015-03-01

    Road traffic noise is a widely studied environmental risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction in particular. Given that myocardial infarction is a leading disability and mortality cause in Bulgaria and that a significant proportion of the urban population is exposed to high noise levels, quantification of the burden of disease attributable to traffic noise is essential for environmental health policy making and noise control engineering. This study aimed at estimating the burden of the myocardial infarction cases attributable to road traffic noise in the Bulgarian urban population. We used the methodology for estimating the burden of disease attributable to environmental noise outlined by the World Health Organization. Risk data were extracted from a recently published meta-analysis providing updated exposure-response relationship between traffic noise and the risk for myocardial infarction. Based on these data we calculated the fraction of myocardial infarction cases attributable to traffic noise, loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the economic burden, assuming € 12,000 per QALY. About 2.9 % or 101 of all myocardial infarction cases could be attributed to road traffic noise. Fifty-five of these were fatal. Nine hundred and sixty-eight QALYs were lost to these cases. The monetary value of these QALYs was about € 11.6 million. Although the measures used in this study are crude and give only an approximation of the real burden of disease from road traffic noise, they are indicative of the important social and economic aspect of noise pollution in Bulgaria. Hopefully, these results will direct the attention of epidemiologists, environmental hygienists, and health economists to this pivotal environmental issue. PMID:25719277

  5. The effect of road traffic noise on house prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. M.; Breston, B. E.; Hall, F. L.

    1982-02-01

    Existing U.K. legislation compensates home owners for house price depreciation due to increases in environmental noise caused by public works. Several previous studies have been attempted to show the effects of noise on house prices but have been inconclusive because of a failure to meet basic requirements for a rigorous analysis. In this paper these requirements are discussed and a study designed to fulfil them based on the southern Ontario housing market is described. Data on 2277 individual housing transactions at 51 sites close to major roadways were analyzed to determine the effects of road traffic noise on house prices. Results show that noise has a significant and consistent effect equal to approximately 254 per decibel depreciation at the arterial sites examined and 312 per decibel depreciation at the expressway sites.

  6. Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Navid; Naseer, Rizwan; Khan, Samina Mohsin; Macassa, Gloria; Hashmi, Waseem; Durrani, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005-2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16-35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement. PMID:22047006

  7. Path Analysis of the Community Response to Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    Path analysis was applied to data collected in a social survey on the community response to traffic noise along a trunk road in Tokyo. The data were collected from more than 390 female residents by means of a questionnaire. A path model was developed for the causal relation of the noise annoyance, dissatisfaction with living environment, and the wish of the respondents to move to the antecedent variables, including noise levels, personal factors, and noise effects. The strongest effect on annoyance was for the noise level, followed by interferences with daily activities. The model explains 43% of the variation in annoyance. The dissatisfaction with the living environment and wish of respondents to move depended strongly on noise annoyance, but other factors should also be considered, as only 33% and 19% of their variation, respectively, could be explained by the model.

  8. A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic emissions at a city scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, A. P. R.; Hinchliffe, G.; McMullan, W. A.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effectiveness of trees at dispersing road traffic emissions on a city scale. CFD simulations of air-pollutant concentrations were performed using the OpenFOAM software platform using the k-ε model. Results were validated against the CODASC wind tunnel database before being applied to a LIDAR database of buildings and trees representing the City of Leicester (UK). Most other CFD models in the literature typically use idealised buildings to model wind flow and pollution dispersion. However, the methodology used in this study uses real buildings and trees data from LIDAR to reconstruct a 3D representation of Leicester City Centre. It focuses on a 2 × 2 km area which is on a scale larger than those usually used in other CFD studies. Furthermore, the primary focus of this study is on the interaction of trees with wind flow dynamics. It was found that in effect, trees have a regionally beneficial impact on road traffic emissions by increasing turbulence and reducing ambient concentrations of road traffic emissions by 7% at pedestrian height on average. This was an important result given that previous studies generally concluded that trees trapped pollution by obstructing wind flow in street canyons. Therefore, this study is novel both in its methodology and subsequent results, highlighting the importance of combining local and regional scale models for assessing the impact of trees in urban planning.

  9. A comparative study of traffic related air pollution next to a motorway and a motorway flyover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Poppel, Martine; Int Panis, Luc; Govarts, Eva; Van Houtte, Jeroen; Maenhaut, Willy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the vertical position of a motorway on the pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of the motorway. Therefore, a near-road monitoring campaign was performed along two adjoining motorway stretches: one motorway at ground level and a motorway flyover. PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NOx) were measured at both sides of the motorway on a 30-min resolution. In addition, EC (elemental carbon) was measured on both sides of the road on a daily basis using low volume samplers and thermal-optical transmission (TOT) analysis of filters. PNC (particle number concentration) was measured at one side. The measurement locations on each side of the road were located at 29 m and 102 m from the motorway at ground level and at 60 m and 120 m from the motorway flyover. Pollution roses, showed increased average concentrations in the direction of the road for nitrogen oxides and PM2.5. The impact of road traffic appeared to be higher at ground level compared to the flyover. The difference in concentration between both sides of the road for PM2.5, NO, NO2 and NOx was analysed using linear mixed models. The concentration difference, which can be seen as the contribution of road traffic to the pollutant concentration, was calculated taking into account prevailing wind directions. The results indicate that taking into account confounding parameters (time of day, day of the week, distance to the road and wind speed), the contribution of the motorway traffic to pollutant concentrations is significantly higher when the motorway is at ground level. Furthermore, time of day and day of the week also have a significant effect on the concentration difference. The linear mixed model estimated a reduced road increment at the motorway flyover compared to the ground level motorway of 119 ppb for NO, 29 ppb for NO2 and 3.5 μg m-3 for PM2.5. taking into account confounding parameters. The highest EC and PNC concentrations were measured

  10. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Mortality: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; Gouveia, Nelson; Machado, Reinaldo Paul Pérez; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Almeida, Márcia Furquim

    2009-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of air pollution may affect the health of children, as indicated by studies of infant and perinatal mortality. Scientific evidence has also correlated low birth weight and preterm birth, which are important determinants of perinatal death, with air pollution. However, most of these studies used ambient concentrations measured at monitoring sites, which may not consider differential exposure to pollutants found at elevated concentrations near heavy-traffic roadways. Objectives Our goal was to examine the association between traffic-related pollution and perinatal mortality. Methods We used the information collected for a case–control study conducted in 14 districts in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding risk factors for perinatal deaths. We geocoded the residential addresses of cases (fetal and early neonatal deaths) and controls (children who survived the 28th day of life) and calculated a distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) measure considering all roads contained in a buffer surrounding these homes. Results Logistic regression revealed a gradient of increasing risk of early neonatal death with higher exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Mothers exposed to the highest quartile of the DWTD compared with those less exposed exhibited approximately 50% increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–3.19). Associations for fetal mortality were less consistent. Conclusions These results suggest that motor vehicle exhaust exposures may be a risk factor for perinatal mortality. PMID:19165399

  11. Modeling the Concentrations of On-Road Air Pollutants in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Jun; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Fruin, Scott A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants on roadways, relative to ambient concentrations, contribute significantly to total personal exposure. Estimation of these exposures requires measurements or prediction of roadway concentrations. Our study develops, compares and evaluates linear regression and non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) to estimate on-road concentrations of four key air pollutants, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), particle number count (PNC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) using traffic, meteorology, and elevation variables. Critical predictors included wind speed and direction for all the pollutants, traffic-related variables for PB-PAH, PNC, and NOx, and air temperatures and relative humidity for PM2.5. GAMs explained 50%, 55%, 46%, and 71% of the variance for log or square-root transformed concentrations of PB-PAH, PNC, NOx, and PM2.5 respectively, an improvement of 5 to over 15% over the linear models. Accounting for temporal autocorrelation in the GAMs further improved the prediction, explaining 57-89% of the variance. We concluded that traffic and meteorological data are good predictors in estimating on-road traffic-related air pollutant concentrations and GAMs perform better for non-linear variables, such as meteorological parameters. PMID:23859442

  12. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  13. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  14. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m3 in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83–1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m3 corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68–1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  15. Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

  16. Greasy roads: the impact of bad financial news on road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Kavetsos, Georgios; Dolan, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We use evidence from a natural experiment in Greece to study the effect of the announcement of austerity measures on road traffic accidents (RTAs). We use daily RTA data from 2010 and 2011, during which a number of austerity measures were announced, including salary and pension cuts and an increase in direct and indirect taxes. We find that controlling for other factors potentially influencing RTAs, the number of RTAs increased significantly on the first two days following the announcements of austerity measures. We put forward some tentative suggestions for why this happens. PMID:24117892

  17. Does Temperature Modify the Effects of Rain and Snow Precipitation on Road Traffic Injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Kyung; Lee, Hye-Ah; Hwang, Seung-sik; Kim, Ho; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data on the interaction between temperature and snow and rain precipitation, although they could interact in their effects on road traffic injuries. Methods The integrated database of the Korea Road Traffic Authority was used to calculate the daily frequency of road traffic injuries in Seoul. Weather data included rain and snow precipitation, temperature, pressure, and fog from May 2007 to December 2011. Precipitation of rain and snow were divided into nine and six temperature range categories, respectively. The interactive effects of temperature and rain and snow precipitation on road traffic injuries were analyzed using a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution. Results The risk of road traffic injuries during snow increased when the temperature was below freezing. Road traffic injuries increased by 6.6% when it was snowing and above 0°C, whereas they increased by 15% when it was snowing and at or below 0°C. In terms of heavy rain precipitation, moderate temperatures were related to an increased prevalence of injuries. When the temperature was 0–20°C, we found a 12% increase in road traffic injuries, whereas it increased by 8.5% and 6.8% when it was <0°C and >20°C, respectively. The interactive effect was consistent across the traffic accident subtypes. Conclusions The effect of adverse weather conditions on road traffic injuries differed depending on the temperature. More road traffic injuries were related to rain precipitation when the temperature was moderate and to snow when it was below freezing. PMID:26073021

  18. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-01-01

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants. PMID:26457711

  19. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-01

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants. PMID:26457711

  20. Road traffic noise shielding by vegetation belts of limited depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Botteldooren, D.; Verheyen, K.

    2012-05-01

    Road traffic noise propagation through a vegetation belt of limited depth (15 m) containing periodically arranged trees along a road is numerically assessed by means of 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. The computational cost is reduced by only modeling a representative strip of the planting scheme and assuming periodic extension by applying mirror planes. With increasing tree stem diameter and decreasing spacing, traffic noise insertion loss is predicted to be more pronounced for each planting scheme considered (simple cubic, rectangular, triangular and face-centered cubic). For rectangular schemes, the spacing parallel to the road axis is predicted to be the determining parameter for the acoustic performance. Significant noise reduction is predicted to occur for a tree spacing of less than 3 m and a tree stem diameter of more than 0.11 m. This positive effect comes on top of the increase in ground effect (near 3 dBA for a light vehicle at 70 km/h) when compared to sound propagation over grassland. The noise reducing effect of the forest floor and the optimized tree belt arrangement are found to be of similar importance in the calculations performed. The effect of shrubs with typical above-ground biomass is estimated to be at maximum 2 dBA in the uniform scattering approach applied for a light vehicle at 70 km/h. Downward scattering from tree crowns is predicted to be smaller than 1 dBA for a light vehicle at 70 km/h, for various distributions of scattering elements representing the tree crown. The effect of the presence of tree stems, shrubs and tree crowns is predicted to be approximately additive. Inducing some (pseudo)randomness in stem center location, tree diameter, and omitting a limited number of rows with trees seem to hardly affect the insertion loss. These predictions suggest that practically achievable vegetation belts can compete to the noise reducing performance of a classical thin noise barrier (on grassland) with a height of 1

  1. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  2. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  3. A comparison of exposure metrics for traffic-related air pollutants: application to epidemiology studies in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  4. Methods to improve traffic flow and noise exposure estimation on minor roads.

    PubMed

    Morley, David W; Gulliver, John

    2016-09-01

    Address-level estimates of exposure to road traffic noise for epidemiological studies are dependent on obtaining data on annual average daily traffic (AADT) flows that is both accurate and with good geographical coverage. National agencies often have reliable traffic count data for major roads, but for residential areas served by minor roads, especially at national scale, such information is often not available or incomplete. Here we present a method to predict AADT at the national scale for minor roads, using a routing algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS) to rank roads by importance based on simulated journeys through the road network. From a training set of known minor road AADT, routing importance is used to predict AADT on all UK minor roads in a regression model along with the road class, urban or rural location and AADT on the nearest major road. Validation with both independent traffic counts and noise measurements show that this method gives a considerable improvement in noise prediction capability when compared to models that do not give adequate consideration to minor road variability (Spearman's rho. increases from 0.46 to 0.72). This has significance for epidemiological cohort studies attempting to link noise exposure to adverse health outcomes. PMID:27350039

  5. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.; Tang, Wei; Freeman, Matthew J.; Heist, David K.; Perry, Steven G.; Vette, Alan F.

    2011-05-01

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution through altering the dispersion of traffic emissions and resulting downstream concentrations. A 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 6-lane road model has been developed to simulate roadside barrier effects on near-road air quality and evaluate the influence of key variables, such as barrier height and wind direction. The CFD model matches an existing wind tunnel road model and comparison with the wind tunnel data guided the selection of the optimal turbulence model (Realizeable k- ɛ turbulence model with a Schmidt number of 1.0). Under winds perpendicular to the road, CFD model simulations show that roadside barriers reduce the concentration of an inert gaseous tracer ( χ), relative to a no-barrier situation, vertically up to approximately half the barrier height and at all horizontal distances from the road. At 20 m (3.3 H, where H = 6 m) from the road, barriers of heights ranging from 0.5 H to 3.0 H reduce the maximum concentrations by 15-61% relative to a no-barrier case, with the location of the maximum shifted to occur near the top of the barrier. The near-road reduction comes at a penalty for on-road air pollutant concentrations: on-road pollution is projected to increase by a factor of 1.1-2.3 corresponding to barriers ranging from 0.5 H to 3.0 H. When the noise barrier is downwind of the road, a stagnant zone is formed behind the barrier and minor road emissions (e.g., 5% of the highway emissions strength) in this zone, such as a moderately traveled service road, have a magnified effect on concentrations immediately behind the barrier. Wind direction and barrier termination also play a critical role, with a spill-over of accumulated emissions upwind of the barrier strongly increasing near-road concentrations at one end of the barrier. These results imply that roadside barriers may mitigate

  6. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  7. Effects of natural sounds on the perception of road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Coensel, Bert De; Vanwetswinkel, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies show that introducing sound from water features in urban open spaces may reduce the loudness of road traffic noise, but it is not clear in which situations this measure also improves overall soundscape quality. This work describes a listening experiment on loudness, pleasantness, and eventfulness of stimuli that combine road traffic noise with fountain or bird sound at different sound levels. Adding fountain sound reduced the loudness of road traffic noise only if the latter had low temporal variability. Conversely, adding bird sound significantly enhanced soundscape pleasantness and eventfulness, more than what was achieved by adding fountain sound. PMID:21476622

  8. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

  9. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  10. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2015-02-15

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping.

  11. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  12. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women) cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3) in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3). The exercise intensity (heart rate) and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004) after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003) than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83). The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear. PMID:20973949

  13. Concentration and oxidative potential of on-road particle emissions and their relationship with traffic composition: Relevance to exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Miljevic, Branka; Cong, Xiaochun; Fairfull-Smith, Kathryn E.; Bottle, Steve E.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    2012-11-01

    Particles emitted by vehicles are known to cause detrimental health effects, with their size and oxidative potential among the main factors responsible. Therefore, understanding the relationship between traffic composition and both the physical characteristics and oxidative potential of particles is critical. To contribute to the limited knowledge base in this area, we investigated this relationship in a 4.5 km road tunnel in Brisbane, Australia. On-road concentrations of ultrafine particles (<100 nm, UFPs), fine particles (PM2.5), CO, CO2 and particle associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using vehicle-based mobile sampling. UFPs were measured using a condensation particle counter and PM2.5 with a DustTrak aerosol photometer. A new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to determine ROS levels. Comparative measurements were also performed on an above-ground road to assess the role of emission dilution on the parameters measured. The profile of UFP and PM2.5 concentration with distance through the tunnel was determined, and demonstrated relationships with both road gradient and tunnel ventilation. ROS levels in the tunnel were found to be high compared to an open road with similar traffic characteristics, which was attributed to the substantial difference in estimated emission dilution ratios on the two roadways. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the levels of pollutants and ROS were generally better correlated with total traffic count, rather than the traffic composition (i.e. diesel and gasoline-powered vehicles). A possible reason for the lack of correlation with HDV, which has previously been shown to be strongly associated with UFPs especially, was the low absolute numbers encountered during the sampling. This may have made their contribution to in-tunnel pollution largely indistinguishable from the total vehicle volume. For ROS, the stronger association observed with HDV and gasoline vehicles when combined (total

  14. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  15. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates. PMID:25844042

  16. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    PubMed

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated. PMID:25950039

  17. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  18. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Baldauf, Richard W; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Zhang, K Max

    2016-01-15

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; however, the characteristics of these barriers needed to ensure pollution reductions are not well understood. Designing vegetation barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution requires a mechanistic understanding of how barrier configurations affect the transport of traffic-related air pollutants. We first evaluated the performance of the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to capture the effects of vegetation barriers on near-road air quality, compared against field data. Next, CTAG with LES was employed to explore the effects of six conceptual roadside vegetation/solid barrier configurations on near-road size-resolved particle concentrations, governed by dispersion and deposition. Two potentially viable design options are revealed: a) a wide vegetation barrier with high Leaf Area Density (LAD), and b) vegetation-solid barrier combinations, i.e., planting trees next to a solid barrier. Both designs reduce downwind particle concentrations significantly. The findings presented in the study will assist urban planning and forestry organizations with evaluating different green infrastructure design options. PMID:26457737

  19. Sleep disturbances from road traffic noise: A comparison between laboratory and field settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skånberg, A.; Öhrström, E.

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in the effects of noise on sleep between studies performed in the laboratory and in field settings with equal road traffic noise exposure. Fourteen subjects, living along a street with a relatively high load of road traffic and with bedroom windows facing the street, slept four nights at home and four nights in a sleep laboratory, where they were exposed to played back "home road traffic noise". Effects on sleep were evaluated by questionnaires and wrist-actigraphy. No significant differences in sleep quality were found between home and laboratory conditions on variables assessed either by questionnaires or wrist-actigraphy. It was concluded that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate the effects of road traffic noise on sleep, provided that sleep is studied with the same methods and that a homelike environment is created in the laboratory.

  20. A numerical and experimental study of pollutant dispersion in a traffic tunnel.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chung-Yi; Chung, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional turbulent flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a road tunnel was modeled using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model and solved numerically using the finite volume method. Vehicle emissions were estimated from the measured traffic flow rates and modeled as banded line sources along the tunnel floor. The effects of fan ventilation and piston effect of moving vehicles on the airflow and pollutant dilution were examined. The numerical results reveal that a peak velocity exists near the tunnel floor due to the piston effect of vehicles. The cross-sectional concentrations of air pollutants are non-uniformly distributed and concentrations rise with downstream distance. The piston effect of vehicles can alone provide 25%-34% dilution of air pollutants in the tunnel, compounded 43%-70% dilution effect according to the ventilation condition. PMID:17057955

  1. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  2. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  3. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. PMID:25128882

  4. Development of outdoor exposure model of traffic-related air pollution for epidemiologic research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nataami, Taro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Shima, Masayuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yokota, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The emissions from road traffic was estimated at high spatial resolution along the paths of roads taking into account the effects of individual building shape and traffic signals to secure accuracy near trunk roads where most of the subjects of the epidemiological study resided. Model performance was confirmed by field measurements at permanent local government stations and purpose-built temporary stations; the latter supplemented roadside monitoring points and provided EC concentrations, which are not measured routinely. We infer that EC emissions were underestimated by using the available database because there were significant contributions to EC concentrations from sources that did not emit much NOx. An adjustment concentration yielded good agreement between model estimates and field measurements. PMID:23715083

  5. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants: self reported traffic intensity versus GIS modelled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Gehring, U; Cyrys, J; Brauer, M; Hoek, G; Fischer, P; Bellander, T; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: In epidemiological studies of the potential health effects of traffic related air pollution, self reported traffic intensity is a commonly used, but rarely validated, exposure variable. Methods: As part of a study on the impact of Traffic Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA), data from 2633 and 673 infants from the Dutch and the German-Munich cohorts, respectively, were available. Parents subjectively assessed traffic intensity at the home address. Objective exposures were estimated by a combination of spatial air pollution measurements and geographic information system (GIS) based modelling using an identical method for both cohorts. Results: The agreement rates between self reported and GIS modelled exposure—accumulated over the three strata of self assessed traffic intensity—were 55–58% for PM2.5, filter absorbance (PM2.5 abs), and nitrogen dioxide in Munich and 39–40% in the Netherlands. Of the self reported low traffic exposed group, 71–73% in Munich and 45–47% in the Netherlands had low modelled exposure to these three air pollutants. Of the self assessed high exposed subgroups in Munich (15% of the total population) and the Netherlands (22% of the total population), only 22–33% and 30–32% respectively had high modelled exposure to the three air pollutants. The subjective assessments tend to overestimate the modelled estimates for PM2.5 and NO2 in both study areas. When analysis was restricted to the portion of the Dutch cohort living in non-urban areas, the agreement rates were even lower. Conclusions: Self reported and modelled assessment of exposure to air pollutants are only weakly associated. PMID:16046603

  6. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  7. Risk assessment on an Argentinean road with a dynamic traffic simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna

    2014-05-01

    The National Route 7 in Argentina is one of the most important corridors crossing the Andean Cordillera. It concentrates most of the traffic related to the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), it also connects Mendoza city (the fourth most populated in Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (the Chile capital city), and is used by tourists to access to the Aconcagua National park, Puente del Inca natural monument, skiing resorts, and to local displacements for the villages along the Mendoza valley. The road crosses the Andes through the Mendoza river valley at an elevation between 2'000 and 3'000 m. The traffic (2500 vehicles/day) is composed of motorcycles, cars and pickup trucks, trucks without trailer, buses, and semi-trailer trucks. Debris flows developed along tributaries of the Mendoza River, and due to remobilization of talus materials, impact frequently the road, causing traffic disruptions, bridges damages, etc. Rock falls detached from highly fractured outcrops also impact frequently the road, causing sometimes casualties. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk along sections of the National Road 7 develop along the Mendoza river, using a dynamic traffic simulator based on MATLAB© routine. The dynamic traffic simulator developed for natural hazards events on roads consider different scenarios based on traffic speeds, vehicle types, interactions types, road properties and natural processes. Here we show that vehicle types and traffic variations may influence the risk estimation. The analyzed risk on several critical sections of the National Route 7 demonstrates that risk may significantly increase: 1) on sinuous sections, steep sections and because of road conditions changes (exit of tunnel, bridges, road width, etc.) because of decreasing vehicle speed, particularly with semi-trailer trucks; 2) when an event, such a debris flow, occurs and generates a vehicle tailback increasing their duration presence in the risk area.

  8. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  9. Variation of Site Specific Pollutants with Vehicular Traffic in New Delhi: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S.; Shukla, A.

    2014-12-01

    Delhi, capital of India, is one of the most important polluted urban areas in the world. With a population of about 16 million, and an annual average growth rate of 3.85%, a rapidly increasing number of vehicles (more than 7.4 million, with an annual average growth rate of 7.27%, as reported by the Economic Survey of Delhi, 2012-2013), Delhi is facing an aggressive rise in vehicular pollution. Ground-level traffic vehicles in Delhi are typically natural gas fueled, gasoline fueled or diesel-fueled. The traffic-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), lead (Pb), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] have huge impact on the health of the population given high exposure risk for daily commuters. We conducted on-roadway ambient monitoring on National Highway-2 (NH-2; Delhi-Mathura Road), on the southeast outer zone of Delhi represented by heterogeneous traffic during heavy traffic hours in the morning and early evening, with varying vehicle speeds ranging 35-60 km/h. Ambient levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3, NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and certain VOCs (benzene, xylene, ethylbenze) were recorded. In addition, traffic volume count surveys were carried out to record the number of vehicles in different hours of the day, moving across the count point during a given time. Specific traffic volume counts were also conducted at the location to understand the flow of traffic. Vehicle counts classified the vechicles into separate categories: buses (9.1%), trucks (9.2%), cars (41.6%), two-wheelers (30.3%), auto-rickshaws (6%) and other non-motorized traffic (3.9%). Statistical models have been developed to predict on-roadway pollutant concentrations in terms of specific vehicle counts, and weather parameters (temperature, wind speed). Results suggest that two-wheelers and auto-rickshaws significantly impact PM concentrations. Concentrations of BC are a

  10. The Journey from Traffic Offender to Severe Road Trauma Victim: Destiny or Preventive Opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kwok M.; Rao, Sudhakar; Burrell, Maxine; Weeramanthri, Tarun S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. Methodology and Principal Findings Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14–1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08–1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death—all in a ‘dose-related’ fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. Significance Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or

  11. Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as a measure of exposure.

    PubMed

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Olabarria, Marta; Novoa, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    There is no consensus on whether the risk of road traffic injury is higher among men or among women. Comparison between studies is difficult mainly due to the different exposure measures used to estimate the risk. The measures of exposure to the risk of road traffic injury should be people's mobility measures, but frequently authors use other measures such population or vehicles mobility. We compare road traffic injury risk in men and women, by age, mode of transport and severity, using the time people spend travelling as the exposure measure, in Catalonia for the period 2004-2008. This is a cross-sectional study including all residents aged over 3 years. The road traffic injury rate was calculated using the number of people injured, from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority as numerator, and the person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey carried out by the Catalan regional government, as denominator. Sex and age specific rates by mode of transport and severity were calculated, and Poisson regression models were fitted. Among child pedestrians and young drivers, males present higher risk of slight and severe injury, and in the oldest groups women present higher risk. The death rate is always higher in men. There exists interaction between sex and age in road traffic injury risk. Therefore, injury risk is higher among men in some age groups, and among women in other groups, but these age groups vary depending on mode of transport and severity. PMID:24384384

  12. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research. PMID:24974915

  13. Reporting on road traffic injury: content analysis of injuries and prevention opportunities in Ghanaian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Browne, Edmund N L; Tagbor, H; Donkor, Peter; Quansah, Robert; Asare, George Ernest; Mock, Charles N; Ebel, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse traffic injury reporting in Ghanaian newspapers and identify opportunities for improving road safety, the content of 240 articles on road traffic injury was reviewed from 2005 to 2006 editions of two state-owned and two privately owned newspapers. The articles comprised reports on vehicle crashes (37%), commentaries (33%), informational pieces (12%), reports on pedestrian injury (10%), and editorials (8%). There was little coverage of pedestrian injuries, which account for half of the traffic fatalities in Ghana, but only 22% of newspaper reports. Only two articles reported on seatbelt use. Reporting patterns were similar between public and private papers, but private papers more commonly recommended government action (50%) than did public papers (32%, p=0.006). It is concluded that Ghanaian papers provide detailed coverage of traffic injury. Areas for improvement include pedestrian injury and attention to preventable risk factors such as road risk factors, seatbelt use, speed control, and alcohol use. PMID:20570987

  14. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    PubMed

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession. PMID:25341601

  15. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation.

    PubMed

    Ware, Heidi E; McClure, Christopher J W; Carlisle, Jay D; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-09-29

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a "phantom road" using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  16. No exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF after cycling near a major traffic road.

    PubMed

    Bos, I; Jacobs, L; Nawrot, T S; de Geus, B; Torfs, R; Int Panis, L; Degraeuwe, B; Meeusen, R

    2011-08-15

    Commuting by bike has a clear health enhancing effect. Moreover, regular exercise is known to improve brain plasticity, which results in enhanced cognition and memory performance. Animal research has clearly shown that exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF - a neurotrophine) enhancing brain plasticity. Studies in humans found an increase in serum BDNF concentration in response to an acute exercise bout. Recently, more evidence is emerging suggesting that exposure to air pollution (such as particulate matter (PM)) is higher in commuter cyclists compared to car drivers. Furthermore, exposure to PM is linked to negative neurological effects, such as neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. We carried-out a cross-over experiment to examine the acute effect of exercise on serum BDNF, and the potential effect-modification by exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Thirty eight physically fit, non-asthmatic volunteers (mean age: 43, 26% women) performed two cycling trials, one near a major traffic road (Antwerp Ring, R1, up to 260,000 vehicles per day) and one in an air-filtered room. The air-filtered room was created by reducing fine particles as well as ultrafine particles (UFP). PM10, PM2.5 and UFP were measured. The duration (∼20min) and intensity of cycling were kept the same for each volunteer for both cycling trials. Serum BDNF concentrations were measured before and 30min after each cycling trial. Average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 64.9μg/m(3) and 24.6μg/m(3) in cycling near a major ring way, in contrast to 7.7μg/m(3) and 2.0μg/m(3) in the air-filtered room. Average concentrations of UFP were 28,180 particles/cm(3) along the road in contrast to 496 particles/cm(3) in the air-filtered room. As expected, exercise significantly increased serum BDNF concentration after cycling in the air-filtered room (+14.4%; p=0.02). In contrast, serum BDNF concentrations did not increase after cycling near the major traffic route (+0.5%; p

  17. Estimation of annual average daily traffic for off-system roads in Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Zhao, F.; Ospina, D.I.

    1999-07-28

    Estimation of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is extremely important in traffic planning and operations for the state departments of transportation (DOTs), because AADT provides information for the planning of new road construction, determination of roadway geometry, congestion management, pavement design, safety considerations, etc. AADT is also used to estimate state wide vehicle miles traveled on all the roads and is used by local governments and the environmental protection agencies to determine compliance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. Additionally, AADT is reported annually by the Florida Department of transportation (FDOT) to the Federal Highway Administration. In the past, considerable efforts have been made in obtaining traffic counts to estimate AADT on state roads. However, traffic counts are often not available on off-system roads, and less attention has been paid to the estimation of AADT in the absence of counts. Current estimates rely on comparisons with roads that are subjectively considered to be similar. Such comparisons are inherently subject to large errors, and also may not be repeated often enough to remain current. Therefore, a better method is needed for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida. This study investigates the possibility of establishing one or more models for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida.

  18. Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    This study identified the levels and sources of heavy metal contamination in road dust from busy traffic areas in a typical industrial city in Korea. This study compared the total concentrations, as determined by aqua regia digestions and atomic absorption spectroscopy, of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in the road dust from areas with different characteristics such as traffic rotaries, downtown areas, circulation roads, and asphalt and concrete highways. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were evaluated using the contamination factor and the degree of contamination. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were highly dependent on traffic volume and atmospheric dispersion from traffic rotaries. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels in downtown areas. The concrete highway had higher contamination levels of the heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a strong contributing factor to the degree of contamination of heavy metals in the road dust from the circulation roads and highways. PMID:20937547

  19. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country’s political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes. PMID:26478628

  20. [Modeling the vehicle pollution in the urban streets before and during the Beijing Olympic Games traffic control period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Shao-dong

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate the vehicle pollution situation in the streets in Beijing and the abatement during the Olympic Games, the OSPM model was applied to calculate the concentrations of PM10, CO, NO2 and O3 inside the urban streets of Beijing before and during the Olympic traffic controlling period in July, 2008. The modeled concentrations before the traffic control are 146 micog/m3, 3.83 mg/m3, 114.4 microg/m3 and 4.71 x 10(-1), while after the traffic control are 112 microg/m3, 3.16 mg/m3, 102.4 microg/m3 and 5.31 x 10(-9) , with the reduction rates of 23.4%, 20.5%, 10.5% and -12.5%, respectively. The research on these concentration changes and the daily variations of the pollutants reveals: the concentration of PM10 is most influenced by the traffic control; the concentration of CO presents the most similar daily variation with the traffic flow; the reduction of NO2 concentration is limited, indicating the influence of other factors other than the traffic emission; the concentration of O3 increases after the traffic control, which means the traffic management measures can not abate the O3 pollution in the street. Furthermore, the comparison between the calculation results in different types of street canyons reveals that the fleet composition and street geometry impact the concentration changes. In a word, the vehicle pollution inside the streets of Beijing before the traffic control is relatively serious, as the concentrations of PM10, CO and NO2, all approach or exceed the Grade II National Air Quality Standard; the traffic control measures take effect in reducing the primary pollutants, but the secondary pollutants may increase after the traffic control. PMID:20358809

  1. Effects of road traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane noises. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane flyover noises. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-noise types and 3 noise levels. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-noise types and 4 noise levels. In both experiments the airplane noises were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-noise levels than in the presence of low traffic-noise levels.

  2. Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Eva; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Winkler, Aldo; Cascella, Antonio

    We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole lifespan. In a second step, leaves from Q. ilex and Platanus sp. trees, both very common in Rome, have been used to monitor traffic emission pollution in two different periods. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was undertaken in October 2001, at the end of the seasonal vegetational cycle, and 5 Q. ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. The strong difference observed in the magnetic susceptibility from leaves collected in green areas and roads allowed the realization of detailed pollution distribution maps from the south of Rome. Magnetic properties indicate that high concentrations and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles are observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. The decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside confirms that magnetic properties of leaves are related to air pollution from vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  3. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD. PMID:25310938

  4. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate < 200 g of fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13–1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11–1.42) for mortality from all causes. Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22950554

  5. Acoustical and perceptual assessment of water sounds and their use over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Ali, Tahrir T

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physical and perceptual properties of water sounds generated by small to medium sized water features that have applications for road traffic noise masking. A large variety of water sounds were produced in the laboratory by varying design parameters. Analysis showed that estimations can be made on how these parameters affect sound pressure levels, frequency content, and psychoacoustic properties. Comparisons with road traffic noise showed that there is a mismatch between the frequency responses of traffic noise and water sounds, with the exception of waterfalls with high flow rates, which can generate large low frequency levels comparable to traffic noise. Perceptual assessments were carried out in the context of peacefulness and relaxation, where both water sounds and noise from dense road traffic were audible. Results showed that water sounds should be similar or not less than 3 dB below the road traffic noise level (confirming previous research), and that stream sounds tend to be preferred to fountain sounds, which are in turn preferred to waterfall sounds. Analysis made on groups of sounds also indicated that low sharpness and large temporal variations were preferred on average, although no acoustical or psychoacoustical parameter correlated well with the individual sound preferences. PMID:23297897

  6. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  7. Economic burden of road traffic injuries: a micro-costing approach.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the economic burden incurred from road traffic injuries in Thailand. It was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective, employing a micro-costing bottom-up approach. It covered direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost or productivity loss. Productivity loss covers the costs of work absence or death due to road traffic injuries suffered by persons of working age. We collected data on road traffic injuries and resource utilization which occurred in the fiscal year 2004. A simple random sampling was used to select 200 patients for analysis. The average cost of road traffic injuries per patient was USD 2,596 at 2004 prices. This can be divided into direct cost (USD 102, or 4%) and indirect cost (USD 2,494, or 96%). From these results, we can see that the indirect cost far outweighed the direct cost. To base decisions regarding road safety campaigns on savings of direct costs, particularly direct medical costs, is inadequate. Therefore, data on the complete cost of illness should be taken into account in the planning and creation of a road safety policy. PMID:19062706

  8. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Heidi E.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Carlisle, Jay D.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a “phantom road” using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  9. Road Traffic Noise and Annoyance: A Quantification of the Effect of Quiet Side Exposure at Dwellings

    PubMed Central

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Janssen, Sabine A.; Vos, Henk; Salomons, Erik M.; Zhou, Han; van den Berg, Frits

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a “quiet side” to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the most and least exposed façade (Lden,most and Lden,least respectively) of dwellings for subjects in a population based survey (N = 1,967). It was investigated if and to what extent relative quietness at the least exposed façade affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance by comparing two groups: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade; (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (large versus small difference in exposure between most and least exposed façade; DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB respectively). In addition, it was investigated if and to what extent Lden,least affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance. Results indicate a significantly lower road traffic noise annoyance score at a given Lden,most, in the subgroup with DIF ≥ 10 dB versus DIF < 10 dB. Furthermore, results suggest an effect of Lden,least independent of Lden,most. The estimated size of the effect expressed in an equivalent change in Lden,most approximated 5 dB for both the difference between the two subgroups (DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB), and for a 10 dB change in Lden,least. PMID:23736655

  10. Road Traffic Noise in Nigeria: Measurements, Analysis and Evaluation of Nuisance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ONUU, M. U.

    2000-06-01

    The investigation comprised field measurements of road traffic noise at over 60 sites in 8 cities in South-Eastern Nigeria and psychological survey, by questionnaires, of respondents living and working close to the sites. Instantaneous and 24 h noise measurements were made at the noisiest points, near the facades, of the houses of more than 150 respondents in the neighbourhood of each site. Several noise descriptors were either measured or calculated. Measured values ofLmax were as high as 105 dB (A) while residents were exposed to instantaneous levels of road traffic noise as high as 110 dB (A). Values of Leqand Ldnwere 84·6 and 68·0 dB (A), respectively, and sometimes higher in some of the sites. The calculated L10correlated positively with field data with a correlation coefficient of 0·8551. It was found that the measuredL10 was always higher than the calculated L10by about 4·5-8·8 dB (A) probably because of the reckless use of horn by motorists and reflection from the hills and trees. The type of house lived in, the disturbance of various activities by road traffic noise and neighbourhood noises which were most annoying to residents, were found to strongly affect the percentage of responses obtained with respective correlation coefficients of 0·9925, 0·9714 and 0·7237. The usual poor correlation, ranging from 0·3 to 0·4, between dissatisfaction response and noise exposure were obtained in this investigation. There appeared to be an income bias with respect to community response to road traffic noise, with low-income neighbourhoods reporting less annoyance and disruption of various activities by road traffic noise, and some evidence of adaptation to road traffic noise by residents of busy cities in South-Eastern Nigeria.

  11. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H. L. M.; Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Okkerse, W.-J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X. C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on urban streets and the other modelling the introduction of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometres on urban streets, were both compared to a scenario following “business-as-usual”: 2020-BAU. The annual average concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) were modelled separately in busy street canyons, near urban motorways and in the remainder of the urban area. It was concluded that traffic-related CO2 emissions in 2020-BAU could be expected to remain at the levels of 2010 in Basel and Rotterdam, while in Xi'an and Suzhou to increase 30-50% due to growth in the traffic volume. Traffic-related CO2 emissions may be reduced by up to 5% and 25%, respectively using the first and second scenarios. Air pollution in the Chinese cities is a factor 3 to 5 higher than in the European cities in 2010 and 2020-BAU. The impact of both CO2 reduction scenarios on air quality in 2020-BAU is limited. In Europe, due to implementation of stringent emission standards in all sectors, air quality is expected to improve at both the urban background and near busy road traffic. In China, the regional background is expected to improve for EC, stabilize for PM2.5 and PM10, and decrease for NO2. The urban background follows this regional trend, while near busy road traffic, air pollution will remain elevated due to the considerable growth in traffic volume. A major constraint for modelling air quality in China is access to the input data required and lack of measurements at ground level for validation.

  12. Optimal proportion of studded tyres in traffic flow to prevent polishing of an icy road.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J; Sainio, Panu

    2014-04-01

    Studded tyres can significantly wear the road surface and increase particle emissions from the road surface, which has a negative impact on air quality in urban areas. However, road wear might have a positive aspect by roughening the road surface and thus preventing polishing. As a consequence, other vehicles than the ones using studded tyres might also benefit from the usage of studded tyres. The impact of the proportion of studded tyres in the traffic flow on the tyre-ice friction coefficient was studied with a fleet of real cars in a closed environment under strict procedural control. The results show that a proportion of 25-50% studded tyres in the traffic flow is enough to prevent ice from developing in a manner that is critically slippery for non-studded winter tyres. It was also observed that the visual appearance of the ice surface does not indicate if the ice has become more slippery or not. PMID:24445137

  13. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  14. Air quality modeling in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined "mini-grids" of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  15. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOx concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as “ADDRESS” (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOx concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87–91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOx concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region. PMID:19540476

  16. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2009-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOX concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as "ADDRESS" (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOX concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87-91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOX concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region. PMID:19540476

  17. Towards a monitoring strategy to assess the anthropogenic signature of traffic derived pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.; Wawer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is one important factor of anthropogenic linear pollution source. In our present study we focus on typical traffic pollutants like heavy metals (HM), platinum group elements (PGEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, in particular to discriminate the distribution of contaminants by surface runoff, splash-water and airborne transport. For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and replaced it by 30 plastic boxes, and installed pillars at 1 m and 2 m distances to the roadside with samplers in different heights (ground, 0.5 m, 2 m) as well as 4 m long u-channels (surface and 2.5 cm above ground) perpendicular to the road. Clean quartz sand was used as collector material. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) and the concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time in the box samples, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to vertical migration. Similar significant differences of χ, PAH and HM concentrations and an importance of splash-water were noticed in pillars and u-channels within one year of monitoring. Magnetic results revealed that magnetite-like phases are responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. A good correlation between χ and semi-volatile and particle-bound PAH phases as well as HM suggests that χ can be used as a proxy for traffic derived PAH and HM pollution. SEM observations and EDX analyses identified a dominance of angular and aggregates-shaped particles with composition of Fe-Cr-Ni derived from traffic-specific activities (abrasion of tyres, exhausts and brake linings). The results from our monitoring studies will be utilized to develop new innovative roadside pollution monitoring concepts.

  18. Sleep disturbances from road traffic and ventilation noise—laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects on sleep of different types of noise exposures (road traffic, ventilation and combination of noise from road traffic and ventilation) and compare effects on sleep both in laboratory and in field settings. Eighteen subjects slept 1 week in the laboratory and 1 week in their home and their sleep was evaluated with wrist actigraphs and questionnaires on sleep and mood. In the laboratory, judged sleep quality was decreased by 22% during nights with exposure to road traffic noise in the laboratory compared to the quiet reference night. The combined noise from ventilation and road traffic caused more awakenings; worse sleep quality (-25%) and more movements reported by questionnaire. None of these significant results were detected by actigraphy. Noise from ventilation caused a decrease in judged sleep quality by 12%, while sleep assessed by actigraph indicated better sleep as compared with the quiet reference night. When comparing sleep with traffic noise exposure in the laboratory and in the home the results show no differences on sleep effects.

  19. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain. PMID:26009884

  20. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain. PMID:26009884

  1. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-07-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  2. The Influences of Drivers/Riders in Road Traffic Crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  3. Road traffic noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Merchán, Carlos; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis; de la Puente, Javier

    2016-03-01

    There is a global and growing concern with regard to anthropogenic noise impact on wildlife and natural habitats, but it is difficult to find consensus regarding scoping and assessment tools. This study adapts noise mapping procedures, common to most European countries, to a low traffic road (below 1000 vehicles per day) noise impact assessment in a breeding colony of the largest bird of prey in Europe. Results show that nest sites are located avoiding road traffic Leq levels higher than 40 dB. This means a road-effect zone of up to 500 m width from road margins, which previous scientific literature only refers in cases of traffic volumes higher than 10,000 vehicles per day. This finding is a noticeable impact by road traffic noise that reduces the breeding potential habitat more than 11% within the study area. This work shows the feasibility of expanding common methods and mapping tools for assessing and managing environmental noise in protected areas, which has worthwhile implications for both acoustics and conservation. PMID:27036249

  4. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  5. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities☆

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Davies, Hugh; Cohen, Martin A.; Mallach, Gary; Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic-generated air pollution and noise have both been linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Since traffic is a shared source, there is potential for correlated exposures that may lead to confounding in epidemiologic studies. As part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), 2-week NO and NO2 concentrations were measured at up to 105 locations, selected primarily to characterize gradients near major roads, in each of 9 US communities. We measured 5-min A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) and ultrafine particle (UFP) counts at a subset of these NO/NO2 monitoring locations in Chicago, IL (N = 69 in December 2006; N = 36 in April 2007) and Riverside County, CA (N = 46 in April 2007). Leq and UFP were measured during non-“rush hour” periods (10:00–16:00) to maximize comparability between measurements. We evaluated roadway proximity exposure surrogates in relation to the measured levels, estimated noise–air pollution correlation coefficients, and evaluated the impact of regional-scale pollution gradients, wind direction, and roadway proximity on the correlations. Five-minute Leq measurements in December 2006 and April 2007 were highly correlated (r = 0.84), and measurements made at different times of day were similar (coefficients of variation: 0.5–13%), indicating that 5-min measurements are representative of long-term Leq. Binary and continuous roadway proximity metrics characterized Leq as well or better than NO or NO2. We found strong regional-scale gradients in NO and NO2, particularly in Chicago, but only weak regional-scale gradients in Leq and UFP. Leq was most consistently correlated with NO, but the correlations were moderate (0.20–0.60). After removing the influence of regional-scale gradients the correlations generally increased (Leq–NO: r = 0.49–0.62), and correlations downwind of major roads (Leq–NO: r = 0.53–0.74) were consistently higher than those upwind (0.35–0.65). There

  6. A generalised model for traffic induced road dust emissions. Model description and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Janne; Denby, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    This paper concerns the development and evaluation of a new and generalised road dust emission model. Most of today's road dust emission models are based on local measurements and/or contain empirical emission factors that are specific for a given road environment. In this study, a more generalised road dust emission model is presented and evaluated. We have based the emissions on road, tyre and brake wear rates and used the mass balance concept to describe the build-up of road dust on the road surface and road shoulder. The model separates the emissions into a direct part and a resuspension part, and treats the road surface and road shoulder as two different sources. We tested the model under idealized conditions as well as on two datasets in and just outside of Oslo in Norway during the studded tyre season. We found that the model reproduced the observed increase in road dust emissions directly after drying of the road surface. The time scale for the build-up of road dust on the road surface is less than an hour for medium to heavy traffic density. The model performs well for temperatures above 0 °C and less well during colder periods. Since the model does not yet include salting as an additional mass source, underestimations are evident under dry periods with temperatures around 0 °C, under which salting occurs. The model overestimates the measured PM 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) concentrations under heavy precipitation events since the model does not take the amount of precipitation into account. There is a strong sensitivity of the modelled emissions to the road surface conditions and the current parameterisations of the effect of precipitation, runoff and evaporation seem inadequate.

  7. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN. PMID:25663835

  8. Road traffic sign detection and classification from mobile LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shengxia; Li, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Wang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Traffic signs are important roadway assets that provide valuable information of the road for drivers to make safer and easier driving behaviors. Due to the development of mobile mapping systems that can efficiently acquire dense point clouds along the road, automated detection and recognition of road assets has been an important research issue. This paper deals with the detection and classification of traffic signs in outdoor environments using mobile light detection and ranging (Li- DAR) and inertial navigation technologies. The proposed method contains two main steps. It starts with an initial detection of traffic signs based on the intensity attributes of point clouds, as the traffic signs are always painted with highly reflective materials. Then, the classification of traffic signs is achieved based on the geometric shape and the pairwise 3D shape context. Some results and performance analyses are provided to show the effectiveness and limits of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting and classifying traffic signs from mobile LiDAR point clouds.

  9. Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouitsis, Ilias; Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kelessis, Apostolos; Petrakakis, Maximos; Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos; Samaras, Zissis

    2015-12-01

    Airborne urban particulate and gaseous pollutants measurements were conducted at the kerbside of a busy road and at a nearby urban background site of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a winter and a summer period. The main objective was to observe how the financial crisis has affected the air quality in the city, compared to previous measurements. Compared to a study conducted in 2006, the current work suggests that although average concentrations at the traffic affected site remain higher that in the urban background station, the differences are much smaller than in the past. A number of observations suggest a scenario of decrease in traffic activity and increase in biomass burning for residential heating. On this basis, the results suggest that traffic may be less important as an air quality contributor in a financially hit city. On the contrary, domestic heating appears as a significant contributor and affects areas of the city that were earlier not being of environmental concern. Because of the impact of biomass burning in residential areas, exposure calculations are required to estimate whether traffic or biomass burning is the overall highest contributors to daily PM dosages that citizens of the city are exposed to.

  10. Automatic parsing of lane and road boundaries in challenging traffic scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helala, Mohamed A.; Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Pu, Ken Q.

    2015-09-01

    Automatic detection of road boundaries in traffic surveillance imagery can greatly aid subsequent traffic analysis tasks, such as vehicle flow, erratic driving, and stranded vehicles. This paper develops an online technique for identifying the dominant road boundary in video sequences captured by traffic cameras under challenging environmental and lighting conditions, e.g., unlit highways captured at night. The proposed method works in real time of up to 20 frames/s and generates a ranked list of road regions that identify road and lane boundaries. Our method begins by segmenting each frame into a set of superpixels. An adaptive sampling step approximates superpixel contours to a collection of edge segments. Next, we show how online hierarchical clustering can be efficiently used to organize edges into clusters of colinearly similar sets. Promising clusters are paired with each other to form cluster pairs. Then we present and prove a statistical ranking measure that is used along with road-activity and perspective cues to find the dominant road boundaries. We evaluate the proposed approach on two real-world datasets to test our method under camera viewpoint changes and extreme environmental and lighting conditions. Results show that our method outperforms two state-of-the-art techniques in precision, recall, and runtime.

  11. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  12. Using mobile monitoring to visualise diurnal variation of traffic pollutants across two near-highway neighbourhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattinson, Woodrow; Longley, Ian; Kingham, Simon

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that concentrations of primary traffic pollutants can vary substantially across relatively small urban areas. Fixed-site monitors have been shown to be largely inadequate for representing concentrations at nearby locations, resulting in the increasing use of spatial modelling or mobile sampling methods to achieve spatial saturation. In this study, we employ the use of a simple bicycle to sample concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) at two small areas (<2.5 km2) in South Auckland, New Zealand. Portable instruments were mounted inside a custom-built casing at the front of the bicycle and every street within each study area was sampled in a grid-like fashion, at four times of day (07:00, 12:00, 17:00 and 22:00). Each area has a six-lane highway running through its centre and the core aim was to visualise and describe spatial variability of pollutant levels about the highway, main arterials and quieter streets, at periods of contrasting meteorological and traffic conditions. A total of 20 sampling runs in each area (five at each of the four timings) were conducted. Meteorological data were logged continuously at background sites within each study area. Results show that the influence of highway traffic (UFPs, CO) was strongest during the mornings and late evenings when wind speeds were low, while for the midday and afternoon timings, concentrations were highest at the arterial and shopping zones. Concentrations of PM10 appeared to be strongest in the residential areas during mornings and late evenings, suggesting an influence of wood burning for home heating. For all timings combined, for all three pollutants, it appears the arterial roads featuring shops and numerous intersections with traffic lights, had a stronger influence on concentrations than the busier but more free-flowing highways. This study provides not only an insight into microspatial hotspot variation across suburbs, but

  13. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n=99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2-23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca>Cu>Pb≈Zn>Cr≈Fe>Ni≈Ba>Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. PMID:24496025

  14. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Tetali, Shailaja; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-01-01

    Background India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. Results The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). Conclusions A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. PMID:26701985

  15. The burden of road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline Y; Akanbi, Moses A; Azuh, Dominic; Samuel, Victoria; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Ayo, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the burden of road traffic injuries and deaths for all road users and among different road user groups in Africa. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, websites of African road safety agencies and organizations for registry- and population-based studies and reports on road traffic injury and death estimates in Africa, published between 1980 and 2015. Available data for all road users and by road user group were extracted and analysed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and estimated pooled rates of road traffic injuries and deaths. Findings We identified 39 studies from 15 African countries. The estimated pooled rate for road traffic injury was 65.2 per 100 000 population (95% confidence interval, CI: 60.8–69.5) and the death rate was 16.6 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 15.2–18.0). Road traffic injury rates increased from 40.7 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 92.9 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015, while death rates decreased from 19.9 per 100 000 population in the 1990s to 9.3 per 100 000 population between 2010 and 2015. The highest road traffic death rate was among motorized four-wheeler occupants at 5.9 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 4.4–7.4), closely followed by pedestrians at 3.4 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 2.5–4.2). Conclusion The burden of road traffic injury and death is high in Africa. Since registry-based reports underestimate the burden, a systematic collation of road traffic injury and death data is needed to determine the true burden. PMID:27429490

  16. Traffic pollution affects P. pinea growth according to tree ring width and C and N isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Altieri, Simona; Strumia, Sandro; Cherubini, Paolo; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization and industrialization are rapidly growing, as a consequence roads and their associated vehicular traffic exerts major and increasing impacts on adjacent ecosystems. Various studies have shown the impact of vehicle exhausts on road side vegetation through their visible and non-visible effects (Farmer and Lyon 1977, Sarkar et al., 1986, Angold 1997, Nuhoglu 2005) but, presently there is little known about the long term effect of air pollution on vegetation and on trees, in particular. Developing proxies for atmospheric pollution that would be used to identify the physiological responses of trees under roadside car exhaust pollution stress is needed. In this context we propose a novel method to determine the effect of car exhaust pollution on tree growth, coupling classical dendrochronological analyses and analyses of 15N and 13C in tree rings, soils and leaves with tree ring radiocarbon (14C) data. Pinus pinea individuals, adjacent to main roads in the urban area of Caserta (South Italy) and exposed to large amounts of traffic exhausts since 1980, were sampled and the time-related trend in the growth residuals was estimated. We found a consistent decrease in the ring width starting from 1980, with a slight increase in δ13C value, which was considered to be a consequence of environmental stress. No clear pattern was identified in δ15N, while an increasing effect of the fossil fuel dilution on the atmospheric bomb-enriched 14C background was detected in tree rings, as a consequence of the increase in traffic exhausts. Our findings suggest that radiocarbon is a very sensitive tool to investigate small-scale (i.e. traffic exhaust at the level crossing) and large-scale (urban area pollution) induced disturbances. References Angold PG. Impact of a road upon adjacent heathland vegetations: effect on plant species compositions. J Appl Ecol 1997; 34 (2): 409-417. Farmer JC, Lyon TDB. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil. Sci Tot Environ 1977; 8: 89-93. Nuhoglu

  17. Single and Combined Effects of Air, Road, and Rail Traffic Noise on Sleep and Recuperation

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: Traffic noise disturbs sleep and may impair recuperation. There is limited information on single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Polysomnographic laboratory study. Participants: 72 healthy subjects, mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18-71 years, 32 male. Interventions: Exposure to 40, 80, or 120 rail, road, and/or air traffic noise events. Measurement and Results: Subjects were investigated for 11 consecutive nights, which included 8 noise exposure nights and one noise-free control night. Noise effects on sleep structure and continuity were subtle, even in nights with combined exposure, most likely because of habituation and an increase in arousal thresholds both within and across nights. However, cardiac arousals did not habituate across nights. Noise exposure significantly affected subjective assessments of sleep quality and recuperation, whereas objective performance was unaffected, except for a small increase in mean PVT reaction time (+4 ms, adjusted P < 0.05). Road traffic noise led to the strongest changes in sleep structure and continuity, whereas subjective assessments of sleep were worse after nights with air and rail traffic noise exposure. In contrast to daytime annoyance, cortical arousal probabilities and cardiac responses were significantly lower for air than for road and rail traffic noise (all P < 0.0001). These differences were explained by sound pressure level rise time and high frequency (> 3 kHz) noise event components. Conclusions: Road, rail, and air traffic noise differentially affect objective and subjective assessments of sleep. Differences in the degree of noise-induced sleep fragmentation between traffic modes were explained by the specific spectral and temporal composition of noise events, indicating potential targets for active and passive noise control. Field studies are needed to validate our findings in a setting

  18. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities. PMID:27261554

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagaña, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy. Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain. Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates. Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both. Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta are consistent with

  20. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  1. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity. PMID:24598034

  2. Roads at risk - traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2014-10-01

    Globalization and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load expressed as vehicle kilometers because of debris-flow related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network, and quantify the associated path failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and northwestern part of the study area are associated with high link failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold, and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying of speedy delivery of services and goods.

  3. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  4. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Montnémery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina; Axmon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years) provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance) was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89), and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4), as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution. PMID:19154599

  5. Characterization of near-road pollutant gradients using path-integrated optical remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Eben D; Shores, Richard C; Isakov, Vlad; Baldauf, Richard W

    2008-07-01

    Understanding motor vehicle emissions, near-roadway pollutant dispersion, and their potential impact to near-roadway populations is an area of growing environmental interest. As part of ongoing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research in this area, a field study was conducted near Interstate 440 (I-440) in Raleigh, NC, in July and August of 2006. This paper presents a subset of measurements from the study focusing on nitric oxide (NO) concentrations near the roadway. Measurements of NO in this study were facilitated by the use of a novel path-integrated optical remote sensing technique called deep ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DUV-DOAS). This paper reviews the development and application of this measurement system. Time-resolved near-road NO concentrations are analyzed in conjunction with wind and traffic data to provide a picture of emissions and near-road dispersion for the study. Results show peak NO concentrations in the 150 ppb range during weekday morning rush hours with winds from the road accompanied by significantly lower afternoon and weekend concentrations. Traffic volume and wind direction are shown to be primary determinants of NO concentrations with turbulent diffusion and meandering accounting for significant near-road concentrations in off-wind conditions. The enhanced source capture performance of the open-path configuration allowed for robust comparisons of measured concentrations with a composite variable of traffic intensity coupled with wind transport (R2 = 0.84) as well as investigations on the influence of wind direction on NO dilution near the roadway. The benefits of path-integrated measurements for assessing line source impacts and evaluating models is presented. The advantages of NO as a tracer compound, compared with nitrogen dioxide, for investigations of mobile source emissions and initial dispersion under crosswind conditions are also discussed. PMID:18672712

  6. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  7. The Impact of the Thai Motorcycle Transition on Road Traffic Injury: Thai Cohort Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months’ recall. Results In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Conclusions Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted. PMID:25826214

  8. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyaiah, M.; Shrinagesh, B.

    2014-06-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad.

  9. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  10. Different Effects of Road Traffic Noise and Frogs' Croaking on Night Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SASAZAWA, Y.; XIN, P.; SUZUKI, S.; KAWADA, T.; KUROIWA, M.; TAMURA, Y.

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of road traffic noise and frogs' croaking on the objective and subjective quality of sleep in a laboratory. The subjects were seven male students aged 19-21 years. They were exposed to recorded road traffic noise and frogs' croaking, with 49·6 and 49·5 dB(A)LAeq , and 71·2 and 56·1 dB(A) LAmax, respectively. The background noise in the experimental room was 31·0 dB(A) LAeq. The sleep EEG was recorded according to standard methods. The sleep polygraphic parameters examined were the percentage of sleep stage relative to the total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and awakening during sleep in minutes and sleep efficiency. A structured sleep rating questionnaire (OSA), was administered to the subjects after they awakened. The %S2 increased and the %SREM decreased during exposure to road traffic noise. However, no significant effect of exposure to frogs' croaking was observed on any of the polygraphic sleep parameters. The subjective quality of sleep was degraded more by exposure to road traffic noise than that to frogs' croaking.

  11. Prediction of road traffic death rate using neural networks optimised by genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seyed Ali; Jahandideh, Sepideh; Jahandideh, Mina; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are realised as a main cause of public health problems at global, regional and national levels. Therefore, prediction of road traffic death rate will be helpful in its management. Based on this fact, we used an artificial neural network model optimised through Genetic algorithm to predict mortality. In this study, a five-fold cross-validation procedure on a data set containing total of 178 countries was used to verify the performance of models. The best-fit model was selected according to the root mean square errors (RMSE). Genetic algorithm, as a powerful model which has not been introduced in prediction of mortality to this extent in previous studies, showed high performance. The lowest RMSE obtained was 0.0808. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the use of Genetic algorithm as a powerful optimiser which selects the best input feature set to be fed into the neural networks. Seven factors have been known as the most effective factors on the road traffic mortality rate by high accuracy. The gained results displayed that our model is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better method for assessing the influence of road traffic mortality risk factors. PMID:24304230

  12. Environmental and traffic-related parameters affecting road dust composition: A multi-technique approach applied to Venice area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Visin, Flavia; Gonella, Francesco; Cattaruzza, Elti; Glisenti, Antonella; Formenton, Gianni; Tieppo, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    Road dust is a non-exhaust source of atmospheric particulate by re-suspension. It is composed of particles originating from natural sources as well as other non-exhaust source such as tire, brake and asphalt wear. The discrimination between atmospheric particles directly emitted from abrasion process and those related to re-suspension is therefore an open issue, as far as the percentage contribution of non-exhaust emissions is becoming more considerable due also to the recent policy actions and the technological upgrades in the automotive field, focused on the reduction of exhaust emissions. In this paper, road dust collected along the bridge that connects Venice (Italy) to the mainland is characterized with a multi-technique approach in order to determine its composition depending on environmental as well as traffic-related conditions. Six pollutant sources of road dust particles were identified by cluster analysis: brake, railway, tire, asphalt, soil + marine, and mixed combustions. Considering the lack of information on this matrix in this area, this study is intended to provide useful information for future identification of road dust re-suspension source in atmospheric particulate.

  13. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  14. Consideration of Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Smart Growth Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We address the near-road pollution problem as it relates to smart growth design strategies. Studies have shown that pollution levels tend to be high near heavily traveled roads and that road proximity is related to adverse health effects. These findings can conflict with urban ...

  15. Road traffic accidents in hilly regions of northern India: What has to be done?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anil Kumar; Joshi, Chitra; Singh, Mridu; Singh, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are responsible for 1.2 million deaths worldwide each year. RTA will become the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of diseases after ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and depression. We conducted a retrospective study on RTA in a tertiary center in the hilly district of Uttarakhand in India. METHODS: The number of RTA, pattern of RTA, the number of patients killed and injured, the pattern of injury causing death and disability, the severity of accidents, and the type of disability were noted from December 2009 to November 2011. The accident severity was calculated as the number of patients killed per 100 accidents. The methods for reducing the incidence of RTA were observed, and the role of policy makers was studied. RESULTS: The majority of deaths and disabilities in Uttarakhand were due to road traffic accidents in the hilly districts of the states. The most common cause of RTA was driving fault followed by defective roads. CONCLUSION: Proper designing of roads and minimizing the fault of drivers are essential to prevent road traffic accidents in hilly regions. PMID:25215159

  16. Nocturnal air, road, and rail traffic noise and daytime cognitive performance and annoyance.

    PubMed

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Quehl, Julia; Müller, Uwe; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Various studies indicate that at the same noise level and during the daytime, annoyance increases in the order of rail, road, and aircraft noise. The present study investigates if the same ranking can be found for annoyance to nocturnal exposure and next day cognitive performance. Annoyance ratings and performance change during combined noise exposure were also tested. In the laboratory 72 participants were exposed to air, road, or rail traffic noise and all combinations. The number of noise events and LAS,eq were kept constant. Each morning noise annoyance questionnaires and performance tasks were administered. Aircraft noise annoyance ranked first followed by railway and road noise. A possible explanation is the longer duration of aircraft noise events used in this study compared to road and railway noise events. In contrast to road and rail traffic, aircraft noise annoyance was higher after nights with combined exposure. Pooled noise exposure data showed small but significant impairments in reaction times (6 ms) compared to nights without noise. The noise sources did not have a differential impact on performance. Combined exposure to multiple traffic noise sources did not induce stronger impairments than a single noise source. This was reflected also in low workload ratings. PMID:24437761

  17. Laboratory study of annoyance to combined airplane and road-traffic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The annoyance of noise, which consisted of both separate and combined airplane and road-traffic noises, was studied. The subjects judged each session as to how annoyed they were in the simulated living room laboratory environment and as to how annoyed they were if they heard the noise in their home during day, evening, and night periods. The airplane noises, for equal session levels were judged significantly more annoying than the road traffic noises for the separate sessions. For the combined sessions, an interaction was found between the airplane noise and traffic noise levels, which was not adequately assessed by the total energy concept. Significant differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and night periods.

  18. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  19. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  20. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  1. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-06-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0.26 before the Olympics to approximately 0.48 after the Olympics

  2. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: trends, selected underlying determinants and status of intervention.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Kanchanasut, Somchai

    2003-01-01

    Injuries and deaths from traffic crashes have become a major public health and socio-economic problem in Thailand. Injuries, fatalities and economic losses due to traffic crashes have increased with the rising level of motorization. This study analyzes hospital-based data compiled by the Ministry of Public Health, data compiled by the National Police Office and data compiled by the traffic engineering division of the Department of Highways, Ministry of Transport and Communications. Analysis reveals that 70% of the people injured or killed in traffic crashes are aged 10-39. Men are at four to five times higher risk of death and injury due to traffic crashes than women. The number and rate of traffic injury in Thailand swung from a record low during the economic recovery in the 1980's to record a high during the bubble economy, then declined with the economic crisis in 1997. The economic costs were estimated at U.S.$1.6 billion in 1995. An urban-rural difference in traffic injuries has been recorded with a higher rural case-fatality rate. A number of known behavioral risk factors have been identified, i.e., drunk driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use helmets and seat belts. However, determinants of behavior need further investigation. Hazardous road locations have also been mapped. Trends of traffic injuries seem to follow trends of economic growth. Without effective policy and implementation programs to control the determinants, it is expected that traffic injuries will increase as the country recovers from economic crisis. A major pitfall to many current government programs is that they incorporate no systematic evaluation. The fragmented structure of road safety authorities further complicates collaboration and coordination. A broad coalition of stakeholders is needed to catalyze policy action. PMID:12772492

  3. Characterization, adaptive traffic shaping, and multiplexing of real-time MPEG II video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Barry, Charles F.; Binnai, Vinay; Kazovsky, Leonid G.

    1997-01-01

    We obtain network traffic model for real-time MPEG-II encoded digital video by analyzing video stream samples from real-time encoders from NUKO Information Systems. MPEG-II sample streams include a resolution intensive movie, City of Joy, an action intensive movie, Aliens, a luminance intensive (black and white) movie, Road To Utopia, and a chrominance intensive (color) movie, Dick Tracy. From our analysis we obtain a heuristic model for the encoded video traffic which uses a 15-stage Markov process to model the I,B,P frame sequences within a group of pictures (GOP). A jointly-correlated Gaussian process is used to model the individual frame sizes. Scene change arrivals are modeled according to a gamma process. Simulations show that our MPEG-II traffic model generates, I,B,P frame sequences and frame sizes that closely match the sample MPEG-II stream traffic characteristics as they relate to latency and buffer occupancy in network queues. To achieve high multiplexing efficiency we propose a traffic shaping scheme which sets preferred 1-frame generation times among a group of encoders so as to minimize the overall variation in total offered traffic while still allowing the individual encoders to react to scene changes. Simulations show that our scheme results in multiplexing gains of up to 10% enabling us to multiplex twenty 6 Mbps MPEG-II video streams instead of 18 streams over an ATM/SONET OC3 link without latency or cell loss penalty. This scheme is due for a patent.

  4. Analysis of road traffic obstructions caused by the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessel, Tina

    2014-05-01

    The flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to infrastructure and has had a great impact on transportation. Traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. Researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to develop rapid assessment tools which allow a science based estimation of disaster impacts. This is part of a larger project called Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA). During the flood event, the CEDIM FDA group on transportation disruptions monitored and recorded traffic reports in Germany to obtain accurate information on road traffic obstructions due to the flood. A rapid initial evaluation of the data was carried out for federal and interstate highways on a district level for the period of May 31 till June 4 2013. In this evaluation, the causes and types of traffic obstruction, as well as the number and duration of flood-caused disruptions are considered. In the evaluated time period of five days, an amount of more than 4,800 hours of flood-related traffic obstructions could be observed in a total of 89 districts. Major traffic disruptions were located in the districts along the Mulde and in the foothills of the Alps. This first initial evaluation will be followed by a detailed statistical analysis including all data collected during the flood event. To assess the impacts of the flood on traffic, a simple traffic simulation considering the disruptions will be carried out using a gravity model.

  5. Comparisons of Traffic Collisions between Expressways and Rural Roads in Truck Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangbok; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Truck driving is known as one of the occupations with the highest accident rate. This study investigates the characteristics of traffic collisions according to road types (expressway and rural road). Methods Classifying 267 accidents into expressway and rural road, we analyzed them based on driver characteristics (age, working experience, size of employment), time characteristics (day of accident, time, weather), and accident characteristics (accident causes, accident locations, accident types, driving conditions). Results When we compared the accidents by road conditions, no differences were found between the driver characteristics. However, from the accident characteristics, the injured person distributions were different by the road conditions. In particular, driving while drowsy is shown to be highly related with the accident characteristics. Conclusion This study can be used as a guideline and a base line to develop a plan of action to prevent traffic accidents. It can also help to prepare formal regulations about a truck driver's vehicle maintenance and driving attitude for a precaution on road accidents. PMID:27014489

  6. Epidemiology of road traffic accidents during pleasure travelling: the evidence from the Island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Askitopoulou, H; Vourvahakis, D; Skalkidis, Y; Trichopoulos, D

    1997-09-01

    During the six-month period April to September 1995, all 730 road traffic injury victims who contacted any of the three hospitals of the Heraklion District in the island of Crete, directly or through the Medical Emergency Transportation Network, were recorded. A special form was completed containing information about selected characteristics of the victims, nature of the injuries and conditions of the accident. All 39 fatalities owing to road traffic accidents were also registered. In the absence of data concerning the person-time at risk only proportional analyses could be performed. On the basis of Greek hospital discharge statistics in Heraklion District during 1992, one foreigner visitor was discharged owing to injuries of any type for every 18 Greeks. The corresponding ratio for road traffic accidents is close to 1:3, underlying the importance of road traffic accidents as the major health hazard during pleasure travelling. Left-side driving country nationals were at an increased risk for traffic accident when they drove a rented rather than an owned vehicle (p = 0.02), possibly on account of maladaptation during the adjustment period in the country of visit. Moreover, road traffic victims from left-side driving countries compared with foreigners from right-side driving countries were involved 2.5 times more frequently in accidents in which overpassing or other driving maneuvers require reflexes conditioned on reverse directionality (p = 0.02). Alcohol abuse was reported as a primary cause of accident in a significantly higher proportion of foreign nationals (p < 10(-6)) reflecting the fact that the latter group was on vacation. Alcohol intoxication was more common among Eastern European victims than among victims from European Union countries (p < 10(-5)). The likelihood of death following hospitalization ranged from 0% among those with a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or higher, to 90% among those with GCS less than 8. After adjustment for exact GCS

  7. Where did that car come from?: Crossing the road when the traffic comes from an unfamiliar direction.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lucy; Peace, Victoria

    2007-09-01

    Using a virtual road crossing environment, the reported research investigated the road crossing behavior of 12 male pedestrians in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Environment familiarity was manipulated using traffic direction. Seven of the participants were from a country where traffic flows from right to left and five were from countries were traffic flows from left to right. Each participant was asked to cross the road when traffic was coming from both the familiar and the unfamiliar direction for them. Results showed that pedestrians had lower safety ration, or a lower margin of error, in crossing the road when traffic was flowing in an unfamiliar direction, suggesting that pedestrians might be at greater risk of accident in such environments. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:17270134

  8. The subjective effect of low frequency content in road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Flindell, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Based on subjective listening trials, Torija and Flindell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1-4 (2014)] observed that low frequency content in typical urban main road traffic noise appeared to make a smaller contribution to reported annoyance than might be inferred from its objective or physical dominance. This paper reports a more detailed study which was aimed at (i) identifying the difference in sound levels at which low frequency content becomes subjectively dominant over mid and high frequency content and (ii) investigating the relationship between loudness and annoyance under conditions where low frequency content is relatively more dominant, such as indoors where mid and high frequency content is reduced. The results suggested that differences of at least +30 dB between the low frequency and the mid/high frequency content are needed for changes in low frequency content to have as much subjective effect as equivalent changes in mid and high frequency content. This suggests that common criticisms of the A-frequency weighting based on a hypothesized excessive downweighting of the low frequency content may be relatively unfounded in this application area. PMID:25618050

  9. Mathematical relationships for metal build-up on urban road surfaces based on traffic and land use characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the influence of traffic and land use parameters on metal build-up on urban road surfaces. Mathematical relationships were developed to predict metals originating from fuel combustion and vehicle wear. The analysis undertaken found that nickel and chromium originate from exhaust emissions, lead, copper and zinc from vehicle wear, cadmium from both exhaust and wear and manganese from geogenic sources. Land use does not demonstrate a clear pattern in relation to the metal build-up process, though its inherent characteristics such as traffic activities exert influence. The equation derived for fuel related metal load has high cross-validated coefficient of determination (Q(2)) and low Standard Error of Cross-Validation (SECV) values which indicates that the model is reliable, while the equation derived for wear-related metal load has low Q(2) and high SECV values suggesting its use only in preliminary investigations. Relative Prediction Error values for both equations are considered to be well within the error limits for a complex system such as an urban road surface. These equations will be beneficial for developing reliable stormwater treatment strategies in urban areas which specifically focus on mitigation of metal pollution. PMID:24268173

  10. Patterns of behaviour in dwellings exposed to road traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J.; Simonnet, F.; Vallet, M.

    1984-01-01

    An inquiry involving a total of 1500 subjects residing in 15 different sites in the conurbations of Lyon and Marseilles was carried out in 1979 with a view to determining the behaviour and attitudes of people with regard to traffic noise. The main purpose of the inquiry was to identify the objective reactions to the traffic noise and to determine how such reactions varied with the noise level, with account taken of the socio-economic characteristics of the subjects (age, income, owner occupier or tenant, etc.). The 08.00-20.00 hour Leq noise level was measured or calculated for each of the dwellings included in the inquiry. The 00.00-05.00 and 20.00-24.00 hour Leq values were also derived for each case and a total of nearly 20 000 different noise levels were involved in the analysis of the data for this inquiry. On considering the completed questionaires it was found that the annoyance experienced during the day was more closely correlated with the noise level ( r = 0·64) than had been the case with the results of previous studies. In addition to showing how traffic noise can interfere with activities and lead, for example, to the closing of windows to shut out the noise, the inquiry yielded information on the way in which activities affected by noise are transferred to quieter rooms, on the extent to which individual dwellings are sound proofed, on the extent to which occupants are likely to move to another dwelling in order to escape from the noise and finally on some aspects of the effects of noise on health and sleep. Thus it appears that a daytime Leq value of more than 65 dB(A) gives rise to what can be regarded as forced behavioural responses to the extent that there are significant changes in the normal way of life of the people concerned and such responses give an indication of the magnitude of the social costs that can be attributed to the undesirable effects of traffic noise.

  11. Declining trends in injuries and ambulance calls for road traffic crashes in Bahrain post new traffic laws of 2015.

    PubMed

    Awadhalla, Muyssar Sabri; Asokan, Govindaraj Vaithinathan; Matooq, Amina; Kirubakaran, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are of serious global health concern. To identify whether the number of ambulance calls, injuries, and deaths has declined after the implementation of the new traffic law (NTL) 2015 in Bahrain, de-identified administrative RTC data obtained from the tertiary care center, and the General Directorate of Traffic (GDT) of Bahrain were used. A quasi-experimental design was employed to trend the impact of the NTL on RTC and associated healthcare events. Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis who met with RTC, either in a vehicle or as a pedestrian, between February 8 and May 8 in 2013, 2014 (pre NTL), and 2015 (post NTL) were included in the study. Our results show a reduction in the number of ambulance calls from vehicular and pedestrian RTC victims. The ambulance calls from pedestrian RTC victims were <10% compared to the number of ambulance calls from vehicular RTC victims. There was a significant reduction in minor injuries post 2015, whereas no obvious difference was seen for serious injuries and deaths. A longer follow-up study to confirm the sustained decline in RTC, enforcing a zero tolerance policy toward traffic transgressions, and raising public awareness on the "critical four minutes" and "golden hour" is recommended. PMID:26994440

  12. Determination of path coefficients and its application in road traffic noise annoyance - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Gorai, A K; Pal, A K

    2006-06-01

    This paper elucidates the basic approach of determining the path coefficients and its significance in the road traffic noise annoyance. Path model not only outline the direct effect of the traffic noise on the nearby residents but also indicate the indirect effect via other variables. In this study seven variables were considered for determining road traffic noise annoyance. However the same would be equally applicable for other situations like aircraft noise, rail noise, and industry noise with the different variables. At the outset a priori path model was designed and then on the basis of the partial regression coefficient values for the different paths, the revised path model was developed. The standardized partial regression coefficients known as path coefficients, determine the strength of the linkage among variables. Some of the paths in the model were not statistically significant. Revised path models were developed by deleting the insignificant paths whose values were found above 5% level. In the revised path model, thus the direct and indirect effect due to a particular variable causing the road traffic noise annoyance could be observed. PMID:16917695

  13. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  14. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas. PMID:23651448

  15. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed. PMID:10487352

  16. Transforming GIS data into functional road models for large-scale traffic simulation.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David; Sewall, Jason; Lin, Ming C

    2012-06-01

    There exists a vast amount of geographic information system (GIS) data that model road networks around the world as polylines with attributes. In this form, the data are insufficient for applications such as simulation and 3D visualization-tools which will grow in power and demand as sensor data become more pervasive and as governments try to optimize their existing physical infrastructure. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for enhancing a road map from a GIS database to create a geometrically and topologically consistent 3D model to be used in real-time traffic simulation, interactive visualization of virtual worlds, and autonomous vehicle navigation. The resulting representation provides important road features for traffic simulations, including ramps, highways, overpasses, legal merge zones, and intersections with arbitrary states, and it is independent of the simulation methodologies. We test the 3D models of road networks generated by our algorithm on real-time traffic simulation using both macroscopic and microscopic techniques. PMID:21690653

  17. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  18. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  19. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  20. Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Dane D.; Gillikin, David P.

    2014-11-01

    Road-salt pollution in streams in the Northeastern United States has become a major concern, but historical data are scarce. Freshwater bivalve shells have the ability to record past environmental information, and may act as archives of road-salt pollution. We sampled Elliptio complanata shells from four streams, as well as specimens collected in 1877. Average [Na/Ca]shell was highest in modern shells from the stream with the highest sodium concentrations, and low in shells collected from this same stream in 1877 as well as in the shells from other streams, suggesting that [Na/Ca]shell serves as a proxy for road-salt pollution. We expected higher [Na/Ca]shell in winter and spring. However, high-resolution [Na/Ca]shell analyses along the growth axis of one shell did not reveal any clear subannual patterns, which could be the result of shell growth cessation in winter and/or during periods of high stream sodium concentrations. Therefore, bulk [Na/Ca]shell analysis from multiple shells can be used as a proxy of large changes in stream sodium concentrations, but high-resolution variations in stream sodium concentrations do not seem to be recorded in the shells.

  1. Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Dane D.; Gillikin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Road-salt pollution in streams in the Northeastern United States has become a major concern, but historical data are scarce. Freshwater bivalve shells have the ability to record past environmental information, and may act as archives of road-salt pollution. We sampled Elliptio complanata shells from four streams, as well as specimens collected in 1877. Average [Na/Ca]shell was highest in modern shells from the stream with the highest sodium concentrations, and low in shells collected from this same stream in 1877 as well as in the shells from other streams, suggesting that [Na/Ca]shell serves as a proxy for road-salt pollution. We expected higher [Na/Ca]shell in winter and spring. However, high-resolution [Na/Ca]shell analyses along the growth axis of one shell did not reveal any clear subannual patterns, which could be the result of shell growth cessation in winter and/or during periods of high stream sodium concentrations. Therefore, bulk [Na/Ca]shell analysis from multiple shells can be used as a proxy of large changes in stream sodium concentrations, but high-resolution variations in stream sodium concentrations do not seem to be recorded in the shells. PMID:25418687

  2. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This traffic safety curriculum for second grade students provides directions and materials for approximately 132 activities. Intended to develop pedestrian perceptual skills and to train children in safe conduct on the school bus, in an auto and in the school environment, the curriculum features concepts and skills taught through activities from…

  3. Estimation of PM10 in the traffic-related atmosphere for three road types in Beijing and Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jiong; Cheng, Xiang; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xingzu

    2014-01-01

    The levels of roadside PM10 in Beijing, China, were investigated in 2011 and 2012 on a seasonal basis to estimate the population exposure to particulates for three road types. The measurements of PM10 were also conducted in the southern Chinese megacity of Guangzhou for comparison purposes. The results showed that roadside PM10 in Beijing correlated strongly with the PM10 background in the urban atmosphere. The levels of PM10 in street canyons were markedly higher than those along the open roads and in crossroad areas because of limited ventilation. An elevation of PM10 was observed in April, which was possibly due to the sand storms that frequently occur in the spring. Based on these observations, roadside PM10 in Beijing could have multiple origins and was to some extent dispersion-governed. In Guangzhou, the roadside PM10 did not closely relate to the background values. The PM10 pollution was greatly affected by local traffic conditions. The simulation of PM10 for different road types was completed during the study period using the Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model (MOBILE6.2) as an emission model and the California Line Source Dispersion Model (CALINE4) and Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) as dispersion models. The MOBILE6.2/CALINE4 software package was demonstrated to be sufficient for the simulation of PM10 in the open roads and crossroad areas in both Beijing and Guangzhou, and the simulation results of roadside PM10 in the street canyons by the MOBILE6.2/OSPM package were in close agreement with those of the measurements. PMID:24649707

  4. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. PMID:26448594

  5. Assessment of the masking effects of birdsong on the road traffic noise environment.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yiying; Kang, Jian; Wörtche, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to explore how the soundscape quality of traffic noise environments can be improved by the masking effects of birdsong in terms of four soundscape characteristics, i.e., perceived loudness, naturalness, annoyance and pleasantness. Four factors that may influence the masking effects of birdsong (i.e., distance of the receiver from a sound source, loudness of masker, occurrence frequencies of masker, and visibility of sound sources) were examined by listening tests. The results show that the masking effects are more significant in the road traffic noise environments with lower sound levels (e.g., <52.5 dBA), or of distance from traffic (e.g., >19 m). Adding birdsong can indeed increase the naturalness and pleasantness of the traffic noise environment at different distances of the receiver from a road. Naturalness, annoyance, and pleasantness, but not perceived loudness, can be altered by increasing the birdsong loudness (i.e., from 37.5 to 52.5 dBA in this study). The pleasantness of traffic noise environments increases significantly from 2.7 to 6.7, when the occurrence of birdsong over a period of 30 s is increased from 2 to 6 times. The visibility of the sound source also influences the masking effects, but its effect is not as significant as the effects of the three other factors. PMID:27586730

  6. Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).

    PubMed

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Melot, Geoffrey; Lengagne, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication efficiency by allowing shift from a sensory modality to another when one modality suffers from noise. In the present study, we investigated multimodal shift in the European treefrog (Hyla arborea), a species using both acoustic and visual cues during male quality assessment task performed by females. Females were used in a discrimination task in two environmental conditions: with or without traffic noise. In traffic noise conditions, we showed that females' reliance on acoustic signal embedded in noise pollution did not decrease in favour of visual signals, therefore showing that females do not shift between modalities in response to traffic noise. Although, we did not evidence multimodal shift in our study, many species facing traffic noise present multimodal communication, and should be investigated to evaluate the importance of multimodal shift as a way to cope with traffic noise pollution. PMID:25151940

  7. Particle size distribution and pollutants in road-deposited sediments in different areas of Zhenjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Zhu, Wei

    2009-08-01

    An understanding of road-deposited sediment (RDS) characteristics on an impervious surface is essential to estimate pollutant washoff characteristics and to minimise the impacts of pollutants on the water environment. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected from four different land-use types (commercial, residential, intense traffic and riverside park) in Zhenjiang City, China. The samples were fractionated into seven grain-size classes and analysed for particle size distribution and concentrations of pollutants. The samples are found to consist predominantly of fine particles (60-80%, <250 microm). The maximum mean concentrations of zinc, lead and copper were 686.93, 589.19 and 158.16 mg/kg, respectively, with the highest metal concentrations found in samples from the intense traffic area. The maximum mean contents of organic matter (12.55%), nitrogen (6.31 mg/g) and phosphorus (5.15 mg/g) were found in samples from the commercial area. The concentrations of heavy metals were highest in the smallest particle size fraction analysed (63 microm). The organic matter and nitrogen content generally increased with decreasing particle sizes in the <500-microm particle size range. The results also revealed that most of the total nitrogen (TN) is attached to the finer sediments and that to effectively reduce TN loads in particulates, treatment facilities must be able to remove the finer particles (down to 125 microm for TN). PMID:18791663

  8. Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska, Marzena

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

  9. Runoff pollutants of a highly trafficked urban road--correlation analysis and seasonal influences.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Brigitte; Hilliges, Rita; Schriewer, Alexander; Horn, Harald

    2010-08-01

    The quality of road runoff at a highly trafficked road has been studied for 2 years. 63 storm events have been sampled and analyzed. Besides pH value and electric conductivity the concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd), both in dissolved and particulate form, de-icing salt, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), suspended solids (SS) have been monitored. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the total metal concentrations with TOC and SS. A considerable seasonal increase in pollutant concentrations has been observed for Cu, TOC, SS, pH value and especially for Zn during the cold season. The mean values during winter time were multiple times higher than measured during the warm season. In contrast, the fractionation of heavy metals was not affected by seasonal variations, but remarkable fluctuations were observed between different rain events with dissolved fractions above 90%. As a result of this and due to the high pollutant load on fine particles, best management practices (BMPs) only implementing sedimentation are not recommended for treatment of heavily polluted urban road runoff. From the data obtained it can be concluded, that the de-icing salt has only a weak influence for higher pollutant concentrations. The increase of heavy metal concentrations occurs because of increased tear and wear due to application of gravel at cold weather conditions. No significant influence of the length of antecedent dry weather periods could be observed most likely due to street sweeping, winds and air turbulences caused by traffic. PMID:20579685

  10. Online Optimal Control of Connected Vehicles for Efficient Traffic Flow at Merging Roads

    SciTech Connect

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pisu, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of coordinating online connected vehicles at merging roads to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We present a framework and a closed-form solution that optimize the acceleration profile of each vehicle in terms of fuel economy while avoiding collision with other vehicles at the merging zone. The proposed solution is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of connected vehicles can reduce significantly fuel consumption and travel time at merging roads.

  11. Contribution of alcohol to deaths in road traffic accidents in Tayside 1982-6

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Graham R; Dunbar, James A; Whittet, David; Fernando, Gyan C A

    1988-01-01

    In Britain the precise number and relative proportions of deaths among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in road traffic accidents related to alcohol are not known. These data were obtained in Tayside by cross matching police accident records with blood alcohol concentrations at necropsy. Of 71 alcohol-related deaths 30 were the drivers (or motorcyclists) themselves, nine were their passengers, 23 were pedestrians with raised blood alcohol concentrations, and nine were innocent victims. The high blood alcohol concentrations of the intoxicated drivers, passengers, and pedestrians, which may point to alcoholism, suggest that publicity campaigns will be of little value in reducing the number of deaths in road traffic accidents related to alcohol. The time at which these accidents occurred was related to licensing hours, and this should be taken into account when considering changes in licensing laws. PMID:3132276

  12. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. Methods: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. Results: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. Conclusions: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads

  13. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  14. A field survey on the annoyance caused by sounds from large firearms and road traffic.

    PubMed

    Buchta, E; Vos, J

    1998-11-01

    Subjective reactions to artillery sounds were determined for over 400 respondents divided among 17 different residential areas. Also, for the same respondents, the subjective effects of road-traffic sounds were determined enabling a comprehensive comparison of the dose-response relations. For the sake of comparison with other field surveys, the noise dose for the shooting sounds was, among other things, expressed as the yearly average C-weighted day-night level (CDNL) and that for the road-traffic sounds was expressed as the A-weighted day-night level (ADNL). Similarly, for both sound types the community response was expressed as the percentage of respondents being "highly annoyed." From the comparison of the two dose-response relationships it could be concluded that for numerically equal day-night levels, the artillery sounds were more annoying than the road-traffic sounds. Overall, the difference was equivalent to the change in annoyance produced by a 5-dB shift in the yearly average day-night levels of the sounds. With equal day-night levels for "downwind" conditions, the artillery and road-traffic sounds were equally annoying. Results from the present highly controlled field survey provided a new opportunity to optimize the parameter values in Schomer's rating procedure y = (1/beta)(LCE-PNSE) + PNSE, in which the noise exposure for impulsive sounds (y) is expressed as the A-weighted SEL of equally annoying vehicle sounds. PNSE represents the point at which the impulsive and vehicle sounds with numerically equal levels are also equally annoying. With PNSE fixed at 103 dB, an optimal solution was found with slope beta set to 1.3. With the previously recommended slope beta = 0.67, the rating sound level for artillery sounds would be underestimated by almost 12 dB. PMID:9821337

  15. Hazards to children in traffic. A paediatrician looks at road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R H

    1978-01-01

    An overall view is presented of the hazards to children in traffic. The importance of the developmental aspects of childhood accidents is stressed, and a plea is made for doctors working with children to recognise the part they could play in reducing the number of road accidents to children by their understanding of child development and behaviour. It is an aspect of preventive paediatrics that is largely neglected at present. PMID:727795

  16. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  17. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth defects in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Girguis, Mariam S; Strickland, Matthew J; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yang; Bartell, Scott M; Vieira, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with diameter of 2.5µm or less (PM2.5) may influence risk of birth defects. We estimated associations between maternal exposure to prenatal traffic-related air pollution and risk of cardiac, orofacial, and neural tube defects among Massachusetts births conceived 2001 through 2008. Our analyses included 2729 cardiac, 255 neural tube, and 729 orofacial defects. We used satellite remote sensing, meteorological and land use data to assess PM2.5 and traffic-related exposures (distance to roads and traffic density) at geocoded birth addresses. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Generalized additive models were used to assess spatial patterns of birth defect risk. There were positive but non-significant associations for a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.83), patent foramen ovale (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.62). There was a non-significant inverse association between PM2.5 and cleft lip with or without palate (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.10), cleft palate only (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.46) and neural tube defects (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.05). Results for traffic related exposure were similar. Only ostium secundum atrial septal defects displayed significant spatial variation after accounting for known risk factors. PMID:26705853

  18. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    PubMed

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents. PMID:24047249

  19. Spatial disaggregation of carbon dioxide emissions from road traffic based on multiple linear regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yuqin; Lam, Nina S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide emissions at fine spatial scales are critical to both modelers and decision makers dealing with global warming and climate change. Globally, traffic-related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing rapidly. This paper presents a new method based on a multiple linear regression model to disaggregate traffic-related CO 2 emission estimates from the parish-level scale to a 1 × 1 km grid scale. Considering the allocation factors (population density, urban area, income, road density) together, we used a correlation and regression analysis to determine the relationship between these factors and traffic-related CO 2 emissions, and developed the best-fit model. The method was applied to downscale the traffic-related CO 2 emission values by parish (i.e. county) for the State of Louisiana into 1-km 2 grid cells. In the four highest parishes in traffic-related CO 2 emissions, the biggest area that has above average CO 2 emissions is found in East Baton Rouge, and the smallest area with no CO 2 emissions is also in East Baton Rouge, but Orleans has the most CO 2 emissions per unit area. The result reveals that high CO 2 emissions are concentrated in dense road network of urban areas with high population density and low CO 2 emissions are distributed in rural areas with low population density, sparse road network. The proposed method can be used to identify the emission "hot spots" at fine scale and is considered more accurate and less time-consuming than the previous methods.

  20. An overview of research advances in road traffic trauma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguo; Jiang, Jianxin

    2003-03-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents (RTAs) have continued to increase, and have become the "primary public hazard" to humans. Road traffic trauma (RTT) is a major cause of death in young people of all motorized countries. This article reviews the current advances in RTT research, in order to find some approaches to improving traffic administration and reducing RTAs and RTT. All available data were collected from government, literature, our own research, and conference proceedings. Statistical analysis from every country showed that human factors were still the main cause of RTAs, accounting for more than 90%. Vehicle and road factors caused 3-5% and less than 2% of the total RTAs, respectively. Approximately 85% of RTAs were caused by 21 to 45-year-olds. About 50% of deaths due to RTAs in the United States were related to drinking. In China, RTAs due to driver drinking accounted for 0.29-1.48%. About 6-8% of drivers were prone to RTA, causing 30-40% of RTAs. Seat belts are an effective way to prevent casualties, reducing mortality and morbidity by 13-50%. In China, about 70% of RTAs were related to bicycles. Prehospital emergency treatment is very important. About 35% of deaths may be avoided if the injured receive early and effective treatment. From 1983 to 1992 the mortality of RTT increased by 13% in 18 developing countries, while it decreased by 18% in 13 developed countries, indicating the importance of comprehensive treatment of traffic administration. In addition many advances have been made in basic scientific research of RTT, such as development of serial bioimpact machines and investigation of biomechanical and biochemical mechanisms of impact injuries. In this century, RTAs and RTT are predicted to continue to increase in many countries, especially in developing ones. Full cooperation and comprehensive treatment should be performed in order to improve traffic safety. PMID:14522656

  1. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  2. Habituation of Sleep to Road Traffic Noise Observed not by Polygraphy but by Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUROIWA, M.; XIN, P.; SUZUKI, S.; SASAZAWA, Y.; KAWADA, T.; TAMURA, Y.

    2002-02-01

    The habituation of sleep to road traffic noise was investigated. Habituation of sleep is improvement of sleep quality. Nine male students aged 19-21 were exposed to tape-recorded road traffic noise ofLeq 49·6 dB(A) in an experimental bedroom. Among 17 nights, the first four and the last three nights were non-exposure nights and the other consecutive 10 were exposure nights. The polygraphic sleep parameters were: sleep stages S1, S2, S(3+4), rapid eye movements (REM), and so on. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by five scales of a self-rating sleep questionnaire named the OSA, sleepiness (F1), sleep maintenance (F2), worry (F3), integrated sleep feeling (F4), and sleep initiation (F5). In this experiment, the habituation of sleep to road traffic noise was observed clearly in all of the subjective sleep parameters of the OSA, though all of the polygraphic sleep parameters showed little or no evidence of habituation. This suggests that habituation to noise has two aspects, sensation and perception mechanisms, corresponding to sleep polygraphy and to questionnaire respectively.

  3. [Economic cost of permanent disability caused by road traffic injuries in Mexico in 2012].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vallejo, Patricia G; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the economic costs of permanent disability caused by road traffic injuries in Mexico during 2012. From the health system's perspective, a bottom-up approach was used to calculate direct medical costs (hospitalization, outpatient care, rehabilitation, and prostheses). From society's perspective, using a human capital approach, indirect costs were associated with loss of productivity for the victims and their caregivers. Permanent disability due to road traffic injuries takes a high toll on the health system and Mexican society. From the health system perspective, the cost was US$269,529,480.72, or US$1,496.33 per victim. The estimated average cost to society was US$3,445.45 during the first year. The total average cost per victim was US$4,941.77, resulting in a total economic cost of US$1,119,761,632.53 during 2012. The study's findings highlight the need to design and implement more rigorous and efficient public policies to control and prevent road traffic injuries in Mexico. PMID:25945985

  4. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    PubMed Central

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: −0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  5. The association between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

    PubMed

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Nicholas; Finch, Caleb E.; Morgan, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Automotive traffic-related air pollution (TRP) imposes an increasing health burden with global urbanization. Gestational and early child exposure to urban TRP is associated with higher risk of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, as well as low birth weight. While cardio-respiratory effects from exposure are well documented, cognitive effects are only recently becoming widely recognized. This review discusses effects of TRP on brain and cognition in human and animal studies. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiological associations are studied with rodent models of pre- and neonatal exposure to TRP, which show persisting inflammatory changes and altered adult behaviors and cognition. Some behavioral and inflammatory changes show male bias. Rodent models may identify dietary and other interventions for neuroprotection to TRP. PMID:27099868

  7. The association between chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Finkelstein, Murray; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Brook, Jeffrey R; Arain, M Altaf; Sears, Malcolm R; Stieb, David; Balmes, John; Chapman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence links air pollution to the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], fine particulate matter [PM₂.₅], and ozone [O₃]) in a population of susceptible subjects in Toronto. Local (NO₂) exposures were modeled using land use regression based on extensive field monitoring. Regional exposures (PM₂.₅, O₃) were modeled as confounders using inverse distance weighted interpolation based on government monitoring data. The study sample consisted of 2360 patients referred during 1992 to 1999 to a pulmonary clinic at the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to diagnose or manage a respiratory complaint. IHD status was determined by clinical database linkages (ICD-9-CM 412-414). The association between IHD and air pollutants was assessed with a modified Poisson regression resulting in relative risk estimates. Confounding was controlled with individual and neighborhood-level covariates. After adjusting for multiple covariates, NO₂ was significantly associated with increased IHD risk, relative risk (RR) = 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 1.47). Subjects living near major roads and highways had a trend toward an elevated risk of IHD, RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.18). Regional PM₂.₅ and O₃ were not associated with risk of IHD. PMID:22524595

  8. Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10–700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%–8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%–12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%–23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could

  9. Attitudes associated with behavioral predictors of serious road traffic crashes: results from the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Salmi, Louis Rachid; Lafont, Sylviane; Chiron, Mireille; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that behavioral predictors of serious road traffic crashes (RTC) are correlated with unfavorable attitudes towards traffic safety. Design Prospective and cross‐sectional cohort study. Setting France Participants 13 447 of the 19 894 living members of the GAZEL cohort, workers and recent retirees of a French national utility company followed up since 1989. Main outcomes measures Driving behavior and attitudes towards traffic safety in 2001 by questionnaire. Serious RTCs were recorded over the subsequent 3 years using the cohort annual questionnaire. Behavioral predictors of serious RTCs were assessed using generalized linear Poisson regression models with time‐dependent covariates. Factor scores extracted from the first four attitudinal factors of principal component analysis were saved and then regressed on behavioral predictors as independent variables. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the best predictors of serious RTCs were: “exceeding speed limits on rural roads”, “risky use of cellular phone”, and “sleepy driving”. The adjusted rate ratio ranged from 1.47 to 2.16. Predictors of contravention of the highway code (the first two predictors) were found to be strongly associated with negative attitudes towards “enforcement” and “speed limitations” with an adjusted odds ratio ranging from 1.31 to 2.02. Conclusion Our study supports the view that individuals with a high propensity for driving behaviors associated with an increased risk of RTCs were more likely to have negative attitudes towards traffic safety. Changing drivers' negative or distorted opinions of traffic “enforcement” as well as “speed limitations” and “alcohol prohibition on roads” could improve their compliance with road traffic rules. PMID:17296685

  10. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biologically plausible mechanisms link traffic-related air pollution to metabolic disorders and potentially to obesity. Here we sought to determine whether traffic density and traffic-related air pollution were positively associated with growth in body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) in children aged 5–11 years. Methods Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort of children who lived in 13 communities across Southern California (N = 4550). Children were enrolled while attending kindergarten and first grade and followed for 4 years, with height and weight measured annually. Dispersion models were used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Multilevel models were used to estimate and test traffic density and traffic pollution related to BMI growth. Data were collected between 2002–2010 and analyzed in 2011–12. Results Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI and was robust to adjustment for many confounders. The effect size in the adjusted model indicated about a 13.6% increase in annual BMI growth when comparing the lowest to the highest tenth percentile of air pollution exposure, which resulted in an increase of nearly 0.4 BMI units on attained BMI at age 10. Traffic density also had a positive association with BMI growth, but this effect was less robust in multivariate models. Conclusions Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in children aged 5–11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children. PMID:24913018

  11. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  12. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  13. Analysis of Road Traffic Accident Rate in the Slovak Republic and Possibilities of Its Reduction through Telematic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalašová, Alica; Krchová, Zuzana

    There is a worldwide trend of increasing number of vehicles being newly introduced on an annual basis. On the road, there are great numbers of drivers with low discipline, aggressive driving habits and non-compliance with basic principles of responsible traffic behavior. As a consequence, the number of traffic accidents is rising, and so do their repercussions.

  14. Analysis of traffic-related NO x and EC concentrations at various distances from major roads in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naser, Tarek Mohamed; Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nataami, Taro

    Traffic-related air pollutants were monitored near major roads at 10 sites in Japan. Nitrogen oxides (NO x), suspended particulate matter (100% cut-off aerodynamic diameter at 10 μm), PM 2.5 (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter at 2.5 μm), and black carbon, from which elemental carbon (EC) content was calculated, were instantaneously and continuously monitored at four stations at various distances (about 5, 35, 70, and 150 m) from each of the target roads. We analyzed concentration data from a 1-year monitoring period (Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 2006) at nine sites where credible estimation of emission rates was possible. For conditions of wind directions nearly perpendicular to the target roads, neutral atmospheric stability, and sufficiently high wind speed (>1 m s -1), we compared the observed concentrations with concentrations calculated by means of the conventional Gaussian plume model. Except for a site with densely packed high-rise buildings and another site with suspected additional emission sources that were not included in the model, the NO x and EC concentrations normalized by the values at the stations closest to the road agreed well between the Gaussian plume model and the observation. By assuming that the emission factor of EC was proportional to that of PM (total particulate matter at emission) and by using the emission factor of NO x, we estimated the emission factor of EC by evaluating the ratio (C-C)/(C-C). Good agreement between the observed and estimated ratios was obtained with a proportionality constant (EC/PM) of 0.4, indicating that the emission factor of EC was 0.4 times that of PM.

  15. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  16. Behavior of amphibians on the road in response to car traffic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Huot, M.; Gravel, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nocturnal car traffic often results in amphibian casualties, especially during rainy nights. The behavior of amphibians presumably influences their vulnerability to mortality on the road, but this hypothesis remains untested. We investigated the behavioral response of individuals of six species of amphibians on roads when confronted by an approaching vehicle. We first conducted a field study consisting of 50 night-driving surveys over 4 yr during which we recorded the behavior (i.e., moving or immobile) of frogs, toads, tree frogs, and salamanders encountered on a 20-km stretch of road. In an effort to tease apart the effects of headlights and the sound of motors on amphibian behavior, we carried out a field experiment on a test road where we exposed individuals to different car-associated stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous exposure to headlights and the sound of a car motor would elicit a stronger response than exposure to a single stimulus or a control. Based on the observations of the 2767 individuals in the field survey, immobility was the most common response to the approach of a car (mean probability of 0.82 of remaining immobile); the response differed across species but depended on the season of the survey (May-June vs. July-September). Similarly, the 91 individuals included in the field experiment were more likely to move during the control treatment than during any of the car-associated treatments. The combined stimuli elicited the strongest response, followed by the headlights-only and the motor-only treatments. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) tended to move more often than the other species we tested in the field experiment, which suggests they spend less time on the road and are less vulnerable to traffic mortality than other species. Both the field survey and field experiment consistently indicated that amphibians tend to remain immobile at the approach of a vehicle. This behavior highlights the vulnerability of amphibians

  17. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B.; Perret, Jennifer; Hui, Jennie; Wjst, Matthias; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Allen, Katrina J.; Abramson, Michael J.; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. PMID:27043549

  18. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research. PMID:25086442

  19. Vehicle impoundment regulations as a means for reducing traffic-violations and road accidents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    The vehicle impoundment sanction in Israel is applicable to several violations, and authorizes police officers to impound a vehicle for period of 30 days, in addition to license suspension. This study examined the effects of vehicle impoundment on traffic-violations and road accidents in Israel, using both subjective and objective measures. A telephone survey was administered to 378 impounded drivers, examining their knowledge and support of the impoundment penalty, as well as the impoundment's effect on their daily life and subsequent driving behaviors. Survey results indicated most impounded drivers did not recognize the violations to which impoundment applies. Respondents described the impoundment experience as one, which interfered with a variety of daily life aspects, and eventually lead them to the adoption of safer driving behaviors. Additionally, data analysis of police records was performed on 1549 impounded drivers and 1354 controls with matching violations performed prior to the application of the impoundment regulation, comparing accident and traffic-violations involvement in the subsequent year. Results indicated that impoundment failed to yield a significant effect over subsequent accident involvement, compared to previous sanctions. A comparison of subsequent traffic-violations indicated lower rates of violations following impoundment as compared with previous sanctions. Specifically, drivers whose vehicle was impounded were less likely to commit traffic violations in the following year than drivers subjected to other sanctions. The results are explained according to psychological behavioral theories of punishment effectiveness. These findings provide further support for impoundment as a deterrent for several traffic-violations. PMID:22785090

  20. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health. PMID:25770919

  1. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  2. Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000–2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  3. A dynamic approach to urban road deposited sediment pollution monitoring (Marylebone Road, London, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, C. J.; Fullen, M. A.; Booth, C. A.; Searle, D. E.

    2014-06-01

    The use of mineral magnetic measurements (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy using road deposited sediment (RDS) is explored as an alternative means of monitoring pollution on a busy city road. Comparison of sediment-related analytical data by correlation analysis between mineral magnetic, particle size and geochemical properties is reported. Mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) reveal significant (p < 0.001; n = 61) associations with PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10. Significant associations were also found with mineral magnetic concentrations (χLF and SIRM) and specific concentrations of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn (p < 0.001; n = 61). Inter-geochemical correlation analysis found strong associations (p < 0.001; n = 61) between Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn and suggest anthropogenic enrichment influences. Low χFD% measurements imply an influence of multi-domain mineralogy, indicative of anthropogenic combustion processes. SEM micrographs also support this, as all samples contain Fe spherules indicative of vehicular combustion processes. This study advocates rapid and simple initial assessment of urban pollution episodes using mineral magnetic measurements as a dynamic explorative technology.

  4. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP) method.

    PubMed

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit. PMID:25438150

  5. Estimating Cost of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran Using Willingness to Pay (WTP) Method

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit. PMID:25438150

  6. Host, vehicular and environmental factors responsible for road traffic crashes in a nigerian city: identifiable issues for road traffic injury control

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Peter Oladapo; Kadri, Dotun Musiliu; Bello, Jibril Oyekunle; Ofoegbu, Chima Kingsley Pascal; Abdur-Rahman, Lukman Olajide; Adekanye, Adedeji Olugbenga; Solagberu, Babatunde Akeeb

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injury (RTI) has assumed major public health importance world-wide and the burden is heavier on the health-care infrastructure of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, RTI is the leading cause of trauma related morbidity and mortality. While there are some published epidemiological reports on RTI in the region, studies on the mechanism of causation of road traffic crashes (RTC) are not available. Methods Over a 9-month period, we prospectively captured the 571 victims of RTC presenting to a single tertiary health care center in Nigeria. Data collected include demographic data, Mechanism of causation of RTC, Injuries sustained and outcomes. Results Over three-quarters of the victims are young people and half were either traders (27.5%) or students (20%). Pedestrians, motorcycle riders and open truck occupants (people sitting at the rear loading compartment of trucks) often had fatal injuries. Analysis of collision patterns showed that lone crashes were the most frequent though car-to-motorcycle crashes caused a quarter of the deaths. Host factors (over-speeding driver, driver misjudgment, sleeping driver etc.) were responsible for four-fifths of the crashes while vehicular and environmental factors accounted for the remaining. On binary regression analysis, head injured victims had higher odds of dying than the non-head injured (Odds ratio = 6.5). Conclusion This paper elucidates the mechanisms of causation of and types of injuries sustained following RTC in Nigeria and thus provide opportunities for prevention and control of this unacceptable situation. PMID:25780490

  7. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  8. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morley, D W; de Hoogh, K; Fecht, D; Fabbri, F; Bell, M; Goodman, P S; Elliott, P; Hodgson, S; Hansell, A L; Gulliver, J

    2015-11-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). PMID:26232738

  9. Context sensitive road traffic noise impact mapping-Taking the neighborhood soundscape into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klboe, Ronny; Engelien, Erik; Steinnes, Margrete

    2001-05-01

    Road traffic noise exposure contour maps are difficult to interpret by nonexperts who are familiar with neither the road traffic noise exposure measures nor their associated impacts. An alternative is to map impacts such as annoyance. However, in urban areas the noise impacts are multi-factorially determined and context sensitive. In particular people become more annoyed by a given noise level at the most exposed facade of their dwelling when their neighborhood soundscape is even noisier. A two-tiered approach makes use of contextual soundscape information in determining noise impacts and builds contiguous neighborhood sonoscapes delimiting neighborhood areas with similar noise impacts. Neighborhood sonoscape maps facilitate a more precise targeting of local noise abatement measures, and can illustrate the impacts of noise abatement measures. With appropriate classification and class labels neighborhood sonoscapes provide an environmental labeling of the expected perceived sound quality of the neighborhood for consumers, the public and planners. Neighborhood sonoscape maps may be utilized for national stratification and subsequent two-stage cluster sampling of the population. The advantage of this approach is that focused traffic counts, extended sound modeling and monitoring of noise abatement procedures, population composition, etc. can be undertaken for a limited representative set of neighborhood sonoscapes.

  10. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Hadley K.H.; Boikhutso, Nkuli; Hyder, Adnan A.; Bertram, Melanie; Hofman, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings. PMID:27396485

  11. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  12. Assessment of the responsibility between a road traffic accident and medical defects after the traffic accident injury of knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiemin; Xia, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese woman was hit by a car in a road traffic accident. Local county hospital considered that her right knee was injured, but didn't find any sign of fracture from X-ray imaging. Then the hospital gave diagnosis of soft tissue contusion and the patient started to exercise with burden 21 days after her right lower limb was fixed by plaster slab. Four months later, she had to go back to the county hospital for recheck due to persistent pain on her right knee. Then, the right tibia outer plateau fracture was found. The patient rejected the advice of open reduction and internal fixation of right tibia plateau fracture. Instead, she accepted the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a hospital affiliated to a medical college. The patient felt the knee pain alleviated after surgery However, the joint dysfunction was aggravated even more. The patient used the legal procedure for personal compensation. Both driver and the insurance company disputed that the final consequence of the injured knee was due to not only the traffic accident, but also poor medical practice involved. Therefore the court consigned us to make judicial judgment of expertise. After investigation, we found the earliest X-ray graph after the accident had shown the fracture of right tibia outer plateau and right knee valgum, with articular surface involvement, and the traffic accident was considered as the primary cause of sequelae. At the same time, the county hospital missed the diagnosis of fracture, and led to insufficient fixation of right lower limb, which was not good for rehabilitation from fracture and joint injury. This was the secondary cause of sequelae. Additionally, instead of the standard therapy, the affiliated hospital of medical college made the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty four months later, which also had a little defect. It was the minor reason for the result. PMID:22391004

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Bus provides a main mode of public transport in Vietnam, but the risk of road traffic crash for bus drivers is unknown. This retrospective study estimated the crash prevalence among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam, and identified driver characteristics affecting their crashes. Information on bus crashes for the period 2006-2009 was collected by interviewing drivers from five bus companies in Hanoi using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pertinent risk factors affecting the crash prevalence for bus drivers. Of the total 365 participants recruited, 73 drivers reported 76 crashes, giving an overall crash prevalence of 20%. Among the crashed group, three drivers (4%) were involved in two crashes during the past 3 years. Crashes mainly occurred on streets or local roads (81%). Migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-8.25) and insufficient income perceived (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.37-4.93) were identified to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are needed to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of bus drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent traffic injury of these drivers. PMID:23190322

  14. Road crossing behavior under traffic light conflict: Modulating effects of green light duration and signal congruency.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Haiduk, Michael; Boos, Moritz; Tinschert, Peter; Schwarze, Anke; Eggert, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A large number of pedestrians and cyclists regularly ignore the traffic lights to cross the road illegally. In a recent analysis, illegal road crossing behavior has been shown to be enhanced in the presence of incongruent stimulus configurations. Pedestrians and cyclists are more likely to cross against a red light when exposed to an irrelevant conflicting green light. Here, we present experimental and observational data on the factors moderating the risk associated with incongruent traffic lights. In an observational study, we demonstrated that the conflict-related increase in illegal crossing rates is reduced when pedestrian and cyclist green light periods are long. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated the color of the irrelevant signals to expose participants to different degrees of incongruency. Results revealed that individuals' performance gradually varied as a function of incongruency, suggesting that the negative impact of a conflicting green light can be reduced by slightly adjusting its color. Our findings highlight that the observation of real-world behavior at intersections and the experimental analysis of psychological processes under controlled laboratory conditions can complement each other in identifying risk factors of risky road crossing behavior. Based on this combination, our study elaborates on promising measures to improve safety at signalized intersections. PMID:27474874

  15. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti). To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg) but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred by an introduced

  16. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert’s squirrels (Sciurus aberti). To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert’s squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert’s squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert’s squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg) but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred by an

  17. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  18. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer. Objective We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer. Methods We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit. Results For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (> 10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95–1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly. Conclusions This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence. PMID:21227886

  19. Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Rob; Islam, Talat; Shankardass, Ketan; Jerrett, Michael; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank; Gauderman, Jim; Avol, Ed; Künzli, Nino; Yao, Ling; Peters, John; Berhane, Kiros

    2010-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. Objectives We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Methods Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 kindergarten and first-grade children who were asthma- and wheezing-free at study entry into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. We assessed traffic-related pollution exposure based on a line source dispersion model of traffic volume, distance from home and school, and local meteorology. Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site monitor in each of 13 study communities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset asthma were scaled to the range of ambient central site pollutants and to the residential interquartile range for each traffic exposure metric. Results Asthma risk increased with modeled traffic-related pollution exposure from roadways near homes [HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–1.82] and near schools (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06–1.98). Ambient NO2 measured at a central site in each community was also associated with increased risk (HR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18–4.01). In models with both NO2 and modeled traffic exposures, there were independent associations of asthma with traffic-related pollution at school and home, whereas the estimate for NO2 was attenuated (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.69–2.71). Conclusions Traffic-related pollution exposure at school and homes may both contribute to the development of asthma. PMID:20371422

  20. Pattern and distribution of pedestrian injuries in fatal road traffic accidental cases in Dharan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Birendra Kumar; Yadav, Biswa Nath

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of death in the world. The present study aims at evaluation of pattern and distribution of injuries among pedestrians thereby planning successful measures to minimize fatalities. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. This study included 50 cases of pedestrian victims of fatal road traffic accident, brought for medico-legal postmortem examination. Results: Highest number (17 or 21.3%) of fatalities occurred in the 41-50 years age group followed by the age group 31-40 years (15 or 18.7%). Male victims outnumbered female resulting in male to female ratio of 1.8:1. Most of the pedestrians were illiterate (26 or 32.5%) followed by those who were educated up to primary school (14 or 17.5%). Nearly half of the cases (38 or 47.5%), four or more wheelers – heavy vehicles – were involved. Fracture was the most common type of injuries (55 or 28.9%) followed by laceration (50 or 26.3%). In 44 (55%) cases, primary impact injuries were noted, secondary impact injuries in 55 (68.7%) cases, and secondary injuries in 62 (77.5%) cases. More than one-fourth (22 or 27.5%) of the deaths were due to pelvic and extremities injuries. Conclusion: Pedestrians, people who travel by foot, wheelchair, stroller, or similar means, are most vulnerable users of the road. Before head out on foot for a stroll, power walk, or errand, there are important safety tips to remember. A greater awareness about traffic rules will go a long way in curbing the incidence of fatal pedestrian accidents. PMID:25097407

  1. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures. PMID:18709434

  2. [Monetary value of the human costs of road traffic injuries in Spain].

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo; Sánchez Martínez, Fernando Ignacio; Abellán Perpiñán, José María; Pinto Prades, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Cost-benefit analyses in the field of road safety compute human costs as a key component of total costs. The present article presents two studies promoted by the Directorate-General for Traffic aimed at obtaining official values for the costs associated with fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries in Spain. We combined the contingent valuation approach and the (modified) standard gamble technique in two surveys administered to large representative samples (n1=2,020, n2=2,000) of the Spanish population. The monetary value of preventing a fatality was estimated to be 1.4 million euros. Values of 219,000 and 6,100 euros were obtained for minor and severe non-fatal injuries, respectively. These figures are comparable to those observed in neighboring countries. PMID:26342412

  3. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  4. Assessing the air quality impact of nitrogen oxides and benzene from road traffic and domestic heating and the associated cancer risk in an urban area of Verona (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Marco; Redivo, Martina; Antonacci, Gianluca; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Zardi, Dino; Giovannini, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of emission and dispersion of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are performed in an urban area of Verona (Italy), characterized by street canyons and typical sources of urban pollutants. Two dominant source categories are considered: road traffic and, as an element of novelty, domestic heaters. Also, to assess the impact of urban air pollution on human health and, in particular, the cancer risk, simulations of emission and dispersion of benzene are carried out. Emissions from road traffic are estimated by the COPERT 4 algorithm, whilst NOx emission factors from domestic heaters are retrieved by means of criteria provided in the technical literature. Then maps of the annual mean concentrations of NOx and benzene are calculated using the AUSTAL2000 dispersion model, considering both scenarios representing the current situation, and scenarios simulating the introduction of environmental strategies for air pollution mitigation. The simulations highlight potentially critical situations of human exposure that may not be detected by the conventional network of air quality monitoring stations. The proposed methodology provides a support for air quality policies, such as planning targeted measurement campaigns, re-locating monitoring stations and adopting measures in favour of better air quality in urban planning. In particular, the estimation of the induced cancer risk is an important starting point to conduct zoning analyses and to detect the areas where population is more directly exposed to potential risks for health.

  5. How Do Children Perceive and Act on Dynamic Affordances in Crossing Traffic-Filled Roads?

    PubMed Central

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    Successfully perceiving and acting on dynamic affordances is critical for children and adults to function. In our work, we look at how children cross roads as a model for understanding how they learn to perceive and act on dynamic affordances. Ten- to 14-year-old children and adults ride an interactive bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment where they cross intersections with continuous cross traffic. We consistently find developmental and individual differences in children’s ability to tightly time their entry into the roadway relative to the lead car in the gap. Given that children do not adjust their gap choices to match their less precise timing abilities, children take more risks when crossing roads than adults. We conclude by discussing possible reasons for these developmental differences in movement timing. PMID:25530798

  6. Impact of road traffic emissions on ambient air quality in an industrialized area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sílvia M; Domingues, Gonçalo; Gomes, Carla; Silva, Alexandra V; Almeida, S Marta

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies showed a correlation between airborne particulate matter(PM) and the incidence of several diseases in exposed populations. Consequently, the European Commission reinforced the need and obligation of member-states to monitor exposure levels of PM and adopt measures to reduce this exposure. However, in order to plan appropriate actions, it is necessary to understand the main sources of air pollution and their relative contributions to the formation of the ambient aerosol. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to assess the contribution of vehicles to the atmospheric aerosol,which may constitute a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of planned mitigation actions.This methodology is based on three main steps: (1) estimation of traffic emissions provided from the vehicles exhaust and resuspension; (2) use of the dispersion model TAPM (“The Air Pollution Model”) to estimate the contribution of traffic for the atmospheric aerosol; and(3) use of geographic information system (GIS) tools to map the PM10 concentrations provided from traffic in the surroundings of a target area. The methodology was applied to an industrial area, and results showed that the highest contribution of traffic for the PM10 concentrations resulted from dust resuspension and that heavy vehicles were the type that most contributed to the PM10 concentration. PMID:23738394

  7. Road Traffic and Other Unintentional Injuries Among Travelers to Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha C Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life-years annually, making up 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries. Given this burden, it is not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to low- and middle-income countries, namely, from road traffic crashes and drowning. Therefore, pretravel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as wearing seatbelts, helmets, and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. PMID:26900117

  8. Garenoxacin in Skin and Skin Structure Infections Sustained due to Road Traffic Accident

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaprasad, K; Bhargava, Amit Indra

    2014-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections represent a continuum of symptoms that range from uncomplicated cellulitis to the potentially lethal entity necrotizing fasciitis that is often considered to be microbial invasions of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Garenoxacin, a newer oral des-fluoroquinolone having potent antimicrobial activity against wide variety of common pathogens involved in skin and skin structure infections (SSTIs), including the resistant strains offer the advantage of broad spectrum of coverage including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic organisms. This case study indicates the utility of garenoxacin in treating skin and soft tissue infections caused by road traffic accidents. PMID:25121004

  9. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training), more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both an integrated system to

  10. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  11. Geospatial and clinical analyses on pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Rainis, Ruslan; Noor, Syed Hatim; Syed Mohamad, Sharifah Mastura

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study is to utilize the geographical information system (GIS) software and perform the spatial analysis in relation to clinical data for road traffic injury (RTI) pediatric cases attending the emergency department. METHODS: The study sample included pediatric patients (age less than 18 years) with road-related injuries within a district in Malaysia who attended emergency departments of two tertiary hospitals within the district. In addition to injury, pre-hospital care and outcome data, the coordinate of the locations were obtained by the ambulance paramedics by using portable handheld GPS unit brand Garmin® model GPS 72 H. The data was transferred into the excel format which in turn underwent GIS analysis by using ARCGIS® (by ESRI) software version 10.1 licensed to the study institution. RESULTS: A total of 102 (24.8%) of all motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims involved the pediatric age group (age 18 years and below). The mean (SD) age of the pediatric victims was 14.30 years (SD 3.830). Male comprised of 68 (66.7%) of the cases. Motorcyclists [88 (88.0%)] were the most common type of victims involved. Interestingly, the majority of the severely injured victims [75 (73%)] sustained the RTI on roads with maximum speed limit of 60 km/hour. The mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 7.83 days (5.59). CONCLUSION: The pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia causes significant health and social burden in the country. This study showed both important clinical and geographical factors that need to be taken into consideration for future preventive action. PMID:27547282

  12. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  13. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    PubMed

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available. PMID:26022404

  14. Platinum pollution in road dusts, roadside soils, and tree barks in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hea-Youn; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Sager, Manfred; Marton, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the level of platinum in urban environment in and around Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Road dust, roadside soil, and tree bark samples were collected from the sites of various traffic volumes and from control sites in the suburbs. The above samples were analyzed for Pt by ICP-MS and other heavy metals by ICP-OES. Platinum levels in road dusts and roadside soils from Seoul were in the range of 3.8-444 ng/g (av. 115.0 ng/g) and 0.7-221 ng/g (av. 49.7 ng/g), respectively, whereas those in the suburbs were in the range of 2.3-5.2 ng/g (av. 3.9 ng/g) in road dusts and 0.4-5.1 ng/g (av. 2.4 ng/g) in roadside soils. The highest Pt levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume. The remarkable difference in average Pt level between heavy traffic roads (av. 132.2 ng/g) and light traffic roads (av. 22.8 ng/g) reflects that an important source of Pt in roadside environment is automobile catalytic converter. High Pt level in road dust was found from the site of erratic stop-start driving condition, for example, 178 ng/g Pt in road dust around a vehicle crossing gate. Platinum level in tree barks ranged from 0.9 to 4.5 ng/g, which indicates the existence of Pt-containing particulate matter in the atmosphere. Road dusts with high Pt level were enriched in traffic-related heavy metals. PMID:21847550

  15. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  16. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  17. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  18. Emerging Pollutants - Part II: Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bo, Liu; Shengen, Zhang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhanfeng, Dong; Hongxiang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Emerging contaminants are considered as some substances of actual or potential threat to human health or environment, which include endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical, personal care products, nanoparticles, antibiotic resistance genes and chemicals used in packaging products, etc. The disposal and treatment of emerging contaminants has become a key problem in the field of water pollution control. The purpose of this review is to summarize published researches on emerging pollutants treatment in 2014. PMID:26420107

  19. Emerging Pollutants - Part II: Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bo, Liu; Shengen, Zhang; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging contaminants are considered as some substances of actual or potential threat to human health or environment, which include endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical, personal care products, nanoparticles, antibiotic resistance genes and chemicals used in packaging products, etc. The disposal and treatment of emerging contaminants has become a key problem in the field of water pollution control. The purpose of this review is to summarize published researches on emerging pollutants treatment in 2015. PMID:27620112

  20. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  1. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  2. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-22

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  3. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Conclusions Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies. PMID:22893829

  4. Economics of Global Burden of Road Traffic Injuries and Their Relationship with Health System Variables

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lin, Zhiquin; Gifford, Mervyn; Svanström, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Background: To estimate the economic loss due to road traffic injuries (RTIs) of the World Health Organization (WHO) member countries and to explore the relationship between the economic loss and relevant health system factors. Methods: Data from the World Bank and the WHO were applied to set up the databases. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and gross domestic product per capita were used to estimate the economic loss relating to RTIs. Regression analysis was used. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics, Versions 20.0. Results: In 2005, the total economic loss of RTIs was estimated to be 167,752.4 million United States Dollars. High income countries (HIC) showed the greatest economic losses. The majority (96%) of the top 25 countries with the greatest DALY losses are low and middle income countries while 48% of the top 25 countries with the highest economic losses are HIC. The linear regression model indicates an inverse relationship between nurse density in the health system and economic loss due to RTI. Conclusions: RTIs cause enormous death and DALYs loss in low-middle income countries and enormous economic loss in HIC. More road traffic prevention programs should be promoted in these areas to reduce both incidence and economic burden of RTIs. PMID:24498501

  5. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden. PMID:27162926

  6. The Relation between Self-Reported Worry and Annoyance from Air and Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4–0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5–0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. PMID:22683278

  8. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    PubMed

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety. PMID:24147639

  9. The relation between self-reported worry and annoyance from air and road traffic.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4-0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5-0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  10. The importance of roof shape for road traffic noise shielding in the urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Botteldooren, D.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of roof shape on sound propagation in a densely build-up city centre is evaluated. Road traffic noise propagation from a street canyon to an adjacent, non-directly exposed building façade is numerically studied by the finite-difference time-domain method. A large number of common and less common roof shapes were analyzed in an idealized city canyon configuration. Roof shape can be responsible for differences in road traffic noise shielding exceeding 10 dBA, averaged over the shielded façade. Therefore, roof shape can be considered as an important means to limit sound pressure levels at a quiet side; various researchers indicated that the presence of silent zones and façades may limit city noise annoyance. With increasing vehicle speed, the choice of roof shape becomes more important. The roof top height was shown to be a bad predictor of shielding efficiency in the equal-building-volume approach followed in this study.

  11. The Characteristics of Road Traffic Fatalities in Kazakhstan’s Semey Region, 2006-2010: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    MYSSAYEV, Ayan; MEIRMANOV, Serik; RAKHYPBEKOV, Tolebay; BULEGENOV, Tolkyn; SEMENOVA, Yuliya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Kazakhstan, a developing middle-income country, has the highest road traffic collision (RTC) mortality in the European Region. The aims of this study were to determine main characteristics of road traffic fatalities in Semey region, Kazakhstan and to compare findings with National data and middle-income European countries. Methods This descriptive surveillance study assesses RTC mortality rates and epidemiology in the Semey Region of East Kazakhstan Oblast. Data of all 318 road traffic fatalities form the Semey Regional Center for Forensic Medicine were analyzed for the 5-year period of January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010. Results Over the study period, the average road traffic mortality in the Semey Region was 12.1 per 100,000 population with downward trend by 35.1% (p=0.002). The victims mean age was 37.1 (SD=17) years. Males predominated at 74.5%. Vehicle fatality was the most common mode of fatality at 61.3%. The majority of collisions, 53.1%, occurred on highways. Most victims, 67.3%, have died at the scene of collision; in 67.3% of fatalities, autopsies identified multiple injuries as cause of death. The high number of fatal collisions took place in “no snow” season (P<0.001), with an overall 5-years downward dynamic. Conclusion High proportion of males, pedestrians and car occupants among road traffic fatalities; high proportion of death on scene in case of highway collisions are specifics for Semey region, Kazakhstan. These findings can be used to formulate preventive strategies to reduce fatalities and to improve the medical care system for road traffic fatalities. PMID:26110146

  12. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Nepal, 2001–2013: systematic review and secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of road traffic injury (RTI) in Nepal for the period 2001–2013. Methods 2 approaches, secondary data analysis and systematic literature review, were adopted. RTI data were retrieved from traffic police records and analysed for the incidence of RTI. Electronic databases were searched for published articles that described the epidemiology of RTI in Nepal. Results A total of 95 902 crashes, 100 499 injuries and 14 512 deaths were recorded by the traffic police over the 12-year period, 2001–2013. The mortality rate increased from 4/100 000 population in 2001–2002 to 7/100 000 population in 2011–2012. There were relatively more reported crashes yet fewer deaths in Kathmandu valley than the rest of the country. Of the 20 articles related to RTI, only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria, but these were mainly descriptive case series or cross-sectional hospital-based studies. The majority of RTI were reported to occur among motorcyclists and pedestrians, in males, and in the age group 20–40 years. The common sites of injury were lower and upper extremities. Only 3 articles mentioned possible causes of accidents that include pedestrian road behaviour, alcohol consumption and improper bus driving. Conclusions Nepal suffers a heavy burden of RTI, with higher fatalities on highways out of Kathmandu valley caused by bus crashes in hilly districts. The majority of published studies on RTI are descriptive and hospital based, indicating the need for more thorough investigation of causes of RTI and systematic recording of crashes for the development of effective interventions. PMID:27084283

  13. The influence of traffic signal solutions on self-reported road-crossing behavior.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment. PMID:26055356

  14. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  15. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  16. Noise emitted from road, rail and air traffic and their effects on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griefahn, Barbara; Marks, Anke; Robens, Sibylle

    2006-08-01

    This study compared the effects of road, rail, and aircraft noise and tested the applicability of the equivalent noise level for the evaluation of sleep disturbances. Sixteen women and 16 men (19-28 years) slept during 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory. Eight persons slept in quiet throughout. Twenty-four persons were exposed to road, rail, or aircraft noise with weekly permuted changes. Each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and 3 nights with equivalent noise levels of 39, 44, and 50 dBA and maximum levels of 50-62, 56-68, and 62-74 dBA, respectively. The polysomnogram was recorded during all nights, sleep quality was assessed and performance tests were completed in the morning. Subjectively evaluated sleep quality decreased and reaction time increased gradually with noise levels, whereas most physiological variables revealed the same reactions to both the lower and considerably stronger reactions to the highest noise load. Aircraft noise, rail and road traffic noise caused similar after-effects but physiological sleep parameters were most severely affected by rail noise. The equivalent noise level seems to be a suitable predictor for subjectively evaluated sleep quality but not for physiological sleep disturbances.

  17. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test.

    PubMed

    Gallasch, Eugen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Cik, Michael; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Lackner, Andreas; Piber, Barbara; Marth, Egon

    2016-01-01

    To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD) and 20 min of rail (RAIL) traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA), a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54) consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only), alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (sBP), total peripheral resistance (TPR), as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP), 0.15-0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF), and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA) were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%), sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL -0.7%, ROAD -0.8%), HF decreased (RAIL -3.4%, ROAD -2.9%), and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%). No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values) combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values) was found at the high-annoyed subgroup. PMID:27569408

  18. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work. PMID:26919842

  19. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. PMID:26476693

  20. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  1. Impacts of traffic composition and street-canyon geometry on on-road air quality in a high-rise building area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seung-Bok; Woo, Sung Ho; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Mobile measurements using a mobile laboratory and numerical simulations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model were conducted over different time periods of multiple days in a high-rise building area, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Mobile measurement can provide actual on-road emission levels of air pollutants from vehicles as well as validation dataset of a CFD model. On the other hand, CFD modeling is required for the process analysis of mobile measurement data and the quantitative estimation of determining factors in complex phenomena. The target area is characterized as a busy street canyon elongated along a major road with hourly traffic volumes of approximately 4000 vehicles during working hours on weekdays. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and particle number (PN) concentrations were measured during 39 round trips of mobile laboratory. The associations of the measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations with the traffic volumes of individual compositions are analyzed by calculating the correlation coefficients (R2) based on linear regressions. It is found that SUV, truck, van, and bus are heavy emitters responsible for the on-road air pollution in the street canyon. Among the measured pollutants, the largest R2 is shown for pPAH. The measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations are unevenly distributed in the street canyon. The measured concentrations around an intersection are higher than those in between intersections, particularly for NOx and pPAH. The CFD modeling for different dispersion scenarios reveals that the intersection has counterbalancing roles in determining the on-road concentrations. The emission process acts to increase the on-road concentrations due to accelerating and idling vehicles, whereas the dispersion process acts to decrease the on-road concentrations due to lateral ventilations along the crossing street. It is needed to control the number of heavy emitters and

  2. The rising burden of serious thoracic trauma sustained by motorcyclists in road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2014-01-01

    In many countries increased on-road motorcycling participation has contributed to increased motorcyclist morbidity and mortality over recent decades. Improved helmet technologies and increased helmet wearing rates have contributed to reductions in serious head injuries, to the point where in many regions thoracic injury is now the most frequently occurring serious injury. However, few advances have been made in reducing the severity of motorcyclist thoracic injury. The aim of the present study is to provide needed information regarding serious motorcyclist thoracic trauma, to assist motorcycling groups, road safety advocates and road authorities develop and prioritise counter-measures and ultimately reduce the rising trauma burden. For this purpose, a data collection of linked police-reported and hospital data was established, and considerable attention was given to establishing a weighting procedure to estimate hospital cases not reported to police and fatal cases not admitted to hospital. The resulting data collection of an estimated 19,979 hospitalised motorcyclists is used to provide detailed information on the nature, incidence and risk factors for thoracic trauma. Over the last decade the incidence of motorcyclist serious thoracic injury has more than doubled in the population considered, and by 2011 while motorcycles comprised 3.2% of the registered vehicle fleet, one quarter of road traffic-related serious thoracic trauma cases treated in hospitals were motorcyclists. Motor-vehicle collisions, fixed object collisions and non-collision crashes were fairly evenly represented amongst these cases, while older motorcyclists were over-represented. Several prevention strategies are identified and discussed. PMID:24200907

  3. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics of drivers, vehicles, pedestrians and road environments involved in road traffic injuries in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, W; Nguntra, P; Mahasakpan, P; Koonchote, S; Tantriratna, G

    1994-03-01

    This report presents descriptive epidemiology of vehicle-related crashes that caused severe injuries in a defined geographical area in northern Thailand, conducted to determine the nature of injuries and factors that contributed to the crashes. In each incident, the driver and other victims were identified and interviewed by a trained public health worker using a standard investigation form. During 1991, 286 single-vehicle crashes (66.4%), 117 crashes with other vehicles (27.1%), and 28 crashes involving pedestrians (6.5%) occurred in the area. These crashes injured 581 persons (551 vehicle occupants and 30 pedestrians), of whom 36 (6.2%) died. The vehicles involved in the crashes included 11 bicycles (2.3%), 371 motorcycles (78.6%), and 90 other motor vehicles (ie, pick-up trucks, lorries, and cars) (19.1%). Motorcycle-related crashes accounted for the majority of injuries and deaths. Driver risk factors for traffic injuries, such as alcohol consumption, lack of a valid driving licence, limited driving experience, and being a teenage driver, occurred more commonly among drivers of motorcycles than of other motor vehicles. Poor vehicle conditions and road environments reported in some incidents may have posed additional risks. Pedestrian factors, including young and old age, and alcohol use, may also have contributed to the occurrence of pedestrian injuries. Our system of data collection using an investigation form can provide relevant information, leading to the development of appropriate accident prevention programs for the community. PMID:7825023

  5. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Patton, Allison P; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km(2). Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  6. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient

  7. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  8. The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS): Study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Vette, Alan; Burke, Janet; Norris, Gary; Landis, Matthew; Batterman, Stuart; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Gilmour, M. Ian; Kamal, Ali; Hammond, Davyda; Vedantham, Ram; Bereznicki, Sarah; Tian, Nancy; Croghan, Carry

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to examine the relationship between near-roadway exposures to air pollutants and respiratory outcomes in a cohort of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways in Detroit, Michigan USA. From September 2010 to December 2012 a total of 139 children with asthma, ages 6–14, were enrolled in the study on the basis of the proximity of their home to major roadways that carried different amounts of diesel traffic. The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of traffic-associated exposures on adverse respiratory outcomes, biomolecular markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress, and how these exposures affect the frequency and severity of respiratory viral infections in a cohort of children with asthma. An integrated measurement and modeling approach was used to quantitatively estimate the contribution of traffic sources to near-roadway air pollution and evaluate predictive models for assessing the impact of near-roadway pollution on children’s exposures. Two intensive field campaigns were conducted in Fall 2010 and Spring 2011 to measure a suite of air pollutants including PM2.5 mass and composition, oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2), carbon monoxide, and black carbon indoors and outdoors of 25 participants’ homes, at two area schools, and along a spatial transect adjacent to I-96, a major highway in Detroit. These data were used to evaluate and refine models to estimate air quality and exposures for each child on a daily basis for the health analyses. The study design and methods are described, and selected measurement results from the Fall 2010 field intensive are presented to illustrate the design and successful implementation of the study. These data provide evidence of roadway impacts and exposure variability between study participants that will be further explored for associations with the health measures. PMID:23149275

  9. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Valencia, Alejandro; Naess, Brian; Isakov, Vlad; Palma, Ted; Breen, Michael; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE) is used to model multiple TRAPs from roadways at Census-block level for two U.S. regions. We used a novel Space/Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) approach that uses data from monitoring networks to provide urban background concentrations. To reduce the computational burden, we developed and applied the METeorologically-weighted Averaging for Risk and Exposure (METARE) approach with R-LINE, where a set of selected meteorological data and annual average daily traffic (AADT) are used to obtain annual averages. Compared with explicit modeling, using METARE reduces CPU-time by 88-fold (46.8h versus 32min), while still retaining accuracy of exposure estimates. We show two examples in the Piedmont region in North Carolina (~105,000 receptors) and Portland, Maine (~7000 receptors) to characterize near-road air quality. Concentrations for NOx, PM2.5, and benzene in Portland drop by over 40% within 200m away from the roadway. The concentration drop in North Carolina is less than that in Portland, as previously shown in an observation-based study, showing the robustness of our approach. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) contribute over 55% of NOx and PM2.5 near interstate highways, while light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) contribute over 50% of benzene to urban areas where multiple roadways intersect. Normalized mean error (NME) between explicit modeling and METARE in Portland ranges from 12.6 to 14.5% and normalized mean bias (NMB) ranges from -12.9 to -11.2%. When considering a static emission rate (i.e. the emission does not have temporal variability), both NME and NMB improved (10.5% and -9.5%). Modeled concentrations in Detroit, Michigan at an array of near-road monitors are within a factor of 2

  10. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-Eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, north of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and amoderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are expected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of avery optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite asimilar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to asignificant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the upper

  11. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, North of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and a moderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are projected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of a very optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite a similar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to a significant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the

  12. Associations between Traffic Noise, Particulate Air Pollution, Hypertension, and Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adults: The KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. Methods: The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25–74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day–night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. Results: In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Conclusions: Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant. Citation: Babisch W, Wolf K, Petz M, Heinrich J, Cyrys J, Peters A. 2014. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:492–498; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306981 PMID:24602804

  13. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LIN...

  14. Predicting pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder after road traffic accidents: the role of parental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Giannakopoulos, George; Liakopoulou, Magda; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Charitaki, Stella; Mihas, Constantinos; Ferentinos, Spyros; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Tsiantis, John

    2011-08-01

    This study examined prospectively the role of parental psychopathology among other predictors in the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 57 hospitalized youths aged 7-18 years immediately after a road traffic accident and 1 and 6 months later. Self report questionnaires and semistructured diagnostic interviews were used in all 3 assessments. Neuroendocrine evaluation was performed at the initial assessment. Maternal PTSD symptomatology predicted the development of children's PTSD 1 month after the event, OR = 6.99, 95% CI [1.049, 45.725]; the persistence of PTSD 6 months later was predicted by the child's increased evening salivary cortisol concentrations within 24 hours of the accident, OR = 1.006, 95% CI [1.001, 1.011]. Evaluation of both biological and psychosocial predictors that increase the risk for later development and maintenance of PTSD is important for appropriate early prevention and treatment. PMID:21812037

  15. Trends of Mortality of Road Traffic Accidents in Fars Province, Southern Iran, 2004 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    HASANZADEH, Jafar; MORADINAZAR, Mehdi; NAJAFI, Farid; AHMADI-JOUYBARY, Touraj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars Province, southern Iran. Methods The Age and sex-standardized mortality rate attributed to RTA from 2004 to 2010 in Fars Province was calculated using world standard population. We also used linear regression and chi-squared tests. Results Over the period of study (7 years), 12954 people died in RTA. The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate was 27 per 100,000. While the rate of death due to RTA had an incremental rate in age group 18-30 years and among women, it had a decreasing trend in age groups 35-45, under18 and among men. Conclusion An increase in mortality rate of RTA among people aged 18-30 yr and women need to be addressed by health policy makers and other involved sections. PMID:26175980

  16. Injury control strategies: extending the quality and quantity of data relating to road traffic accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Henson, R; Hadfield, J M; Cooper, S

    1999-01-01

    This review describes how an extended database of information can provide the opportunity to go beyond the traditionally distinct health, engineering, and education initiatives in order to identify the effectiveness of more overarching policies for injury control. Such information can be used to raise awareness and to encourage community participation in designing a road traffic accident prevention strategy. PMID:10191437

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  18. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  19. Extent, consequences and economic burden of road traffic crashes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Satar; Arab, Mohammad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a result of road traffic crashes (RTCs) rank as the leading cause of death, disability and property loss worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to analyze the costs of RTCs in Iran. Methods: A standard human capital approach was used to estimate the costs. Costs included medical, administrative and funeral costs, property damage, production lost and intangible costs. Data about the number of deaths and injuries resulting from RTIs between 20 March 2009 and 20 March 2010 was obtained from two national databases designed at the Center for Disaster Management and Medical Emergencies (CDMME) and the Legal Medicine Organization (LMO), respectively. The severity and medical costs of injuries were identified by reviewing 400 medical records that were selected randomly from patients who were admitted to two large trauma centers in Shariati and Sina hospitals in Tehran province. Moreover, information about production lost, property damage, rehabilitation cost, intangible costs and administration costs were collected by review of current evidence and consulting with expert opinion. Results: In total 806,922 RTIs and 22,974 deaths resulted from the RTCs in the study period. The total cost of RTCs was about 72,465 billion Rials (7.2 billion US Dollars), which amounts to 2.19% of Iran’s Gross Domestic Production (GDP). Direct costs were 3,516 billion Rials (around 48.6 % of the total costs), following by 24,785 billion Rials (around 34.2 % of the total costs) for production lost and 12,513 billion Rials (around 17.2 % of the total costs) for intangible costs. Conclusions: This study indicated that the burden of both RTCs and RTIs in Iran is substantial. Moreover, RTCs have significant economic consequences and are a large drain on healthcare resources. PMID:24045158

  20. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  1. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33-2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients' higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132-2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  2. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  3. [Influence of working environment factors on health state of road police officers controlling traffic (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Kaliaganov, P I; Troshin, V V; Makarov, I A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic review demonstrated negative influence of polluted air on respiratory diseases formation, on development of pathologic changes in neuro-endocrine and cardiovascular systems, kidneys and blood of traffic regulation officers. Special attention was put on possible carcinogenic and genotoxic influence of air polluted with chemicals in exhaust automobile gases. PMID:19566076

  4. Characteristics of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Accidents According to the New Injury Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Yun, Jae Sung; Jung, Sang Eun; Chae, Choong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients involved in road traffic accidents according to the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Methods In this study, medical records of 1,048 patients admitted at three hospitals located in different regions between January and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients who received inpatient treatments covered by automobile insurance during the period were included. Accidents were classified as pedestrian, driver, passenger, motorcycle, or bicycle; and the severity of injury was assessed by the NISS. Results The proportion of pedestrian traffic accident (TA) was the highest, followed by driver, passenger, motorcycle and bicycle TA. The mean NISS was significantly higher in pedestrian and motorcycle TAs and lower in passenger TA. Analysis of differences in mean hospital length of stay (HLS) according to NISS injury severity revealed 4.97±4.86 days in the minor injury group, 8.91±5.93 days in the moderate injury group, 15.46±11.16 days in the serious injury group, 24.73±17.03 days in the severe injury group, and 30.86±34.03 days in the critical injury group (p<0.05). Conclusion The study results indicated that higher NISS correlated to longer HLS, fewer home discharges, and increasing mortality. Specialized hospitals for TA patient rehabilitation are necessary to reduce disabilities in TA patients. PMID:27152279

  5. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  6. Structural equation modeling of the inflammatory response to traffic air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Baja, Emmanuel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Suh, Helen H.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the effect of traffic-related pollutants on markers of inflammation. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on inflammation using structural equation models (SEMs). We studied measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) for 749 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using repeated measures SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide to estimate its effect on a latent variable for inflammation that included sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and CRP. Exposure periods were assessed using 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day moving averages previsit. We compared our findings using SEMs with those obtained using linear mixed models. Traffic pollution was related to increased inflammation for 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day exposure periods. An inter-quartile range increase in traffic pollution was associated with a 2.3% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.0–4.7%) increase in inflammation for the 3-day moving average, with the most significant association observed for the 30-day moving average (23.9%; 95% PI: 13.9–36.7%). Traffic pollution adversely impacts inflammation in the elderly. SEMs in a Bayesian framework can comprehensively incorporate multiple pollutants and health outcomes simultaneously in air pollution–cardiovascular epidemiological studies. PMID:23232970

  7. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p < 0.05). The ordinal logistic regression

  8. A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.

  9. Mortality after road traffic crashes in a system with limited trauma data capability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Africa has 4% of the global vehicles but accounts for about one tenth of global vehicular deaths. Major trauma in Kenya is associated with excess mortality in comparison with series from trauma centers. The determinants of this mortality have not been completely explored. Objectives To determine the factors affecting mortality among road users in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data of trauma admissions at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a calendar year (2009–2010). Information collected included age, gender, road user type, principal anatomical region of injury, admission status, admission blood pressure and GCS, disposition destination, Injury Severity Score (ISS), injuries sustained, treatment and mortality at two weeks. Major or severe injury was defined as injuries of ISS > 15. Groups based on in-hospital survival were compared using determinants of mortality using X2 or students t-test as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to assess the independence of predictive variables. Results One thousand six hundred forty seven (1647) patients were admitted for trauma during the study period. Traffic admissions were 1013 (61.7%) and males predominated (79.8%). The average age of patients admitted was 31.7 years. Pedestrians, vehicle occupants and motorcyclists represented 43.3%, 27.2% and 15.2% of the road users injured. The proportion of patients with ISS > 15 was 10.9%. The overall mortality was 7.7%. Mortality for ISS > 15 was 27.6%. The following factors significantly predicted mortality on univariate analysis: head injury, abdominal injury, transfer in status, blood transfusion, ICU admission, age > 60 years, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and injury severity. GCS (p = 0.001) and ISS > 15 (p < 0.05) remained significant predictors on regression analysis. Conclusion Trauma mortality rates in this study exceed those from mature trauma systems. Head injury and injury severity

  10. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA) based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%). Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42%) with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79%) and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%). Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of deaths occurring on

  11. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  12. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  13. Symptoms and Medication Use in Children with Asthma and Traffic-Related Sources of Fine Particle Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F.; Koutrakis, Petros; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore R.; Bracken, Michael B.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient fine particles [particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5)] is a potential factor in the exacerbation of asthma. National air quality particle standards consider total mass, not composition or sources, and may not protect against health impacts related to specific components. Objective We examined associations between daily exposure to fine particle components and sources, and symptoms and medication use in children with asthma. Methods Children with asthma (n = 149) 4–12 years of age were enrolled in a year-long study. We analyzed particle samples for trace elements (X-ray fluorescence) and elemental carbon (light reflectance). Using factor analysis/source apportionment, we identified particle sources (e.g., motor vehicle emissions) and quantified daily contributions. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on study diaries. Repeated measures logistic regression models examined associations between health outcomes and particle exposures as elemental concentrations and source contributions. Results More than half of mean PM2.5 was attributed to traffic-related sources motor vehicles (42%) and road dust (12%). Increased likelihood of symptoms and inhaler use was largest for 3-day averaged exposures to traffic-related sources or their elemental constituents and ranged from a 10% increased likelihood of wheeze for each 5-μg/m3 increase in particles from motor vehicles to a 28% increased likelihood of shortness of breath for increases in road dust. Neither the other sources identified nor PM2.5 alone was associated with increased health outcome risks. Conclusions Linking respiratory health effects to specific particle pollution composition or sources is critical to efforts to protect public health. We associated increased risk of symptoms and inhaler use in children with asthma with exposure to traffic-related fine particles. PMID:19654929

  14. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  15. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  16. Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent. Objective We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children. Methods We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders. Results A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age. Conclusions Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Citation Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:228–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409430 PMID

  17. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D J; de Hoogh, C; Gulliver, J; Wills, J; Elliott, P; Kingham, S; Smallbone, K

    2000-05-15

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model--developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project--uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to provide

  18. Traffic flow theory and traffic flow simulation models. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents: Comparison of Simulation Modules of TRANSYT and INTEGRATION Models; Evaluation of SCATSIM-RTA Adaptive Traffic Network Simulation Model; Comparison NETSIM, NETFLO I, and NETFLO II Traffic Simulation Models for Fixed-Time Signal Control; Traffic Flow Simulation Through Parallel Processing; Cluster Analysis as Tool in Traffic Engineering; Traffic Platoon Dispersion Modeling on Arterial Streets; Hybrid Model for Estimating Permitted Left-Turn Saturations Flow Rate; and Passing Sight Distance and Overtaking Dilemma on Two-Lane Roads.

  19. Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended. PMID:25165583

  20. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  1. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  2. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to validate these surrogates against measured pollutant co...

  3. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Results: Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Conclusion: Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others. PMID:26157655

  4. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Muhammad T.; Lin, Pi-Chu; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Gauderman, W. James; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    this haplotype and local road lengths within 200m buffer on FeNO were also observed. Conclusions Higher exposure from residential traffic nullifies the protective effect of one common NOS2 promoter haplotype on FeNO level. Regulation of traffic-related pollution may protect children’s respiratory health. PMID:26714306

  5. Near-road air pollution impacts of goods movement in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A mobile platform was outfitted with real-time instruments to spatially characterize pollution concentrations in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, communities heavily impacted by emissions related to dieselized goods movement, with the highest localized air pollution impacts due to heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). Measurements were conducted in the winter and summer of 2007 on fixed routes driven both morning and afternoon. Diesel-related pollutant concentrations such as black carbon, nitric oxide, ultrafine particles, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were frequently elevated two to five times within 150 m downwind of freeways (compared to more than 150 m) and up to two times within 150 m downwind of arterial roads with significant amounts of diesel traffic. While wind direction was the dominant factor associated with downwind impacts, steady and consistent wind direction was not required to produce; high impacts were observed when a given area was downwind of a major roadway for any significant fraction of time. This suggests elevated pollution impacts downwind of freeways and of busy arterials are continuously occurring on one side of the road or the other, depending on wind direction. The diesel truck traffic in the area studied was high, with more than 2000 trucks per peak hour on the freeway and two- to six-hundred trucks per hour on the arterial roads studied. These results suggest that similarly-frequent impacts occur throughout urban areas in rough proportion to diesel truck traffic fractions. Thus, persons living or working near and downwind of busy roadways can have several-fold higher exposures to diesel vehicle-related pollution than would be predicted by ambient measurements in non-impacted locations.

  6. Metal accumulation in roadside soil in Melbourne, Australia: Effect of road age, traffic density and vehicular speed.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Shamali; Ball, Andrew S; Huynh, Trang; Reichman, Suzie M

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of vehicular emitted heavy metals in roadside soils result in long term environmental damage. This study assessed the relationships between traffic characteristics (traffic density, road age and vehicular speed) and roadside soil heavy metals. Significant levels were recorded for Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg), Cr (18-29 mg/kg), Cu (4-12 mg/kg), Ni (7-20 mg/kg), Mn (92-599 mg/kg), Pb (16-144 mg/kg) and Zn (10.36-88.75 mg/kg), with Mn concentrations exceeding the Ecological Investigation Level. Significant correlations were found between roadside soil metal concentration and vehicular speed (R = 0.90), road age (R = 0.82) and traffic density (R = 0.68). Recently introduced metals in automotive technology (e.g. Mn and Sb) were higher in younger roads, while the metals present for many years (e.g. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) were higher in medium and old age roads confirming the risk of significant metal deposition and soil metal retention in roadside soils. PMID:26603093

  7. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  8. Road Traffic Injury Prevention Initiatives: A Systematic Review and Metasummary of Effectiveness in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, Joao; Gong, Enying; Toomey, Nicole; Wafula, Rebeccah; Abdelgadir, Jihad; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Chen; Pei, Fengdi; Zick, Brittany; Ratliff, Camille D.; Rotich, Claire; Jadue, Nicole; de Andrade, Luciano; von Isenburg, Megan; Hocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing but neglected global health crisis, requiring effective prevention to promote sustainable safety. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) share a disproportionately high burden with 90% of the world’s road traffic deaths, and where RTIs are escalating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. Although several studies have assessed the effectiveness of a specific intervention, no systematic reviews have been conducted summarizing the effectiveness of RTI prevention initiatives specifically performed in LMIC settings; this study will help fill this gap. Methods In accordance with PRISMA guidelines we searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, TRID, Lilacs, Scielo and Global Health. Articles were eligible if they considered RTI prevention in LMICs by evaluating a prevention-related intervention with outcome measures of crash, RTI, or death. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment. A qualitative metasummary approach was used for data analysis and effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of emerging themes. Results Of the 8560 articles from the literature search, 18 articles from 11 LMICs fit the eligibility and inclusion criteria. Of these studies, four were from Sub-Saharan Africa, ten from Latin America and the Caribbean, one from the Middle East, and three from Asia. Half of the studies focused specifically on legislation, while the others focused on speed control measures, educational interventions, enforcement, road improvement, community programs, or a multifaceted intervention. Conclusion Legislation was the most common intervention evaluated with the best outcomes when combined with strong enforcement initiatives or as part of a multifaceted approach. Because speed control is crucial to crash and injury prevention, road improvement interventions in LMIC settings should carefully consider how the

  9. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with the TEB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2016-02-01

    Snowfall forecasts help winter maintenance of road networks, ensure better coordination between services, cost control, and a reduction in environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icers. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavements, forecasting the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Weather outstations are used along these networks to identify changes in pavement status, and to make forecasts by analyzing the data they provide. Physical numerical models provide such forecasts, and require an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with two approaches to evaluate traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the effect of traffic on RST increase with respect to non-circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with the forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  10. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) II Appendix II to Subpart A of Part 1139 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) Line No....

  12. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) II Appendix II to Subpart A of Part 1139 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) Line No....

  13. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  14. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  15. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (<2.5 m) and warn the truck driver acoustically. Bicycle lanes should be planned for one direction only, separated from the pedestrian way and large enough (2.0 m are safer than 1.6 m). Traffic education for school beginners and younger children should be repeated to be effective. Training for elderly bicyclists in cities with heavy traffic would also be reasonable. Active security systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers. PMID:22159502

  16. Road traffic injuries in Kenya: a survey of commercial motorcycle drivers

    PubMed Central

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Omar, Faraj Alkizim; Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Witte, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Motorcycle injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and hospital admissions in Kenya. There is paucity of data to inform prevention strategies to address the issue. Therefore, the current study sought to explore the characteristics of 2 and 3-wheeler related road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey of motorcycle drivers involved in a RTI in the preceding 3 months was conducted in 11 urban and rural sites in Kenya's Thika town through face- to -face structured interviews. Drivers’ demographic information, comprehensive crash characteristics and socioeconomic impact of injury data were collected. Results Of 200 drivers injured, 98% were male, with average age of 28.4 years (SD±6.6). Of these drivers, 33% were not wearing any protective equipment. Negligence was the most reported cause of crash (33%), followed by slippery roads (21.0%) and speeding (17.5%). The risk of sustaining a bodily injury was 1.3 times higher in drivers who had not received prevention education compared to those who had received such education. People injured at night were 5 times more likely to sustain a bodily injury compared to those injured during the day. Only 8.5% of the drivers reported the injury incident to the police. Conclusion Majority of motorcycle related injuries in Thika town occur among young, productive, working-age male drivers. A high proportion of injuries are due to negligence on riding while not wearing any protective equipment compounded by lack of injury prevention education. Initiatives to foster helmet wearing, provision of high-quality affordable helmets, responsible driving and advocacy for stronger legislation, are recommended. PMID:26401211

  17. [Pollution characteristics of platinum group elements in road rust in Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhen-yu; Hong, You-wei; Yin, Li-qian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Chen, Yan-ting; Xu, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    With the potential risks for the environment and human health, the concentration and distribution characteristics of platinum group element(PGEs) in road dust in Xiamen city were investigated. Road dust samples were collected from the traffic trunk road, tunnel, tourism area, and industrial area of Xiamen on October 2012. The samples were digested with aqua regia in a microwave assisted digestion system under high pressure condition, separated and purified with cation exchange resin( Dowex AG50W-X8), and the resulting solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentrations(range) of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust were 246.82 (58.68-765.52) ng x g(-1), 95.45 (42.14-371.36) ng x g(-1) and 51.76 (21.04-119.72) ng x g(-1), respectively, which were two orders of magnitude higher than the background values. Compared with other cities worldwide, the concentrations of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust in Xiamen were at higher levels. Theconcentrations of PGEs for different functional areas were listed in the following order: tunnel > urban district > industrial area > tourism area, which indicated that their spatial distributions were mainly affected by the traffic intensity. Correlation analysis results showed that concentration of Pd in the urban traffic artery was significantly correlated with Rh, while Pt was not so correlated with Pd and Rh, suggesting that other sources contributed to PGEs in road dust in addition to the vehicle emission. Although motor vehicle traveling was banned in tourist area, the concentration of PGEs was still at a high level. Some of them might originate from the road dust in surrounding area by atmosphere diffusion. PMID:25898678

  18. Association between leukocyte telomere shortening and exposure to traffic pollution: a cross-sectional study on traffic officers and indoor office workers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening in blood leukocytes has been associated with increased morbidity and death from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but determinants of shortened telomeres, a molecular feature of biological aging, are still largely unidentified. Traffic pollution has been linked with both cardiovascular and cancer risks, particularly in older subjects. Whether exposure to traffic pollution is associated with telomere shortening has never been evaluated. Methods We measured leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by real-time PCR in blood DNA from 77 traffic officers exposed to high levels of traffic pollutants and 57 office workers (referents). Airborne benzene and toluene, as tracers for traffic exposure, were measured using personal passive samplers and gas-chromatography/flame-ionization detector analysis. We used covariate-adjusted multivariable models to test the effects of the exposure on LTL and obtain adjusted LTL means and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Results Adjusted mean LTL was 1.10 (95%CI 1.04-1.16) in traffic officers and 1.27 in referents (95%CI 1.20-1.35) [p < 0.001]. LTL decreased in association with age in both traffic officers (p = 0.01) and referents (p = 0.001), but traffic officers had shorter LTL within each age category. Among traffic officers, adjusted mean relative LTL was shorter in individuals working in high (n = 45, LTL = 1.02, 95%CI 0.96-1.09) compared to low traffic intensity (n = 32, LTL = 1.22, 95%CI 1.13-1.31) [p < 0.001]. In the entire study population, LTL decreased with increasing levels of personal exposure to benzene (p = 0.004) and toluene (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our results indicate that leukocyte telomere length is shortened in subjects exposed to traffic pollution, suggesting evidence of early biological aging and disease risk. PMID:19772576

  19. The Evaluation of Alternative Exposure Metrics for Traffic-related Air Pollutant Exposure in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transportation plays an important role in the modern society but can cause significant health impacts. To quantify the associated health impacts, an appropriate traffic-related air pollution exposure metric is required. In this study, we evaluate the suitability of four exposure ...

  20. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH: BEYOND PROXIMITY TO MAJOR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Previous studies of the respiratory health impact of mobile source air pollutants on

    children have relied heavily on simple exposure metrics such as proximity to roadways and traffic

    density near the home or school. Few studies have conducted area-wide...

  1. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011. PMID:26676071

  2. Health Impact Assessment of a Predicted Air Quality Change by Moving Traffic from an Urban Ring Road into a Tunnel. The Case of Antwerp, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Van Brusselen, Daan; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Maiheu, Bino; Vranckx, Stijn; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nawrot, Tim S; Nemery, Ben; Avonts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background The Antwerp ring road has a traffic density of 300,000 vehicles per day and borders the city center. The ‘Ringland project’ aims to change the current ‘open air ring road’ into a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, putting the entire urban ring road into a tunnel and thus filtering air pollution. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify the possible benefit of a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, as compared to the ‘open air ring road’ scenario, on air quality and its long-term health effects. Materials and Methods We modeled the change in annual ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations by covering 15 kilometers of the Antwerp ring road in high resolution grids using the RIO-IFDM street canyon model. The exposure-response coefficients used were derived from a literature review: all-cause mortality, life expectancy, cardiopulmonary diseases and childhood Forced Vital Capacity development (FVC). Results Our model predicts changes between -1.5 and +2 μg/m³ in PM2.5 within a 1,500 meter radius around the ring road, for the ‘filtered tunneled ring road’ scenario as compared to an ‘open air ring road’. These estimated annual changes were plotted against the population exposed to these differences. The calculated change of PM2.5 is associated with an expected annual decrease of 21 deaths (95% CI 7 to 41). This corresponds with 11.5 deaths avoided per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.9–23) in the first 500 meters around the ring road every year. Of 356 schools in a 1,500 meter perimeter around the ring road changes between -10 NO2 and + 0.17 μg/m³ were found, corresponding to FVC improvement of between 3 and 64ml among school-age children. The predicted decline in lung cancer mortality and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were both only 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants or less. Conclusion The expected change in PM2,5 and NO2 by covering the entire urban ring road in Antwerp is associated with considerable health gains for

  3. Characterization and design of asphalt mixtures with asphaltites from Boyacá for use in low traffic volume roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique-Espindola, R.

    2013-11-01

    The high availability of asphaltites in Boyacá and their low cost make this material a viable alternative for low traffic road paving; nevertheless, the traditional way in which this material is used generates, in cases, pavements with deficient behavior. This investigation, presents the results of the mixture design using asphaltites from the municipality of Pesca-Boyacá as well as coarse and fine aggregates produced in the region, 70-80 asphalt cement and slow-break asphalt emulsion. Working formulas for dense mixing in hot and cold and particularly MDF-2 and MDC-2 are presented from the characterization information; as benchmarks to define technical viability for use in low- traffic volume roads, according to NT1 regulation from INVIAS. The mixture design was performed according to the procedures defined in the RAMCODES and MARSHALL methodologies.

  4. Mortality and Morbidity of Urban Road Traffic Crashes in Africa: Capture-Recapture Estimates in Bamako, Mali, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Nicolas; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Staccini, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries are currently facing the massive public health challenge of road traffic injuries. The lack of effective surveillance systems hinders proper assessment of epidemiologic status and intervention priorities. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality and morbidity attributable to road crashes in Bamako, Mali using the capture-recapture method. Methods During the 1 January, 2012–31 April, 2012 period, we collected data on road traffic crashes from the road accident registers of the police forces of Bamako, Mali on the one hand, and from a register kept by health facilities in the same area. An automatic, then manual matching procedure was performed to find pairs of records related to the same crash victims. The number of victims and the number of fatalities were estimated by the capture-recapture method using the Chapman estimator. Results The health facility and the police registries included 3587 and 1432 records, respectively. The matching procedure identified 603 common records, 31 of which were fatalities. The annual incidence estimate for road victims was 1038 in 100 000 and the annual incidence estimate for road fatalities was 12 in 100 000. Victims from both sources were more likely to be male, in the 15–34 age group, and almost half of all injured road users and two in three fatalities were using motorized two-wheelers. One victim out of five was a pedestrian. Conclusion Our estimates are in line with available literature data from low-income countries. While more cases were reported by health facilities than by police forces, we believe that an effective surveillance system should not be based solely on medical reports as much would be missing as regards the crash circumstances and characteristics. PMID:26871569

  5. The Importance of Poisoning vs. Road Traffic Injuries as a Cause of Death in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Udayakumara, Nilantha; Adhikari, Sriyantha; de Silva, Dhamika; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Waidyaratne, Dhananjaya L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes are considered by the WHO to be the most important global cause of death from injury. However, this may not be true for large areas of rural Asia where road vehicles are uncommon. The issue is important, since emphasising the importance of road traffic crashes risks switching resources to urban areas, away from already underfunded rural regions. In this study, we compared the importance of road traffic crashes with other forms of injury in a poor rural region of South Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on all deaths from injury in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka (NCP; population 1,105,198 at 2001 census) over 18 months using coronial, hospital, and police data. We calculated the incidence of death from all forms of intentional and unintentional injury in the province. The annual incidence of death from injury in the province was high: 84.2 per 100,000 population. Half of the deaths were from self-harm (41.3/100,000). Poisoning (35.7/100,000)—in particular, pesticide self-poisoning (23.7/100,000)—was the most common cause of death, being 3.9-fold more common than road traffic crashes (9.1/100,000). Conclusions/Significance In poor rural regions of South Asia, fatal self-harm and pesticide self-poisoning in particular are significantly more important than road traffic injuries as a cause of death. It is possible that the data used by the WHO to calculate global injury estimates are biased towards urban areas with better data collection but little pesticide poisoning. More studies are required to inform a debate about the importance of different forms of injury and how avoidable deaths from any cause can be prevented. In the meantime, marked improvements in the effectiveness of therapy for pesticide poisoning, safer storage, reduced pesticide use, or reductions in pesticide toxicity are required urgently to reduce the number of deaths from self-poisoning in rural Asia. PMID:17622344

  6. Health effects of metropolitan traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongtip, P.; Thongsuk, W.; Yoosook, W.; Chantanakul, S.

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a commonly important source of air pollution. Research on the effects of multiple traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors is scarce. This study evaluated the health effect of traffic-related air pollutants in street vendors. It was designed as a panel study, covering 61 d of data collection, on the daily concentration of air pollutants and daily percentage of respiratory and other health symptoms reported. An adjusted odds ratio was used to estimate the risk of developing respiratory and other adverse health symptoms for street vendors exposed to multiple air pollutants, fine particulate (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), ozone (O 3), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), after controlling for confounding factors. In the first model, significant associations were found with the adjusted odds ratios of 1.022 and 1.027 for eye irritation and dizziness for PM 2.5 respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of total VOCs was 1.381 for phlegm, 4.840 for chest tightness and 1.429 for upper respiratory symptoms, and the adjusted odds ratio for CO was 1.748 for a sore throat and 1.880 for a cold and 1.655 for a cough. In the second model, the effect of PM 2.5, total VOCs and CO gave a slightly lower effect with the symptoms. The results clearly show the health effects of traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors, and imply suggestions about how to reduce exposure of street vendors.

  7. Focused Study on the Quiet Side Effect in Dwellings Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Renterghem, Timothy Van; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-01-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high Lden-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade Lden). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers. PMID:23330222

  8. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  9. Effects of road traffic and aircraft noise upon children's academic attainments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, Bridget; Dockrell, Julie; Vilatarsana, Gael

    2005-04-01

    The effects of environmental noise upon the academic performance of children aged 7 and 11 years in primary schools in London (UK) have been investigated. Noise surveys were carried out to measure levels of environmental noise during the school day outside 175 schools across London. The majority of the schools were in densely populated areas within 5 miles of central London, where road traffic was the dominant noise source. Thirty three of the schools were in a less densely populated area to the west of London near Heathrow Airport, and were subject to predominantly aircraft noise. The noise levels measured outside each school have been correlated with the results of standard tests in Reading, Writing, Mathematics, English, and Science, which are taken by all children aged 7 and 11 in England and Wales. Significant negative correlations were found between noise levels and many of the test scores, the correlations being stronger in the central London areas than in the schools around Heathrow. These results show that environmental noise has a detrimental effect upon childrens' academic performance, the effect remaining apparent when data were corrected for socio-economic factors such as social deprivation.

  10. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, E.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Hedt-Gauthier, B.; Silkondez, W.; Abebe, D.; Deressa, W.; Enquessilase, F.; Edwards, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The emergency department (ED) of Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective: To document the proportion, trend, characteristics and outcomes of road traffic injury (RTI) related ED admissions (⩾15 years) between 2014 and 2015. Design: A retrospective, cross-sectional study using routinely collected ED data. Results: Of 10 007 ED admissions, 779 (8%) were RTI cases; this proportion peaked in the month of January (11%). Medical records were available for 522 (67%) of these RTI cases. The median age was 28 years and 69% were males. The majority were pedestrians (69%) injured by an automobile (78%). On triage, 32% were classified as needing urgent/immediate intervention. Head injuries (20%) were the second most common injury after lower limb injuries (36%). ED outcomes were as follows: discharged (68%), hospitalised (17%), referred (17%) and died (1%). Among the 78 hospitalised cases, respectively 62% and 16% were admitted to the surgical and orthopaedic departments. Of 146 RTI cases with head injuries, 25% were hospitalised, of whom 82% were admitted to the surgical department. Conclusion: Our findings can guide policy makers in referral hospitals in improving the planning of hospital resources and the prioritisation of public health needs linked to further urban development. A comprehensive plan to prevent RTIs, particularly among pedestrians in Addis Ababa, is urgently needed. PMID:27358798

  11. Health care costs and functional outcomes of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Camilloni, Laura; Giarrizzo, Maria Letizia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The economic consequences of road traffic injuries (RTIs) are very important in terms of health care costs. The aim of this study is to provide estimates of health care costs of non-fatal RTIs and to estimate functional outcomes using in-hospital rehabilitation data. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits related to RTI during 2008 and then linked them with hospital discharges and rehabilitation admissions, health care costs following RTI were estimated from the integrated database. We performed an epidemiological evaluation of RTI with a comprehensive description of functional outcomes at 6 months. Health care costs have been estimated at about €80 million with a per person cost of €522. About 18% of the total cost was due to rehabilitation treatments. In multivariate analysis the variables that correlated better with higher total health care costs were: older age, injury severity, presence of spinal lesion. Patients requiring rehabilitation were: the elderly, patients suffering from a spinal cord injury and leg injuries. This study provides consistent health care cost estimates of RTI using administrative databases and it shows a picture of functional outcomes after RTI. Further research is needed for the estimation of other components of the total cost of RTI. PMID:25262669

  12. Fog Prediction for Road Traffic Safety in a Coastal Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartok, Juraj; Bott, Andreas; Gera, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Modern weather prediction models use relatively high grid resolutions as well as sophisticated parametrization schemes for microphysical and other subgrid-scale atmospheric processes. Nonetheless, with these models it remains a difficult task to perform successful numerical fog forecasts since many factors controlling a particular fog event are not yet sufficiently simulated. Here we describe our efforts to create a mechanism that produces successful predictions of fog in the territory located on the north coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Our approach consists in the coupling of the one-dimensional PAFOG fog model with the three-dimensional WRF 3.0 (Weather Research and Forecast) modelling system. The proposed method allows us to construct an efficient operative road traffic warning system for the occurrence of fog in the investigated region. In total 84 historical situations were studied during the period 2008-2009. Moreover, results of operative day-by-day fog forecasting during January and February 2010 are presented. For the investigated arid and hot climate region the land-sea breeze circulation seems to be the major factor affecting the diurnal variations of the meteorological conditions, frequently resulting in the formation of fog.

  13. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences. PMID:25373962

  14. Sleep disturbance by road traffic noise—A laboratory study on number of noise events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhström, E.; Rylander, R.

    1990-11-01

    The aim of study reported here was to elucidate the importance of number of noise events with a high maximum noise level for sleep disturbance effects in terms of body movements, subjective sleep quality and performance. The noise exposure consisted of 4, 8, 16 and 64 passages from heavy vehicles. Twenty-eight subjects between 20 and 29 years of age were exposed to either 50 or 60 dB(A) maximum noise levels. The result showed that sleep quality decreased with increased number of noise events at 60 dB(A) maximum noise level. At 16 noise events/night the decrease in sleep quality was significant (-29%). At 50 dB(A) there was no relation between the number of noise events and sleep quality. The sleep quality was effected at 64 noise events, primarily by a prolonged time to fall asleep. Performance on a three-choice reaction time test (FV) was decreased after 60 dB(A) as compared to 50 dB(A). It is suggested that to protect people from sleep disturbance effects from road traffic noise, it is necessary to consider the number of vehicles of a certain maximum noise level.

  15. A Simulated Environment Experiment on Annoyance Due to Combined Road Traffic and Industrial Noises

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Morel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Total annoyance due to combined noises is still difficult to predict adequately. This scientific gap is an obstacle for noise action planning, especially in urban areas where inhabitants are usually exposed to high noise levels from multiple sources. In this context, this work aims to highlight potential to enhance the prediction of total annoyance. The work is based on a simulated environment experiment where participants performed activities in a living room while exposed to combined road traffic and industrial noises. The first objective of the experiment presented in this paper was to gain further understanding of the effects on annoyance of some acoustical factors, non-acoustical factors and potential interactions between the combined noise sources. The second one was to assess total annoyance models constructed from the data collected during the experiment and tested using data gathered in situ. The results obtained in this work highlighted the superiority of perceptual models. In particular, perceptual models with an interaction term seemed to be the best predictors for the two combined noise sources under study, even with high differences in sound pressure level. Thus, these results reinforced the need to focus on perceptual models and to improve the prediction of partial annoyances. PMID:26197326

  16. Speech interference and transmission on residential balconies with road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Naish, Daniel A; Tan, Andy C C; Nur Demirbilek, F

    2013-01-01

    Balcony acoustic treatments can mitigate the effects of community road traffic noise. To further investigate, a theoretical study into the effects of balcony acoustic treatment combinations on speech interference and transmission is conducted for various street geometries. Nine different balcony types are investigated using a combined specular and diffuse reflection computer model. Diffusion in the model is calculated using the radiosity technique. The balcony types include a standard balcony with or without a ceiling and with various combinations of parapet, ceiling absorption and ceiling shield. A total of 70 balcony and street geometrical configurations are analyzed with each balcony type, resulting in 630 scenarios. In each scenario the reverberation time, speech interference level (SIL) and speech transmission index (STI) are calculated. These indicators are compared to determine trends based on the effects of propagation path, inclusion of opposite buildings and difference with a reference position outside the balcony. The results demonstrate trends in SIL and STI with different balcony types. It is found that an acoustically treated balcony reduces speech interference. A parapet provides the largest improvement, followed by absorption on the ceiling. The largest reductions in speech interference arise when a combination of balcony acoustic treatments are applied. PMID:23297896

  17. A UK survey of driving behaviour, fatigue, risk taking and road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present research was to examine associations between poor driving behaviour (DB), driving when fatigued (DF), risk taking (RT) and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Design The study involved a cross-sectional online survey of clients of an insurance company. The survey measured DB (speeding, distraction, lapses of attention and aggression), RT and frequency of driving when fatigued (DF, driving late at night, prolonged driving, driving after a demanding working day and driving with a cold). Demographic, lifestyle, job characteristics and psychosocial factors were also measured and used as covariates. Setting Cardiff, UK. Sample 3000 clients of an insurance company agreed to participate in the study, and 2856 completed the survey (68% woman, 32% man; mean age: 34 years, range 18–74 years). Main outcome measures The outcomes were RTAs (requiring medical attention; not requiring medical attention), where the person was the driver. Results Factor analyses showed that DB, RT and fatigue loaded on independent factors. Logistic regressions showed that poor DB, frequently DF and taking risks predicted medical and non-medical RTAs. These effects were additive and those who reported poor DB, driving when fatigue and taking risks were twice as likely to have an RTA. These effects remained significant when demographic, lifestyle, medical, driving, work and psychosocial factors were covaried. Conclusions Poor DB, DF and RT predict RTAs. There are now short measuring instruments that can assess these, and driver education programmes must increase awareness of these risk factors. PMID:27540100

  18. A Simulated Environment Experiment on Annoyance Due to Combined Road Traffic and Industrial Noises.

    PubMed

    Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Morel, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Total annoyance due to combined noises is still difficult to predict adequately. This scientific gap is an obstacle for noise action planning, especially in urban areas where inhabitants are usually exposed to high noise levels from multiple sources. In this context, this work aims to highlight potential to enhance the prediction of total annoyance. The work is based on a simulated environment experiment where participants performed activities in a living room while exposed to combined road traffic and industrial noises. The first objective of the experiment presented in this paper was to gain further understanding of the effects on annoyance of some acoustical factors, non-acoustical factors and potential interactions between the combined noise sources. The second one was to assess total annoyance models constructed from the data collected during the experiment and tested using data gathered in situ. The results obtained in this work highlighted the superiority of perceptual models. In particular, perceptual models with an interaction term seemed to be the best predictors for the two combined noise sources under study, even with high differences in sound pressure level. Thus, these results reinforced the need to focus on perceptual models and to improve the prediction of partial annoyances. PMID:26197326

  19. Near roadway air pollution across a spatially extensive road and cycling network.

    PubMed

    Farrell, William; Weichenthal, Scott; Goldberg, Mark; Valois, Marie-France; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the variability in near-road concentrations of ultra-fine particles (UFP). Our results are based on a mobile data collection campaign conducted in 2012 in Montreal, Canada using instrumented bicycles and covering approximately 475 km of unique roadways. The spatial extent of the data collected included a diverse array of roads and land use patterns. Average concentrations of UFP per roadway segment varied greatly across the study area (1411-192,340 particles/cm(3)) as well as across the different visits to the same segment. Mixed effects linear regression models were estimated for UFP (R(2) = 43.80%), incorporating a wide range of predictors including land-use, built environment, road characteristics, and meteorology. Temperature and wind speed had a large negative effect on near-road concentrations of UFP. Both the day of the week and time of day had a significant effect with Tuesdays and afternoon periods positively associated with UFP. Since UFP are largely associated with traffic emissions and considering the wide spatial extent of our data collection campaign, it was impossible to collect traffic volume data. For this purpose, we used simulated data for traffic volumes and speeds across the region and observed a positive effect for volumes and negative effect for speed. Finally, proximity to truck routes was also associated with higher UFP concentrations. PMID:26967536

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Road Traffic Crash among Taxi Drivers in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers’ involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Findings Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33–0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05–7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67–7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81–8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24–2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00–2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. Conclusion The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties. PMID:25781940

  1. Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a number?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health impacts from traffic-related pollutants bring costs to society, which are often not reflected in market prices for transportation. We set out to simultaneously assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for traffic-related air pollution and noise effect on health, using a single measurement instrument and approach. We investigated the proportion and determinants of “protest vote/PV responses (people who were against valuing their health in terms of money)” and “don’t know”/DK answers, and explored the effect of DK on the WTP distributions. Methods Within the framework of the EU-funded project INTARESE, we asked over 5,200 respondents in five European countries to state their WTP to avoid health effects from road traffic-related air pollution and noise in an open-ended web-based questionnaire. Determinants of PV and DK were studied by logistic regression using variables concerning socio-demographics, income, health and environmental concern, and risk perception. Results About 10% of the respondents indicated a PV response and between 47-56% of respondents gave DK responses. About one-third of PV respondents thought that costs should be included in transportation prices, i.e. the polluter should pay. Logistic regression analyses showed associations of PV and DK with several factors. In addition to social-demographic, economic and health factors known to affect WTP, environmental concern, awareness of health effects, respondent’s ability to relax in polluted places, and their view on the government’s role to reduce pollution and on policy to improve wellbeing, also affected the PV and DK response. An exploratory weighting and imputation exercise did not show substantial effects of DK on the WTP distribution. Conclusions With a proportion of about 50%, DK answers may be a more relevant issue affecting WTP than PV’s. The likelihood to give PV and DK response were influenced by socio-demographic, economic and health factors, as well as

  2. Air pollution exposure monitoring and estimation. Part V. Traffic exposure in adults.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, A; Clench-Aas, J; Gram, F; Grønskei, K E; Guerreiro, C; Larssen, S; Tønnesen, D A; Walker, S E

    1999-08-01

    In Oslo, traffic has been one of the dominating sources of air pollution in the last decade. In one part of the city where most traffic collects, two tunnels were built. A series of before and after studies was carried out in connection with the tunnels in use. Dispersion models were used as a basis for estimating exposure to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter in two fractions. Exposure estimates were based on the results of the dispersion model providing estimates of outdoor pollutant concentrations on an hourly basis. The estimates represent concentrations in receptor points and in a square kilometre grid. The estimates were used to assess development of air pollution load in the area, compliance with air quality guidelines, and to provide a basis for quantifying exposure-effect relationships in epidemiological studies. After both tunnels were taken in use, the pollution levels in the study area were lower than when the traffic was on the surface (a drop from 50 to 40 micrograms m-3). Compliance with air quality guidelines and other prescribed values has improved, even if high exposures still exist. The most important residential areas are now much less exposed, while areas around tunnel openings can be in periods exposed to high pollutant concentrations. The daily pattern of exposure shows smaller differences between peak and minimum concentrations than prior to the traffic changes. Exposures at home (in the investigation area) were reduced most, while exposures in other locations than at home showed only a small decrease. Highest hourly exposures are encountered in traffic. PMID:11529132

  3. Implications of the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study results for classroom acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    Studies in West London have found associations between aircraft noise exposure and childrens' cognitive performance. This has culminated in the RANCH Study examining exposure-effect associations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and cognitive performance and health. The RANCH project, the largest cross-sectional study of noise and childrens health, examined 2844 children, 9-10 years old, from 89 schools around three major airports: in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Children were selected by external aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school predicted from noise contour maps, modeling and on-site measurements. A substudy indicated high internal levels of noise within classrooms. Schools were matched for socioeconomic position within countries. Cognitive and health outcomes were measured by standardized tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. A parental questionnaire collected information on socioeconomic position, parental education and ethnicity. Linear exposure-effect associations were found between chronic aircraft noise exposure and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, maintained after adjustment for mothers education, socioeconomic factors, longstanding illness and classroom insulation. Road traffic noise exposure was linearly associated with episodic memory. The implications of these results for childrens' learning environments will be discussed. [Work supported by European Community (QLRT-2000-00197) Vth framework program.

  4. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified. PMID:27250186

  5. Application of land use regression modelling to assess the spatial distribution of road traffic noise in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Corradi, Elisabetta; Deltell, Alexandre; Morelli, Xavier; Phuleria, Harish C; Ragettli, Martina S; Rivera, Marcela; Thomasson, Alexandre; Slama, Rémy; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Noise prediction models and noise maps are used to estimate the exposure to road traffic noise, but their availability and the quality of the noise estimates is sometimes limited. This paper explores the application of land use regression (LUR) modelling to assess the long-term intraurban spatial variability of road traffic noise in three European cities. Short-term measurements of road traffic noise taken in Basel, Switzerland (n=60), Girona, Spain (n=40), and Grenoble, France (n=41), were used to develop two LUR models: (a) a "GIS-only" model, which considered only predictor variables derived with Geographic Information Systems; and (b) a "Best" model, which in addition considered the variables collected while visiting the measurement sites. Both noise measurements and noise estimates from LUR models were compared with noise estimates from standard noise models developed for each city by the local authorities. Model performance (adjusted R(2)) was 0.66-0.87 for "GIS-only" models, and 0.70-0.89 for "Best" models. Short-term noise measurements showed a high correlation (r=0.62-0.78) with noise estimates from the standard noise models. LUR noise estimates did not show any systematic differences in the spatial patterns when compared with those from standard noise models. LUR modelling with accurate GIS source data can be a promising tool for noise exposure assessment with applications in epidemiological studies. PMID:25227731

  6. Impact of the Penalty Points System on Road Traffic Injuries in Spain: A Time–Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana M.; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Ferrando, Josep; Peiró, Rosana; Tobías, Aurelio; Zori, Pilar; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of the penalty points system (PPS) introduced in Spain in July 2006 in reducing traffic injuries. Methods. We performed an evaluation study with an interrupted time–series design. We stratified dependent variables—numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured in traffic collisions in Spain from 2000 to 2007 (police data)—by age, injury severity, type of road user, road type, and time of collision, and analyzed variables separately by gender. The explanatory variable (the PPS) compared the postintervention period (July 2006 to December 2007) with the preintervention period (January 2000 to June 2006). We used quasi-Poisson regression, controlling for time trend and seasonality. Results. Among men, we observed a significant risk reduction in the postintervention period for seriously injured drivers (relative risk [RR] = 0.89) and seriously injured people (RR = 0.89). The RRs among women were 0.91 (P = .095) and 0.88 (P < .05), respectively. Risk reduction was greater among male drivers, moped riders, and on urban roads. Conclusions. The PPS was associated with reduced numbers of drivers involved in injury collisions and people injured by traffic collisions in Spain. PMID:20864703

  7. Performance of vegetated swales for improving road runoff quality in a moderate traffic urban area.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Marie-Charlotte; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Legras, Marc; Lederf, Franck; Moncond'huy, Vincent; Polaert, Isabelle; Marcotte, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, due to their economic and ecological advantages, green infrastructures for stormwater management have been widely implemented. The present study focused on vegetated swales and compared two vegetated covers, grassed or planted with macrophytes in order to evaluate their performance in terms of water quality improvement. These swales collected runoff of a moderately busy road (<2500vehday(-1)) in a commercial area. Twelve storm events were analyzed over a two year period with measurement of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total hydrocarbons (THC), total phosphorous (TP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), trace elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The grass cover led to poor results due to lower retention of soil particles on which trace elements and PAHs are bounded. The swales planted with macrophytes, with a deeper root system more capable of retaining soil particles, led to reductions of concentrations from 17 to 45% for trace elements such as lead, zinc and copper and 30% for the 16 PAHs in infiltrated waters. In addition, the macrophyte cover showed lower variability of pollutant concentrations in infiltrated waters compared to incoming waters. This buffering capacity is interesting to mitigate the impact of moderate peak pollution on surface water or ground water quality. PMID:27220090

  8. Traffic paradox on a road segment based on a cellular automaton: Impact of lane-changing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Ding, Ning; Nie, Cen

    2015-06-01

    The traffic paradox "faster is slower" does not always apply. To study when and where it is valid, a simulation for a real road segment is performed using a novel cellular automaton. This simulation is used to analyze the change in global traffic flow status during free lane-changing behavior under general urban traffic conditions. The impact of lane-changing behavior is quantified into two aspects, time and space, and are described by average delay and transitable flow, respectively. Then surfaces are obtained, which adopt the arriving probability of vehicles and the green ratio as dual independent variables. Thus by the comparison of two surfaces, free lane-changing and straight proceeding, the horizontal projection of the intersecting lines is solved. Finally, the range of occurrence and reasons for the paradox are analyzed.

  9. Residential Proximity to Heavy-Traffic Roads, Benzene Exposure, and Childhood Leukemia-The GEOCAP Study, 2002-2007.