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Sample records for polycapillary slightly focusing

  1. Phase Imaging using Focusing Polycapillary Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Sajid

    The interaction of X rays in diagnostic energy range with soft tissues can be described by Compton scattering and by the complex refractive index, which together characterize the attenuation properties of the tissue and the phase imparted to X rays passing through it. Many soft tissues exhibit extremely similar attenuation, so that their discrimination using conventional radiography, which generates contrast in an image through differential attenuation, is challenging. However, these tissues will impart phase differences significantly greater than attenuation differences to the X rays passing through them, so that phase-contrast imaging techniques can enable their discrimination. A major limitation to the widespread adoption of phase-contrast techniques is that phase contrast requires significant spatial coherence of the X-ray beam, which in turn requires specialized sources. For tabletop sources, this often requires a small (usually in the range of 10-50 micron) X-ray source. In this work, polycapillary optics were employed to create a small secondary source from a large spot rotating anode. Polycapillary optics consist of arrays of small hollow glass tubes through which X rays can be guided by total internal reflection from the tube walls. By tapering the tubes to guide the X rays to a point, they can be focused to a small spot which can be used as a secondary source. The polycapillary optic was first aligned with the X-ray source. The spot size was measured using a computed radiography image plate. Images were taken at a variety of optic-to-object and object-to-detector distances and phase-contrast edge enhancement was observed. Conventional absorption images were also acquired at a small object-to detector distances for comparison. Background division was performed to remove strong non-uniformity due to the optics. Differential phase contrast reconstruction demonstrates promising preliminary results. This manuscript is divided into six chapters. The second

  2. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, P. Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-07-15

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation.

  3. Polycapillary based μ-XAS and confocal μ-XANES at a bending magnet source of the ESRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Nikitenko, Sergey; Tirez, Kristof; Bras, Wim; Brenker, Frank E.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2009-11-01

    Glass polycapillary optics are shown to be easy to use focusing optics for bending magnet XAS stations. These achromatic optics have acceptances of several mm horizontally and vertically, while their angular acceptances can be matched to the source divergence by the design of the polycapillary. A polycapillary half-lens based focusing system was successfully tested for transmission and fluorescence μ-XAS at the DUBBLE beamline (BM26A, ESRF) and the feasibility of confocal μ-XANES in fluorescence mode is presented. Transmission efficiencies of 25-45% with flux density gain factors of about 2000 and beam sizes of 10-20 μm were obtained in the 7-14 keV energy range. Although the polycapillary optic has a smoothly changing energy dependent transmission efficiency, the amplitude and shape of the EXAFS oscillations are not influenced by this. The focusing properties of the polycapillary lens cancel slight vertical motions of the incoming X-ray beam, resulting in a fixed μ-beam spot in the focal plane, making polycapillaries also suitable optic in combination with a non-fixed exit monochromator. In addition, by mounting a second polycapillary half-lens in front of an energy dispersive detector, a confocal set-up is obtained, which restricts the part of the sample seen by the detector to a microscopic volume of about 20×20×15 μm3 at the Fe K absorption edge for example.

  4. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the "virtual" X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  5. Slightly focused high-energy shockwave therapy: a potential adjuvant treatment for osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Hai-Ming; Li, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Ge-Jun; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Slightly focused high-energy shockwave (HESW) therapy is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning and less pain during treatment. The objective of this study was to perform for the first time an in vivo test of the slightly focused HESWs for osteoporotic fractures. Bilateral proximal tibial osteotomies were made in 30 ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats and secured with internal fixation. The osteotomy site in the left tibia was subsequently treated with slightly focused HESWs with the energy flux density of 0.26 mj/mm2, shock repetition frequency of 1 Hz and 2000 shocks (OVX + HESW group). The contralateral right tibia was not treated and served as the control (OVX group). Roentgenographic examination 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after osteotomy showed that HESW treatment accelerated tibia fracture healing in osteoporotic rats. Histological examination 2, 4, and 8 weeks after HESW treatment showed a greater inflammatory reaction in the OVX + HESW group, with more mature collagen and trabeculae than in the OVX group. Micro computer tomography (Micro-CT) scanning after 4 and 8 weeks showed that bone volume (BV), bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), mean trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and mean trabecular number (Tb.N) were about 45.0% and 33.1%, 18.4% and 20.1%, 38.2% and 20.9%, 26.7% and 28.4%, respectively, higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05); and the mean trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was about 16.7% and 27.3% lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Four and eight weeks after HESW treatment, the maximum compressive callus endurance was about 72.3% and 25.5%, respectively, higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). These results show that slightly focused HESW therapy has a beneficial effect on osteoporotic tibial fracture healing. Slightly focused HESWs could increase callus endurance, induce bone formation, and improve trabecular bone microarchitecture and biomechanical

  6. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wróbel, A.; Korecki, P.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  7. Advanced studies on the Polycapillary Optics use at XLab Frascati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Cappuccio, G.

    2015-07-01

    X-ray analytical techniques are widely used in the world. By the way, due to the strong radiation-matter interaction, to design optical devices suitable for X-ray radiation remains still of wide interest. As a consequence of novel advanced material studies, in the last 30 years several typologies of X-ray lenses have been developed. In this work, a short review on the status of Polycapillary Optics (polyCO), from design and fabrication to various applications, has been presented making comparison of the results achieved by several groups through different X-ray optical elements. A focus is regarded for advanced X-ray imaging and spectroscopy tools based on combination of the modern polyCO hardware and the reconstruction software, available as homemade and commercially ones. Recent results (in three main fields, high resolution X-ray imaging, micro-XRF spectroscopy and micro-tomography) obtained at XLab Frascati have been discussed.

  8. Property of slice square polycapillary x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Qi, Peng; Zhi-Guo, Liu; Tian-Xi, Sun; Kai, Wang; Long-Tao, Yi; Kui, Yang; Man, Chen; Jin-Bang, Wang

    2016-02-01

    A geometrical description of square polycapillary x-ray optics and the basic theory of the transmission of x-rays are presented. A method of numerical calculation is developed based on ray-tracing theory. The method simulates the intensity distribution of x-rays propagating through slice square polycapillary x-ray optics. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2012LZD07 and 2014kJJCA03) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375027 and 11075017).

  9. Characterization of X-ray polycapillary optics by LiF crystal radiation detectors through confocal fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfigli, Francesca; Hampai, Dariush; Dabagov, Sultan B.; Montereali, Rosa Maria

    2016-08-01

    Solid-state radiation imaging detectors based on photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals have been successfully tested for both advanced 2D and 3D characterizations of X-ray polycapillary optics by a table-top laboratory system. Polycapillary optics can control X-ray beams propagation and allows obtaining quasi-parallel beam (half-lens) or focused beams (full-lens). The combination of a fine-focused micro X-ray tube and a polycapillary lens can provide the high intensity radiation fluxes that are necessary for high resolution X-ray imaging. In this paper we present novel results about advanced characterization of these complex optics by 2D as well as 3D confocal laser fluorescence microscopy of X-ray irradiated LiF crystal detectors. Two dimensional high spatial resolution images on a wide field of view of transmitted X-rays through a semi-lens and 3D direct inspection of the coloured volumes produced in LiF crystals by both focused and parallel X-ray beam transmitted by a full and a semi-lens, respectively, as well as their 3D reconstructions were obtained. The results show that the photoluminescent colour centres volume in LiF crystals combined with an optical sectioning reading system provide information about tomography of transmitted X-ray beams by policapillary optics in a single exposure process. For the first time, the use of LiF crystal plates as versatile radiation imaging luminescent detectors have been used to characterize the operation of polycapillary optics as X-ray lens, in focusing and parallel mode.

  10. Gasoline Spray Imaging By Polycapillary X-Ray Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Allocca, L.; Marchitto, L.; Alfuso, S.; Hampai, D.; Cappuccio, G.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2010-04-06

    First use of a Cu X-ray source in combination with polycapillary halflens (or semilens) and a Photonic Science CCD detector for investigating highly dense jet injection sprays are reported. It is shown that in the energy range used the absorption signal is above the background level indicating but interaction of the beam with the fuel is weak. These preliminary results offers new research opportunities within various Italian research centers.

  11. Microfocus/Polycapillary-Optic Crystallographic X-Ray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ciszak, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    A system that generates an intense, nearly collimated, nearly monochromatic, small-diameter x-ray beam has been developed for use in macromolecular crystallography. A conventional x-ray system for macromolecular crystallography includes a rotating-anode x-ray source, which is massive (.500 kg), large (approximately 2 by 2 by 1 m), and power-hungry (between 2 and 18 kW). In contrast, the present system generates a beam of the required brightness from a microfocus source, which is small and light enough to be mounted on a laboratory bench, and operates at a power level of only tens of watts. The figure schematically depicts the system as configured for observing x-ray diffraction from a macromolecular crystal. In addition to the microfocus x-ray source, the system includes a polycapillary optic . a monolithic block (typically a bundle of fused glass tubes) that contains thousands of straight or gently curved capillary channels, along which x-rays propagate with multiple reflections. This particular polycapillary optic is configured to act as a collimator; the x-ray beam that emerges from its output face consists of quasi-parallel subbeams with a small angular divergence and a diameter comparable to the size of a crystal to be studied. The gap between the microfocus x-ray source and the input face of the polycapillary optic is chosen consistently with the focal length of the polycapillary optic and the need to maximize the solid angle subtended by the optic in order to maximize the collimated x-ray flux. The spectrum from the source contains a significant component of Cu K (photon energy is 8.08 keV) radiation. The beam is monochromatized (for Cu K ) by a nickel filter 10 m thick. In a test, this system was operated at a power of 40 W (current of 897 A at an accelerating potential of 45 kV), with an anode x-ray spot size of 41+/-2 microns. Also tested, in order to provide a standard for comparison, was a commercial rotating-anode x-ray crystallographic system with a

  12. 2D and 3D micro-XRF based on polycapillary optics at XLab Frascati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polese, C.; Cappuccio, G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Pace, E.

    2015-08-01

    XRF imaging spectrometry is a powerful tool for materials characterization. A high spatial resolution is often required, in order to appreciate very tiny details of the studied object. With respect to simple pinholes, polycapillary optics allows much more intense fluxes to be achieved. This is fundamental to detect elements in trace and to strongly reduce the global acquisition time that is actually among the main reasons, in addition to radioprotection issues, affecting the competitiveness of XRF imaging with respect to other faster imaging techniques such as multispectral imaging. Unlike other well-known X-ray optics, principally employed for high brilliant radiation source such as synchrotron facilities, polyCO can be efficiently coupled also with conventional X-ray tubes. All these aspects make them the most suitable choice to realize portable, safe and high performing μXRF spectrometers. In this work preliminary results achieved with a novel 2D and 3D XRF facility, called Rainbow X-Ray (RXR), are reported, with particular attention to the spatial resolution achieved. RXR is based on the confocal arrangement of three polycapillary lenses, one focusing the primary beam and the other two capturing the fluorescence signal. The detection system is split in two couples of lens-detector in order to cover a wider energy range. The entire device is a laboratory user-friendly facility and, though it allows measurements on medium-size objects, its dimensions do not preclude it to be transported for in situ analysis on request, thanks also to a properly shielded cabinet.

  13. Polycapillary-optics-based micro-XANES and micro-EXAFS at a third-generation bending-magnet beamline.

    PubMed

    Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Nikitenko, Sergey; Bras, Wim; Czhech, Viktoria; Zaray, Gyula; Szaloki, Imre; Vincze, Laszlo

    2009-03-01

    A focusing system based on a polycapillary half-lens optic has been successfully tested for transmission and fluorescence micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a third-generation bending-magnet beamline equipped with a non-fixed-exit Si(111) monochromator. The vertical positional variations of the X-ray beam owing to the use of a non-fixed-exit monochromator were shown to pose only a limited problem by using the polycapillary optic. The expected height variation for an EXAFS scan around the Fe K-edge is approximately 200 microm on the lens input side and this was reduced to approximately 1 microm for the focused beam. Beam sizes (FWHM) of 12-16 microm, transmission efficiencies of 25-45% and intensity gain factors, compared with the non-focused beam, of about 2000 were obtained in the 7-14 keV energy range for an incoming beam of 0.5 x 2 mm (vertical x horizontal). As a practical application, an As K-edge micro-XANES study of cucumber root and hypocotyl was performed to determine the As oxidation state in the different plant parts and to identify a possible metabolic conversion by the plant. PMID:19240336

  14. Characterization of Polycapillary Optics in a TES Microcalorimeter EDS System Installed on an SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, A.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Yasuda, K.; Maeno, H.; Shiiyama, K.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-10-01

    Energy-dispersive spectroscopic measurements are performed using a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter mounted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for advanced research at Kyushu University. Because the sensitive area of the TES microcalorimeter is about 0.02~mm2 , polycapillary optics is used to collect the X-rays emitted by the SEM specimen on the TES microcalorimeter. The X-ray transmission efficiency of the polycapillary optics is obtained by analyzing the X-ray energy spectra measured by the TES microcalorimeter. The obtained transmission efficiency of the polycapillary optics is reproduced by the calculated results of the simulation.

  15. Characterization of Polycapillary Optics in a TES Microcalorimeter EDS System Installed on an SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, A.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Yasuda, K.; Maeno, H.; Shiiyama, K.; Tanaka, K.

    2016-08-01

    Energy-dispersive spectroscopic measurements are performed using a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter mounted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for advanced research at Kyushu University. Because the sensitive area of the TES microcalorimeter is about 0.02~mm2, polycapillary optics is used to collect the X-rays emitted by the SEM specimen on the TES microcalorimeter. The X-ray transmission efficiency of the polycapillary optics is obtained by analyzing the X-ray energy spectra measured by the TES microcalorimeter. The obtained transmission efficiency of the polycapillary optics is reproduced by the calculated results of the simulation.

  16. Characterization of X-Ray Diffraction System with a Microfocus X-Ray Source and a Polycapillary Optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Marshall, Joy K.; Ciszak, Ewa; Ponomarev, Igor

    2000-01-01

    We present here an optimized microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary optic system designed for diffraction of small protein crystals. The x-ray beam is formed by a 5.5mm focal length capillary collimator coupled with a 40 micron x-ray source operating at 46Watts. Measurements of the x-ray flux, the divergence and the spectral characteristics of the beam are presented, This optimized system provides a seven fold greater flux than our recently reported configuration [M. Gubarev, et al., J. of Applied Crystallography (2000) 33, in press]. We now make a comparison with a 5kWatts rotating anode generator (Rigaku) coupled with confocal multilayer focusing mirrors (Osmic, CMF12- 38Cu6). The microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary collimator system delivers 60% of the x-ray flux from the rotating anode system. Additional ways to improve our microfocus x-ray system, and thus increase the x-ray flux will be discussed.

  17. Monochromatic Mammographic Imaging Using X-Ray Polycapillary Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiro, Francisca

    2002-06-01

    Monochromatic imaging is typically done with synchrotron sources. These sources are expensive and not practical for clinical settings. However, conventional laboratory sources normally have insufficient intensity. Polycapillary x-ray optics can be used to efficiently produce an intense parallel beam, which can be diffracted from a crystal to create monochromatic radiation. Monochromatic parallel beam imaging produces high subject contrast, high resolution, and low patient dose. Contrast, resolution, and intensity measurements were performed with both high and low angular acceptance crystals. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode source. Preliminary l7.5 kev measurements were then made with a molybdenum source. At 8 keV, contrast enhancement was a factor of five relative to the polychromatic case, in good agreement with theoretical values. At l7.5 kev, monochromatic subject contrast was a factor of two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The measured angular resolution with a silicon crystal is 0.6 mrad at 8 keV, and 0.2 - 0.3 mrad at 17.5 keV. For a 50-mm thick patient, this angle corresponds to 50 lp/mm with an ideal detector. The use of polychromatic collimating optics allow monochromatic mammographic imaging measurements with a conventional x-ray source in a practical clinical setting.

  18. A portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with polycapillary optics and vacuum chamber for archaeometric and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanich, G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bamford, S.

    2007-11-01

    A portable focused-beam XRF spectrometer was designed, constructed, and manufactured. The spectrometer allows to detect and perform analysis of chemical elements from Na upwards. The system is equipped with a compact vacuum chamber to reduce absorption of both the excitation and the fluorescence radiation in air. A low power Pd-anode tube operated up to 50 kV and 1 mA with a point focus of 400 μm is used as excitation source. A polycapillary lens with a spot size of about 160 μm, or a collimator with a 1 mm inner diameter can be used alternatively for either focusing or collimating the primary beam. The fluorescence radiation is collected by an Si drift detector with an active area of 10 mm 2 and equipped with an 8 μm Be entrance window. A compact vacuum chamber was designed to house the X-ray beam optics and the detector snout. The chamber is attached to the X-ray tube and can be pumped down to 0.1 mbar. A Kapton™ window of 7.5 μm thickness allows to locate the investigated spot at about 1-2 mm distance outside of the chamber, thus minimizing absorption losses in the excitation and X-ray fluorescence radiation paths. Two lasers pointers are mounted inside the chamber. The laser beams cross at a point outside the chamber in front of the entrance window and coincide with the focal spot of the polycapillary. This paper reports some preliminary results obtained from an in situ analysis of bronze samples as well as a comparison of these data with those given by other laboratory spectrometers and the reference values provided by the Italian bronze foundry Venturi Arte Bologna, Italy.

  19. Optimizing the Elemental Sensitivity and Focal Spot Size of a Monolithic Polycapillary Optic Using Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C.; Havrilla, G.; Gao, N.; Xia, Q.-F.

    1998-10-01

    A commercial micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) instrument with an aperture X-ray guide was used to compare elemental sensitivities and focal spot sizes with those obtained by focusing the source with a monolithic polycapillary optic retrofitted into the system. The capillary provided an intensity gain of 125 at 4 keV vs. using a pinhole beam collimator; however, this gain advantage declined with increasing analyte line energy as a result of the capillary being designed shorter than its optimal length to fit into the commercial instrument. A minimum capillary focal spot FWHM of 36 {micro}m was achieved, whereas the smallest pinhole aperture available of 50 {micro}m in diameter produced a focal spot width of 69 {micro}m FWHM. Hence, better MXRF lateral resolution could be obtained with the capillary with a simultaneous improvement in elemental sensitivity.

  20. Polycapillary radiography using a quasi-x-ray-laser generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Obara, Haruo; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a new quasi-x-ray laser generator and its application to polycapillary radiography are described. The generator employs a high-voltage power supply, a low- impedance coaxial transmission line, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of about 200 nF, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulse generator as a trigger device, and a new plasma flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x- rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the copper target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x-ray source, which consists of metal ions and electrons, forms by the target evaporating. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increase in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was almost equal to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. When the charging voltage was increased, the linear plasma x-ray source formed, and the characteristic x-ray intensities of K-series lines increased. In the radiogrpahy achieved with a computed radiography system, we employed a polycapilary plate with a hole diameter of 20 micrometers and a thickness of 1 mm. The image resolution was primarily determined by the resolution of the CR system and had a value of about 100micrometers .

  1. [Application of Three Dimensional Confocal Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Technology Based on Polycapillary X-Ray Lens in Analysis of Rock and Mineral Samples].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-zuo; Liu, Zhi-guo; Sun, Tian-xi; Yi, Long-tao; Zhao, Wei-gang; He, Jia-lin; Peng, Song; Wang, Li-li; Zhao, Guang-cui; Ding, Xun-liang

    2015-09-01

    Confocal three dimensional (3D) micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) in the excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) in the detection channel was developed. The PFXRL and PPXRL were placed in a confocal configuration. This was helpful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the XRF spectra, and accordingly lowered the detection limitation of the XRF technology. The confocal configuration ensured that only the XRF signal from the confocal micro-volume overlapped by the output focal spot of the PFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL could be detected by the detector. Therefore, the point-to-point information of XRF for samples could be obtained non-destructively by moving the sample located at the confocal position. The magnitude of the gain in power density of the PFXRL was 10(3). This let the low power conventional X-ray source be used in this confocal XRF, and, accordingly, decreased the requirement of high power X-ray source for the confocal XRF based on polycapillary X-ray optics. In this paper, we used the confocal 3D micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to non-destructively analyzed mineral samples and to carry out a 3D point-to-point elemental mapping scanning, which demonstrated the capabilities of confocal 3D micro XRF technology for non-destructive analysis elements composition and distribution for mineral samples. For one mineral sample, the experimental results showed that the area with high density of element of iron had high density of copper. To some extent, this reflected the growth mechanisms of the mineral sample. The confocal 3D micro XRF technology has potential applications in such fields like the analysis identification of ore, jade, lithoid utensils, "gamble stone" and lithoid flooring. PMID:26669153

  2. Polycapillary Optics for Materials Science Studies: Instrumental Effects and Their Correction

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, M.; Welzel, U.; Scardi, P.

    2004-01-01

    The instrumental effects related to the use of a polycapillary x-ray lens as primary beam collimator are here studied and the features observed in the measurements modelled via Monte-Carlo ray-tracing. Comparison with existing procedures is presented and experimental evidence of the accuracy improvements due to the use of a correction algorithm is shown. PMID:27366595

  3. Concentration of synchrotron beams by means of monolithic polycapillary x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, J.B.; Klotzko, I.L. |; Huang, K.G.; Owens, S.M.; Aloisi, D.C.; Hofmann, F.A.; Gao, N.; Gibson, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Capillary Optics have proven to be a valuable tool for concentrating synchrotron radiation. Single tapered capillaries are used at several facilities. However, most of these optics collect only over a small area. this can be overcome by using larger capillary structures. Polycapillary optics can deflect x-rays by larger angles than other x-ray optics that use only one or two reflections. Conventional x-ray optics that achieve similar deflections, are much more energy selective than capillaries. Therefore, capillaries achieve very short focal distances for a wide range of energies. The measurements shown here represent first tests performed with polycapillaries of large input diameter. The performance with respect to transmission efficiency and spot size was evaluated for a set of four very different prototypes. It is shown that a significant gain may be achieved if a spot size of the order of 0.1 mm is required. Further, some characteristics of the different optics are discussed.

  4. External scanning micro-PIXE for the characterization of a polycapillary lens: Measurement of the collected X-ray intensity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, N.; Guazzoni, C.; Alberti, R.; Klatka, T.; Bjeoumikhov, A.

    2010-06-01

    We developed a PIXE detection system for the analysis of medium-light elements which exploits a weakly focusing polycapillary lens for the transmission of the X-rays emitted from the target material to a Silicon Drift Detector. The polycapillary lens efficiently collects X-rays, while prevents back-scattered protons from impinging on the detector chip, thus avoiding electronics perturbation and consequent quality loss of PIXE spectra. The system is optimized for the detection of X-rays in the energy range 1-10 keV, when the emission from the target is induced by MeV proton beams with size of the order of a few hundreds of micrometers. This work reports the results of the lens characterization in terms of X-ray collection spot, i.e. the area of the sample actually "seen" by the lens, and its dependence on the X-ray energy. The lens properties have been measured using the external scanning microbeam facility of the Tandetron accelerator at LABEC-INFN in Florence. The detection system was used to detect X-rays from a set of pure elemental standards with an incident 3 MeV proton beam focused to a size of about 30 μm scanning an area of 1.9 × 1.6 mm 2. By measuring the spatial distribution of characteristic X-rays from each given material, the collection profile of the lens at the corresponding X-ray energy was obtained. Using several standards, the behaviour throughout the range 1-10 keV was examined. The sensitivity of the lens collection profile on the lens-sample out-of-focus distance was also investigated.

  5. Numerical design of X-ray tabletop Talbot interferometer using polycapillary optics as two-dimensional gratings with high aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    The polycapillary optics was proposed to be used as two-dimensional X-ray gratings with high aspect ratios for high energy X-rays. The X-ray Talbot interferometer was designed numerically using the polycapillary X-ray gratings and a conventional X-ray source. The simulation showed that it was available to get a high-aspect-ratio pattern of the polycapillary X-ray gratings for higher energies than 60 keV. Moreover, this design of polycapillary gratings decreased the requirement for high power of the X-ray source. The polycapillary X-ray gratings had potential applications in X-ray imaging technology for medical fields, industrial nondestructive tests, public security, physical science, chemical analysis, life science, nanoscience biology and energy science.

  6. Recent development in homemade x-ray polycapillary optic and its application to topics of x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, R. Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The possibilities of performing non-destructive x-ray microanalysis with homemade polycapillary optics are described in this paper. Monocapillaries and monolithic polycapillary half-lenses using fiber glass technology were made by drawing glass capillary bundles at high temperature in a heating furnace. General guidelines of the manufacture process are enumerated and the specific process implemented in our conventional laboratory is described. The potential of the lenses is illustrated by some applications on x-ray microanalysis as the recently developed confocal geometry. The selected examples show the feasibility of elemental and structural depth profile analysis using homemade polycapillary optics. The developed lenses provide an opportunity to upgrade conventional laboratories with a low cost investment.

  7. Diamond sensors and polycapillary lenses for X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, B.; Attenkofer, K.; Bohon, J.; Muller, E.; Smedley, J.

    2013-10-15

    Diamond sensors are evaluated as incident beam monitors for X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. These single crystal devices pose a challenge for an energy-scanning experiment using hard X-rays due to the effect of diffraction from the crystalline sensor at energies which meet the Bragg condition. This problem is eliminated by combination with polycapillary lenses. The convergence angle of the beam exiting the lens is large compared to rocking curve widths of the diamond. A ray exiting one capillary from the lens meets the Bragg condition for any reflection at a different energy from the rays exiting adjacent capillaries. This serves to broaden each diffraction peak over a wide energy range, allowing linear measurement of incident intensity over the range of the energy scan. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data are measured with a combination of a polycapillary lens and a diamond incident beam monitor. These data are of comparable quality to data measured without a lens and with an ionization chamber monitoring the incident beam intensity.

  8. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction.

    PubMed

    Maddox, B R; Akin, M C; Teruya, A; Hunt, D; Hahn, D; Cradick, J; Morgan, D V

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10(7) molybdenum Kα photons. PMID:27587130

  9. High-resolution X-ray imaging by polycapillary optics and lithium fluoride detectors combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Della Ventura, G.; Bellatreccia, F.; Magi, M.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Novel results on high-resolution X-ray imaging by a table-top laboratory system based on lithium fluoride (LiF) imaging radiation detectors and a X-ray tube combined with polycapillary optics are reported for the first time. In this paper, imaging experiments of reference objects, as well as thick geological samples, show some of the potentialities of this approach for the development of a compact laboratory X-ray microscopy apparatus. The high spatial resolution and dynamic range of versatile LiF imaging detectors, based on optical reading of photoluminescence from X-ray-induced color centers in LiF crystals and films, allow us to use very simple contact imaging techniques. Promising applications can be foreseen in the fields of bio-medical imaging diagnostics, characterization of X-ray sources and optical elements, material science and photonics.

  10. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-08-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant "Quinoa". The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  11. Polycapillary lenses for Soft-X-ray transmission: Model, comparison with experiments and potential application for tomographic measurements in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon, D.; Abadie, Q.; Dorchies, F.; Lecherbourg, L.; Mollard, A.; Malard, P.; Dabagov, S.

    2015-07-01

    In tokamaks, plasma emits as a volumetric Soft-X-ray (SXR) source. Emitted X-rays can give very useful information about plasma stability, shape and impurity content. Measuring the Soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1-20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic. Generally, like at Tore Supra in France, the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with detectors like Silicon Barrier Diodes spread in periphery of the tokamak. Unfortunately, the strong constraints imposed by the environment of a tokamak reactor (high neutron fluxes, gamma and hard X-ray emission, high magnetic field and high radiofrequency powers) do not authorize to install in a close vicinity of the machine such detectors. We have thus investigated the possibility of using polycapillary lenses to transport the SXR information to several meters from the plasma, not necessarily in a straight line. The idea is to protect the SXR detector from the entire environment by a proper shielding. Different polycapillary lenses could be used for that purpose and have been tested in collaboration with CELIA (CEA-CNRS) of Bordeaux. Transmission of the order of 20% where observed for the low energetic part of the spectrum (down to 3 keV) while still 10% were observed for the remaining part (from 3 to 10 keV). In parallel a model of polycapillary transmission has been developed and validated against experiment. Results are presented confirming the great potential of polycapillary lenses for SXR transmission in tokamak plasma. Studies of the influence of geometrical parameters like diameter and curvature of the channels, on the photons transmission is also presented.

  12. 7 CFR 51.775 - Slightly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly misshapen. 51.775 Section 51.775 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.775 Slightly misshapen. Slightly misshapen...

  13. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.778 Slightly colored. Slightly colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does...

  14. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.778 Slightly colored. Slightly colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 2...

  15. Beam collimation with polycapillary x-ray optics for high contrast high resolution monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiro, Francisca R.; Li Danhong; MacDonald, C.A.

    2004-12-01

    Monochromatic imaging can provide better contrast and resolution than conventional broadband radiography. In broadband systems, low energy photons do not contribute to the image, but are merely absorbed, while high energy photons produce scattering that degrades the image. By tuning to the optimal energy, one can eliminate undesirable lower and higher energies. Monochromatization is achieved by diffraction from a single crystal. A crystal oriented to diffract at a particular energy, in this case the characteristic line energy, diffracts only those photons within a narrow range of angles. The resultant beam from a divergent source is nearly parallel, but not very intense. To increase the intensity, collimation was performed with polycapillary x-ray optics, which can collect radiation from a divergent source and redirect it into a quasi parallel beam. Contrast and resolution measurements were performed with diffracting crystals with both high and low angular acceptance. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode x-ray source, then 17.5 keV measurements were made with a low power molybdenum source. At 8 keV, subject contrast was a factor of five higher than for the polychromatic case. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic contrast was two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The subject contrasts measured at both energies were in good agreement with theory. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total gain of four, is expected at 17.5 keV from the removal of scatter. Scatter might be simply removed using an air gap, which does not degrade resolution with a parallel beam.

  16. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  17. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS...

  18. 7 CFR 51.647 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.647 Section 51.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  19. Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Hassan; Mahato, Dip N.; Satti, Jahangir; MacDonald, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface. PMID:24694122

  20. Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Hassan; Mahato, Dip N.; Satti, Jahangir; MacDonald, C. A.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface.

  1. 3D structure of liquid sprays: X-ray μ -radiography and tomography by polycapillary based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchitto, L.; Allocca, L.; Hampai, D.; Alfuso, S.; Dabagov, S. B.; Liedl, A.; Polese, C.

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the results of X-ray μ -tomographic investigation on the inner structure of high pressure fuel sprays. X-ray imaging is widely used in industry where non-destructive and high accuracy measurements of the samples morphology are required. A high flux beam can overcome the problems related to the low absorption of hydrocarbon chains as fossil fuels, therefore synchrotron X-ray sources are generally used for fuel sprays investigation. A desktop facility has successfully been used to characterize high pressure gasoline sprays for automotive applications. A X-ray tube coupled with polycapillary optics has been used providing a high flux beam with low divergence. In this paper the last improvements concerning quantitative measurements carried out on fuel sprays are reported.

  2. Research and Development of X-Ray Spectroscopy Based on Polycapillary Optics at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    SciTech Connect

    Hampai, D.; Cappuccio, G.; Marcelli, A.; Dabagov, S. B.; Cibin, G.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Maggi, V.

    2010-04-06

    In the last years, at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati the X-ray optics group has developed a series of prototypes based on polycapillary optics that allow to perform a full X spectroscopy analysis. This paper presents preliminary results for three different prototypes: the first allows transmission X-imaging with a resolution less than 6 {mu}m; the second one allows 2D elemental mapping with a resolution less than 100x100x{mu}m{sup 2}.The identification of ice core insoluble mineral aerosol source areas is an important tool for the understanding of present day and past pathways of atmospheric transport toward the poles and the paleoclimatic information. To achieve this result it is very helpful to determine the geochemical composition of atmospheric dust particles deposited over the ice sheets and archived in ice core samples and to compare it with the composition of potential source areas sediments. The main experimental challenge is the very low concentration of mineral materials trapped in the snow, especially for Antarctic firn and ice samples, typically around 10-20 ppb (approx5000 particles/cm{sup 3}). A complete studies of elemental concentrations in the ppb range (such as insoluble dust in deep ice core) require ultimate cleaning procedures to collect, prepare and perform nondestructive experiments, that require a very bright X-ray sources, such as synchrotron radiation, combined with a total external reflection regime. Based on a polycapillary semi-lens, here is reported preliminary results of a complete portable prototype that allows to obtain elemental measurements in total external reflection regime.At Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati is currently under development and design of a single prototype that allows users to make all the techniques of fluorescence spectroscopy and X-imaging.

  3. SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Ketzlach, N.

    1957-05-01

    A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

  4. 7 CFR 51.776 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.776 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin may be slightly thick but not excessively thick, materially ridged or grooved. “Slightly thick” means that the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.776 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.776 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin may be slightly thick but not excessively thick, materially ridged or grooved. “Slightly thick” means that the...

  6. The Picture Brightens (Slightly) for String Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    It may not be the best of times for the school's string and orchestra programs, but things certainly are looking up. This article focuses on a recent report which cites the numerous positives, including an increase in the number of districts offering strings classes, a greater variety in the racial mix of strings students, and a less drastic…

  7. Inoculated Slightly Hypereutectic Gray Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisamera, Mihai; Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Militaru, Cristina; Anton, Irina; Barstow, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The current experimental investigation in this article was designed to characterize the structure of mold (M) and ladle (L) inoculated, low-S (0.025 wt.% S), low-Al (0.003 wt.% Al), slightly hypereutectic (CE = 4.4-4.5 wt.%) electric melted gray irons, typical for high performance thin-wall castings. It describes the effect of a Ca, Al, Zr-FeSi inoculant addition of 0-0.25 wt.% on structure characteristics, and compares to similar treatments with hypoeutectic irons (3.5-3.6 wt.% CE, 0.025 wt.% S, and 0.003 wt.% Al). A complex structure including primary graphite, austenite dendrites, and eutectic cells is obtained in hypereutectic irons, as the result of nonequilibrium solidification following the concept of a coexisting region. Dendrites appear to be distributed between eutectic cells at higher eutectic undercooling, while in inoculated irons and for lower undercooling, the eutectic cells are "reinforced" by eutectic austenite dendrites. A Zr, Ca, Al-FeSi alloy appears to be an effective inoculant in low S, low Al, gray cast irons, especially for a late inoculation technique, with beneficial effects on both graphite and austenite phases. First, inoculation influenced the nucleation of graphite/eutectic cell, and then their characteristics. A further role of these active elements directly contributed to form nucleation sites for austenite, as complex (Mn,X)S particles.

  8. Topology of slightly polydisperse real foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnereau, C.; Prunet-Foch, B.; Vignes-Adler, M.

    2001-06-01

    The topology of slightly polydisperse, (meta-)stable, real foams was investigated by means of optical tomography associated with a numerical reconstruction procedure. The values of the mean numbers of faces per bubble and edges per face were very close to Matzke's data (1946). The real foams were essentially disordered and possessed a noncentered symmetry, and ideal structures also could not be observed. The disorder was quantified by the second moment of the edge per face and face per bubble distributions, and also by a statistical correlation coefficient between the numbers of edges of adjacent faces. It was found that the edge distributions of the internal bubbles, and not of the external ones, were significantly anticorrelated even during foam aging, which provided a measure of the disorder in the foam. No obvious relationship could be deduced between the isoperimetric quotient and the face combination in an individual bubble. Eventually, it was shown that the physical boundaries of the foam sample had no influence on the foam topology beyond a single bubble layer.

  9. Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2016-07-01

    The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell–Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.

  10. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  11. 7 CFR 51.776 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin may be slightly thick but not excessively thick, materially ridged or grooved. “Slightly thick” means that the skin thickness does not average more than...

  12. 7 CFR 51.776 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin may be slightly thick but not excessively thick, materially ridged or grooved. “Slightly thick” means that the skin thickness does not average more than...

  13. 7 CFR 51.707 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.707 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.707 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 51.707 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.707 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.707 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 51.645 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.645 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.645 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 51.707 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.707 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.707 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 51.707 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.707 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.707 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1169 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.1169 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.1169 Section 51.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  19. 7 CFR 51.645 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.645 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.645 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 51.645 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.645 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.645 Section...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1169 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.1169 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.1169 Section 51.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  2. 7 CFR 51.645 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.645 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.645 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 51.645 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.645 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.645 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 51.707 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.707 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.707 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 51.776 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.776 Section 51.776... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.776 Slightly rough..., materially ridged or grooved. “Slightly thick” means that the skin thickness does not average more than...

  6. 5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BUILDING, LABORATORY, AND OFFICE. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  7. 7 CFR 51.1169 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth texture but is not materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.1169 Section 51.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1169 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth texture but is not materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.1169 Section 51.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1169 - Slightly rough texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth texture but is not materially... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slightly rough texture. 51.1169 Section 51.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  10. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, S.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.; Wilhein, T.

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  11. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, S; Kanngießer, B; Malzer, W; Stiel, H; Wilhein, T

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns. PMID:26329204

  12. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, S. Wilhein, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  13. Could Slight Brain Zap During Sleep Boost Memory?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160135.html Could Slight Brain Zap During Sleep Boost Memory? Small study says ... HealthDay News) -- Stimulating a targeted area of the brain with small doses of weak electricity while you ...

  14. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  15. 62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly reticulated. Tree behind fence is common fig, Ficus carica.) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  16. 53. Same view. A slight raise and a quick drop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Same view. A slight raise and a quick drop was employed to remove the jammed mortised member. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  17. 14. Looking slightly southeast, showing railing, some abutment and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Looking slightly southeast, showing railing, some abutment and east side all the way across the bridge. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. Speckle size of light scattered from slightly rough cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlasso, Ricardo G.; Quintian, Fernando Perez; Rebollo, Maria A.; Gaggioli, Nestor G.; Brea, Luis Miguel Sanchez; Martinez, Eusebio Bernabeu

    2002-04-01

    This research is an extension of the optical method of quality control presented in a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 39, 5811 (2000)] to the case of slightly rough cylindrical surfaces. Applying the Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theory yields an analytical expression of the autocorrelation function of the intensity scattered from slightly rough cylindrical surfaces. This function, which is related to speckle size and shape, is shown to depend on the surface correlation length, unlike for plane surfaces for which the speckle depends on the illuminated area only. The theoretical expression is compared with that for the speckle produced by the light scattered from a cylindrical bearing and from various high-quality wires, showing that the method allows the correlation lengths of high-quality cylindrical surfaces to be determined.

  19. Conformal bootstrap with slightly broken higher spin symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    We consider conformal field theories with slightly broken higher spin symmetry in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. We analyze the crossing equation in the double light-cone limit and solve for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents γ s with large spin s. The result depends on the symmetries and the spectrum of the unperturbed conformal field theory. We reproduce all known results and make further predictions. In particular we make a prediction for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the 3d Ising model.

  20. Nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantor, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    An account if given of the variational method of the solution of physically and geometrically nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells. Examined are the bending and supercritical behavior of plates and conical and spherical cupolas of variable thickness in a temperature field, taking into account the dependence of the elastic parameters on temperature. The bending, stability in general and load-bearing capacity of flexible isotropic elastic-plastic shells with different criteria of plasticity, taking into account compressibility and hardening. The effect of the plastic heterogeneity caused by heat treatment, surface work hardening and irradiation by fast neutron flux is investigated. Some problems of the dynamic behavior of flexible shells are solved. Calculations are performed in high approximations. Considerable attention is given to the construction of a machine algorithm and to the checking of the convergence of iterative processes.

  1. Slightly Conductive Transparent Films for Space Applications: Manufacturability and Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppala, N.; Griffin, J.; Vemulapalli, J.; Hambourger, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    Highly transparent, slightly conductive films of co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF, have possible applications for environmental protection of exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Reliable preparation of films with the desired sheet resistivity (approximately 10(exp 8) ohms/square) is difficult because the electrical properties of ITO-Mg F, are highly dependent on film composition. We have investigated the use of plasma emission monitoring to improve the reproducibility of films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. While considerable improve ment was observed, it appears that some in-situ electrical or optica l characterization will be needed for reliable production coating wit h ITO-MgF,. We have also done further evaluation of a possibly undesi rable photoconductive effect previously observed in these films.

  2. Multilayer adsorption of slightly soluble organic compounds from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aranovich, G.L.; Donohue, M.D.

    1996-03-25

    Adsorption isotherms are analyzed for slightly soluble organic components from water for a wide range of reduced concentrations. It is shown that the behavior of these systems can be modeled by an equation of the form a = Ac/[(1 + Bc)(1 {minus} c/c{sub 0}){sup d}] over the range of c/c{sub 0} from about 0.05 to 0.9. Here a is the adsorption amount, c is the concentration of organic compound in the water, c{sub 0} is a solubility limit for the organic compound, and A, B, and d are adjustable parameters. Comparison is made with experimental data for the adsorption of n-caproic acid, n-valeric acid, n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, aniline, cyclohexanol, and phenol from aqueous solutions on carbon adsorbents.

  3. The thickness of detonation waves visualised by slight obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Olivier, H.

    . The reflection of detonation waves from slight obstacles, which hardly disturb the wave propagation, is observed by time-resolved schlieren photography. The following stoichiometric mixtures are used: pure and argon-diluted hydrogen-oxygen, hydrogen-air, acetylene-oxygen, and acetylene-air. Initial pressures are varied such that cell widths range from 1.4 up to 108 mm, which is twice the side length of the square cross-section of the tube. The trajectories of the incident and the reflected waves in the x,t-plane are used to determine lower limit values for the wave thickness. The considerable influences of the obstacle shape and of the evaluation method on the results are discussed in detail, and error sources are analyzed. The method has been improved since a previous publication by the authors. The ratio of the lower limit values to the cell width spreads from 0.4 to 0.8 in the medium cell size range. It decreases with increasing marginality and seems to increase at small scale. A unique correlation between the lower limit value and the tube diameter, both referred to the cell size, that was proposed earlier in the literature has to be refused. The velocities of the reflected waves are presented as additional information on the post-detonation wave state. The sonic transition is discussed theoretically, enhancing the stream tube model, and practically, based on detailed observations for marginal detonations.

  4. On the mechanical behavior of slender, slightly curved, compressed microbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallauer, W. L.; Ma, C.

    2011-06-01

    We consider a clamped-clamped, slender beam-column that is slightly curved in its unloaded static equilibrium state. Perhaps the best practical example of this type of structure is a microbeam used in sensing and actuating devices. If the clamped ends are forced toward each other, or if stiff supports inhibit axial expansion that is fostered by fabrication processes and/or operational heating, then the column bends beyond its initial curvature. If the axial force approaches the buckling load, then the static flexural deflection can be relatively large, greater than the column's depth. We show that the dependence of moderately large static deflection upon compressive force is mathematically linear, and that nonlinearity arises only in the relationship of column shortening to transverse deflection. This leads to a linear finite-element method for static structural analysis of non-uniform columns, with which we simulate the behavior of a 62.5 µm long microbridge of 0.5 µm thin-film gold. This microbridge was observed experimentally to bend 4-5 µm under compression. We also examine previous studies of bending vibration about moderately large static deflection. Calculations and experimental measurements of the dependence of the fundamental natural frequency on axial compression and initial curvature indicate practical significance relative to design of microbridge resonators.

  5. Fano interference and a slight fluctuation of the Majorana hallmark

    SciTech Connect

    Seridonio, A. C.; Siqueira, E. C.; Dessotti, F. A.; Machado, R. S.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-02-14

    According to the Liu and Baranger [Phys. Rev. B 84, 201308(R) (2011)], an isolated Majorana state bound to one edge of a long enough Kitaev chain in the topological phase and connected to a quantum dot, results in a robust transmittance of 1/2 at zero-bias. In this work, we show that the removal of such a hallmark can be achieved by using a metallic surface hosting two adatoms in a scenario where there is a lack of symmetry in the Fano effect, which is feasible by coupling the Kitaev chain to one of these adatoms. Thus in order to detect this feature experimentally, one should apply the following two-stage procedure: (i) first, attached to the adatoms, one has to lock AFM tips in opposite gate voltages (symmetric detuning of the levels Δε) and measure by an STM tip, the zero-bias conductance; (ii) thereafter, the measurement of the conductance is repeated with the gates swapped. For |Δε| away from the Fermi energy and in the case of strong coupling tip-host, this approach reveals in the transmittance, a persistent dip placed at zero-bias and immune to the aforementioned permutation, but characterized by an amplitude that fluctuates slightly around 1/2. However, in the case of a tip acting as a probe, the adatom decoupled from the Kitaev chain becomes completely inert and no fluctuation is observed. Therefore, the STM tip must be considered in the same footing as the “host+adatoms” system. As a result, we have found that despite the small difference between these two Majorana dips, the zero-bias transmittance as a function of the symmetric detuning yields two distinct behaviors, in which one of them is unpredictable by the standard Fano's theory. Therefore, to access such a non trivial pattern of Fano interference, the hypothesis of the STM tip acting as a probe should be discarded.

  6. Scatter-hoarding rodents prefer slightly astringent food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and their seed plants is highly complex yet poorly understood. Plants may benefit from the seed dispersal behavior of rodents, as long as seed consumption is minimized. In parallel, rodents may maximize foraging efficiency and cache high-quality resources for future consumption. Defensive compounds, such as tannins, are thought to be a major mechanism for plant control over rodent behavior. However, previous studies, using naturally occurring seeds, have not provided conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we test the importance of tannin concentrations on the scatter-hoarding behavior of rodents by using an artificial seed system. We combined feeding trials and field observations to examine the overall impact of seed tannin concentrations on rodent behavior and health. We found that rodents favored seeds with an intermediate amount of tannin (~5%) in the field. Meanwhile, in rodents that were fed a diet with different tannin content, only diets with high tannin content (25%, 15%, and 10%) caused a significant negative influence on rodent survival and health. Significant differences were not found among treatments with tannin levels of 0-5%. In contrast to many existing studies, our results clearly demonstrate that scatter-hoarding rodents prefer slightly 'astringent' food. In the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and animals, our results suggest that while tannins may play a significant role in reducing general predation levels by the faunal community, they have no precise control over the behavior of their mutualistic partner. Instead, the two partners appear to have reached an evolutionary point where both parties receive adequate benefits, with the year-to-year outcome being dependent on a wide range of factors beyond the control of either partner. PMID:22046284

  7. Fano interference and a slight fluctuation of the Majorana hallmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seridonio, A. C.; Siqueira, E. C.; Dessotti, F. A.; Machado, R. S.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-02-01

    According to the Liu and Baranger [Phys. Rev. B 84, 201308(R) (2011)], an isolated Majorana state bound to one edge of a long enough Kitaev chain in the topological phase and connected to a quantum dot, results in a robust transmittance of 1/2 at zero-bias. In this work, we show that the removal of such a hallmark can be achieved by using a metallic surface hosting two adatoms in a scenario where there is a lack of symmetry in the Fano effect, which is feasible by coupling the Kitaev chain to one of these adatoms. Thus in order to detect this feature experimentally, one should apply the following two-stage procedure: (i) first, attached to the adatoms, one has to lock AFM tips in opposite gate voltages (symmetric detuning of the levels Δɛ) and measure by an STM tip, the zero-bias conductance; (ii) thereafter, the measurement of the conductance is repeated with the gates swapped. For |Δɛ| away from the Fermi energy and in the case of strong coupling tip-host, this approach reveals in the transmittance, a persistent dip placed at zero-bias and immune to the aforementioned permutation, but characterized by an amplitude that fluctuates slightly around 1/2. However, in the case of a tip acting as a probe, the adatom decoupled from the Kitaev chain becomes completely inert and no fluctuation is observed. Therefore, the STM tip must be considered in the same footing as the "host+adatoms" system. As a result, we have found that despite the small difference between these two Majorana dips, the zero-bias transmittance as a function of the symmetric detuning yields two distinct behaviors, in which one of them is unpredictable by the standard Fano's theory. Therefore, to access such a non trivial pattern of Fano interference, the hypothesis of the STM tip acting as a probe should be discarded.

  8. Does Titan's Slightly Oblate Shape suggest a Capture Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini radar observations show that Titan is slightly oblate (Zebker et al, 2009 Science 324 921). The average polar radius falls short of the expected value by 120 m. The synchronously rotating ellipsoid of uniform density that best matches Titan’s shape has a spin rate that is 1.12 times faster than the present rate. Next, a freely-spinning, uniform-density, oblate spheroid of Titan’s mass and mean size which best fits the satellite’s shape has a polar radius which equals the observed value exactly. The spin rate of this hydrostatic equilibrium object is 1.97 times the present value. These calculation are based on the theory of rotating fluid satellites developed by Dermott (1988, Icarus 37 575). The Titan shape data, along with the existence of the non-zero value of the eccentricity of Titan’s orbit, re-awaken the possibility that Titan did not originally condense in orbit about Saturn (Prentice, 1980 JPL Publication 80-80; 1984 Earth, Moon and Planets 30 209). Instead, it is suggested that Titan first condensed as a secondary solid embryo within the gas ring that was shed by protosolar cloud (hereafter PSC) at Saturn’s orbital distance from the Sun. By forming in a free orbit about the PSC, Titan’s shape would have initially been that of an oblate spheroid, like Ceres. Next, the condensate that forms in the PSC gas ring of temperature 94 K consists of anhydrous rock (mass fraction 0.4925), water ice (0.4739) and graphite (0.0336). Its mean density at 94 K is 1.5221 g/cm3 (Prentice, 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Australia 23 1; 2007 38th LPSC, 2402.pdf). The gravity measurements of Iess et al (2010 Science 327 1367) have revealed that the interior of Titan is in a state of incomplete separation between the rock and ice phases. The axial moment of inertia is C/MR2 = 0.342. The gravity data suggest that the interior of Titan is cold and that its structure consists of a central core of rock and ice that is surmounted by a mantle of pure ice. The non

  9. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  10. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.

    2014-05-15

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.

  11. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures - the so-called ligaments - in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.

  12. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  13. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Y; Błachucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers. PMID:24784587

  14. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  15. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  16. Tsunami focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  17. The other side of the nearly neutral theory, evidence of slightly advantageous back-mutations

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Jane; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We argue that if there is a category of slightly deleterious mutations, then there should be a category of slightly advantageous back-mutations. We show that when there are both slightly deleterious and advantageous back-mutations, there is likely to be an increase in the rate of evolution after a population size expansion. This increase in the rate of evolution is short-lived. However, we show how its signature can be captured by comparing the rate of evolution in species that have undergone population size expansion versus contraction. We test our model by comparing the pattern of evolution in pairs of island and mainland species in which the colonization event was either island-to-mainland (population size expansion) or mainland-to-island (contraction). We show that the predicted pattern of evolution is observed. PMID:17940029

  18. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  19. Midlevel Administrators' Pay Increases Slightly but Doesn't Match Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Salaries for midlevel administrators rose by a median of 2 percent this year over last year, matching the median pay increase for senior administrators and coming in slightly higher than the 1.9-percent median increase for faculty members, says an annual report released by the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources.…

  20. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  1. Tensor equations in slightly aspherical configurations: get peace of mind with TenGSHui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, A.

    2013-09-01

    TenGSHui is a Mathematica package to handle tensor equations in aspherical configurations. It is particularly suited to study the global dynamics of slightly flattened celestial bodies. The purpose of this contribution is to discuss a number of illustrative applications.

  2. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men. PMID:25866136

  3. 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle.

    PubMed

    Ennos, Antony Roland; Chan, Tak Lok

    2016-05-01

    It is usually assumed that 'fire hardening' the tips of spears, as practised by hunter-gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardening process and comparing their mechanical properties to those of naturally seasoned poles. A Shore D hardness test showed that fire treatment slightly increased the hardness of the wood, but flexural and impact tests showed that it reduced the strength and work of fracture by 30% and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that though potentially slightly sharper and more durable, fire-hardened tips would actually be more likely to break off when used, as may have been the case with the earliest known wooden tool, the Clacton spear. Fire might first have been used to help sharpen the tips of spears, and fire-hardening would have been a mostly negative side effect, not its primary purpose. PMID:27194289

  4. Single-shot slightly-off-axis interferometry based Hilbert phase microscopy of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang; Lai, Jiancheng; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    A slightly-off-axis interferometry based Hilbert phase microscopy (HPM) method is developed to quantitatively obtain the phase distribution. Owing to its single-shot nature and details detection ability, HPM can be used to investigate rapid phenomena that take place in transparent structures such as biological cells. Moreover, the slightly-off-axis interferometry owns higher effective bandwidth and more sensitivity than traditional off-axis interferometry. The proposed method takes advantages of the above techniques to obtain the phase image of the red blood cells and compared with the traditional off-axis interferometry and phase retrieval algorithm based on the FFT. The experimental results show that the proposed method owns fine spatial details and real-time imaging ability. We are sure that the proposed method provides a breakthrough for real-time observing and quantitative analyzing of cells in vivo. PMID:21483620

  5. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments <0.23 and densities from 500 to 1200 kg\\cdot hbox {m}^{-3}. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The proposed expressions eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  6. Cognitive-behavioral intervention among women with slight menopausal symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Larroy García, Cristina; Gómez-Calcerrada, Sonia Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Menopause is associated with a considerable variety of physical, psychological and social symptoms that can be treated using cognitive-behavioral techniques. In the present study, 21 women took part in an eight-week group intervention consisting of weekly two-hour sessions to address their slight symptoms related to the climacteric stage of life. The intervention included: psycho education on menopause, relaxation techniques, nutrition and fitness exercises, Kegel exercises, and problem-solving techniques. A control group was included that did not receive treatment and consisted of 28 women. The results revealed a significant reduction in most symptoms (including depression and anxiety) after intervention as compared to the baseline period. No changes appeared in the control group. The relevance of this work lies in the potential element of prevention this therapeutic package could offer to relieve various symptoms, slight and incipient, during the perimenopausal stage. PMID:21568191

  7. Nitrogen transformations and balance in constructed wetlands for slightly polluted river water treatment using different macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Rong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Cong; Xie, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen removal processing in different constructed wetlands treating different kinds of wastewater often varies, and the contribution to nitrogen removal by various pathways remains unclear. In this study, the seasonal nitrogen removal and transformations as well as nitrogen balance in wetland microcosms treating slightly polluted river water was investigated. The results showed that the average total nitrogen removal rates varied in different seasons. According to the mass balance approach, plant uptake removed 8.4-34.3 % of the total nitrogen input, while sediment storage and N(2)O emission contributed 20.5-34.4 % and 0.6-1.9 % of nitrogen removal, respectively. However, the percentage of other nitrogen loss such as N(2) emission due to nitrification and denitrification was estimated to be 2.0-23.5 %. The results indicated that plant uptake and sediment storage were the key factors limiting nitrogen removal besides microbial processes in surface constructed wetland for treating slightly polluted river water. PMID:22707115

  8. Stable Self-Similar Blow-Up Dynamics for Slightly {L^2}-Supercritical Generalized KDV Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider the slightly {L^2}-supercritical gKdV equations {partial_t u+(u_{xx}+u|u|^{p-1})_x=0}, with the nonlinearity {5 < p < 5+\\varepsilon} and {0 < \\varepsilon≪ 1}. We will prove the existence and stability of a blow-up dynamics with self-similar blow-up rate in the energy space {H^1} and give a specific description of the formation of the singularity near the blow-up time.

  9. Collective Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping at finite temperature in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud in the hydrodynamic regime will allow us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps. Funding : NSF,NIST,ONR

  10. Nonlinear control design for slightly nonminimum phase systems - Application to V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, John; Sastry, Shankar; Meyer, George

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the application of techniques of exact I/O linearization of nonlinear control systems to the flight control of V/STOL aircraft. It is seen that the application of the theory to this example is not straightforward; in particular, the direct application of the theory yielded an undesirable controller. The situation was remedied by neglecting the coupling between the rolling moment input to the aircraft dynamics and the dynamics along the y-axis. An approximate I/O linearization procedure developed for slightly nonminimum phase nonlinear systems is shown to be effective for V/STOL aircraft.

  11. Laboratory study of modified Kohler curves for slightly soluble organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilde, M.; Svenningsson, B.

    2003-04-01

    Even though organic compounds make up a large fraction of the fine aerosol, their influence on cloud nucleation is not well understood. A theoretic treatment of slightly soluble compounds (modified Köhler theory) was presented by Schulman et al. (1996). However, laboratory experiments often deviate from this modified Köhler theory. A possible explanation for these inconsistencies and a confirmation of the two maxima predicted by the modified Köhler equation for succinic (HOOC(CH_2)_2COOH) and adipic acid (HOOC(CH_2)_4COOH ) are presented. Furthermore we suggest (and confirm experimentally) that slightly soluble organic compounds follow two different Köhler curves depending on whether the particles are wet or dry. We have used a cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNC-100B from the University of Wyoming) to study the cloud droplet activation of aerosol particles of adipic and succinic acid as well as mixtures between these acids and small amounts of NaCl. The results from the experiments follow the modified Köhler theory. According to experiments as well as theory a few percent, or less, of NaCl reduces the extra barrier to activation, caused by the limited solubility for these compounds. For succinic acid, about 1% of NaCl causes a particle with a diameter of 60 nm to activate as if it is infinitely soluble. For adipic acid, that is even less soluble, NaCl concentrations of about 8% and 4% make particles with diameters of 60 nm and 100 nm respectively behave as if the acid is completely soluble. Small amounts of soluble components, will thus strongly influence cloud droplet activation of slightly soluble organic compounds. As mentioned above modified Köhler theory predicts a barrier to activation due to the slightly soluble organic compound. By introducing wet particles into the cloud condensation nucleus chamber we show that this barrier is eliminated for particles that are supersaturated solutions of organic material. Shulman, M. L., Jacobson, M. C

  12. Propagation of high amplitude higher order sounds in slightly soft rectangular ducts, carrying mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. S.; Vaidya, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The resonance expansion method, developed to study the propagation of sound in rigid rectangular ducts is applied to the case of slightly soft ducts. Expressions for the generation and decay of various harmonics are obtained. The effect of wall admittance is seen through a dissipation function in the system of nonlinear differential equations, governing the generation of harmonics. As the wall admittance increases, the resonance is reduced. For a given wall admittance this phenomenon is stronger at higher input intensities. Both the first and second order solutions are obtained and the results are extended to the case of ducts having mean flow.

  13. Availability of fresh and slightly saline ground water in the basins of westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.; Ackermann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    Significant quantities of fresh ground water occur in the basin fill of the northern Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley and in the Wildhorse Flat, Michigan Flat, Lobo Flat, and Ryan Flat areas of the Salt Basin; and may occur in Red Light Draw, Presidio bolson, and Green River valley. More than 20 million acre-feet of freshwater is estimated to be in storage in the basin fill of westernmost Texas. About 12 million acre-feet, or more than half, is in El Paso County in the Hueco bolson and Mesilla Valley. In addition, the basins contain about 7 million acre-feet of slightly saline water in basin fill, in Rio Grande alluvium in the Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley, and in the Capitan Limestone in the northern Salt Basin. Ground-water pumping for municipal supply and industrial use in the El Paso area caused water-level declines of as much as 74 feet during 1903-73, and pumping for irrigation in the Salt Basin caused a maximum decline of 150 feet at Lobo Flat during 1949-73. Additional development of ground water in westernmost Texas will be accompanied by further declines in water levels, and will probably induce local migration of slightly saline or poorer quality water into freshwater areas. Land-surface subsidence could occur in local areas where water-level declines are large and the basin fill contains large amounts of compressible clay. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  15. Mean-square displacement of particles in slightly interconnected polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Gomez, Erick; Santamaría-Holek, Iván; Castillo, Rolando

    2014-01-30

    Structural and viscoelastic properties of slightly interconnected polymer networks immersed in a solvent have been studied in two cases: when the polymer network is building up and when the polymer network is shrinking stepwise in a controlled way. To accomplish this goal, the mean square displacement (MSD) of embedded microspheres in the polymer network was measured as a function of time, with diffusive wave spectroscopy. Particle motion was analyzed in terms of a model, based on a Fokker-Planck type equation, developed for describing particles in Brownian motion within a network that constrain their movement. The model reproduces well the experimental features observed in the MSD vs t curves. The variation of the parameters describing the structure of the network can be understood as the polymerization comes about, and also after the successive volume contractions. In addition, from the MSD curves, the complex shear moduli were obtained in a wide range of frequencies when the network is building up, and at the different shrinking states of the network. Our microrheological results give an insight about the dynamics of embedded particles in slightly interconnected networks, which were also compared with similar results for polymers without interconnections and polymer gels. PMID:24423025

  16. Aggregation Pattern Transitions by Slightly Varying the Attractive/Repulsive Function

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhao; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Zhou, Tao; Valeyev, Najl V.

    2011-01-01

    Among collective behaviors of biological swarms and flocks, the attractive/repulsive (A/R) functional links between particles play an important role. By slightly changing the cutoff distance of the A/R function, a drastic transition between two distinct aggregation patterns is observed. More precisely, a large cutoff distance yields a liquid-like aggregation pattern where the particle density decreases monotonously from the inside to the outwards within each aggregated cluster. Conversely, a small cutoff distance produces a crystal-like aggregation pattern where the distance between each pair of neighboring particles remains constant. Significantly, there is an obvious spinodal in the variance curve of the inter-particle distances along the increasing cutoff distances, implying a legible transition pattern between the liquid-like and crystal-like aggregations. This work bridges the aggregation phenomena of physical particles and swarming of organisms in nature upon revealing some common mechanism behind them by slightly varying their inter-individual attractive/repulsive functions, and may find its potential engineering applications, for example, in the formation design of multi-robot systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). PMID:21799776

  17. Regularity of solutions to axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with a slightly supercritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xinghong

    2016-06-01

    Consider an axisymmetric suitable weak solution of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with nontrivial swirl, v =vrer +vθeθ +vzez. Let z denote the axis of symmetry and r be the distance to the z-axis. If the solution satisfies a slightly supercritical assumption (that is, | v | ≤ C(ln ⁡ | ln ⁡ r |)/α r for α ∈ [ 0 , 0.028 ] when r is small), then we prove that v is regular. This extends the results in [6,16,18] where regularities under critical assumptions, such as | v | ≤Cr, were proven. As a useful tool in the proof of our main result, an upper-bound estimate to the fundamental solution of the parabolic equation with a critical drift term will be given in the last part of this paper.

  18. Mineralogy of three slightly palagonitized basaltic tephra samples from the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Yang, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper characterizes the mineralogy and spectral properties of three slightly palagonitized basaltic tephra samples collected near the summit of Mauna Kea in order to contribute to the basis for inferring mineralogy and processes for Martian surface materials. The mineralogy of size fractions of these samples is examined by diffuse reflectance and FIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic analysis, EMPA, TEM, and SEM. For the 20-1000 micron size fraction, sample HWMK11 (red) is essentially completely oxidized and has a hematite (Ti-hematite) pigment dispersed throughout the silicate matrix. Sample HWMK12 (black) has the lowest proportion of ferric-bearing phases and is thus least weathered. For HWMK11, the amount of hematite is essentially constant, and mica is present only in the coarse clay-sized fraction; smectites are low in structural Fe.

  19. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  20. Shock wave standoff distance for a sphere slightly above Mach one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igra, D.; Falcovitz, J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulation of bow shock formation ahead of a sphere at steady supersonic flow in the Mach number range of 1.025-1.20. Turbulent viscous flow results are presented using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The purpose of this study is to determine the shock standoff distance for a spherical projectile at slightly supersonic free flight speeds. Results are compared to experimental data, including double exposure holographic interferograms obtained from a 40 mm polycarbonate sphere launched by a light gas gun. The shock standoff distance was determined from the interferograms. The present numerical simulations were found to agree with previously published data, and reached down to M = 1.025—a range where almost no previously published data exists. The computed flow structure and shock wave locations agree well with recently obtained free-flight interferograms.

  1. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces. PMID:27156720

  2. Analytic study of some excited state effects in a slightly bent Renner Teller molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vértesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2008-01-01

    The two lowest electronic states (arising from X2Πu) are treated analytically with inclusion of excited state effects in a slightly bent Renner-Teller acetylene molecular ion. The aim is to explain the anomalous values of approximately π for the integrated non-adiabatic coupling term (NACT), recently obtained by ab initio calculations, as, e.g., in Halász et al (2007 J. Chem. Phys. 126 154309). These occur when the molecular path twice coincides with symmetrically placed positions of degeneracies (conical intersections). However, the admixture of excited states into X2Πu removes these coincidences, creates two aligned conical intersections in a planar arrangement and perturbationally reduces the integrated NACT from its value of π.

  3. A probabilistic theory of electromagnetic wave scattering from a slightly random surface 2. Vertical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, J.; Sakata, M.; Ogura, H.

    1981-09-01

    The scattering of an electromagnetic wave from an infinite random surface is studied by the probabilistic method developed in a previous paper. For a vertical polarized plane wave incident on a slightly random and perfectly conductive surface a new stochastic wave solution involving multiple scattering is obtained. The stochastic solution is free from the divergence difficulty as in the small perturbation method but gives an anomaly such that for a grazing angle of incidence the coherent scattering almost disappears and instead the incoherent scattering becomes dominant. In terms of the stochastic solution, a number of statistical properties of the scattering are calculated concretely for a perfectly conductive surface, such as the complex amplitude of the coherent scattering, the variance of the electric field, the optical theorem describing the power relation between the coherent and the incoherent scattering, the angular distribution of the incoherent scattering, the scattering cross section per unit area, and the surface wave flow, which are all illustrated in the figures.

  4. Collective Excitations of Bose­-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud allows us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps for both hydrodynamic and collisionless regimes. We also hope to achieve a greater understanding of the frequency shifts due to anharmonicity in the trap in order to apply this to our research on quasi-2D monopole modes. Funding: NSF, NIST, ONR

  5. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-04-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety.

  6. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces. PMID:27156720

  7. Mineralogy of three slightly palagonitized basaltic tephra samples from the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V.; Yang, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The paper characterizes the mineralogy and spectral properties of three slightly palagonitized basaltic tephra samples collected near the summit of Mauna Kea in order to contribute to the basis for inferring mineralogy and processes for Martian surface materials. The mineralogy of size fractions of these samples is examined by diffuse reflectance and FIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic analysis, EMPA, TEM, and SEM. For the 20-1000 micron size fraction, sample HWMK11 (red) is essentially completely oxidized and has a hematite (Ti-hematite) pigment dispersed throughout the silicate matrix. Sample HWMK12 (black) has the lowest proportion of ferric-bearing phases and is thus least weathered. For HWMK11, the amount of hematite is essentially constant, and mica is present only in the coarse clay-sized fraction; smectites are low in structural Fe.

  8. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state.

    PubMed

    Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H J

    2014-01-01

    In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473

  9. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state

    PubMed Central

    Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473

  11. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J. M.; White, L. D.

    2003-02-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210°C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10°C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters.

  12. Quantitative method of analyzing the interaction of slightly selective radioligands with multiple receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    McGonigle, P.; Neve, K.A.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1986-10-01

    Subclasses of receptors exist for most neurotransmitters. Frequently, two subtypes of receptors coexist in the same tissue and, in some cases, they mediate the same physiological response. In tissues with two classes of binding sites for a given hormone, an estimate of the proportion of each class of binding sites is obtained by inhibiting the binding of a single concentration of a radioligand with a selective unlabeled ligand. Accurate estimates of the density of each class of receptors will only be obtained, however, if the radioligand is entirely nonselective. Selectivity of just 2- to 3-fold can markedly influence the results of subtype analysis. The conclusion that a radioligand is nonselective is usually based on the results of a saturation binding curve. If Scatchard analysis results in a linear plot, the radioligand is nonselective. Scatchard analysis cannot distinguish between a radioligand that is nonselective and one that is slightly selective. The use of a slightly selective radioligand can lead to errors of 50% or more, depending on the concentration of the radioligand relative to the Kd values of the two classes of sites. A new method has been developed that can be used to quantitate 2- to 3-fold differences in the affinity of two distinct classes of binding sites for a radioligand. This approach requires that a series of inhibition experiments with a selective unlabeled ligand be performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of the radioligand. Analysis of the resulting inhibition curves, utilizing the mathematical modeling program MLAB on the PROPHET system, yields accurate estimates of the density of each class of receptor as well as the affinity of each receptor for the labeled and unlabeled ligands. This approach was used to determine whether /sup 125/I-iodopindolol shows selectivity for beta 1- or beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

  13. Slight temperature changes affect protein affinity and cellular uptake/toxicity of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad A.; Behzadi, Shahed

    2013-03-01

    It is known that what the cell actually ``sees'' at the nanoscale is an outer shell formed of `protein corona' on the surface of nanoparticles (NPs). The amount and composition of various proteins on the corona are strongly dependent on the biophysicochemical properties of NPs, which have been extensively studied. However, the effect of a small variation in temperature, due to the human circadian rhythm, on the composition of the protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs, was ignored. Here, the effect of temperature on the composition of protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs and, subsequently, cell responses to the protein coated NPs are probed. The results confirmed that cellular entrance, dispersion, and toxicity of NPs are strongly diverse with slight body temperature changes. This new finding can help scientists to maximise NP entrance to specific cells/organs with lower toxicity by adjusting the cellular/organ temperature.It is known that what the cell actually ``sees'' at the nanoscale is an outer shell formed of `protein corona' on the surface of nanoparticles (NPs). The amount and composition of various proteins on the corona are strongly dependent on the biophysicochemical properties of NPs, which have been extensively studied. However, the effect of a small variation in temperature, due to the human circadian rhythm, on the composition of the protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs, was ignored. Here, the effect of temperature on the composition of protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs and, subsequently, cell responses to the protein coated NPs are probed. The results confirmed that cellular entrance, dispersion, and toxicity of NPs are strongly diverse with slight body temperature changes. This new finding can help scientists to maximise NP entrance to specific cells/organs with lower toxicity by adjusting the cellular

  14. Turbulence driven by precession in spherical and slightly elongated spheroidal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Susumu; Matsunaga, Arihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Yamato, Masahiro; Nishioka, Michio; Kida, Shigeo

    2014-05-15

    Motivated by the fascinating fact that strong turbulence can be sustained in a weakly precessing container, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments on the flow in a precessing spherical cavity, and in a slightly elongated prolate spheroidal cavity with a minor-to-major axis ratio of 0.9. In order to determine the conditions required to sustain turbulence in these cavities, and to investigate the statistics of the sustained turbulence, we developed an experimental technique to conduct high-quality flow visualizations as well as measurements via particle image velocimetry on a turntable and by using an intense laser. In general, flows in a precessing cavity are controlled by two non-dimensional parameters: the Reynolds number Re (or its reciprocal, the Ekman number) which is defined by the cavity size, spin angular velocity, and the kinematic viscosity of the confined fluid, and the Poincaré number Po, which is defined by the ratio of the magnitude of the precession angular velocity to that of the spin angular velocity. However, our experiments show that the global flow statistics, such as the mean velocity field and the spatial distribution of the intensity of the turbulence, are almost independent of Re, and they are determined predominantly by Po, whereas the instability of these global flow structures is governed by Re. It is also shown that the turbulence statistics are most likely similar in the two cavities due to the slight difference between their shapes. However, the condition to sustain the unsteady flows, and therefore the turbulence, differs drastically depending on the cavity shape. Interestingly, the asymmetric cavity, i.e., the spheroid, requires a much stronger precession than a sphere to sustain such unsteady flows. The most developed turbulence for a given Re is generated in these cavities when 0.04 ≲ Po ≲ 0.1. In such cases, the sustained turbulence is always accompanied by vigorous large-scale vortical structures, and shearing

  15. Kepler-413B: A slightly misaligned, Neptune-size transiting circumbinary planet

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, V. B.; McCullough, P. R.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Carter, J. A.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Hébrard, G.; Hinse, T. C.; Mazeh, T.; Orosz, J. A.; Welsh, W. F.

    2014-03-20

    We report the discovery of a transiting, R{sub p} = 4.347 ± 0.099R {sub ⊕}, circumbinary planet (CBP) orbiting the Kepler K+M eclipsing binary (EB) system KIC 12351927 (Kepler-413) every ∼66 days on an eccentric orbit with a{sub p} = 0.355 ± 0.002 AU, e{sub p} = 0.118 ± 0.002. The two stars, with M{sub A} = 0.820 ± 0.015 M {sub ☉}, R{sub A} = 0.776 ± 0.009 R {sub ☉} and M{sub B} = 0.542 ± 0.008 M {sub ☉}, R{sub B} = 0.484 ± 0.024 R {sub ☉}, respectively, revolve around each other every 10.11615 ± 0.00001 days on a nearly circular (e {sub EB} = 0.037 ± 0.002) orbit. The orbital plane of the EB is slightly inclined to the line of sight (i {sub EB} = 87.°33 ± 0.°06), while that of the planet is inclined by ∼2.°5 to the binary plane at the reference epoch. Orbital precession with a period of ∼11 yr causes the inclination of the latter to the sky plane to continuously change. As a result, the planet often fails to transit the primary star at inferior conjunction, causing stretches of hundreds of days with no transits (corresponding to multiple planetary orbital periods). We predict that the next transit will not occur until 2020. The orbital configuration of the system places the planet slightly closer to its host stars than the inner edge of the extended habitable zone. Additionally, the orbital configuration of the system is such that the CBP may experience Cassini State dynamics under the influence of the EB, in which the planet's obliquity precesses with a rate comparable to its orbital precession. Depending on the angular precession frequency of the CBP, it could potentially undergo obliquity fluctuations of dozens of degrees (and complex seasonal cycles) on precession timescales.

  16. Effectiveness of recovered magnesium phosphates as fertilizers in neutral and slightly alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium phosphates such as struvite (MgNH4PO4x6H2O) can be recovered from municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewaters. However, minimal research has been conducted on the beneficial reuse of these recovered products; conducted research has focused on low pH soils. This study determined wh...

  17. A macroscopic model for slightly compressible gas slip-flow in homogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseux, D.; Parada, F. J. Valdes; Tapia, J. A. Ochoa; Goyeau, B.

    2014-05-01

    The study of gas slip-flow in porous media is relevant in many applications ranging from nanotechnology to enhanced oil recovery and in any situation involving low-pressure gas-transport through structures having sufficiently small pores. In this paper, we use the method of volume averaging for deriving effective-medium equations in the framework of a slightly compressible gas flow. The result of the upscaling process is an effective-medium model subjected to time- and length-scale constraints, which are clearly identified in our derivation. At the first order in the Knudsen number, the macroscopic momentum transport equation corresponds to a Darcy-like model involving the classical intrinsic permeability tensor and a slip-flow correction tensor that is also intrinsic. It generalizes the Darcy-Klinkenberg equation for ideal gas flow, and exhibits a more complex form for dense gas. The component values of the two intrinsic tensors were computed by solving the associated closure problems on two- and three-dimensional periodic unit cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the slip-flow correction with the porosity was also verified to agree with approximate analytical results. Our predictions show a power-law relationship between the permeability and the slip-flow correction that is consistent with other works. Nevertheless, the generalization of such a relationship to any configuration requires more analysis.

  18. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  19. On self-preservation and log-similarity in a slightly heated axisymmetric mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiesset, F.; Schaeffer, V.; Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of self-preservation for one- and two-point statistics in a slightly heated axisymmetric mixing layer. Results indicate that the longitudinal velocity fluctuation u seems to approach self-preservation more rapidly than either the transverse velocity fluctuation v or the scalar fluctuation θ. The Reynolds number Reδ = U0δ/ν (U0 being the jet inlet velocity and δ the momentum thickness) that ought to be achieved for the one-point statistics to behave in a self-similar fashion is assessed. Second, the relevance of different sets of similarity variables for normalizing the energy spectra and structure functions is explored. In particular, a new set of shear similarity variables, emphasizing the range of scales influenced by the mean velocity and temperature gradient, is derived and tested. Since the Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale increases with respect to the streamwise distance, complete self-preservation cannot be satisfied; instead, the range of scales over which spectra and structure functions comply with self-preservation depends on the particular choice of similarity variables. A similarity analysis of the two-point transport equation, which features the large scale production term, is performed and confirms this. Log-similarity, which implicitly accounts for the variation of the Reynolds number, is also proposed and appears to provide a reasonable approximation to self-preservation, at least for u and θ.

  20. Angle-Dependent van Hove Singularities in a Slightly Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Mengxi; Dou, Rui-Fen; Meng, Lan; Feng, Lei; Chu, Zhao-Dong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Nie, Jia-Cai; He, Lin

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies show that two low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) seen as two pronounced peaks in the density of states could be induced in a twisted graphene bilayer. Here, we report angle-dependent VHSs of a slightly twisted graphene bilayer studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We show that energy difference of the two VHSs follows ΔEvhs˜ℏνFΔK between 1.0° and 3.0° [here νF˜1.1×106m/s is the Fermi velocity of monolayer graphene, and ΔK=2Ksin⁡(θ/2) is the shift between the corresponding Dirac points of the twisted graphene bilayer]. This result indicates that the rotation angle between graphene sheets does not result in a significant reduction of the Fermi velocity, which quite differs from that predicted by band structure calculations. However, around a twisted angle θ˜1.3°, the observed ΔEvhs˜0.11eV is much smaller than the expected value ℏνFΔK˜0.28eV at 1.3°. The origin of the reduction of ΔEvhs at 1.3° is discussed.

  1. Increased mitochondrial mutation frequency after an island colonization: positive selection or accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Emilie A.; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-01-01

    Island colonizations are excellent models for studying early processes of evolution. We found in a previous study on mice that had colonized the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago about 200 years ago that they were derived from a single founder lineage and that this showed an unexpectedly large number of new mutations in the mitochondrial D-loop. To assess whether positive selection has played a role in the emergence of these variants, we have obtained 16 full mitochondrial genome sequences from these mice. For comparison, we have compiled 57 mitochondrial genome sequences from laboratory inbred lines that became established about 100 years ago, also starting from a single founder lineage. We find that the island mice and the laboratory lines show very similar mutation frequencies and patterns. None of the patterns in the Kerguelen mice provides evidence for positive selection. We conclude that nearly neutral evolutionary processes that assume the presence of slightly deleterious variants can fully explain the patterns. This supports the notion of time-dependency of molecular evolution and provides a new calibration point. Based on the observed mutation frequency, we calculate an average evolutionary rate of 0.23 substitutions per site per Myr for the earliest time frame of divergence, which is about six times higher than the long-term rate of 0.037 substitutions per site per Myr. PMID:23389667

  2. Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuehao; Pun, Chi-Fung Jeff; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-07-28

    During the past few years, a strong progress has been made in the photo-writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in polymer optical fibers (POFs), animated by the constant wish to enhance the grating reflectivity and improve the sensing performances. In this paper, we report the photo-inscription of highly reflective gratings in step-index POFs, obtained thanks to a slight etching of the cladding. We demonstrate that a cladding diameter decrease of ~12% is an ideal trade-off to produce highly reflective gratings with enhanced axial strain sensitivity, while keeping almost intact their mechanical resistance. For this, we make use of Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) POFs. FBGs are inscribed at ~1550 nm by the scanning phase mask technique in POFs of different external diameters. Reflectivity reaching 97% is achieved for 6 mm long FBGs, compared to 25% for non-etched POFs. We also report that a cladding decrease enhances the FBG axial tension while keeping unchanged temperature and surrounding refractive index sensitivities. Finally and for the first time, a measurement is conducted in transmission with polarized light, showing that a photo-induced birefringence of 7 × 10(-6) is generated (one order of magnitude higher than the intrinsic fiber birefringence), which is similar to the one generated in silica fiber using ultra-violet laser. PMID:25089498

  3. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating microbes in a layer breeding house.

    PubMed

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Wang, C Y; Zhang, Q; Cao, W

    2013-10-01

    Lots of microorganisms exist in layer houses can cause bird diseases and worker health concerns. Spraying chemical disinfectants is an effective way to decontaminate pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in poultry houses. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is an ideal, environmentally friendly broad-spectrum disinfectant to prevent and control bacterial or viral infection in layer farms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of SAEW for inactivating the microbes in layer houses. The effect of SAEW was evaluated by solid materials and surface disinfection in a hen house. Results indicate that SAEW with an available chlorine concentration of 250 mg/L, pH value of 6.19, and oxygen reduction potential of 974 mV inactivated 100% of bacteria and fungi in solid materials (dusts, feces, feather, and feed), which is more efficient than common chemical disinfectant such as benzalkonium chloride solution (1:1,000 vol/vol) and povidone-iodine solution (1:1,000 vol/vol). Also, it significantly reduced the microbes on the equipment or facility surfaces (P < 0.05), including floor, wall, feed trough, and water pipe surfaces. Moreover, SAEW effectively decreased the survival rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by 21 and 16 percentage points. In addition, spraying the target with tap water before disinfection plays an important role in spray disinfection. PMID:24046401

  4. Acute infection by hepatitis E virus with a slight immunoglobulin M antibody response.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Imanishi, Mamiko; Ishige, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody response is generally regarded as a useful marker for diagnosing primary infection. However, in some cases, this antibody is not detected during the acute phase of infection. An 81-year-old man with stable membranous nephropathy who presented with asymptomatic acute liver dysfunction came to our hospital. HEV RNA of genotype 3 was detected in his serum, and he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-level positivity for anti-HEV IgG and IgA antibodies was observed, but the assay was negative for IgM antibody throughout the clinical course of infection. The patient was not immunosuppressed. We further investigated the presence of IgM antibody using two other polyclonal antibodies against human IgM as secondary antibodies and another recombinant ORF2 protein of genotype 3 as an immobilized antigen. IgM was weakly detected in the serum during the acute phase only by the test with the antigen of genotype 3. Multi-genotype antigens can detect a slight IgM antibody response; however, anti-HEV IgA is more useful in diagnosing primary HEV infection, particularly in cases with a low IgM antibody response. PMID:26215116

  5. Finite element implementation of a new model of slight compressibility for transversely isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, B; Murphy, J G; MacManus, D B; Gilchrist, M D

    2016-01-01

    Modelling transversely isotropic materials in finite strain problems is a complex task in biomechanics, and is usually addressed by using finite element (FE) simulations. The standard method developed to account for the quasi-incompressible nature of soft tissues is to decompose the strain energy function (SEF) into volumetric and deviatoric parts. However, this decomposition is only valid for fully incompressible materials, and its use for slightly compressible materials yields an unphysical response during the simulation of hydrostatic tension/compression of a transversely isotropic material. This paper presents the FE implementation as subroutines of a new volumetric model solving this deficiency in two FE codes: Abaqus and FEBio. This model also has the specificity of restoring the compatibility with small strain theory. The stress and elasticity tensors are first derived for a general SEF. This is followed by a successful convergence check using a particular SEF and a suite of single-element tests showing that this new model does not only correct the hydrostatic deficiency but may also affect stresses during shear tests (Poynting effect) and lateral stretches during uniaxial tests (Poisson's effect). These FE subroutines have numerous applications including the modelling of tendons, ligaments, heart tissue, etc. The biomechanics community should be aware of specificities of the standard model, and the new model should be used when accurate FE results are desired in the case of compressible materials. PMID:26252069

  6. [Polarization Modeling and Analysis of Light Scattering Properties of Multilayer Films on Slightly Rough Substrate].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Wang, Ling-mei; Wang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    To satisfy the demand of multilayer films on polarization detection, polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function of multilayer films on slightly rough substrate is established on the basis of first-order vector perturbation theory and polarization transfer matrix. Due to the function, light scattering polarization properties are studied under multi-factor impacts of two typical targets-monolayer anti-reflection film and multilayer high-reflection films. The result shows that for monolayer anti-reflection film, observing positions have a great influence on the degree of polarization, for the left of the peak increased and right decreased compared with the substrate target. Film target and bare substrate can be distinguished by the degree of polarization in different observation angles. For multilayer high-reflection films, the degree of polarization is significantly associated with the number and optical thickness of layers at different wavelengths of incident light and scattering angles. With the increase of the layer number, the degree of polarization near the mirror reflection area decreases. It reveals that the calculated results coincide with the experimental data, which validates the correctness and rationality of the model. This paper provides a theoretical method for polarization detection of multilayer films target and reflection stealth technology. PMID:27400497

  7. Inactivation of bacteria on surfaces by sprayed slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water: in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Alam, Md Shahin; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Ota, Mari; Toyofuku, Chiharu; Yamada, Masashi; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (≤2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant. PMID:27052464

  8. Inactivation of bacteria on surfaces by sprayed slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water: in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; NAKAJIMA, Katsuhiro; KITAZAWA, Minori; OTA, Mari; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; YAMADA, Masashi; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (≤2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant. PMID:27052464

  9. Cobetia crustatorum sp. nov., a novel slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from traditional fermented seafood in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-03-01

    A slightly halophilic, Gram-stain-negative, straight-rod-shaped aerobe, strain JO1(T), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Cells were observed singly or in pairs and had 2-5 peritrichous flagella. Optimal growth occurred at 25 degrees C, in 6.5 % (w/v) salts and at pH 5.0-6.0. Strain JO1(T) was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Cells did not reduce fumarate, nitrate or nitrite on respiration. Acid was produced from several carbohydrates and the strain utilized many sugars and amino acids as carbon and nitrogen sources. The main fatty acids were C(12 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with strain JO1(T) and Cobetia marina DSM 4741(T) revealed 24 % relatedness, although high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.9 %) was observed between these strains. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that the isolate from jeotgal should be classified as a representative of a novel species, Cobetia crustatorum sp. nov., with strain JO1(T) (=KCTC 22486(T)=JCM 15644(T)) as the type strain. PMID:19654339

  10. S-oxygenation of thiocarbamides V: oxidation of tetramethylthiourea by chlorite in slightly acidic media.

    PubMed

    Chigwada, Tabitha; Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipiso, Kudzanai; Simoyi, Reuben H

    2014-08-01

    The reaction between tetramethylthiourea (TTTU) and slightly acidic chlorite has been studied. The reaction is much faster than comparable oxidations of the parent thiourea compound as well as other substituted thioureas. The stoichiometry of the reaction in excess oxidant showed a complete desulfurization of the thiocarbamide to yield the corresponding urea and sulfate: 2ClO2(-) + (Me2N)2C ═ S + H2O → (Me2N)2C ═ O + SO4(2-) + 2Cl(-) + 2H(+). The reaction mechanism is unique in that the most stable metabolite before formation of the corresponding urea is the S-oxide. This is one of the rare occasions in which a low-molecular-weight S-oxide has been stabilized without the aid of large steric groups. ESI-MS data show almost quantitative formation of the S-oxide and negligible formation of the sulfinic and sulfonic acids. TTTU, in contrast to other substituted thioureas, can only stabilize intermediate oxoacids, before formation of sulfate, in the form of zwitterions. With a stoichiometric excess of TTTU over oxidant, the TTTU dimer is the predominant product. Chlorine dioxide, which is formed from the reaction of excess chlorite and HOCl, is a very important reactant in the overall mechanism. It reacts rapidly with TTTU to reform ClO2(-). Oxidation of TTTU by chlorite has a complex dependence on acid as a result of chlorous acid dissociation and protonation of the thiol group on TTTU in high-acid conditions, which renders the thiol center a less effective nucleophile. PMID:24922053

  11. Efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and its contaminated shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Zhu, Zhi Wei; Shi, Zheng Xiang; Wang, Chao Yuan; Li, Bao Ming

    2009-03-31

    The efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at different temperatures (4, 20 and 45 degrees C) for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and it on the surface of shell eggs was evaluated. The bactericidal activity of SAEW, sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to inactivate S. enteritidis was also compared. SAEW with a pH value of 6.0-6.5 used was generated by the electrolysis of a dilute hydrochloric acid (2.4 mM) in a chamber without a membrane. Although the pH value of SAEW was greatly higher than that of AEW (pH2.6-2.7), SAEW had a comparative powerful bactericidal activity at the same available chlorine concentrations. The efficiency of SAEW for inactivation of pure S. enteritidis cultures increased with increasing the available chlorine concentration and treatment time at the three different temperatures. The S. enteritidis counts decreased to less than 1.0 log(10) CFU/ml at available chlorine of 2 mg/l and 100% inactivation (reduction of 8.2 log(10) CFU/ml) was resulted in using SAEW with available chlorine more than 4 mg/l at 4, 20 and 45 degrees C after 2 min treatment, whereas no reduction was observed in the control samples. Moreover, SAEW was also effective for inactivating the S. enteritidis inoculated on the surface of shell eggs. A reduction of 6.5 log(10) CFU/g of S. enteritidis on shell eggs was achieved by SAEW containing 15 mg/l available chlorine for 3 min, but only a reduction of 0.9-1.2 log(10) CFU/g for the control samples. No survival of S. enteritidis was recovered in waste wash SAEW after treatment. The findings of this study indicate that SAEW may be a promising disinfectant agent for the shell egg washing processing without environmental pollution. PMID:19185376

  12. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis sp. nov., an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline spring.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cárdenas, C; López, G; Patel, B K C; Baena, S

    2010-04-01

    A mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain USBA 82(T), was isolated from a terrestrial saline spring in the Colombian Andes. The non-spore-forming curved rods (5-7 x 1.3 microm) with pointed or rounded ends, stained Gram-negative and were motile by means of laterally inserted flagella. The strain grew optimally at 30 degrees C (growth range 20-40 degrees C), pH 7.3 (growth range pH 5.5-8.5) and 2 % (w/v) NaCl (growth range 0.1-7 % NaCl). The strain fermented peptides, amino acids and a few organic acids, but growth was not observed on carbohydrates, alcohols or fatty acids. The strain reduced thiosulfate and sulfur to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as electron acceptors. On peptone alone, acetate, succinate, propionate and traces of ethanol were formed, but in the presence of thiosulfate, acetate and succinate were formed. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 52 mol% (T(m)). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA 82(T) was affiliated to Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans within the phylum Synergistetes with a similarity value of approximately 93 %. Based on the differences between the new strain and the type species of the genus Dethiosulfovibrio, we suggest that strain USBA 82(T) represents a novel species of the genus for which the name Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is USBA 82(T) (=DSM 21565(T)=KCTC 5659(T)). PMID:19661517

  13. Laboratory markers slightly overestimate retention in HIV care among newly diagnosed individuals.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jason; Bean, Madelyne C; Richey, Lauren E

    2016-09-01

    Patients who are retained in HIV care have a higher likelihood of viral suppression and increased survival. Lab markers have been used as surrogate markers for clinical visits to estimate retention, but the accuracy of these markers at predicting retention in care has not been validated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using patients newly diagnosed with HIV in the Emergency Department of Interim Louisiana Public Hospital (ILPH). Retention in care was defined as two clinical visits to an HIV provider separated by at least three months within a one-year period as per the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) definition. Retention by lab markers was defined as two documented labs, either a CD4 count or an HIV viral load, separated by at least three months within the same one-year period. Ninety-nine patients were newly diagnosed with HIV; 36 patients (36%) were retained at 1 year using the HRSA definition and 40 patients (40%) using lab markers. The sensitivity and specificity of using lab markers among the newly diagnosed were 100% and 93.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 90% and 100%, respectively. Among the 99 patients, 56 were linked to the HIV clinic associated with our hospital, of which 63% (36) were retained at year 1 using the HRSA definition and 70% (39) using lab markers. The sensitivity and specificity of using lab markers among linked patients were 100% and 85%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 92% and 100%, respectively. Lab markers slightly overestimate currently accepted definitions of retention. While lab markers may be the easiest way to estimate retention at the population level, further study should be done before lab markers are accepted as the gold standard surrogate measure for retention. PMID:27010972

  14. Reduction of microbial contamination on the surfaces of layer houses using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Ni, L; Cao, W; Zheng, W C; Zhang, Q; Li, B M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efficiency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m(2), respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P < 0.05). SAEW was more effective than povidone iodine at reducing total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and moulds on the wall surface. Additionally, SAEW had similar bactericidal activity with povidone iodine on the surface of the egg conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative

  15. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P < 0.001) for men compared with women (31-33%) and for persons with a higher body mass index (BMI; 32-35% for obese vs. normal weight) or blood pressure (17-26% for hypertensive vs. normal blood pressure). After adjusting for age, sex, and race-ethnicity, temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI. PMID:24623847

  16. The effect of inhomogeneous roughness on radar backscattering from slightly deformed sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Dierking, W.; Carlstroem, A.; Ulander, L.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the spatially varying backscattering signature of an area of refrozen brash ice observed by a ship based scatterometer. The measurements were carried out as part of the Baltic Experiment for ERS-1 in 1994. The scatterometer was operated at 5.4 GHz at different incidence angles and polarizations. By analyzing the scatterometer data over azimuth scans, it was found that the backscattering variabilities are not only due to fading but also contain a textural component. Surface height profiles were measured using a laser. The observed ice surface roughness was nonstationary over the measurement area. The ice surface can be approximated by adjacent patches of stationary roughness with patch dimensions of about 4.5 m. From the roughness spectra of different stationary patches, two roughness classes can be distinguished. The implications of estimating the roughness parameters from relatively short profile lengths is discussed and the effect on theoretical predictions of the backscattering coefficient is investigated. The texture variance is evaluated theoretically on the basis of the simulated backscattering coefficients of the two observed roughness classes and is found to compare with the scatterometer data.

  17. Evident bacterial community changes but only slight degradation when polluted with pyrene in a red soil

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Gaidi; Ren, Wenjie; Teng, Ying; Li, Zhengao

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the potential for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation by indigenous microbiota and the influence of PAHs on native microbial communities is of great importance for bioremediation and ecological evaluation. Various studies have focused on the bacterial communities in the environment where obvious PAH degradation was observed, little is known about the microbiota in the soil where poor degradation was observed. Soil microcosms were constructed with a red soil by supplementation with a high-molecular-weight PAH (pyrene) at three dosages (5, 30, and 70 mg ⋅ kg-1). Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the changes in bacterial abundance and pyrene dioxygenase gene (nidA) quantity. Illumina sequencing was used to investigate changes in diversity, structure, and composition of bacterial communities. After 42 days of incubation, no evident degradation was observed. The poor degradation ability was associated with the stability or significant decrease of abundance of the nidA gene. Although the abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was not affected by pyrene, the bacterial richness and diversity were decreased with increasing dosage of pyrene and the community structure was changed. Phylotypes affected by pyrene were comprehensively surveyed: (1) at the high taxonomic level, seven of the abundant phyla/classes (relative abundance >1.0%) including Chloroflexi, AD3, WPS-2, GAL5, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria and one rare phylum Crenarchaeota were significantly decreased by at least one dosage of pyrene, while three phyla/classes (Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) were significantly increased; and (2) at the lower taxonomic level, the relative abundances of twelve orders were significantly depressed, whereas those of nine orders were significantly increased. This work enhanced our understanding of the biodegradation potential of pyrene in red soil and the effect of pyrene on soil ecosystems

  18. ESEM results and changes in wettability patterns within soil: three years irrigation with slightly-salted water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Candela, Lucila; Medero, Gabriela; Buckman, Jim; Hasnayn, Mohammad M.

    2015-04-01

    Impacts on soil and aquifer media from the use of non-conventional water (treated wastewater-TWW, desalted) for irrigation have been widely studied in the last years . A number of contributions have focused on the impacts derived from the use of TWW (Assouline and Narkis, 2013; Lahav et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2010). Changes in soil hydraulic conductivity and clogging processes have been studied in laboratory experiments from soil columns (Lado and Ben-Hur, 2010) and at field scale (Costa, 1999; Minhas et al., 1994). Irrigation with non-conventional water may also lead to the occurrence of contaminants, a major current environmental concern (Valdes-Abellan et al., 2013). Previous studies have considered impacts in a uniform soil media pore structure; less attention has been paid at a microscopic scale and the influence that high-salinity water may have on wettability of soil. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is a useful technique to be applied in soil science to analyse microscopic changes in soil structure or soil wetting patterns. Research applying this technology for wet systems (Donald, 1998) or porous media (Ali et al., 1995) is available, however as far as we know research on soil impacts due to long term irrigation with saline or non-conventional water are much less common. The dynamic mode of the ESEM allows changes of samples from wet to dry by modifying the water vapour pressure and to observe the wetting and drying patterns and interactions between the solid and liquid phase in the soil (Lourenço et al., 2008). Preliminary results of the study at a microscopic scale of soil samples collected before and after three year irrigation with slightly salted water in an experimental plot setup in semi-arid climatic conditions (Alicante, SE Spain) are presented. We will show the micro-structure of soil and undertake a preliminary investigation of wetting and drying of samples using ESEM techniques Differences in the water vapour pressure value at

  19. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  20. High-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generator using slightly divergent channel configuration: II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2008-06-01

    We describe experiments carried out to evaluate a newly developed high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a slightly divergent supersonic channel. The slightly divergent generator and a similar-scale highly divergent generator are evaluated in shock-tube experiments. The effects of electrical conductivity control and magnetic flux density control on the generator operation are investigated, and Hall voltage-Hall current characteristics, plasma-fluid behaviour and plasma structures are described. The slightly divergent channel configuration and the application of high- and uniform-density magnetic flux overcome the disadvantages of the generator due to its compactness, and markedly improves its performance. The ratio of isentropic efficiency to enthalpy extraction ratio and the power output density are outstanding compared with previous MHD power generators. The experimental results are supported by the numerically simulated results. This paper is the second part of a duology.

  1. Trapping and Propelling Microparticles at Long Range by Using an Entirely Stripped and Slightly Tapered No-Core Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Fang-Wen; Huang, Yen-Si

    2013-01-01

    A stripped no-core optical fiber with a 125 μm diameter was transformed into a symmetric and unbroken optical fiber that tapers slightly to a 45-μm-diameter waist. The laser light can be easily launched into the no-core optical fiber. The enhanced evanescent wave of the slightly tapered no-core optical fiber can attract nearby 5-μm-diameter polystyrene microparticles onto the surface of the tapered multimode optical fiber within fast flowing fluid and propel the trapped particles in the direction of the light propagation to longer delivery range than is possible using a slightly tapered telecom single-mode optical fiber. PMID:23449118

  2. Evaluation of feature extraction methods for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces in terms of robustness to slight changes in electrode locations.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Ae; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Ho; Jung, Hyun-Kyo; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    To date, most EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have focused only on enhancing BCI performance in such areas as classification accuracy and information transfer rate. In practice, however, test-retest reliability of the developed BCI systems must also be considered for use in long-term, daily life applications. One factor that can affect the reliability of BCI systems is the slight displacement of EEG electrode locations that often occurs due to the removal and reattachment of recording electrodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare various feature extraction methods for motor-imagery-based BCI in terms of robustness to slight changes in electrode locations. To this end, EEG signals were recorded from three reference electrodes (Fz, C3, and C4) and from six additional electrodes located close to the reference electrodes with a 1-cm inter-electrode distance. Eight healthy participants underwent 180 trials of left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. The performance of four different feature extraction methods [power spectral density (PSD), phase locking value (PLV), a combination of PSD and PLV, and cross-correlation (CC)] were evaluated using five-fold cross-validation and linear discriminant analysis, in terms of robustness to electrode location changes as well as regarding absolute classification accuracy. The quantitative evaluation results demonstrated that the use of either PSD- or CC-based features led to higher classification accuracy than the use of PLV-based features, while PSD-based features showed much higher sensitivity to changes in EEG electrode location than CC- or PLV-based features. Our results suggest that CC can be used as a promising feature extraction method in motor-imagery-based BCI studies, since it provides high classification accuracy along with being little affected by slight changes in the EEG electrode locations. PMID:23325145

  3. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish and…

  4. [A case of pulmonary asbestosis with slightly increased serum IgE concentration and histopathological changes resembling DIP].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Y; Asai, S; Mashimoto, H; Shimokawa, I; Iwasaki, K; Matsuo, T; Ikeda, T; Minami, H

    1993-02-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with cough and sputum. He had suffered from these symptoms for ten years prior to admission. Chest roentgenogram revealed reticulonodular shadows in the lower fields of both lungs. CT scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern in the lower field of both lungs. Honeycombing and bullous pattern were also present in the subpleural area. The patient had a history of dust and asbestos inhalation while working as an electrician. Eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and BALF, and a slightly increased serum IgE concentration were noted. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis with intra-alveolar macrophage accumulation and asbestos bodies. The histopathological features resembled UIP and DIP, although DIP is uncommon in pulmonary asbestosis. The slightly increased serum IgE concentration was considered to be an additional effect of asbestos. This is a case of pulmonary asbestosis with intriguing immunological and histopathological features. PMID:8515602

  5. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J-P; Kosma, V-M; Rylander, R; Pasanen, A-L

    2003-01-01

    Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of beta-glucan (grifolan) were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The beta-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled beta-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to beta-glucan. PMID:12857597

  6. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  7. Focus screen optimization.

    PubMed

    Plummer, W T

    1975-11-01

    Ground glass used for camera focus screens often has far from optimum diffusion properties. An analysis of the function of the focus screen shows that a screen with random (Gaussian) diffusion properties can be constructed with both brightness and focus efficiencies above 84%. These considerations have led to the design of an unusually bright and effective focus screen for the Polaroid SX-70 Land camera. PMID:20155099

  8. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  9. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness. PMID:26989456

  10. Focusing the surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Socea, Sergiu D; Barak, Yoreh; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2015-01-01

    A well-focused operating microscope addresses several needs that are all secondary to the surgeon's need to see clearly at all times. These needs include: the assistant; the sharpness of the video and monitor; as well as field of view, asthenopia, and focusing issues related to zoom, accommodation, and presbyopia. We provide a practical approach to achieve optimal focus that we call the sloping paper calibration method. PMID:25891029

  11. Species peculiarities in damage to regulatory systems of murine rodents` liver cells in conditions of slight radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyasheva, A.G.; Shishkina, L.N.; Zagorskaya, N.G.

    1995-07-01

    Results are given from comparative analysis of the antioxidation activity (AOA) of lipids, composition of phospholipids, and activity of Krebs`-cycle and glycolysis enzymes in the liver of three species of murine rodents caught in the slightly contaminated zone of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Disruptions were found in individual links of the regulation of processes of peroxidation of lipids (POL), as well as depression and discoordination of dehydrogenation process. The sharpest shifts in biochemical and biophysical indices were noted in the more radiosensitive root vole.

  12. Focus: Teaching by Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Frances N., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The focus of this bulletin is teaching the various literary genres in the secondary English class. Contents include "The Song Within: An Approach to Teaching Poetry,""Teaching Folk-Rock,""Approaches to Teaching Poetry,""Focus on an Elective Program: Twentieth Century Lyrical Poetry,""Hoffman and Poe: Masters of the Grotesque,""Plays: Shared and…

  13. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  14. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  15. Contrasting microbial functional genes in two distinct saline-alkali and slightly acidic oil-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuting; Zhao, Huihui; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe

    2014-07-15

    To compare the functional gene structure and diversity of microbial communities in saline-alkali and slightly acidic oil-contaminated sites, 40 soil samples were collected from two typical oil exploration sites in North and South China and analyzed with a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). The overall microbial pattern was significantly different between the two sites, and a more divergent pattern was observed in slightly acidic soils. Response ratio was calculated to compare the microbial functional genes involved in organic contaminant degradation and carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling. The results indicated a significantly low abundance of most genes involved in organic contaminant degradation and in the cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in saline-alkali soils. By contrast, most carbon degradation genes and all carbon fixation genes had similar abundance at both sites. Based on the relationship between the environmental variables and microbial functional structure, pH was the major factor influencing the microbial distribution pattern in the two sites. This study demonstrated that microbial functional diversity and heterogeneity in oil-contaminated environments can vary significantly in relation to local environmental conditions. The limitation of nitrogen and phosphorus and the low degradation capacity of organic contaminant should be carefully considered, particularly in most oil-exploration sites with saline-alkali soils. PMID:24784752

  16. High-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generator using slightly divergent channel configuration: I. Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2008-06-01

    We describe quasi-three-dimensional numerical simulations of a high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator using a slightly divergent configuration. The slightly divergent generator provides greater isentropic efficiency (IE) than a highly divergent generator when an identical enthalpy extraction ratio (EER) is obtained. The inherent feature of a small divergent geometry is clarified; MHD energy conversion is accompanied by less entropy production as well as less gas expansion. The orientation of the performance improvement on an IE-EER map is consistent with the theoretically predicted orientation, which is formulated using an algebraic method based on classical thermodynamic results for supersonic compressible fluid dynamics. The power-generating performance indicators, IE and EER, are clearly determined by modified magnetic flux density, that is, the square of magnetic flux density divided by total inflow pressure. A virtual operating condition for a practical closed-cycle MHD system is proposed considering the relationships between the applied magnetic flux density, the total inflow pressure and the total pressure gradient throughout the generator. This paper is the first part of a duology.

  17. Metformin Is Associated With Slightly Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Moderate Survival Benefits in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    He, Xing-kang; Su, Ting-ting; Si, Jian-min; Sun, Lei-min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To systematically assess the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles before August 2015. Two investigators identified and extracted data independently. We adopted adjusted estimates to calculate summary estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the pooled results. The risk of publication bias was assessed by examining funnel plot asymmetry as well as Begg test and Egger test. Fifteen studies on CRC incidence and 6 studies on CRC survival were finally included in our meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of observational studies illustrated that a slight 10% reduction of CRC incidence was associated with metformin use (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85–0.96). Furthermore, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) revealed an improved survival outcome for metformin users in CRC patients compared to nonusers (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58–081). There was no publication bias across studies. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin therapy could slightly reduce CRC incidence and moderately improve the survival outcomes in patients with T2DM. More prospective studies are warranted to certify this protective association. PMID:26886616

  18. Hydraulic torque on the guide vane within the slight opening of pump turbine in turbine operating mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. G.; Yang, H. X.; Li, F. C.; Chen, N. X.

    2014-03-01

    In a pumped storage power station, the units produce vibration and noise at times when the guide vanes rotate into the slight opening region during the turbine operating mode. According to this phenomenon, the simulation of transient flow in the units during the motion of the guide vane is carried out to investigate the variation of flow state in the process of startup and shutdown in turbine mode. The changing rate of hydraulic torque on a single guide vane is introduced to quantitatively represent the varying acuteness of the flow in the guide vanes and the possibility of the noise induced by the instable flow. The correlation between the frequency of noise and water head is summarized. The research indicates that the repeating reversal of fluid after load rejection is the hydraulic phenomenon which is the cause of the distributor vibration and noises within the slight opening, which is in accordance with the data recorded during the operation of the station. The effect of guide vanes closing law on the flow state in guide vanes and hydraulic torque on a single guide vane is analyzed.

  19. Temporal variation of nitrogen balance within constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water using a stable nitrogen isotope experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanguang; Lei, Qiongye; Li, Zhengkui; Han, Huayang

    2016-02-01

    Slightly polluted water has become one of the main sources of nitrogen contaminants in recent years, for which constructed wetlands (CW) is a typical and efficient treatment. However, the knowledge about contribution of individual nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen balance in constructed wetlands is still limited. In this study, a stable-isotope-addition experiment was performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water to determine quantitative contribution of different pathways and temporal variation of nitrogen balance using Na(15)NO3 as tracer. Microbial conversion and substrate retention were found to be the dominant pathways in nitrogen removal contributing 24.4-79.9 and 8.9-70.7 %, respectively, while plant contributed only 4.6-11.1 % through direct assimilation but promoted the efficiency of other pathways. In addition, microbial conversion became the major way to remove N whereas nitrogen retained in substrate at first was gradually released to be utilized by microbes and plants over time. The findings indicated that N2 emission representing microbial conversion was not only the major but also permanent nitrogen removal process, thus keeping a high efficiency of microbial conversion is important for stable and efficient nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands. PMID:26438366

  20. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  1. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  2. Flat focusing mirror.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y C; Kicas, S; Trull, J; Peckus, M; Cojocaru, C; Vilaseca, R; Drazdys, R; Staliunas, K

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  3. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng; Meitian, Li; Youshi, Kim; Changsheng, Fan; Shanghai, Wang; Qiuli, Pan; Zhiguo, Liu; Rongwu, Li

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  4. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  5. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  6. Current focusing and steering

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Ben H.; Litvak, Leonid M.

    2008-01-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed. PMID:18501539

  7. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  8. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  9. Ultrafast dynamics of quasiparticles and coherent acoustic phonons in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2.

  10. Ultrafast dynamics of quasiparticles and coherent acoustic phonons in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873

  11. Ultrafast dynamics of quasiparticles and coherent acoustic phonons in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873

  12. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceumATCC 12472

    PubMed Central

    Baraúna, Rafael A.; Santos, Agenor V.; Graças, Diego A.; Santos, Daniel M.; Ghilardi, Rubens; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Carepo, Marta S. P.; Schneider, Maria P.C.; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase) were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field. PMID:26273227

  13. High concentration powdered activated carbon-membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) for slightly polluted surface water treatment at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yu, Shuili; Shi, Wenxin; Tian, Wende; Heijman, S G J; Rietveld, L C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, different concentrations of PAC combined with MBR were carried out to treat slightly polluted surface water (SPSW) at low temperature (10°C). Effects of PAC on the efficiencies of operation, treatment, and the performance of the process were investigated. It was found that the effluent quality, performance efficiency, resistance of shock load were all enhanced and chemical irreversible membrane fouling was reduced with increasing dosage of PAC in MBR. Only when the concentration of PAC which acted as biological carriers was high enough (i.g., 50 g/L), nitrification without initial inoculation in the filtration tank could start within 19 days and be completed within 35 days at 10°C. Fifty grams per liter PAC was the optimal dosage in MBR for stable and extended operation. Under this condition, mean removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV(254) were 93%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. PMID:22386626

  14. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceumATCC 12472.

    PubMed

    Baraúna, Rafael A; Santos, Agenor V; Graças, Diego A; Santos, Daniel M; Ghilardi, Rubens; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Carepo, Marta S P; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase) were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field. PMID:26273227

  15. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A.

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  16. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  17. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  18. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  20. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  1. Environmental assessment for the recycling of slightly activated copper coil windings from the 184-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    The proposed action is to recycle slightly activated copper that is currently stored in a warehouse leased by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to a scrap metal dealer. Subsequent reutilization of the copper would be unrestricted. This document addresses the potential environmental effects of recycling and reutilizing the activated copper. In addition, the potential environmental effects of possible future uses by the dealer are addressed. Direct environmental effects from the proposed action are assessed, such as air emissions from reprocessing the activated copper, as well as indirect beneficial effects, such as averting air emissions that would result from mining and smelting an equivalent quantity of copper ore. Evaluation of the human health impacts of the proposed action focuses on the pertinent issues of radiological doses and protection of workers and the public. Five alternatives to the proposed action are considered, and their associated potential impacts are addressed. The no-action alternative is the continued storage of the activated copper at the LBL warehouse. Two recycling alternatives are considered: recycling the activated copper at the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) facility for re-use at a DOE facility and selling or giving the activated copper to a foreign government. In addition, two disposal alternatives evaluate the impacts attributable to disposing of the activated copper either at a local sanitary landfill or at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Site. The proposed project and alternatives include no new construction or development of new industry.

  2. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  3. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  4. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  5. Quasi-monochromatic parallel flash radiography achieved with a plane-focus x-ray tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Germer, Rudolf K.; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Obara, Haruo; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2003-07-01

    Quasi-monochromatic parallel flash radiography system utilizing a plane-focus plasma x-ray tube in conjunction with an x-ray lens is described. The x-ray generator employs a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of about 200 nF, a turbo-molecular pump, a krytron pulse generator as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser is charged up to 50 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the target plane by the electric field in the tube, the weakly ionized plasma x-ray source, which consists of copper ions and electrons, forms by the target evaporating. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was almost equal to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA with a charging voltage of 50 kV. The dimension of x-ray source was almost equal to the target diameter of about 10 mm, and the x-ray pulse widths were less than 1 μs. When the charging voltage was increased, the plasma x-ray source formed, and the characteristic x-ray intensities of K-series lines substantially increased. The quasi-monochromatic x-rays from the plane-focus tube were formed into parallel beam by a polycapillary plate with a hole diameter and a thickness of 25 μm and 1.0 mm, respectively, and quasi-monochromatic radiography was performed by a film-less computed radiography system.

  6. Lifelong Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the need for adult literacy programs, as well as recent innovations in literacy education. "Adult Literacy and Leadership: Current Innovations" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes an adult literacy outreach program in Texas, and discusses the importance of family literacy for parents' involvement in their children's…

  7. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  8. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  9. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  10. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  11. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  12. Focusing on Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Laura M.; Conner, AnnaMarie

    2015-01-01

    "Collective argumentation" occurs when a group works together to arrive at a conclusion (supporting it with evidence). Simplistically, this occurs when students give answers to questions and tell how they arrived at the answer, perhaps prompted by a teacher. But collective argumentation can be much richer, with a focus on the process of…

  13. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically lowered dropout…

  14. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  15. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World Wide Web in…

  16. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  17. Design-Focused Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an approach to the writing of evaluation questions is outlined and developed which focuses attention on the question of the effectiveness of an educational design for bringing about the learning it is intended to facilitate. The approach develops from the idea that all educational designs rely on instructional alignment, implicitly…

  18. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  19. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  20. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  1. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  2. Quality-Focused Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Robbie Lee

    1993-01-01

    Presents the quality-focused management (QFM) system and explains the departure QFM makes from established community college management practices. Describes the system's self-directed teams engaged in a continuous improvement process driven by customer demand and long-term commitment to quality and cost control. (13 references.) (MAB)

  3. Focus on stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Seifert, Udo

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the thirty papers collected in this ‘focus on’ issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

  4. Focus on Rashomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Donald S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series is a collection of reviews, essays, and commentaries on the Japanese film Rashomon. The plot consists of an attack, a rape, and a robbery, all of which probably occurred during the Middle Ages. Each character relates his own version of what happened, or might have happened, revealing the outward and inner driving forces,…

  5. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central office…

  6. Apartheid: Focus on Health

    PubMed Central

    Dines, George B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper focuses on health in the Republic of South Africa and calls not only for technical warfare against disease, poverty, and bigotry but also for attention to predisposing causes of disease and ill health among the African majority. PMID:522192

  7. Focus: Economic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Odorzynski, Sandra J.; Schug, Mark C.; Watts, Michael

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  8. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  9. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  10. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state regulations;…

  11. Focus on Efficient Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Resource Management.

    Compiled as a workshop handbook, this guide presents information to help food service program administrators comply with federal regulations and evaluate and upgrade their operations. Part I discusses requirements of the National School Lunch Program, focusing on the "offer versus serve" method of service enacted in 1976 to reduce waste. After an…

  12. Epicatechin Reduces Striatal MPP⁺-Induced Damage in Rats through Slight Increases in SOD-Cu,Zn Activity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Osornio, M; Gorostieta-Salas, E; Montes, S; Pérez-Severiano, F; Rubio, C; Gómez, C; Ríos, C; Guevara, J

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement alterations caused by reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, presumably by oxidative stress (OS). MPP(+) intrastriatal injection leads to the overproduction of free radicals (FR). The increasing formation of FR produces OS, a decline in dopamine (DA) content, and behavioral disorders. Epicatechin (EC) has shown the ability to be FR scavenger, an antioxidant enzyme inductor, a redox state modulator, and transition metal chelator. Acute administration of 100 mg/kg of EC significantly prevented (P < 0.05) the circling MPP(+)-induced behavior (10 μg/8 μL). Likewise, EC significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of fluorescent lipid products caused by MPP(+). MPP(+) injection produced (P < 0.05) increased enzymatic activity of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). This effect was blocked with acute EC pretreatment. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a consequence of MPP(+) damage. EC produced a slight increase (≈20%) in Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the control group. Such effects persisted in animals injured with MPP(+). The results show that EC is effective against MPP(+)-induced biochemical and behavioral damage, which is possible by an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity. PMID:26301040

  13. Modeling disinfection of plastic poultry transport cages inoculated with Salmonella enteritids by slightly acidic electrolyzed water using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zang, Y T; Li, B M; Bing, Sh; Cao, W

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enteric pathogens transmission in animal farms, the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.85 to 6.53) for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis on the surface of plastic poultry transport cages was evaluated. The coupled effects of the tap water cleaning time (5 to 15 s), SAEW treatment time (20 to 40 s), and available chlorine concentrations (ACCs) of 30 to 70 mg/l on the reductions of S. Enteritidis on chick cages were investigated using a central composite design of the response surface methodology (RSM). The established RS model had a goodness of fit quantified by the parameter R2 (0.971), as well as a lack of fit test (P>0.05). The maximum reduction of 3.12 log10 CFU/cm2 for S. Enteritidis was obtained for the cage treated with tap water cleaning for 15 s followed by SAEW treatment for 40 s at an ACC of 50 mg/l. Results indicate that the established RS model has shown the potential of SAEW in disinfection of bacteria on cages. PMID:26188036

  14. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  15. “Stockpile” of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D’Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  16. Slight Pro-Inflammatory Immunomodulation Properties of Dendritic Cells by Gardnerella vaginalis: The “Invisible Man” of Bacterial Vaginosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Thomas; Brachet, Patrick; Vareille-Delarbre, Marjolaine; Falenta, Julie; Dosgilbert, Annie; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Forestier, Christiane; Tridon, Arlette; Evrard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common genital infection in reproductive-aged women, is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Its etiology remains unclear, especially the role of Gardnerella (G.) vaginalis, an anaerobic bacterium characteristic of the BV-alteration of the vaginal ecosystem. In the genital mucosa, dendritic cells (DCs) sense bacteria of the microenvironment via receptors and then orchestrate the immune response by induction of different T cell subtypes. We investigated the interactions between G. vaginalis and human monocyte-derived DCs using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection from 0.01 to 100), and the effects of this pathogen on PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation. As observed by electron microscopy and cytometry, G. vaginalis reduced the internalization ability of DCs by forming extracellular clusters and induced neither DC maturation, nor DC secretion of cytokines, except at the highest dose with a very early DC maturation state. The same profile was observed on lymphocytes with significant increases of proliferation and cytokine secretion only at the highest bacterial concentration. Our findings indicate that G. vaginalis possesses slight immune-stimulating activities against DCs and T cells, reflecting thus a defective inflammatory response and giving rise to the atypical, non- or low-grade, inflammatory clinical disease profile. PMID:26989700

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by Photochemical Reaction of Ferrioxalate at Slightly Acidic and Near-Neutral pHs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min; Lee, Yunho; Chung, Hyenmi; Yoon, Jeyong

    2004-01-01

    Fenton chemistry, which is known to play an effective role in degrading toxic chemicals, is difficult to apply to disinfection in water treatment, since its reaction is effective only at the acidic pH of 3. The presence of oxalate ions and UV-visible light, which is known as a photoferrioxalate system, allows the Fe(III) to be dissolved at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs and maintains the catalytic reaction of iron. This study indicates that the main oxidizing species in the photoferrioxalate system responsible for microorganism inactivation is OH radical. Escherichia coli was used as an indicator microorganism. The CT value (OH radical concentration × contact time; used to indicate the effect of the combination of the concentration of the disinfectant and the contact time on inactivation) for a 2-log inactivation of E. coli was approximately 1.5 × 10−5 mg/liter/min, which is approximately 2,700 times lower than that of ozone as estimated by the delayed Chick-Watson model. Since the light emitted by the black light blue lamp is similar to sunlight in the specific wavelength range of 300 to 420 nm, the photoferrioxalate system, which can have a dual function, treating water for both organic pollutants and microorganisms simultaneously, shows promise for the treatment of water or wastewater in remote or rural sites. However, the photoferrioxalate disinfection system is slower in inactivating microorganisms than conventional disinfectants are. PMID:14766597

  18. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  19. Minimizers of the Lawrence-Doniach model under weak coupling and a parallel or slightly tilted field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenqiu

    We consider minimizers to the Lawrence-Doniach energy for superconductors with coupled layer structures. When the exterior magnetic field is parallel or slightly tilted to the layers and the Josephson coupling between layers is weak enough, we prove that the global minimizer has no vortices on layers. From this we derive upper and lower bounds on the upper and lower critical fields of the superconductor along different directions, when the coupling is weak. Besides the N-dimensional torus formed by minimizers in the decoupled case, we consider weak coupling cases and use Lyapunov-Schmidt techniques to identify the equilibria of the energy functional with low energies as a finite number of curves of solutions connected to the torus, expressed as C1 functions of the coupling constant, with one curve being the unique global minimizers. We also prove stability and obtain detailed information on the nature of the order parameter on each layer and the induced magnetic field in this case. Our results show that in this setting, even in large magnetic fields, stable solutions without vortices can occur with the order parameters having a nearly uniform phase jump between adjacent layers.

  20. Correlation among scapular asymmetry, neck pain, and neck disability index (NDI) in young women with slight neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Rim; Kang, Mi-Hee; Bahng, Sun-Young; An, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the correlations among scapular asymmetry, neck pain, and neck disability index in women in their 20s with slight neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 60 female students at U university in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, participated in this study. The lateral scapular slide test, which measures the distance between the thorax and scapula, was used to analyze the scapular asymmetry. The lateral scapular slide test was performed in three positions. The visual analogue scale and neck disability index were used to measure neck pain. [Results] In the lateral scapular slide test in position 3 (shoulder abduction at 90 degrees), the scapular left-right asymmetry and VAS showed a moderate positive linear relationship, with r=0.344. The VAS and NDI showed a moderate positive linear relationship, with r = 0.632. [Conclusion] Scapular asymmetry indicates imbalance of surrounding muscles of the scapula and is related to neck pain based on the results of measuring the distance from the thorax to the scapula. PMID:27313361

  1. Migration of grain boundaries and triple junctions in high-purity aluminum during annealing after slight cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang; Xing, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-15

    Grain orientations and grain boundary migrations near triple junctions in a high purity aluminum were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction. The results indicate that there are good correlations between the Schmid factors or Taylor factors and the misorientation values of point to original point in grains near the triple junctions in a slightly deformed sample. Grains with higher Schmid factors or lower Taylor factors typically correspond to higher misorientation values near the triple junctions. In a subsequent annealing at 400 °C, both grain boundaries and triple junctions migrate, but the former leave ghost lines. During such migration, a grain boundary grows from the grain with lower Schmid factor (higher Taylor factor) into the grain with higher Schmid factor (lower Taylor factor). Usually, the amount of migration of a grain boundary is considerably greater than that of a triple junction, and the grain boundary becomes more curved after migration. These observations indicate that the triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundary migration. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline aluminum with fine grains about 30 μm were used. • Off-line in situ EBSD was used to identify TJs before and after annealing. • Grains with higher SFs have higher misorientation values near TJs after deformation. • Grain boundaries grow from hard grains into soft grains during annealing. • Triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundaries migration.

  2. One-dimensional nonlinear instability study of a slightly viscoelastic, perfectly conducting liquid jet under a radial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Yin, Xie-Yuan; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    A one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model is built to study the nonlinear behavior of a slightly viscoelastic, perfectly conducting liquid jet under a radial electric field. The equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. The electrified viscoelastic jet is found to evolve into a beads-on-string structure in the presence of the radial electric field. Although the radial electric field greatly enhances the linear instability of the jet, its influence on the decay of the filament thickness is limited during the nonlinear evolution of the jet. On the other hand, the radial electric field induces axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. The first normal stress difference in the center region of the filament may be greatly decreased by the radial electric field. The regions with/without satellite droplets are illuminated on the χ (the electrical Bond number)-k (the dimensionless wave number) plane. Satellite droplets may be formed for larger wave numbers at larger radial electric fields.

  3. Quantum focusing conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Leichenauer, Stefan; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a universal inequality that unifies the Bousso bound with the classical focusing theorem. Given a surface σ that need not lie on a horizon, we define a finite generalized entropy Sgen as the area of σ in Planck units, plus the von Neumann entropy of its exterior. Given a null congruence N orthogonal to σ , the rate of change of Sgen per unit area defines a quantum expansion. We conjecture that the quantum expansion cannot increase along N . This extends the notion of universal focusing to cases where quantum matter may violate the null energy condition. Integrating the conjecture yields a precise version of the Strominger-Thompson quantum Bousso bound. Applied to locally parallel light-rays, the conjecture implies a novel inequality, the quantum null energy condition, a lower bound on the stress tensor in terms of the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy. We sketch a proof of the latter relation in quantum field theory.

  4. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  5. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  6. Focus on quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchleitner, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Scholes, Gregory D.; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Wellens, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cutting-edge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.

  7. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  8. Storage Stability of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Circulating Electrolyzed Water and Their Property Changes after Application.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ahn, Juhee; Ma, Yan-Na; Chen, Shi-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ding, Tian

    2016-03-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recognized as an effective bactericidal agent with free chlorine, but its limitations include its instability and its great dependence on equipment. Newly developed circulating electrolyzed water (CEW) with a higher available chlorine concentration (ACC) could successfully overcome these limitations. In this study, SAEW (ACC of 20 mg/L), CEW1 (ACC of 200 mg/L), and CEW2 (ACC of 20 mg/L) were evaluated for changes in properties (pH, oxidization reduction potential [ORP], and ACC) during storage in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and after washing pork and lettuce. Additionally, the washed pork and lettuce were evaluated for total viable counts, pH and general appearance. The results showed that CEW1 with a higher ACC has better stability than SAEW with a lower ACC for the storage and washing experiments, and CEW still remained stable after dilution with distilled water. The property indices of EW were greatly affected for the pork-washing experiments compared with the lettuce-washing experiments, probably due to the existence of alkaline and organic materials on the surface of pork. Furthermore, EWs were more effective for inactivating microbes in lettuce than in pork, while there was no significant difference in tissue pH and the general appearance of pork and lettuce. These findings indicated that CEW with a higher ACC shows potential for reducing foodborne pathogens on pork and lettuce without effects on their physicochemical characteristics, and it can be applied in a diluted form. PMID:26869019

  9. Hydrostatic-pressure effects on the pseudogap in slightly doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, A. L.; Omelchenko, L. V.; Vovk, R. V.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Kamchatnaya, S. N.; Sergeyev, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure P up to 1.05 GPa on resistivity ρ, excess conductivity σ‧(T) and pseudogap Δ*(T) is investigated in slightly doped single crystals of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Tc(P = 0) ≈ 49.2 K and δ ≈ 0.5). The critical temperature Tc is found to increase with increasing pressure at a rate dTc / dP =+ 5.1KGPa-1, while ρ(300 K) decreases at a rate d ln ρ / dP =(- 19 ± 0.2) %GPa-1. Near Tc, independently on pressure, σ‧(T) is well described by the Aslamasov-Larkin and Hikami-Larkin fluctuation theories, demonstrating a 3D-2D crossover with increase of temperature. The crossover temperature T0 determines the coherence length along the c-axis ξc(0) ≃(3.43 ± 0.01) A ˚ at P=0, which is found to decrease with increasing P. At the same time, Δ* and the BCS ratio 2Δ* /kBTc both increase with increasing hydrostatic pressure at a rate d lnΔ* / dP ≈ 0.36GPa-1, implying an increase of the coupling strength with increasing P. At low temperatures below Tpair, the shape of the Δ*(T) curve is found to be almost independent of pressure. At high temperatures, the shape of the Δ*(T) curve changes noticeably with increasing P, suggesting a strong influence of pressure on the lattice dynamics. This unusual behavior is observed for the first time.

  10. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  11. Modeling of Bacillus cereus growth in brown rice submitted to a combination of ultrasonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The combined effects of ultrasonication and slight acidic electrolyzed water were investigated to improve the microbial safety of brown rice against Bacillus cereus infection and to evaluate the growth kinetics of these bacteria during storage of untreated and treated rice at various temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). The results indicate that this combination treatment was bactericidal against B. cereus, resulting in an approximately 3.29-log reduction. Although B. cereus can be efficiently reduced by treatment, temperature abuse during storage can allow B. cereus to recover and grow. A primary growth model (Baranyi and Roberts equation) was fitted to the raw growth data from untreated (control) and treated samples to estimate growth rate, lag time, and maximum population density, with a low standard error of the residuals (≤0.140) and high adjusted coefficient of determination (>0.990). The growth curves obtained from the Baranyi and Roberts model indicated that B. cereus grew more slowly on treated brown rice than on untreated brown rice. Secondary models predicting the square root of the maximum growth rate and the natural logarithm of the lag time as a function of temperature were satisfactory (bias factor = 0.993 to 1.013; accuracy factor = 1.290 to 1.352; standard error of prediction = 18.828 to 36.615%). Inactivation results and the model developed and validated in this study provided reliable and valuable growth kinetics information for quantitative microbiological risk assessment studies of B. cereus on brown rice. PMID:25474049

  12. Molecular, technological and safety characterization of Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Martín, B; Garriga, M; Hugas, M; Bover-Cid, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Aymerich, T

    2006-03-15

    The population of Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages was characterized at species and strain level by molecular techniques and some technological and hygienic aspects were also considered. Staphylococcus xylosus was the predominant species (80.8%) followed by Staphylococcus warneri (8.3%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.8%) Staphylococcus carnosus (4.6%), and Kocuria varians (0.4%). Proteolytic activity was observed in 23% of the isolates. The species with the highest percentage of proteolytic strains was S. warneri. Lipolytic activity was found in 45.8% of the isolates and S. xylosus was the species with the highest percentage of lipolytic isolates. Biogenic amine production was not widely distributed (only 14.6% of the isolates). Tyramine was the most intense amine produced, although by only 4.6% of the isolates. Phenylethylamine was more frequently detected (10.8% of isolates) but at lower levels. Some strains also produced putrescine (3.3%), cadaverine (2.9%), histamine (1.3%) and tryptamine (0.4%). All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and vancomicin and over 70% were resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and sulphonamides. Most of the mecA+ strains (only 4.6% of isolates) also displayed resistance to multiple antibiotics. A reduced enterotoxigenic potential was found. Only 3.3% of isolates showed staphylococcal enterotoxins genes, all identified as entC gene. The combination of RAPD-PCR and plasmid profiling allowed the discrimination of 208 different profiles among the 240 Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci characterized, indicating a great genetic variability. PMID:16297478

  13. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size <3 μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms. PMID:26629621

  14. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  15. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  16. Digital focusing schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Trolinger, James D.; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Since its invention in the 19th century, schlieren imaging has been an essential method for studying many aerodynamic effects, particularly convection and shock waves, but the classical method using parabolic mirrors is extremely difficult to set up and very expensive for large fields of view. Focusing schlieren methods have made large- area schlieren more feasible but have tended to be difficult to align and set up, limiting their utility in many applications We recently developed an alternative approach which utilizes recent advances in digital display technology to produce simpler schlieren system that yields similar sensitivity with greater flexibility.

  17. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  18. Oxidizing dissolution mechanism of an irradiated MOX fuel in underwater aerated conditions at slightly acidic pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, M.; Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; Broudic, V.; Tribet, M.; Peuget, S.; Talip, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The (U,Pu)O2 matrix behavior of an irradiated MIMAS-type (MIcronized MASter blend) MOX fuel, under radiolytic oxidation in aerated pure water at pH 5-5.5 was studied by combining chemical and radiochemical analyses of the alteration solution with Raman spectroscopy characterizations of the surface state. Two leaching experiments were performed on segments of irradiated fuel under different conditions: with or without an external γ irradiation field, over long periods (222 and 604 days, respectively). The gamma irradiation field was intended to be representative of the irradiation conditions for a fuel assembly in an underwater interim storage situation. The data acquired enabled an alteration mechanism to be established, characterized by uranium (UO22+) release mainly controlled by solubility of studtite over the long-term. The massive precipitation of this phase was observed for the two experiments based on high uranium oversaturation indexes of the solution and the kinetics involved depended on the irradiation conditions. External gamma irradiation accelerated the precipitation kinetics and the uranium concentrations (2.9 × 10-7 mol/l) were lower than for the non-irradiated reference experiment (1.4 × 10-5 mol/l), as the quantity of hydrogen peroxide was higher. Under slightly acidic pH conditions, the formation of an oxidized UO2+x phase was not observed on the surface and did not occur in the radiolysis dissolution mechanism of the fuel matrix. The Raman spectroscopy performed on the heterogeneous MOX fuel matrix surface, showed that the fluorite structure of the mainly UO2 phase surrounding the Pu-enriched aggregates had not been particularly impacted by any major structural change compared to the data obtained prior to leaching. For the plutonium, its behavior in solution involved a continuous release up to concentrations of approximately 3 × 10-6 mol L-1 with negligible colloid formation. This data appears to support a predominance of the +V oxidation

  19. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  20. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  1. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  2. Retroreflection Focusing Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A retroreflective type focusing schlieren system which permits the light source to be positioned on the optic side of the system is introduced. The system includes an extended light source, as opposed to a point source, located adjacent to a beam splitter which projects light through the flow field onto a reflecting grating in the form of a grid which generates sheets of light that are directed back through the flow field and the beam splitter onto a primary lens behind which is located a cut-off grid having a grid pattern which corresponds to the grid pattern of the reflecting grating. The cut-off grid is adjustably positioned behind the primary lens and an image plane for imaging the turbulence is adjustably located behind the cut-off grid.

  3. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach. PMID:25150677

  4. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  5. A Slightly Longer History of E=mc 2, Or How I Came to Hate 4/3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, Tony

    2012-05-02

    According to popular mythology, the equivalence of mass and energy was suddenly conceived of and proven by Einstein in 1905. In fact, serious attempts to connect mass and energy went back at least to J.J. Thomson in 1881 and over the next two decades became the subject of numerous investigations by Maxwellians such as Heaviside, Abraham and Poincaré. The talk focuses on a 1904 thought experiment of Fritz Hasenöhrl, who first announced that blackbody radiation had an equivalent mass such that E = (3/8)mc2, which he subsequently corrected to E = (3/4)mc2. Why did Hasenöhrl get the wrong answer and Einstein get the right one? What does it mean to prove a law of nature? Stephen Boughn and myself have recently carried out an complete relativistic analysis of Hasenöhrl’s thought experiment and, for the first time in the century since it was proposed, have correctly solved the problem. I will try to keep the mathematics at a reasonable level but it will require familiarity with electrodynamics and special relativity.

  6. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  7. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Middleman, Amy B.; Short, Mary B.; Doak, Jean S.

    2012-01-01

    School-located immunization programs (SLIP) will only be successful if parents consent to their children's participation. It is critical to understand parent perspectives regarding the factors that make them more or less likely to provide that consent. Organizations creating SLIPs will be able to capitalize on the aspects of SLIPs that parents appreciate, and address and correct issues that may give rise to parent concerns. This study involved five focus groups among the parents of school students in a large, urban school district. Findings highlight the broad range of concepts important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. The safety and trust issues regarding vaccines in general that are so important to parents are also important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. Effective communication strategies that include assurances regarding tracking of information and the competence and experience of immunizers will be helpful when addressing parents regarding SLIPs. In addition, parents were very cognizant of and positive regarding the public health benefits associated with SLIPs. Further study among larger populations of parents will further refine these ideas and aid in the development of successful influenza vaccine SLIPs that directly address and communicate with parents about the issues most important to them. PMID:23095868

  8. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  10. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330

  11. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  12. From x-ray telescopes to neutron focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Khaykovich, Boris; Ramsey, Brian; Moncton, David; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Romaine, Suzanne; Rosati, Richard E.; Bruni, Ricardo; Robertson, Lee; Crow, Lowell; Ambaye, Haile; Lauter, Valeria

    2011-09-01

    In the case of neutrons the refractive index is slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes [1]. Consequently, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing-incidence angles. Hence, the optical technologies developed for x-ray astronomy can be applied for neutron focusing. The focusing capabilities of grazing incidence neutron imaging optics have been successfully demonstrated using nickel mirrors. The mirrors were fabricated using an electroformed nickel replication process at Marshall Space Flight Center. Results of the neutron optics experiments and current status of the multilayer coating replication technique development are presented.

  13. From X-Ray Telescopes to Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Khaykovich, B.; Ramsey, B.; Moncton, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of neutrons the refractive index is slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes. Consequently, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing-incidence angles. Hence, the optical technologies developed for x-ray astronomy can be applied for neutron focusing. The focusing capabilities of grazing incidence neutron imaging optics have been successfully demonstrated using nickel mirrors. The mirrors were fabricated using an electroformed nickel replication process at Marshall Space Flight Center. Results of the neutron optics experiments will be presented. Challenges of the neutron imaging optics as well as possible applications of the optics will be discussed.

  14. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  15. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  16. Investigating Form-Focused Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)

  17. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  18. Unemployment Rises Slightly for Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Results of a National Science Foundation survey indicate that developing shortages of science and engineering graduates in the current labor force for the most part do not apply to chemists and chemical engineers. (Author/JN)

  19. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  20. Nonlinear focusing of DNA macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumin, Leonid L.; Peltek, Sergey E.; Zilberstein, Gleb V.

    2001-08-01

    The present paper reports the nonlinear electrophoretic focusing techniques developed after an original idea by Chacron and Slater [Phys. Rev. E 56, 3436 (1997)]. Focusing of DNA molecules is achieved in an alternating nonuniform electric field, created in a wedge gel with hyperbolic boundaries. The fractions separated on such a wedge retained their rectilinear shape during the electrophoresis. Experiments with gel electrophoresis confirm the possibility of a noticeable nonlinear focusing of DNA molecules.

  1. In-cylinder flows of a motored four-stroke engine with flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, H.S.; Yeh, C.-N.

    2008-04-15

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the in-cylinder flow structures and turbulence intensities in the symmetry and offset planes of a motored four-valve, four-stroke engine during the intake and compression strokes are diagnosed by using a particle image velocimeter. Two pistons of different crown shapes (flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons) are studied. The inception, establishment, and evolution of the tumbling vortical flow structures during the intake and compression strokes are clearly depicted. Quantitative strengths of the rotating vortical flow motions are presented by a dimensionless parameter, the tumble ratio, which can represent the mean angular velocity of the vortices in the target plane. The turbulence intensity of the in-cylinder flow is also calculated by using the measured time-varying velocity data. The results show that the flat-crown piston induces higher bulk-averaged tumble ratio and turbulence intensity than the slightly concave-crown piston does because the tumble ratio and turbulence generated by the flat-crown piston in the offset planes during the compression stroke are particularly large. The engine with the flat-crown piston also presents larger torque and power outputs and lower hydrocarbon emission than that with the slightly concave-crown piston. This might be caused by the enhanced combustion in the engine cylinder due to the stronger tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. (author)

  2. Doing Focus-on-Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Basturkmen, Helen; Loewen, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Considers the rationale for using a focus on form approach to teaching form as opposed to the more traditional focus on forms approach where linguistic features are treated sequentially. Describes methodological options for attending to form in communication. (Author/VWL)

  3. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  4. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  5. CDP: application of focus drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Schulz, K.; Old, G.; Matthus, E.

    2009-01-01

    The achievement of a depth of focus required for stable process conditions is one of the biggest challenges in modern optical photolithography. There are several ways of improving the depth of focus. For line/space layers, for instance, application of RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology) using scattering bars, phaseshift masks or optimized illumination systems have shown good results. For contact and via layers the depth of focus is limited and critical, due to the structure size of the holes, alternating pattern density and wafer topology. A well known method of improving the depth of focus for contact and via layers is called focus latitude enhancement exposure (FLEX) [1-3]. With FLEX, several focal planes are being exposed, i.e. each during a separate exposure step. The main drawback is low throughput, as the total processing time rises which each additional exposure. In this paper, we investigate Nikon's CDP (continuous depth of focus expansion procedure) [4]. The CDP option is applicable to modern scanning exposure tools [4-5]. A schematic view of the procedure is shown in Fig. 1. The CDP value or CDP amplitude defines the tilt of the wafer and thus the range of focus in the resist, as the focus plane migrates through the resist during the exposure. The main advantage of CDP, compared to FLEX, is higher throughput, since focal planes are defined within a single exposure. A non-CDP exposure may result in varying aerial images within resist thickness, therefore leading to decreased image contrast within out-of-focus planes. As shown in Fig. 1 the averaged aerial images of a CDP exposure induce better image contrast throughout the resist layer and therefore increase the focus window.

  6. Prime focus instrument of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Braun, David F.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Daniel J.; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C.-Y.; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (AG) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  7. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  8. Computer-mediated focus groups.

    PubMed

    Walston, J T; Lissitz, R W

    2000-10-01

    This article discusses the feasibility and effectiveness of computer-mediated (CM) focus groups. The study describes technological and practical considerations the authors learned from conducting such groups and reports on a comparison of the reactions of CM and face-to-face (FTF) participants in focus groups discussing academic dishonesty. The results suggest that the CM environment, in comparison to FTF, may lessen members' concern about what the moderator thinks of them and discourage participants from withholding embarrassing information. The article concludes with a list of suggestions for this technique and a discussion of the potential advantages and limitations associated with CM focus groups. PMID:11183483

  9. Slightly modifying pseudoproline dipeptides incorporation strategy enables solid phase synthesis of a 54 AA fragment of caveolin-1 encompassing the intramembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Coïc, Yves-Marie; Lan, Charlotte Le; Neumann, Jean-Michel; Jamin, Nadège; Baleux, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    This work contributes to highlight the benefits of pseudoproline dipeptides introduction in difficult SPPS. We show how a slight modification in the positioning choice conditioned the synthesis achievement of a 54 amino acid long caveolin-1 peptide encompassing the intramembrane domain. Furthermore, we report a side reaction correlated with the coupling steps and generating truncated fragments with a mass deviation of + 42 Da. Considering the need of structural data for membrane proteins, most of which are considered as prevalent therapeutic targets, chemical synthesis provides an interesting alternative pathway to obtain hydrophobic domains by pushing back the frontiers of conventional RP methods of purification. PMID:20014324

  10. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  11. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  12. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  13. Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements. PMID:21117663

  14. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  15. Oculometer focus and mirror control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic focusing system designed around an ultrasonic range measurement is described. Besides maintaining the focus, subject distance is a by-product which could lighten the NOVA computational effort. An automatic head tracking unit is also discussed. It is intended to reduce the search time required when track is lost. An X-Y ultrasonic measurement is also made in this design to control the deflection mirrors.

  16. A continuous plasma final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1990-02-01

    Scaling laws are set down for a plasma cell used for transport, focusing and current neutralization of fine, intense, relativistic electron beams. It is found that there exists a minimum beam spot size, {sigma}{sub min} {approximately} {epsilon}{sub n}(I{sub A}/{gamma}I){sup 1/2}, in such a focusing system. Propagation issues, including channel formation, synchrotron radiation, beam ionization and instabilities, are discussed. Three numerical examples are considered. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Focus compensation techniques for reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeough, J.; Glavich, T.

    1979-01-01

    To maintain optimum resolution under varying environmental conditions, a focusing compensation system has been developed. The system is capable of detecting not only changes in pressure (altitude) and the general lens temperature but also the radial thermal gradients in the lens. Theoretical considerations show that the lens is most affected by these factors. The developed system uses a laser measurement system with environmental sensors to generate a focus correction for environment and range changes.

  18. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    PubMed Central

    Kitzinger, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241

  19. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  20. Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen isolated from natural gas-bearing deep aquifers, and emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mochimaru, Hanako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Ikeda, Hidefumi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, slightly halophilic, obligately methylotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, designated strain GTA13(T), was isolated from natural gas-bearing confined aquifers in the Minami-Kanto gas field, Japan. The cells were non-motile, slightly irregular cocci, 0.7-1.0 µm in diameter and occurred singly, in pairs or as small aggregates. The cells grew with tri- or dimethylamine but not with H2/CO2, formate, acetate, methanol or dimethyl sulphide. Vitamins, sodium and magnesium were required for growth. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0-7.5, 35 °C, 0.35-0.40 M NaCl and 15-50 mM MgCl2. The NaCl range for growth was 0.2-1.3 M. The DNA G+C content was 43.7 mol%. Strain GTA13(T) showed highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Methanohalophilus halophilus DSM 3094(T) (96.0%). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic features, strain GTA13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methanohalophilus, for which the name Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTA13(T) ( = NBRC 110099(T) = DSM 28452(T)). An emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus is also proposed. PMID:24670897

  1. Relative Abundance of Nitrotoga spp. in a Biofilter of a Cold-Freshwater Aquaculture Plant Appears To Be Stimulated by Slightly Acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Hüpeden, Jennifer; Wegen, Simone; Off, Sandra; Lücker, Sebastian; Bedarf, Yvonne; Daims, Holger; Kühn, Carsten; Spieck, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) is essential to maintain water quality for fish health, and one crucial process here is nitrification. The investigated RAS was connected to a rainbow trout production system and operated at an average temperature of 13°C and pH 6.8. Community analyses of the nitrifying biofilm revealed a coexistence of Nitrospira and Nitrotoga, and it is hypothesized that a slightly acidic pH in combination with lower temperatures favors the growth of the latter. Modification of the standard cultivation approach toward lower pH values of 5.7 to 6.0 resulted in the successful enrichment (99% purity) of Nitrotoga sp. strain HW29, which had a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.0% to Nitrotoga arctica. Reference cultures of Nitrospira defluvii and the novel Nitrotoga sp. HW29 were used to confirm differentiation of these nitrite oxidizers in distinct ecological niches. Nitrotoga sp. HW29 revealed pH and temperature optima of 6.8 and 22°C, respectively, whereas Nitrospira defluvii displayed the highest nitrite oxidation rate at pH 7.3 and 32°C. We report here the occurrence of Nitrotoga as one of the main nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater aquaculture systems and indicate that a slightly acidic pH, in addition to temperatures below 20°C, can be applied as a selective isolation criterion for this microorganism. PMID:26746710

  2. Relative Abundance of Nitrotoga spp. in a Biofilter of a Cold-Freshwater Aquaculture Plant Appears To Be Stimulated by Slightly Acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    Hüpeden, Jennifer; Wegen, Simone; Off, Sandra; Lücker, Sebastian; Bedarf, Yvonne; Daims, Holger; Kühn, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) is essential to maintain water quality for fish health, and one crucial process here is nitrification. The investigated RAS was connected to a rainbow trout production system and operated at an average temperature of 13°C and pH 6.8. Community analyses of the nitrifying biofilm revealed a coexistence of Nitrospira and Nitrotoga, and it is hypothesized that a slightly acidic pH in combination with lower temperatures favors the growth of the latter. Modification of the standard cultivation approach toward lower pH values of 5.7 to 6.0 resulted in the successful enrichment (99% purity) of Nitrotoga sp. strain HW29, which had a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.0% to Nitrotoga arctica. Reference cultures of Nitrospira defluvii and the novel Nitrotoga sp. HW29 were used to confirm differentiation of these nitrite oxidizers in distinct ecological niches. Nitrotoga sp. HW29 revealed pH and temperature optima of 6.8 and 22°C, respectively, whereas Nitrospira defluvii displayed the highest nitrite oxidation rate at pH 7.3 and 32°C. We report here the occurrence of Nitrotoga as one of the main nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater aquaculture systems and indicate that a slightly acidic pH, in addition to temperatures below 20°C, can be applied as a selective isolation criterion for this microorganism. PMID:26746710

  3. Metformin Is Associated With Slightly Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Moderate Survival Benefits in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xing-Kang; Su, Ting-Ting; Si, Jian-Min; Sun, Lei-Min

    2016-02-01

    To systematically assess the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles before August 2015. Two investigators identified and extracted data independently. We adopted adjusted estimates to calculate summary estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the pooled results. The risk of publication bias was assessed by examining funnel plot asymmetry as well as Begg test and Egger test.Fifteen studies on CRC incidence and 6 studies on CRC survival were finally included in our meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of observational studies illustrated that a slight 10% reduction of CRC incidence was associated with metformin use (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.96). Furthermore, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) revealed an improved survival outcome for metformin users in CRC patients compared to nonusers (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-081). There was no publication bias across studies.Our meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin therapy could slightly reduce CRC incidence and moderately improve the survival outcomes in patients with T2DM. More prospective studies are warranted to certify this protective association. PMID:26886616

  4. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-02-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  5. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-01-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  6. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  7. Multi-focus cluster labeling.

    PubMed

    Eikvil, Line; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Holden, Marit

    2015-06-01

    Document collections resulting from searches in the biomedical literature, for instance, in PubMed, are often so large that some organization of the returned information is necessary. Clustering is an efficient tool for organizing search results. To help the user to decide how to continue the search for relevant documents, the content of each cluster can be characterized by a set of representative keywords or cluster labels. As different users may have different interests, it can be desirable with solutions that make it possible to produce labels from a selection of different topical categories. We therefore introduce the concept of multi-focus cluster labeling to give users the possibility to get an overview of the contents through labels from multiple viewpoints. The concept for multi-focus cluster labeling has been established and has been demonstrated on three different document collections. We illustrate that multi-focus visualizations can give an overview of clusters along axes that general labels are not able to convey. The approach is generic and should be applicable to any biomedical (or other) domain with any selection of foci where appropriate focus vocabularies can be established. A user evaluation also indicates that such a multi-focus concept is useful. PMID:25869415

  8. Focusing on Pronouns: Consequences of Subjecthood, Pronominalisation, and Contrastive Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated the effects of subjecthood, pronominalisation, and contrastive focus on the interpretation of pronouns in subsequent discourse. By probing the effects of these factors on real-time pronoun interpretation, we aim to contribute to our understanding of how topicality-related…

  9. Fast and precise continuous focusing with focus tunable lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casutt, Selina; Bueeler, Michael; Blum, Mark; Aschwanden, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Focusing in milliseconds without translational mechanics involved is possible with electrically tunable lenses. Fast shape-changing lenses enable fast imaging systems which can focus at distances from infinity to a few centimeters with a high optical quality. Furthermore, rapid laser processing in three dimensions is realized without mechanical translation of the focusing lens or the sample. With tunable lenses the entire optics can be made compact, robust and abrasion-free. Different configurations are discussed, how to integrate the tunable lens in the optical path. For machine vision applications, the achievable optical quality depends on the chosen combination of the tunable lens with a fixed focal length lens and a camera. It is recommended to use a fixed focus lens with a short distance between the stop position and the front of the lens. Furthermore, important points are presented how to achieve optimal performance in laser processing applications such as orientation and position of the tunable lens and the diameter of the beam incident on the lens. Additionally, different approaches will be discussed for monitoring the focal length of the tunable lens. The focal length of the tunable lens is sensitive to temperature changes, as the lens material is a fluid. However, in contrast to conventional lenses, the focal length of the tunable lens can be corrected electrically. For that purpose, the tunable lens exhibits an integrated temperature sensor for temperature compensation. Also optical feedback solutions will be presented for applications requiring highest precision and tracking of the absolute focal length value.

  10. A continuous plasma final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1989-11-01

    Scaling laws are set down for a plasma cell used for transport, focusing and current neutralization of fine, intense, relativistic electron beams. It is found that there exists a minimum beam spot size, {sigma}{sub min} {approximately} {var epsilon}{sub n}(I{sub A}/{gamma}I){sup 1/2}, in such a focusing system. Propagation issues, including channel formation, synchrotron radiation, beam ionization and instabilities, are discussed. Numerical examples are given for a proof-of-principle experiment at KEK, an application for luminosity enhancement at the SLC, and a hypothetical TeV electron-positron collider. For a TeV collider, it is found that the effect of ion-motion on focusing, and the effect of Buneman instability on current neutralization must be considered. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  12. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  13. Resveratrol Does Not Influence Metabolic Risk Markers Related to Cardiovascular Health in Overweight and Slightly Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Made, Sanne M.; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking. Objective The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function. Design This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25) and women (n = 20) with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day) or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period. Results Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791), apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545), HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721), LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718), triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687), glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064), insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516)). Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed. Conclusion 150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364961 PMID

  14. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasta, A. M.; Ramírez-Piscina, L.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ˜t-1/2 to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ˜t-1.

  15. Evidence for a slightly deleterious effect of intron polymorphisms at the EF1alpha gene in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent bivalve Bathymodiolus.

    PubMed

    Faure, B; Bierne, N; Tanguy, A; Bonhomme, F; Jollivet, D

    2007-12-30

    A multilocus analysis was initiated in order to infer the general effect of demography and the indirect effect of positive selection on some chromosome segments in Bathymodiolus. Mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus inhabit the very hostile, fragmented and variable environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents which is thought to cause recurrent population bottlenecks via extinction/colonisation processes and adaptation to new environmental conditions. In the course of this work we discovered that the assumption of neutrality of non-coding polymorphisms usually made in genome scan experiments was likely to be violated at one of the loci we analysed. The direct effect of slight purifying selection on non-coding polymorphisms shares many resemblances with the indirect effect of positive selection through genetic hitchhiking. Combining polymorphism with divergence data for several closely related species allowed us to obtain different expectations for the direct effect of negative selection and the indirect effect of positive selection. We observed a strong excess of rare non-coding polymorphisms at the second intron of the EF1alpha gene in the two species Bathymodiolus azoricus and Bathymodiolus thermophilus, while two other loci, the mitochondrial COI gene and an intron of the Lysozyme gene, did not exhibit such a deviation. In addition, the divergence rate of the EF1alpha intron was estimated to be unexpectedly low when calibrated using the closure of the Panama Isthmus that interrupted gene flow between the two species. The polymorphism to divergence ratio was similar to the one observed for the other two loci, in accordance to the hypothesis of purifying selection. We conclude that slight purifying selection is likely to act on polymorphic intronic mutations of the EF1alpha second intron and discuss the possible relationship with the specific biology of Bathymodiolus mussels. PMID:17707599

  16. Pharmacological characterization of the rat metabotropic glutamate receptor type 8a revealed strong similarities and slight differences with the type 4a receptor.

    PubMed

    De Colle, C; Bessis, A S; Bockaert, J; Acher, F; Pin, J P

    2000-04-01

    In the brain, group-III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu(4), mGlu(7) and mGlu(8) receptors play a critical role in controlling the release process at many glutamatergic synapses. The pharmacological profile of mGlu(4) receptor has been studied extensively, allowing us to propose a pharmacophore model for this receptor subtype. Surprisingly, the activity of only a few compounds have been reported on mGlu(7) and mGlu(8) receptors. In order to identify new possibilities for the design of selective compounds able to discriminate between the members of the group-III mGlu receptors, we have undertaken a complete pharmacological characterization of mGlu(8) receptor and compared it with that of mGlu(4) receptor, using the same expression system, and the same read out. The activities of 32 different molecules revealed that these two mGlu receptors subtypes share a similar pharmacological profile. Only small differences were noticed in addition to that previously reported with S-carboxyglutamate (S-Gla) being a partial agonist at mGlu(4) receptor and a full antagonist at mGlu(8) receptor. These include: a slightly higher relative potency of the agonists 1S,3R and 1S,3S-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), S-4-carboxyphenylglycine (S-4CPG) and S-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (S-4C3HPG), and a slightly higher potency of the antagonists 2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740) and RS-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) on mGlu(8) receptor. When superimposed on the mGlu(4) receptor pharmacophore model, these molecules revealed three regions that may be different between the ligand binding sites of mGlu(8) and mGlu(4) receptors. PMID:10771029

  17. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk student…

  18. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  19. Strategy and Focus: Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The six articles in this focused journal issue are concerned with literature teaching on the secondary and college level. The titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "Aesthetic Reading and Teaching: 'Candide' Revisited" (Michael G. Gauthier); (2) "Discovery: The Role of Subjective Response in Initiating the Literature Discussion"…

  20. Organizing for Schooling. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on schoolwide approaches to issues of major concern to educators, from the perspective of providing equal education for all children. "Supporting School Improvement in Reading through Professional Development" (Rogelio Lopez del Bosque, Abelardo Villarreal) describes a professional development program that empowers…

  1. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content, performance, and…

  2. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  3. Focused ion beams in biology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26513553

  4. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  5. Teaching and Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles that focus on teaching and learning strategies to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Would You Read Me a Story?: In Search of Reading Strategies That Work for the Early Childhood Classroom" (Hilaria Bauer) discusses how…

  6. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program in Action"; (3)…

  7. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  8. Focus issue: signaling across membranes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Nancy R

    2005-12-01

    This week's issues of Science and Science's STKE focus on movement of molecules and information across cellular membranes. Science highlights the mechanisms by which proteins, ions, and DNA cross the membranes of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. STKE addresses how information is transmitted across cell membranes to allow cells to communicate with each other and to respond to signals in their environments. PMID:16333016

  9. Focusing on Quality Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Tracy

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the assessment of the quality of library reference service focuses on four aspects of service interaction: user needs and expectations, staff behavior and communication skills, the reference environment, and staff morale and workload. Measurement techniques for each aspect are also described. (Contains 36 references.) (LRW)

  10. Staying in School. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on issues related to high Texas dropout rates among Hispanic and other minority group students and on dropout prevention strategies. "School Finance Inequities Mean Schools Are Not Ready To Teach" (Maria Robledo Montecel) deplores the recent Texas Supreme Court ruling that state educational funding is constitutional,…

  11. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  12. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  13. ERS Focus On: Educating Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

  14. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  15. Developing the Strategically Focused School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent

    2004-01-01

    This article builds a conceptual framework to examine how school leaders can move away from a planning framework that emphasizes only short-term target setting and move to an effective strategic approach. It examines early evidence from research on what dimensions are critical in establishing a strategically focused school within a medium-term…

  16. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  17. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  18. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer focus-aid enhanced mask

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer system (PS/PDI) employing a PS/PDI mask that includes a PDI focus aid is provided. The PDI focus aid mask includes a large or secondary reference pinhole that is slightly displaced from the true or primary reference pinhole. The secondary pinhole provides a larger capture tolerance for interferometrically performing fine focus. With the focus-aid enhanced mask, conventional methods such as the knife-edge test can be used to perform an initial (or rough) focus and the secondary (large) pinhole is used to perform interferometric fine focus. Once the system is well focused, high accuracy interferometry can be performed using the primary (small) pinhole.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on terahertz plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Marco; Nahata, Ajay; Akalin, Tahsin; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonics is one of the growing fields in modern photonics that has garnered increasing interest over the last few years. In this focus issue, the specific challenges concerning terahertz plasmonics have been addressed and most recent advances in this specific field have been highlighted. The articles demonstrate the diversity and the opportunities of this rich field by covering a variety of topics ranging from the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on artificially structures surfaces, 2D manipulation of surface plasmons and SPPs, plasmonic focusing, plasmonic high-Q resonators for sensing applications, plasmonically enhanced terahertz antennas to terahertz field manipulation by use of plasmonic structures. The articles substantiate the impact of plasmonics and its great innovative potential for terahertz technology. In memory of Professor Mario Sorolla Ayza.

  20. Focusing of truncated Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Zoltán L.; Bor, Zsolt

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that the focusing of truncated Gaussian beams can be treated by the same manner as uniform spherical waves, i.e., the diffraction integral can be expressed by the Lommel functions, which offers a very efficient way for the calculation of the three-dimensional light distribution near focus. All the expressions for the uniform spherical waves hold good for Gaussian beams if the first variable in the Lommel functions is extended to the complex domain. The intensity distribution depending on the Fresnel number and the truncation coefficient is calculated. The location of the first few minima and maxima of the intensity in focal plane is given for different values of the truncation coefficient. The phase behavior depending on the truncation coefficient is studied.

  1. Oblique focus ICCD laboratory evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An oblique focus intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) was constructed and operated in a vacuum system. Special gratings were obtained and an optical system set up to try to model a candidate UV spectrometer (Milieu Interstellaire et Intergalactique-MISIG), and to produce small enough images to test the theoretical subpixel resolution capability of the ICCD system. The efforts were only partly successful. Based on the results, a similar detector was built and flown successfully on a Princeton rocket program.

  2. Protein: A nutrient in focus.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Clairmont, Stephanie; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Tremblay, Angelo; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-08-01

    Protein is an essential component of a healthy diet and is a focus of research programs seeking to optimize health at all stages of life. The focus on protein as a nutrient often centers on its thermogenic and satiating effect, and when included as part of a healthy diet, its potential to preserve lean body mass. A growing body of literature, including stable isotope based studies and longer term dietary interventions, suggests that current dietary protein recommendations may not be sufficient to promote optimal muscle health in all populations. A protein intake moderately higher than current recommendations has been widely endorsed by many experts and working groups and may provide health benefits for aging populations. Further, consuming moderate amounts of high-quality protein at each meal may optimally stimulate 24-h muscle protein synthesis and may provide a dietary platform that favors the maintenance of muscle mass and function while promoting successful weight management in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary protein has the potential to serve as a key nutrient for many health outcomes and benefits might be increased when combined with adequate physical activity. Future studies should focus on confirming these health benefits from dietary protein with long-term randomized controlled studies. PMID:26197807

  3. Fluvial sedimentation on a quivering craton: Influence of slight crustal movements on fluvial processes, upper Jurassic Morrison formation, western Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, F.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing the fluvial sedimentologist is identification of processes outside the stream channel that influence deposition of fluvial sediments. Detailed studies in the lower sequence of the Salt Wash Member (Morrison Formation, Upper Jurassic) demonstrate that crustal deformation at the site of deposition may considerably influence braided-stream processes. Late Jurassic crustal movements in the western part of the Colorado Plateau are interpreted largely from thickness variations and facies distribution, but other features such as vertical repetition of facies, coincidence with at least parts of present-day folds, and the geographic distribution of bedding parameters measured in the fluvial deposits, are also used as corroborating evidence of syndepositional tectonism. These features indicate that several of the large uplifts and basins in the region as well as some of the smaller folds within them were actively moving during deposition of the lower sequence. Tectonic activity altered the stream gradients, which in turn governed sinuosity, flow regime, energy levels, and sediment distribution. Cross-bedding studies indicate that reduced gradients within downwarped areas led to slight increases in sinuosity of the braided-stream channels and of the small sub-channels within them. The lowered gradients apparently resulted in a decrease in the depth of the channels and allowed the streams to flood more readily, producing abundant upper-flow regime horizontal laminations in the channel deposits. In addition, greater quantities of sediment containing higher proportions of sand were deposited in downwarped areas than in positive localities. The inability of the streams to transport bed load through downwarped areas indicates loss of stream energy. However, an increase in the quantity of upper-flow regime horizontal laminations in the same downwarped areas suggests that an increase in flow regime is not necessarily accompanied by an

  4. Synergistic Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Ultrasound at Mild Heat Temperature in Microbial Reduction and Shelf-Life Extension of Fresh-Cut Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of combined treatments (slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), ultrasound (US), or mild heat (60°C)) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in fresh-cut bell pepper, and the shelf-life and sensory quality (color and texture) were followed during storage at 4°C and 25°C. An additional 0.65, 1.72, and 2.70 log CFU/g reduction was achieved by heat treatments at 60°C for 1 min for DW, SAEW, and SAEW+US, respectively. Regardless of the type of pathogen, the combined treatment (SAEW+US+60°C) achieved a significantly (p < 0.05) longer lag time in all treatment groups. This combined treatment also prolonged the shelf-life of bell pepper up to 8 days and 30 h for the storage at 4°C and 25°C, respectively. There was also no significant difference in the color and hardness of treated (SAEW+US+60°C) bell pepper from that of control during the storage. This new hurdle approach is thus expected to improve the microbial safety of bell peppers during storage and distribution. PMID:26032362

  5. Integrated network-diversity analyses suggest suppressive effect of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and slightly relieving effect of chemotherapy on human milk microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Li, Lianwei; Li, Wendy; Li, Jie; Chen, Hongju

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and the chemotherapy for treating the disease on the human milk microbiome through integrated network and community diversity analyses. Our analyses suggest that Hodgkin’s lymphoma seems to have a suppressing effect on the milk microbiome by lowering the milk microbial community diversity, as measured by the Hill numbers profiles. Although the diversity analysis did not reveal an effect of chemotherapy on community diversity, bacterial species interaction network analysis shows that chemotherapy may help to slightly restore the milk microbiome impacted by Hodgkin’s lymphoma through its influence on the interactions among species (or OTUs). We further constructed diversity-metabolites network, which suggests that the milk microbial diversity is positively correlated with some beneficial milk metabolites such as DHA (DocosaHexaenoic Acid), and that the diversity is negatively correlated with some potentially harmful metabolites such as Butanal. We hence postulate that higher milk microbial diversity should be a signature of healthy mothers and beneficial to infants. Finally, we constructed metabolites OTU correlation networks, from which we identified some special OTUs. These OTUs deserve further investigations given their apparent involvements in regulating the levels of critical milk metabolites such as DHA, Inositol and Butanal. PMID:27386954

  6. Integrated network-diversity analyses suggest suppressive effect of Hodgkin's lymphoma and slightly relieving effect of chemotherapy on human milk microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Li, Lianwei; Li, Wendy; Li, Jie; Chen, Hongju

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of Hodgkin's lymphoma and the chemotherapy for treating the disease on the human milk microbiome through integrated network and community diversity analyses. Our analyses suggest that Hodgkin's lymphoma seems to have a suppressing effect on the milk microbiome by lowering the milk microbial community diversity, as measured by the Hill numbers profiles. Although the diversity analysis did not reveal an effect of chemotherapy on community diversity, bacterial species interaction network analysis shows that chemotherapy may help to slightly restore the milk microbiome impacted by Hodgkin's lymphoma through its influence on the interactions among species (or OTUs). We further constructed diversity-metabolites network, which suggests that the milk microbial diversity is positively correlated with some beneficial milk metabolites such as DHA (DocosaHexaenoic Acid), and that the diversity is negatively correlated with some potentially harmful metabolites such as Butanal. We hence postulate that higher milk microbial diversity should be a signature of healthy mothers and beneficial to infants. Finally, we constructed metabolites OTU correlation networks, from which we identified some special OTUs. These OTUs deserve further investigations given their apparent involvements in regulating the levels of critical milk metabolites such as DHA, Inositol and Butanal. PMID:27386954

  7. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination. PMID:26868552

  8. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  9. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution. PMID:26329200

  10. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Hellgren, Lars Ingvar; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134 kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition. PMID:21773017

  11. Strong improvement of interfacial properties can result from slight structural modifications of proteins: the case of native and dry-heated lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Desfougères, Yann; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Salonen, Anniina; Vié, Véronique; Beaufils, Sylvie; Pezennec, Stéphane; Desbat, Bernard; Lechevalier, Valérie; Nau, Françoise

    2011-12-20

    Identification of the key physicochemical parameters of proteins that determine their interfacial properties is still incomplete and represents a real stake challenge, especially for food proteins. Many studies have thus consisted in comparing the interfacial behavior of different proteins, but it is difficult to draw clear conclusions when the molecules are completely different on several levels. Here the adsorption process of a model protein, the hen egg-white lysozyme, and the same protein that underwent a thermal treatment in the dry state, was characterized. The consequences of this treatment have been previously studied: net charge and hydrophobicity increase and lesser protein stability, but no secondary and tertiary structure modification (Desfougères, Y.; Jardin, J.; Lechevalier, V.; Pezennec, S.; Nau, F. Biomacromolecules 2011, 12, 156-166). The present study shows that these slight modifications dramatically increase the interfacial properties of the protein, since the adsorption to the air-water interface is much faster and more efficient (higher surface pressure). Moreover, a thick and strongly viscoelastic multilayer film is created, while native lysozyme adsorbs in a fragile monolayer film. Another striking result is that completely different behaviors were observed between two molecular species, i.e., native and native-like lysozyme, even though these species could not be distinguished by usual spectroscopic methods. This suggests that the air-water interface could be considered as a useful tool to reveal very subtle differences between protein molecules. PMID:22040020

  12. Tanks focus area. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, J.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program.

  13. The quest for customer focus.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line. PMID:15807042

  14. A focus on human flourishing.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2010-10-01

    In this column the author focuses on the concepts of human vulnerability and human flourishing. A parable is presented highlighting the importance of now, the present, in human flourishing. A bioethical, anthropological perspective and a nursing humanbecoming perspective on human flourishing are offered. Nursing education is challenged to emphasize the nursing theories of the discipline to teach the concept of human flourishing. Parse's concept of true presence, the four postulates of humanbecoming, and the humanbecoming community change concepts illuminate a nursing theoretical understanding of human flourishing. PMID:20870999

  15. Pain pharmacology: focus on opioids

    PubMed Central

    Fornasari, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incidence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20–25% worldwide. Although major improvements in pain control have been obtained, more than 50% of the patients reports inadequate relief. It is accepted that chronic pain, if not adequately and rapidly treated, can become a disease in itself, often intractable and maybe irreversible. This is mainly due to neuroplasticity of pain pathways. In the present review I will discuss about pain depicting the rational for the principal pharmacological interventions and finally focusing on opioids, that represent a primary class of drug to treat pain. PMID:25568646

  16. Final focus system for TLC

    SciTech Connect

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  19. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  20. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  1. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  2. NICMOS Optimum Coronagraphic Focus Determinaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This test will ascertain the optimum position of the PAM for maximizing the local contrast ratios in coronagraphic images. Because of the forward motion of the NICMOS optical bench and dewar, the nominal operational position for the PAM is set {for each camera} to achieve diffraction limited focus at the image plane formed at the detector. As a result of the forward motion of the camera 2 detector, hard images are no longer formed coincidentally at the field divider mirror surface {where the coronagraphic hole is located} and at the detector. This will lead to an increase in the diffracted energy in the wings of a PSF from a target placed inside of the coronagraphic hole as the image plane will fall behind the surface of the FDA mirror. The contrast in a coronagraphic image might be enhanced by placing the focus to form an image at either image planes {FDA or detector} or at a place in-between. This is highly dependent on scattering and must be ascertained by direct measurement.

  3. Multiperspective Focus+Context Visualization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Lin; Popescu, Voicu

    2016-05-01

    Occlusions are a severe bottleneck for the visualization of large and complex datasets. Conventional images only show dataset elements to which there is a direct line of sight, which significantly limits the information bandwidth of the visualization. Multiperspective visualization is a powerful approach for alleviating occlusions to show more than what is visible from a single viewpoint. However, constructing and rendering multiperspective visualizations is challenging. We present a framework for designing multiperspective focus+context visualizations with great flexibility by manipulating the underlying camera model. The focus region viewpoint is adapted to alleviate occlusions. The framework supports multiperspective visualization in three scenarios. In a first scenario, the viewpoint is altered independently for individual image regions to avoid occlusions. In a second scenario, conventional input images are connected into a multiperspective image. In a third scenario, one or several data subsets of interest (i.e., targets) are visualized where they would be seen in the absence of occluders, as the user navigates or the targets move. The multiperspective images are rendered at interactive rates, leveraging the camera model's fast projection operation. We demonstrate the framework on terrain, urban, and molecular biology geometric datasets, as well as on volume rendered density datasets. PMID:27045911

  4. Metamorphic mineral assemblages of slightly calcic pelitic rocks in and around the Taconic Allochthon, southwestern Massachusetts and adjacent Connecticut and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zen, E-an

    1981-01-01

    The mineral assemblages from metamorphosed slightly calcic pelitic rocks of the Taconic Range in southwestern Massachusetts and adjacent areas of Connecticut and New York were studied petrographically and chemically. These rocks vary in metamorphic grade from those below the chloritoid zone through the chloritoid and garnet zones into the kyanite-staurolite zone. Microprobe data on the ferromagnesian minerals show that the sequence of increasing Fe/ (Fe+Mg) value is, from the lowest, chlorite, biotite, hornblende, chloritoid, staurolite, garnet. Hornblende, epidote, garnet, and plagioclase are the most common minerals that carry significant calcium. Biotite is persistently deficient in alkali but is abnormally rich in octahedral aluminum to such an extent that the overall charge balance can be ascribed to an AI=K+ (Fe,Mg) diadochy. Muscovite contains small though persistent amounts of iron and magnesium in octahedral positions but has a variable K/Na ratio, which is potentially useful as a geothermometer. One low-grade muscovite is highly phengitic, but the white micas in rocks from metamorphic grades higher than chloritoid zone do not contain significant phengite components. Chlorite is persistently high in aluminum and so its ratio of divalent ions to aluminum is approximately that of garnet. Many garnets show pronounced zoning in manganese and less pronounced zoning in calcium. Garnet coexisting with hornblende contains a high proportion of the grossularitic component. The calcium content is significant in all the analyzed garnets, except those from a cummingtonite-bearing sample that is free of muscovite. This suggests that in slightly calcic pelitic rocks, calcium-free garnet cannot coexist with muscovite. Most of the mineral assemblages formed in the presence of excess quartz and muscovite. The phase-petrologic analysis, made with the aid of an eight-phase multisystematic model, shows the following major points: 1. Chloritoid and staurolite coexist in a

  5. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. PMID:25944413

  6. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. PMID:26187840

  7. Inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on fresh-cut bell pepper treated with slightly acidic electrolyzed water combined with ultrasound and mild heat.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to enhance the antimicrobial effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) through addition of synergistic treatment with ultrasound (US) and mild heat treatment in order to improve the microbial safety of fresh-cut bell pepper. To evaluate the synergistic effects, the Weibull model was used to mathematically measure the effectiveness of the individual and combined treatments against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium on the pepper. The combined treatment (SAEW+US+60 °C) resulted in the TR values of 0.04 and 0.09 min for L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium, respectively, as consequence of the minimum value. Subsequently, texture analysis was carried out to test the potential effect on quality of the samples due to the involved mild heat and ultrasound treatment. When compared to the control, there was no significant change (p ≥ 0.05) in the texture (color and hardness) of the samples that were treated by 1 min of the combined treatment (SAEW+US+60 °C) during storage at 4 °C for 7 days. This combined treatment achieved approximately 3.0 log CFU/g reduction in the two pathogens. The results demonstrate that the involved hurdle factors which are ultrasound and mild heat achieved the synergistic effect of SAEW against the two pathogens. According to the results of texture analysis, 1 min of SAEW+US+60 °C is the optimal condition due to without negative influence on the quality of the samples during the storage. The optimal condition shows the enhanced antimicrobial effect of SAEW and enables to improve microbial safety of fresh bell pepper in food industry as a consequence of hurdle approach. PMID:26678144

  8. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules (<1 kDa) and large ones (> 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (<1 kDa) of DOM, and 8.62% TOC and 7.33% UV254 for large ones (>50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F. PMID:25176300

  9. Growth model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various storage temperatures on kale treated by thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Wang, Jun; Park, Myeong-Su; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the disinfection efficacy of hurdle treatments (thermosonication plus slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and to develop a model for describing the effect of storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut kale treated with or without (control) thermosonication combined with SAcEW. The hurdle treatments of thermosonication plus SAcEW had strong bactericidal effects against E. coli O157:H7 on kale, with approximately 3.3-log reductions. A modified Gompertz model was used to describe growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) as a function of storage temperature, with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98). SGR increased and LT declined with rising temperatures in all samples. A significant difference was found between the SGR values obtained from treated and untreated samples. Secondary models were established for SGR and LT to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on the growth kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in treated and untreated kale. Statistical evaluation was carried out to validate the performance of the developed models, based on the additional experimental data not used for the model development. The validation step indicated that the overall predictions were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had lower standard errors, indicating that this new growth model can be used to assess the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on kale. PMID:24405995

  10. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance.

  11. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-03-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here.

  12. Hospitals focus on physician relations.

    PubMed

    Rubright, R

    1987-09-01

    Many hospital administrators are shifting their marketing focus from consumers and referral agents to the hospital's attending physicians. These new comprehensive physician relations or retention programs are much broader than those implemented in the past and are used to build mutual exchanges between hospitals and physicians, sharpen the physicians' awareness of the hospital's most appealing attributes, compete with nearby hospitals that develop their own aggressive physician relations programs, and ensure a more promising financial picture for both parties. "Cutting-edge" physician relations plans in Catholic hospitals include the following: Marketing plans for the medical staff alone or with key medical staff sections; A strong physician data base; A physician referral system; A director of medical affairs; Practice enhancement and business assistance services; A young physicians section; Continuing marketing auditing and research into physicians' opinions, attitudes, and behavior patterns; Physician inclusion in all major programs, services, policies, and events; Programs for physician office staff; Marketing committees consisting of physicians. PMID:10283486

  13. Hormone Purification by Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1985-01-01

    Various ground-based research approaches are being applied to a more definitive evaluation of the natures and degrees of electroosmosis effects on the separation capabilities of the Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) process. A primary instrumental system for this work involves rotationally stabilized, horizontal electrophoretic columns specially adapted for the IEF process. Representative adaptations include segmentation, baffles/screens, and surface coatings. Comparative performance and development testing are pursued against the type of column or cell established as an engineering model. Previously developed computer simulation capabilities are used to predict low-gravity behavior patterns and performance for IEF apparatus geometries of direct project interest. Three existing mathematical models plus potential new routines for particular aspects of simulating instrument fluid patterns with varied wall electroosmosis influences are being exercised.

  14. Focusing of Helicopter BVI Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowson, M. V.

    1996-02-01

    Results are reported from an exact analytic model for the kinematics of noise radiation due to blade-vortex interaction which gives new predictions of the directionality of BVI noise from helicopters. It is shown that the blade-vortex interaction process will give rise to focused regions of intense noise which can decay locally at a rate less than inverse square law. This finding has obvious consequences for helicopter detection and community annoyance. However, the model also gives explicit prediction of the location of the regions of intense noise, and of the location in the disc of the interaction source responsible. Thus the model can also be used to suggest methods for exploiting directionality effects to reduce noise from helicopter operations.

  15. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  16. Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

  17. Random focusing of tsunami waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Henri; Metzger, Jakob J.; Geisel, Theo; Fleischmann, Ragnar

    2016-03-01

    Tsunamis exhibit surprisingly strong height fluctuations. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to these variations in wave height is a prerequisite for reliable tsunami forecasting. It is known, for example, that the presence of large underwater islands or the shape of the tsunami source can affect the wave heights. Here we show that the consecutive effect of even tiny fluctuations in the profile of the ocean floor (the bathymetry) can cause unexpectedly strong fluctuations in the wave height of tsunamis, with maxima several times higher than the average wave height. A novel approach combining stochastic caustic theory and shallow water wave dynamics allows us to determine the typical propagation distance at which the strongly focused waves appear. We demonstrate that owing to this mechanism the small errors present in bathymetry measurements can lead to drastic variations in predicted tsunami heights. Our results show that a precise knowledge of the ocean's bathymetry is absolutely indispensable for reliable tsunami forecasts.

  18. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  19. Centripetal focusing of gyrotactic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Cencini, M; Franchino, M; Santamaria, F; Boffetta, G

    2016-06-21

    A suspension of gyrotactic microalgae Chlamydomonas augustae swimming in a cylindrical water vessel in solid-body rotation is studied. Our experiments show that swimming algae form an aggregate around the axis of rotation, whose intensity increases with the rotation speed. We explain this phenomenon by the centripetal orientation of the swimming direction towards the axis of rotation. This centripetal focusing is contrasted by diffusive fluxes due to stochastic reorientation of the cells. The competition of the two effects lead to a stationary distribution, which we analytically derive from a refined mathematical model of gyrotactic swimmers. The temporal evolution of the cell distribution, obtained via numerical simulations of the stochastic model, is in quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements in the range of parameters explored. PMID:27060672

  20. Ultrasound focusing images in superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Michiko; Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tamura, Shin-ichiro

    2002-03-01

    We study theoretically ultrasound focusing in periodic multilayered structures, or superlattices, by solving the wave equation with the Green function method and calculating the transmitted ultrasound amplitude images of both the longitudinal and transverse modes. The constituent layers assumed are elastically isotropic but the periodically stacked structure is anisotropic. Thus anisotropy of ultrasound propagation is predicted even at low frequencies and it is enhanced significantly at higher frequencies due to the zone-folding effect of acoustic dispersion relations. An additional effect studied is the interference of ultrasound (known as the internal diffraction), which can be recognized when the propagation distance is comparable to the ultrasound wavelength. Numerical examples are developed for millimetre-scale Al/polymer multilayers used recently for imaging experiment with surface acoustic waves.

  1. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  2. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  3. Variable focus crystal diffraction lens

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R.K.

    1988-11-01

    A new method has been developed to control the shape of the surface of a diffracting crystal that will allow it to function as a variable focus crystal diffraction lens, for focusing photon beams from a synchrotron source. The new method uses thermal gradients in the crystal to control the shape of the surface of the crystal in two dimensions and allows one to generate both spherical and ellipsoidal surface shapes. In this work the thermal gradient was generated by core drilling two sets of cooling channels in a silicon crystal so that cooling or heating fluids could be circulated through the crystal at two different levels. The first set of channels is close to the surface of the crystal where the photon beam strikes it. The second set of channels is equal distant from the back surface. If a concave surface is desired, the fluid in the channels just below the surface exposed to the beam is cooler than the fluid circulating through the channels near the back surface. If a convex surface is desired, then the cooling fluid in the upper channels near the surface exposed to the incident photon beam, is warmer than the fluid in the lower channels. The focal length of the crystal lens is varied by varying the thermal gradient in the crystal. This approach can also be applied to the first crystal in a high power synchrotron beam line to eliminate the bowing and other thermal distortions of the crystal caused by the high heat load. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  6. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    Control of quantum phenomena has grown from a dream to a burgeoning field encompassing wide-ranging experimental and theoretical activities. Theoretical research in this area primarily concerns identification of the principles for controlling quantum phenomena, the exploration of new experimental applications and the development of associated operational algorithms to guide such experiments. Recent experiments with adaptive feedback control span many applications including selective excitation, wave packet engineering and control in the presence of complex environments. Practical procedures are also being developed to execute real-time feedback control considering the resultant back action on the quantum system. This focus issue includes papers covering many of the latest advances in the field. Focus on Quantum Control Contents Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti and Herschel Rabitz Biologically inspired molecular machines driven by light. Optimal control of a unidirectional rotor Guillermo Pérez-Hernández, Adam Pelzer, Leticia González and Tamar Seideman Simulating quantum search algorithm using vibronic states of I2 manipulated by optimally designed gate pulses Yukiyoshi Ohtsuki Efficient coherent control by sequences of pulses of finite duration Götz S Uhrig and Stefano Pasini Control by decoherence: weak field control of an excited state objective Gil Katz, Mark A Ratner and Ronnie Kosloff Multi-qubit compensation sequences Y Tomita, J T Merrill and K R Brown Environment-invariant measure of distance between evolutions of an open quantum system Matthew D Grace, Jason Dominy, Robert L Kosut, Constantin Brif and Herschel Rabitz Simplified quantum process tomography M P A Branderhorst, J Nunn, I A Walmsley and R L Kosut Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent control and stimulated emission Stephen D Clow, Uvo C Holscher and Thomas C Weinacht A convenient method to simulate and visually

  8. Tube entrance lens focus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Kitchen, T. F. G.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.; Muirhead, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    The entrance of the accelerator tube in a large electrostatic accelerator imposes a strong lens that dominates the beam optics. The magnification of the lens is large because of the low injection energy, the high voltage gradient of the acceleration tube and the long distance to the terminal. In the absence of the acceleration, the magnification would produce an unacceptably large beam spot at the terminal. The tyranny of the lens is especially irksome when the accelerator is required to operate at a lower terminal voltage than the one corresponding to the nominal gradient at high voltage. One way around the difficulty, used in NEC Pelletron accelerators, is to insert a series of nylon and steel rods that short together units of the acceleration structure at the terminal leaving the ones near the entrance close to the nominal gradient for optimum transmission. This operation takes time and risks the loss of insulating gas. Another alternative used in the 25URC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is to focus the beam at the tube entrance, substantially diluting the effect of the entrance lens. The beam then diverges and so requires an additional lens part way to the terminal. This solution is only partially effective and still necessitates use of shorting rods for low voltage operation. The fact that these elaborate strategies are used is evidence that the alternative of lowering the injection energy as the terminal voltage is lowered imposes enough problems that it is not used in practice. We have modeled a solution that controls the voltage gradient at the tube entrance using an external power supply. This not only maintains the focusing effect of the lens but provides the opportunity to tune the beam by adjusting the entrance lens. A 150 kV power supply outside the pressure vessel feeds a controllable voltage through a high voltage feed-through to the fifth electrode of the accelerator tube. Thus 150 kV on this electrode creates the nominal gradient of 30 kV per

  9. Temperatures of Thermal and Slightly Thermal Springs on Mount Hood, Oregon, Apparently Unperturbed by the Magnitude-4.5 Earthquake on June 29, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Mariner, R. H.

    2002-12-01

    On the basis of water chemistry, three distinct hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mount Hood. Swim Warm Springs has a series of vents with temperatures ranging from 9° to 25°C with temperatures determined by mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hottest feature was 25.6° to 26.2°C in 1976-78, 25°C in 1997, and 24.7°C in 2001. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 187°C, re-equilibrated at 96°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in various springs. The Meadows Spring is a slightly thermal spring with measured temperatures of 4.8°, 6.1°, 6.6°C in 1997, 1999, and 2001 related to mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 223°C, re-equilibrated at 94°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in the spring over several years. Both systems contain water from precipitation at high elevation. The summit fumaroles have gas-geothermometer temperatures generally over 300°C, indicating that they are not the steam discharge from the Swim and Meadows hydrothermal systems. Field measurements in July-August, 2002, after the magnitude-4.5 earthquake of June 29, 2002, showed that the highest-temperature vent at Swim Warm Springs was 25.7°C, similar to values found in other years. Measurements on a hot afternoon and a cool morning yielded temperatures of 25.7° and 25.2°C, indicating that this low-flow feature is subject to some solar heating. The Meadows Spring was 6.3°C, consistent with its previous behavior of mixing. The lower temperature indicates that there is a variability associated with unknown hydrologic factors rather than confirming an apparent trend of continuously increasing temperatures for the 1997-2001 period. The Crater Rock fumarole was 89°C, similar to previous measurements. Post-earthquake measurements of spring temperatures

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau

  12. Focus+context metro maps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. PMID:22034374

  13. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  14. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  15. Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a self focused laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.

    2010-12-15

    Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a short laser pulse undergoing relativistic self-focusing in a plasma is investigated. The saturation in nonlinear plasma permittivity causes periodic self-focusing of the laser. The periodicity lengths are different for different axial segments of the pulse. As a result, pulse shape is distorted. An electron initially on the laser axis and at the front of the self-focusing pulse gains energy from the pulse until it is run over by the pulse peak. By the time electron reaches the tail, if pulse begins diverging, the deceleration of the electron is slower and the electron is left with net energy gain. The electrons slightly off the laser axis see a radial ponderomotive force too. Initially, when they are accelerated by the pulse front the acceleration is strong as they are closer to the axis. When they see the tail of the pulse (after being run by the pulse), they are farther from the axis and the retardation ponderomotive force is weaker. Thus, there is net energy gain.

  16. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The notion 'molecular electronics' has been used more frequently since the 1970s and summarizes a series of physical phenomena and ideas for their application in connection with organic molecules, oligomers, polymers, organic aggregates and solids. The properties studied in this field were connected to optical and electrical phenomena, such as optical absorption, fluorescence, nonlinear optics, energy transport, charge transfer, electrical conductance, and electron and nuclear spin-resonance. The final goal was and is to build devices which can compete or surpass some aspects of inorganic semiconductor devices. For example, on the basis of organic molecules there exist rectifiers, transistors, molecular wires, organic light emitting diodes, elements for photovoltaics, and displays. With respect to applications, one aspect of the organic materials is their broad variability and the lower effort and costs for their processability. The step from microstructures to the investigation of nanostructures is a big challenge also in this field and has lead to what nowadays is called molecular electronics in its narrow sense. In this field the subjects of the studies are often single molecules, e.g. single molecule optical spectroscopy, electrical conductance, i.e. charge transport through a single molecule, the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom, etc. A challenge here is to provide the techniques for addressing in a reproducible way the molecular scale. In another approach small molecular ensembles are studied in order to avoid artefacts from particular contact situations. The recent development of the field is presented in [1-8]. In this Focus Issue we present new results in the field of 'molecular electronics', both in its broad and specialized sense. One of the basic questions is the distribution of the energy levels responsible for optical absorption on the one hand and for the transport of charge on the other. A still unanswered question is whether the Wannier

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The notion 'molecular electronics' has been used more frequently since the 1970s and summarizes a series of physical phenomena and ideas for their application in connection with organic molecules, oligomers, polymers, organic aggregates and solids. The properties studied in this field were connected to optical and electrical phenomena, such as optical absorption, fluorescence, nonlinear optics, energy transport, charge transfer, electrical conductance, and electron and nuclear spin-resonance. The final goal was and is to build devices which can compete or surpass some aspects of inorganic semiconductor devices. For example, on the basis of organic molecules there exist rectifiers, transistors, molecular wires, organic light emitting diodes, elements for photovoltaics, and displays. With respect to applications, one aspect of the organic materials is their broad variability and the lower effort and costs for their processability. The step from microstructures to the investigation of nanostructures is a big challenge also in this field and has lead to what nowadays is called molecular electronics in its narrow sense. In this field the subjects of the studies are often single molecules, e.g. single molecule optical spectroscopy, electrical conductance, i.e. charge transport through a single molecule, the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom, etc. A challenge here is to provide the techniques for addressing in a reproducible way the molecular scale. In another approach small molecular ensembles are studied in order to avoid artefacts from particular contact situations. The recent development of the field is presented in [1-8]. In this Focus Issue we present new results in the field of 'molecular electronics', both in its broad and specialized sense. One of the basic questions is the distribution of the energy levels responsible for optical absorption on the one hand and for the transport of charge on the other. A still unanswered question is whether the Wannier

  19. The Unfocused Focus Group: Benefit or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…

  20. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  3. Recognizing focus in noise filled sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ching X.; Xu, Yi

    2003-04-01

    This study is designed to help identify the intrinsic constituents of focus. Twelve four-word Mandarin sentences were recorded by a native speaker five times, each time either with focus on one of the words, or without any focus. Then, one, two or three words in each sentence produced by the speaker were replaced by pink noise. The noise-filled sentences were presented to subjects along with the text. The subjects' task was to determine if the sentence had a focus, and if yes, on which word. Ten native Mandarin speakers participated as subjects. Their performance was compared across noise replacement conditions. It was found that, when both on-focus and post-focus words were present, focus could be recognized consistently. When only the focused word was present, focus could be recognized fairly well unless the focus position was sentence final, in which case it was not very distinct from no focus. When post-focus word(s) was(were) left intact while focused words were replaced by noise, focus could still be detected successfully, but its exact localization was sometimes judged wrong. These results seem to support the dual-component hypothesis about focus. Further implications of the findings will be discussed.

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  5. Combining focused MACE filters for target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghoneim, Khaled A.; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

    1998-09-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of a focused filter and discuss its application to the problem of target detection. A focused filter is a filter designed to give a maximum response to one pose of the target. This pose is called the focus of the filter. As the pose of the target deviates from the focus, the filter's responses should exhibit a graceful (and controlled) degradation. When presented with a test image, the responses of all focused filters are collected in a vector. This new vector will have a peak with the same shape as that used in designing one focused filter. Preliminary simulation experiments shows the robustness of this method.

  6. Meta-Analysis of the SLCO1B1 c.521T>C Variant Reveals Slight Influence on the Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Statins

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Ye; Zhu, Xiaohai; Tian, Xuewen; Cheng, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have focused on the association between the lipid-lowering efficacy of statins and the SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism; however, the results are conflicting. The effects of statins show significant variability between individuals. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of the SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism on the lipid-lowering effects of statins. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and Web of Science to screen relevant studies. Meta-analysis was performed to identify the association between SLCO1B1 c.521 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of statinson the basis of the standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additionally, we checked for heterogeneity (I2) among studies and evidence of publication bias. We obtained eight studies including 2,012 wild genotype (T/T) and 526 variant genotype (T/C and C/C) cases. Results No significant difference was observed in the lipid-lowering efficacy of statins between the wildand variant genotypes of SLCO1B1, with a pooled SMD of 0.03 (95% CI: -0.07-0.13). Furthermore, there was no significant effect in the meta-analyses of the variant heterozygote, homozygote, and Chinese populations. Subgroup meta-analysis indicated that the timerequired for the statin to take effectdid notsignificantly affect the association between lipid-lowering efficacy of statins and SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism. However, thewild genotype improved the lipid-lowering efficacy of simvastatin with a pooled SMD of -0.26 (95% CI: -0.47- -0.05). Conclusions No significant association was detected between the lipid-lowering efficacy of statins and the SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism, with the exception of simvastatin. PMID:25932441

  7. Investigation of focused and unfocused transducer beam patterns in moderately nonlinear absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The novel solution of the KZK equation for acoustic pressure of the second harmonic in slightly focused beam of a circular transducer was obtained in a closed form for moderately nonlinear absorbing media (Gol'dberg numbers ~ 1). The solution is based on the method of slowly changing wave profile in combination with the method of successive approximations. Two pairs of transducers (Valpey-Fisher Corp.) Were compared to investigate the influence of focusing on the applicability of the moderate nonlinearity approach. The first pair was of 0.25' diameter and the second was of 0.5' diameter. Both pairs has one transducer with flat surface and the other geometrically focused at 4'. The central frequency for all transducers was 5 MHz. Measurements were undertaken in the blood-mimicking solution of water and glycerine. The results demonstrated that for slightly focused transducers with circular apertures, the moderate nonlinearity approach is still valid, as it was proved for flat sources with the same source level, despite the higher pressures in the focal region. The peak pressure for the weakly focused system occurs at a shorter range than focal length.

  8. Radially varying dispersion in high-numerical-aperture focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michiel; Brakenhoff, G. J.; Simon, Ulrich; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    1998-05-01

    Over the last few years a number of microscopical techniques have been developed that take advantage of ultrashort optical pulses. All these techniques rely on temporal pulse integrity at the focal point of a high-numerical aperture (NA) focusing system. We have investigated the dispersion induced broadening for pulses on the optical axis, using the two-photon absorption autocorrelation (TPAA) technique. We demonstrate that the induced broadening can be pre- compensated for by a properly designed dispersion pre- compensation unit for pulses as short as 15 femtosecond. Another source of pulse broadening in high-NA focusing systems is due to radial variations in the dispersion over the pupil of the objective. This may cause differences in the group delay between on-axis and outer ray wave packets, as well as differences in the broadening of the wave packets themselves. In this paper we present experimental results on the measurement of these radial variations in the dispersion characteristics over the aperture of high-NA microscope objectives, using a slightly modified TPAA technique.

  9. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  10. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  11. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  12. Differential spot-size focus servo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Kann, J. L.; Treptau, J. P.; Erwin, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    We describe performance of a differential spot-size (wax-wane) focus servo. Crosstalk from the tracks are analyzed in the single detector and differential focus circuits. Magnitude of the crosstalk is reduced by a factor of three in the differential circuit. A false focus-error signal (FES) is present when the spot crosses sector marks at an angle.

  13. Focus control enhancement and on-product focus response analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Ki; Chen, Yen-Jen; Hao, Xueli; Samudrala, Pavan; Gomez, Juan-Manuel; Mahoney, Mark O.; Kamalizadeh, Ferhad; Hanson, Justin K.; Lee, Shawn; Tian, Ye

    2016-03-01

    With decreasing CDOF (Critical Depth Of Focus) for 20/14nm technology and beyond, focus errors are becoming increasingly critical for on-product performance. Current on product focus control techniques in high volume manufacturing are limited; It is difficult to define measurable focus error and optimize focus response on product with existing methods due to lack of credible focus measurement methodologies. Next to developments in imaging and focus control capability of scanners and general tool stability maintenance, on-product focus control improvements are also required to meet on-product imaging specifications. In this paper, we discuss focus monitoring, wafer (edge) fingerprint correction and on-product focus budget analysis through diffraction based focus (DBF) measurement methodology. Several examples will be presented showing better focus response and control on product wafers. Also, a method will be discussed for a focus interlock automation system on product for a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment.

  14. Onset of nonlinear self-focusing of femtosecond laser pulses in air: Conventional vs spatiotemporal focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ya; Xie, Hongqiang; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Guihua; Zeng, Bin; He, Fei; Chu, Wei; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    We report an experimental comparison of critical intensities of nonlinear self-focusing in air with conventional focusing and spatiotemporal focusing schemes. Our results show that the conventional focusing with the focal lens completely filled with the incident beam allows for a higher peak intensity near the focus against the nonlinear self-focusing than the spatiotemporal focusing scheme. This is because in the high-numerical-aperture condition, the focal spot will have a compact size, which results in a high focal intensity. Meanwhile, the Rayleigh length of the focused beam will be substantially shortened, which efficiently postpones the onset of self-focusing.

  15. Quantitative results from the focusing schlieren technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. P.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1993-01-01

    An iterative theoretical approach to obtain quantitative density data from the focusing schlieren technique is proposed. The approach is based on an approximate modeling of the focusing action in a focusing schlieren system, and an estimation of an appropriate focal plane thickness. The theoretical approach is incorporated in a computer program, and results obtained from a supersonic wind tunnel experiment evaluated by comparison with CFD data. The density distributions compared favorably with CFD predictions. However, improvements to the system are required in order to reduce noise in the data, to improve specifications of a depth of focus, and to refine the modeling of the focusing action.

  16. Technological applications of focusing optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abul'khanov, Stanislav R.

    2015-03-01

    The article analyzes a wide range of technologies generated by the application of focusators of laser radiation. I give a brief review of the methods of monitoring substrate and forming a diffraction microrelief, optical systems and devices for experimental research of focusators, laser technologies and units on their basis. In particular, I analyze using focusator into the ring for growing single-crystalline fibers in device of mini pedestal, using focusator into a set of rings for information-measuring system of three-dimensional control of grid spacers and other applications of focusators.

  17. The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.

  18. Numerical simulations on the focus-shift multiplexing technique for self-referential holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, Masanori; Eto, Taisuke; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    For increasing the data density of holographic data storage (HDS), combining more than two multiplexing techniques is effective. This is also true in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS) that enables holographic recording purely with a single beam. In this paper, a focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the feasibility of which has been shown in our previous work. The focus-shift multiplexing technique enables the multiplexing of datapages by slightly changing the focal length of the objective lens. However, the required focus-shift distance for multiplexing and the implementation method of the focus-shift have not been clarified. First, the focus-shift selectivity is investigated by the numerical simulations. In the case where the focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the inter-page crosstalk properties are clarified to decide the recording layout that can achieve a low-crosstalk readout. Second, the technique of displaying an additional phase pattern onto the spatial light modulator (SLM) is introduced, which is a focus-shift method without any special optical components, such as varifocal lenses. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the accuracy of the focus-shift and the parameters of SLM.

  19. Combining focused MACE filters for pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghoneim, Khaled A.; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

    1998-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of a focused filter and discuss its application to the problem of pose estimation. A focused filter is a correlation filter designed to give a maximum response at one pose of the target. This pose is called the focus of the filter. As the actual pose of the target deviates from the focus, the filter's response should exhibit a graceful (and controlled) degradation. When presented with a test image, the responses of all focused filters are collected in a vector. This new vector will have a peak with the vector elements exhibiting the same shape as that used in designing one focused filter. This similarity is exploited for pose estimation by matching the filter responses to the designed shape. Simulation experiments are used to illustrate the potential of the new design method.

  20. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liakus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  1. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  2. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  3. Low voltage operation of plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S. K.; Banerjee, P.; Das, R.; Deb, P.; Prabahar, T.; Das, B. K.; Adhikary, B.; Shyam, A.

    2010-08-15

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 {mu}F capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  4. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2003-05-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The NTX final focus system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final focus lattice consists of four pulsed quadrupole magnets. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. We will present experimental results from NTX on beam envelope and phase space distributions, and compare these results with particle simulations using the particle-in-cell code WARP.

  5. COS FUV Optics Alignment and Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    2009-07-01

    After FUV detector functionality has been confirmed in COS25 {program 11483} and the initial focus updates determined in COS08 and COS 09 {programs 11468 and 11469}, a sequence of 13 FUV focus-sweep exposures of a sharp-lined external target will be made with each grating {4 orbits per grating} to perform a fine-focus sweep. After the data are analyzed, a patchable constant SMS update of OSM1 focus for each grating will be uplinked. A verification visit will be executed after the uplink. Observations require high S/N and should be taken in TIME-TAG {FLASH=YES} mode.

  6. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  7. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  8. On FOCUS: Photographs and Writings by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeyer, Beatriz; McGrail, Loren

    Project FOCUS is aimed at enhancing literacy education for non-native speakers of English through the use of photography. It was offered as an elective course within a family literacy program for Hispanic adults. This collection of writings and photographs originated in the program. The collection begins with an overview of Project FOCUS, personal…

  9. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  10. Conducting the Computer-Mediated Focus Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Kenneth A.

    The growing popularity of focus group measurements can be traced to any one of four factors: (1) the economics associated with focus groups; (2) the speed at which data can now be collected; (3) the need to understand customer motivations; and (4) the desire to improve subsequent qualitative research activities and programs. Market researchers are…

  11. Lifelong Learning and Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and literacy,…

  12. School-focused Inservice: Descriptions and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howey, Kenneth R., Ed.; And Others

    The characteristics and structures of school-focused inservice teacher education are explored by educators and researchers in 16 essays. An introductory article gives the rationale for more and better school-focused inservice education, particularly because of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142). School-focused…

  13. Focused Monitoring. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    During this era of increased accountability and enhanced educational expectations for infants, toddlers and students with disabilities, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is using a new compliance and technical assistance model- focused monitoring. Focused monitoring is part of the Continuous Improvement…

  14. Designing and Implementing Value Focused Effectiveness Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajek, Becky; And Others

    Focusing on the measurements and traits used to assess program effectiveness at Wisconsin's Northcentral Technical College (NTC), this document reviews the college's value-focused effectiveness indicators and provides data on outcomes as of 1994-95. Following NTC's mission statement, the program assessment criteria developed at the college are…

  15. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  16. Accuracy of Information Processing under Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper reports the results of an experiment on the accuracy of information processing during attention focused arousal under two conditions: single estimation and double estimation. The attention of 187 college students was focused by a task requiring high level competition for a monetary prize ($10) under severely limited time conditions. The…

  17. Focusing Research in Universities: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the implications for research management in universities of the explicit identification of areas of research focus. In particular, it examines how research facilitation can work with research focus to enable universities to organise and project their research capabilities more effectively. This combination of research…

  18. Focus Groups with Linguistically Marginalized Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardi, Marco M.

    The focus group method has rapidly gained credibility among researchers in many fields, including public health researchers. The increased use of focus groups by public health researchers has underscored the demonstrable need for the capacity to apply this method of research among populations with limited abilities in or cultural resistance to…

  19. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  20. Using Focused Conversation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spee, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Focused conversation is a method of collecting observations, emotions, interpretations, and decisions from groups that have shared a significant experience. This article reports how the author used focused conversation to discuss the events of September 11 with students in three sections of a master's-level organizational change class in the week…

  1. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  2. Promises and Self-Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sidney

    Making a promise involves a self-conscious, self-commitment to undertake an obligation in the future and involves a personal sense of control. To study promises and self-focused attention, 72 women completed measures of self-focused attention and locus of control, a questionnaire, and were asked to promise to return postcards. As predicted,…

  3. Focused force angioplasty Theory and application

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, Ronald J.; Ischinger, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    Focused force angioplasty is a technique in which the forces resulting from inflating an angioplasty balloon in a stenosis are concentrated and focused at one or more locations within the stenosis. While the technique has been shown to be useful in resolving resistant stenoses, its real value may be in minimizing the vascular trauma associated with balloon angioplasty and subsequently improving the outcome.

  4. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-04-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n{sub p} much greater than electron beam density, n{sub b}) or underdense (n{sub p} less than 2 n{sub b}). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated.

  5. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  6. Scanning and focusing mechanisms of METEOSAT radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouan, J.

    1977-01-01

    Two mechanisms, both of screw-jack type are described. The scanning mechanism, an oil lubricated and sealed unit drives and accurately positions the telescope of the METEOSAT radiometer. The dry lubricated focusing mechanism is used to adjust the focus of this telescope. The METEOSAT program is nearly completed, and the first flight model will be launched at the end of the year.

  7. How I Learned to Conduct Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel

    2011-01-01

    The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…

  8. Large area focusing collector for the observation of cosmic X rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Decaprio, A.; Chase, R.; Harris, B.

    1973-01-01

    A large area focusing X-ray collector constructed for a sounding rocket is described. The instrument consists of nested reflecting plates that are curved slightly in one dimension to form a set of parabolas with a common focus. An array of plates such as the one in the sounding rocket focuses a parallel beam of X-rays to a line. The reflecting surfaces are commercial float glass with an evaporated metallic coating such as gold or nickel. With a gold coating, the effective area of the rocket collector is about 250 sq cm for 0.3 keV X rays and about 150 sq cm at 1.2 keV. Its angular resolution is a few arc minutes and field of view is about plus or minus .75 deg (full width at half maximum). The collector performed successfully during a sounding rocket flight.

  9. SM3B NICMOS Focus Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A. B.; Schneider, G.; Roye, E.; Malhotra, S.

    2002-06-01

    We report determinations of the NICMOS foci following cool down of the NICMOS detectors after installation and activation of the NICMOS Cooling System (NCS). A focus sweep in all three cameras executed on May 3, 2002 (program ID: 8977). Visual inspection of the data indicated that a small amount of coma had been introduced since January 1999. Phase retrieval (STScI) and encircled energy (University of Arizona) measurements were used to determine the best focus positions. The results of the two methods compared quite favorably with each other. Adjustments to the current Pupil Alignment Mechanism (PAM) positions were implemented on May 9, 2002 for Camera 1 & 2 (PAM1 & PAM2). No focus adjustments were implemented for Camera 3 (PAM3) or for the Camera 2 coronagraphic focus (PAMC). Adjustment of the intermediate focus position between Camera 1 & 2 (PAMI) will be managed starting during week 2002.133 by SMS.

  10. Slightly anharmonic systems in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimov, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Sergey M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atom or many such atoms) interacting with a strong resonant quantum field. The approximate evolution operator for a quantum field case can be produced from the atomic evolution operator in an external classical field by a 'quantization prescription', passing the operator arguments to Wigner D-functions. Many important phenomena arising from the quantum nature of the field can be described by such a way.

  11. 7 CFR 51.647 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... aggregate of green color, the portion of the fruit surface which is not discolored shows some yellow color....

  12. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 2...

  13. 7 CFR 51.647 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States Other Than..., except for a 2-inch circle in the aggregate of green color, the portion of the fruit surface which is...

  14. 7 CFR 51.647 - Slightly colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... aggregate of green color, the portion of the fruit surface which is not discolored shows some yellow color....

  15. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with bacteria-rich mucous," says AGD spokesperson, June Lee?xml:namespace>, DDS, MAGD. "A tongue scraper is ... xml:namespace> Despite the short-term reduction, Dr. Lee feels that tongue scrapers are a good tool ...

  16. Stable two-plane focusing for emittance-dominated sheet-beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, B. E.; Earley, L. M.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Russell, S. J.; Potter, J. M.; Ferguson, P.; Humphries, S.

    2005-06-01

    Two-plane focusing of sheet electron beams will be an essential technology for an emerging class of high-power, 100 to 300 GHz rf sources [Carlsten et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 85 (2005), ITPSBD, 0093-3813, 10.1109/TPS.2004.841172]. In these devices, the beam has a unique asymmetry in which the transport is emittance dominated in the sheet’s thin dimension and space-charge dominated in the sheet’s wide dimension. Previous work has studied the stability of the transport of beams in the emittance-dominated regime for both wiggler and periodic permanent magnet (PPM) configurations with single-plane focusing, and has found that bigger envelope scalloping occurs for equilibrium transport, as compared to space-charge dominated beams [Carlsten et al., this issue, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 062001 (2005), PRABFM, 1098-4402]. In this paper, we describe the differences in transport stability when two-plane focusing is included. Two-plane wiggler focusing degrades the transport stability slightly, whereas two-plane PPM focusing greatly compromises the transport. On the other hand, single-plane PPM focusing can be augmented with external quadrupole fields to provide weak focusing in the sheet’s wide dimension, which has stability comparable to two-plane wiggler transport.

  17. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  18. Gas-injection experiments on a dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Barnouin, O.; Javedani, J.; Del Medico, S.; Miley, G.H.; Bromley, B.

    1994-12-31

    Rockford Technology Associates, Inc. (RTA) has been doing experiments on the Dense Plasma focus (DPF) device at the Fusion Studies Laboratory of the University of Illinois. This DPF consists of four racks of five 2-{mu}F capacitors whose charge is switched onto the inner electrode of a plasma focus by four Trigatron spark gaps. The stored energy is 12.5 kJ at 25 kV. The bank is usually discharged in a static fill of H{sub 2} at {approx} 6 torr. Preliminary experiments aimed at exploring the potential of the DPF device as a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and as an x-ray source for lithography have investigated various alternative ways of injecting gas between the electrodes. One of those approaches consists of injecting gas from the tip of the inner electrode at a steady rate. In this operation, the DPF chamber pressure was held constant by running the vacuum pump at full throttle. This operation simulated simultaneous pulsed injection at the base insulator and electrode tip. Hydrogen was fed through a 1/16th-inch hole at a flow rate of {approx} 90 cm/s. Pulsing was then performed at 23 kV, and the corresponding variations of the current were observed using a Rogowski coil. It is found that the plasma collapses into a pinch at the same time as in conventional experiments using a static fill. The singularity in the current waveform is slightly smaller with tip injection, but its size and shape are easily reproducible. Further details and comparison of this operation with conventional pulsing will be presented.

  19. Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei; Judkewitz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Focusing light through scattering media has been a longstanding goal of biomedical optics. While wavefront shaping and optical time-reversal techniques can in principle be used to focus light across scattering media, achieving this within a scattering medium with a noninvasive and efficient reference beacon, or guide star, remains an important challenge. Here, we show optical time-reversal focusing using a new technique termed Time Reversal by Analysis of Changing wavefronts from Kinetic targets (TRACK). By taking the difference between time-varying scattering fields caused by a moving object and applying optical time reversal, light can be focused back to the location previously occupied by the object. We demonstrate this approach with discretely moved objects as well as with particles in an aqueous flow, and obtain a focal peak-to-background strength of 204 in our demonstration experiments. We further demonstrate that the generated focus can be used to noninvasively count particles in a flow-cytometry configuration—even when the particles are hidden behind a strong diffuser. By achieving optical time reversal and focusing noninvasively without any external guide stars, using just the intrinsic characteristics of the sample, this work paves the way to a range of scattering media imaging applications, including underwater and atmospheric focusing as well as noninvasive in vivo flow cytometry. PMID:25621302

  20. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  1. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  2. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  3. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  4. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  5. A sharp-focusing schlieren optical deflectometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvi, F. S.; Settles, G. S.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    A new instrument capable of localized, nonintrusive turbulence measurements is developed by combining a focusing schlieren system with an optical deflectometer. This instrument records the fluctuating light intensity at a point in the focused schlieren image. Its capability is verified by making benchmark measurements of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices produced in a low-speed axisymmetric mixing layer. The sharp-focusing effect is demonstrated both visually and quantitatively. The results show that the instrument is capable of optical turbulence measurements within a 4 mm depth-of-field.

  6. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  7. Crocodiles don't focus underwater.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, L J; Howland, H C; Howland, M J; Rand, A S; Davenport, M L

    1988-08-01

    Crocodilians are amphibious reptiles which hunt prey both on land and in water. Previous refractive and anatomical studies have suggested that their eyes can focus objects in air and that their ability to refocus the eye underwater may be limited. Examination of the plane of focus of six species of crocodilians both in air and underwater has revealed that they are generally well focused in air for distant targets and severely defocused underwater. These results suggest that sensory systems other than vision must play an important role in prey capture underwater. PMID:3184006

  8. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  9. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  10. Structured adaptive focusing through scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Battista, Diego; Ancora, Daniele; Zhang, Haisu; Lemonaki, Krystalia; Avtzi, Stella; Tzortzakis, Stelios; Leonetti, Marco; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2016-03-01

    The combined use of a wavefront modulator and a scattering medium forms an "opaque lens" which forces the light to focus tightly. The adaptive focus has the same shape as the correlation function of the original speckle pattern and it can be generated at defined positions with resolution up to hundreds of nanometers. We have demonstrated that manipulating the speckle pattern spatial components can structure the shape of the focus. Exploiting selectively spatial-frequencies from the speckle components we realized opaque lenses able to produce sub-correlation foci and Bessel beams.

  11. Advanced High Brilliance X-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Walter M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility to dramatically increase the efficiency of laboratory based protein structure measurements through the use of polycapillary X-ray optics was investigated. This project initiated April 1, 1993 and concluded December 31, 1996 (including a no cost extension from June 31, 1996). This is a final report of the project. The basis for the project is the ability to collect X-rays from divergent electron bombardment laboratory X-ray sources and redirect them into quasiparallel or convergent (focused) beams. For example, a 0.1 radian (approx. 6 deg) portion of a divergent beam collected by a polycapillary collimator and transformed into a quasiparallel beam of 3 millradian (0.2 deg) could give a gain of 6(exp 2)/0.2(exp 2) x T for the intensity of a diffracted beam from a crystal with a 0.2 deg diffraction width. T is the transmission efficiency of the polycapillary diffraction optic, and for T=0.5, the gain would be 36/0.04 x O.5=45. In practice, the effective collection angle will depend on the source spot size, the input focal length of the optic (usually limited by the source spot-to-window distance on the x-ray tube) and the size of the crystal relative to the output diameter of the optic. The transmission efficiency, T, depends on the characteristics (fractional open area, surface roughness, shape and channel diameter) of the polycapillary optic and is typically in the range 0.2-0.4. These effects could substantially reduce the expected efficiency gain. During the course of this study, the possibility to use a weakly focused beam (0.5 deg convergence) was suggested which could give an additional 10-20 X efficiency gain for small samples . Weakly focused beams from double focusing mirrors are frequently used for macromolecular crystallography studies. Furthermore the crystals are typically oscillated by as much as 2 deg during each X-ray exposure in order to increase the reciprocal space (number of crystal planes) sampled and use of a slightly convergent

  12. Finding Good Elements for Focused Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Carolyn J.; Crouch, Donald B.; Bapat, Salil; Mehta, Sarika; Paranjape, Darshan

    This paper describes the integration of our methodology for the dynamic retrieval of XML elements [2] with traditional article retrieval to facilitate the Focused and the Relevant-in-Context Tasks of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track. The particular problems that arise for dynamic element retrieval in working with text containing both tagged and untagged elements have been solved [3]. The current challenge involves utilizing its ability to produce a rank-ordered list of elements in the context of focused retrieval. Our system is based on the Vector Space Model [8]; basic functions are performed using the Smart experimental retrieval system [7]. Experimental results are reported for the Focused, Relevant-in-Context, and Best-in-Context Tasks of both the 2007 and 2008 INEX Ad Hoc Tracks. These results indicate that the goal of our 2008 investigations—namely, finding good focused elements in the context of the Wikipedia collection-has been achieved.

  13. Focusing Internet Searches for World Music Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the importance of focusing Internet searches for world music resources. Importance of teaching about music from various cultures; Benefits of identifying a characteristic instrument by name or stylistic terms; Types of music web sites.

  14. HST Cycle 21 Focus and Optical Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    This program is the Cycle 21 implementation of the HST Optical Monitoring Program. The 9 orbits comprising this proposal will utilize ACS {Wide Field channel} and WFC3 {UVIS channel} to observe stellar cluster members in parallel with multiple exposures over an orbit. Phase retrieval performed on the PSF in each image will be used to measure primarily focus, with the ability to explore apparent coma, astigmatism, and third order spherical changes in WFC3. The goals of this program are to:1.} monitor the overall OTA focal length for the purposes of maintaining focus within science tolerances.2.} gain experience with the relative effectiveness of phase retrieval on WFC3/UVIS PSFs.3.} determine focus offset between the imagers and identify any SI-specific focus behavior and dependencies.If need is determined, future visits will be modified to interleave WFC3/IR channel and STIS/CCD focii measurements.

  15. Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-05-20

    Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.

  16. Precise formation of geometrically focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Korepanov, S.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.

    2006-03-15

    Geometrically focused intense neutral beams for plasma diagnostic consist of many elementary beams formed by a multiaperture ion-optical system and aimed at the focal point. In real conditions, some of the elementary beams may have increased angular divergence and/or deviate from the intended direction, thus diminishing the neutral beam density at the focus. Several improvements to the geometrical focusing are considered in the article including flattening of the plasma profile across the emission surface, using of quasi-Pierce electrodes at the beam periphery, and minimizing the deviation of the electrodes from the spherical form. Application of these measures to the neutral beam Russian diagnostic injector developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics allows an increase of neutral beam current density in the focus by {approx}50%.

  17. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-04

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  18. Hydrodynamic focusing of a particle flux

    SciTech Connect

    Makhviladze, G.M.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-12-01

    Based on numerical integration of the equations of mechanics of multiphase media, an effect of focusing of a particle flux generated by a source located on the upper wall of a closed vessel has been revealed and investigated.

  19. Focus group research and "the patient's view".

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Poland, Blake; Daudelin, Genevieve

    2006-10-01

    A clear emphasis on the patient's view is discernible in the health services research literature of the past decades. Such a switch to patients' perspectives has been greatly facilitated by a wider acceptance and use of qualitative methods. In particular, focus groups are often used to uncover the range and depth of experiences of health services users and chronically ill individuals. Although this method contributes to a better understanding of patients' perspectives and practices, a number of analytical considerations have been overlooked. The aim of this paper is to consider how to conceptualise and analyse interactions in focus group research. We argue that focus groups are social spaces in which participants co-construct the "patient's view" by sharing, contesting and acquiring knowledge. Focus groups conducted with home care patients in Quebec, Canada (on antibiotic intravenous therapy, parenteral nutrition, peritoneal dialysis and oxygen therapy) are used to illustrate three interactive processes at work in focus groups: (1) establishing oneself as experienced and knowledgeable; (2) establishing oneself as in search of information and advice; and (3) validating or challenging one another's knowledge claims. We develop an analytical template focused on the subtle dynamics underpinning the various and at times competing claims of patients. This template acknowledges the processes through which participants attribute authority to the claims of others, including the focus group moderator. We find that focus group research does not derive epistemological authority simply from the identity of its participants. Rather, an emerging consensus about what constitutes the patient's view is the result of context-dependent social interactions that need to be scrutinised. PMID:16797811

  20. Results from the final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.; Final Focus Test Beam Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    first experimental results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) are given in this report. The FFTB has been constructed as a prototype for the final focus system of a future TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider. The vertical dimension of the 47 GeV electron beam form the SLAC linac has been reduced at the focal point of the FFTB by a demagnification of 320 to a beam height of approximately 70 nanometers.

  1. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  2. Numerical focusing in diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaikova, N. A.; Grebenyuk, A. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) provides the possibility of high-resolution quantitative phase imaging, based on equipment of an optical microscope with a special module working in a common-path off-axis configuration. As an optical microscopy technique, DPM has a limited focus depth, which is the smaller the higher is the objective's numerical aperture. In this paper we present the results of experimental investigation of numerical focusing with the angular spectrum method in DPM.

  3. The final focus test beam project

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 {mu}m. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Inertial focusing of particles in curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ketaki Neelkanth

    Since the beginning of microfluidics, the ability to control motion of particles in microchannels has always been fascinating. Microfluidic techniques such as dielectrophoresis, magnetophoresis rely on externally applied fields to separate particles while others like hydrophoresis and deterministic lateral displacement depend on low Reynolds number operation for particle manipulation. One of these techniques is inertial focusing of particles in microchannels. The particles and channel interact to cause lateral migration of particles to equilibrium positions within channel cross-section in flow regime where inertia and viscosity of fluid are finite. Inertial focusing has wide range of applications in fields of chemical synthesis, biological analysis, multiphase flows, cell biology and many more. This thesis presents the study of inertial focusing of particles in spiral microchannels. Particle focusing in curved channel depends on number of parameters such as channel cross section, curvature of channel, size and shape of particles and flow parameters like channel Reynolds number. Effect of some of above mentioned parameters on inertial focusing of particles have been discussed in detail in this thesis. Effect of curvature of channel on inertial focusing in spiral channels has been studied. Microchannels with square and rectangular cross-section are considered in this study. Study of hydrodynamic focusing of particles in non-Newtonian fluid in curved channel is performed. The results are compared with those obtained for inertial focusing of particles in Newtonian fluids in spiral microchannel. The understanding of different factors influencing the particle behavior in spiral channels can be used to develop new and improved technologies in biomedical applications.

  5. Fast and Adaptive Auto-focusing Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Takeshi; Igarashi, Yasunobu; Hashimoto, Koichi

    Optical microscopes are widely used in biological and medical researches. By using the microscope, we can observe cellular movements including intracellular ions and molecules tagged with fluorescent dyes at a high magnification. However, a freely motile cell easily escapes from a 3D field of view of the typical microscope. Therefore, we propose a novel auto-focusing algorithm and develop a auto-focusing and tracking microscope. XYZ positions of a microscopic stage are feedback controlled to focus and track the cell automatically. A bright-field image is used to estimate a cellular position. XY centroids are used to estimate XY positions of the tracked cell. To estimate Z position, we use a diffraction pattern around the cell membrane. This estimation method is so-called Depth from Diffraction (DFDi). However, this method is not robust for individual differences between cells because the diffraction pattern depends on each cellular shape. Therefore, in this study, we propose a real-time correction of DFDi by using 2D Laplacian of an intracellular area as a goodness of the focus. To evaluate the performance of our developed algorithm and microscope, we auto-focus and track a freely moving paramecium. In this experimental result, the paramecium is auto-focused and kept inside the scope of the microscope during 45s. The evaluated focal error is within 5µm, while a length and a thickness of the paramecium are about 200µm and 50µm, respectively.

  6. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Marcin; Theisen, Janko; Kummrow, Andreas; Simon, Peter; Ragusch, Hülya; Bock, Nicole; Schmidt, Martin; Neukammer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex) principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood. PMID:23571670

  7. Bringing the visible universe into focus with Robo-AO.

    PubMed

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Morton, Timothy D; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The angular resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by the degrading effects of the turbulent atmosphere. In the absence of an atmosphere, the angular resolution of a typical telescope is limited only by diffraction, i.e., the wavelength of interest, λ, divided by the size of its primary mirror's aperture, D. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with a 2.4-m primary mirror, has an angular resolution at visible wavelengths of ~0.04 arc seconds. The atmosphere is composed of air at slightly different temperatures, and therefore different indices of refraction, constantly mixing. Light waves are bent as they pass through the inhomogeneous atmosphere. When a telescope on the ground focuses these light waves, instantaneous images appear fragmented, changing as a function of time. As a result, long-exposure images acquired using ground-based telescopes--even telescopes with four times the diameter of HST--appear blurry and have an angular resolution of roughly 0.5 to 1.5 arc seconds at best. Astronomical adaptive-optics systems compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. First, the shape of the incoming non-planar wave is determined using measurements of a nearby bright star by a wavefront sensor. Next, an element in the optical system, such as a deformable mirror, is commanded to correct the shape of the incoming light wave. Additional corrections are made at a rate sufficient to keep up with the dynamically changing atmosphere through which the telescope looks, ultimately producing diffraction-limited images. The fidelity of the wavefront sensor measurement is based upon how well the incoming light is spatially and temporally sampled. Finer sampling requires brighter reference objects. While the brightest stars can serve as reference objects for imaging targets from several to tens of arc seconds away in the best conditions, most interesting astronomical targets do not have sufficiently bright stars nearby. One solution is to focus

  8. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    PubMed Central

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A.N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T.C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The angular resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by the degrading effects of the turbulent atmosphere. In the absence of an atmosphere, the angular resolution of a typical telescope is limited only by diffraction, i.e., the wavelength of interest, λ, divided by the size of its primary mirror's aperture, D. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with a 2.4-m primary mirror, has an angular resolution at visible wavelengths of ~0.04 arc seconds. The atmosphere is composed of air at slightly different temperatures, and therefore different indices of refraction, constantly mixing. Light waves are bent as they pass through the inhomogeneous atmosphere. When a telescope on the ground focuses these light waves, instantaneous images appear fragmented, changing as a function of time. As a result, long-exposure images acquired using ground-based telescopes - even telescopes with four times the diameter of HST - appear blurry and have an angular resolution of roughly 0.5 to 1.5 arc seconds at best. Astronomical adaptive-optics systems compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. First, the shape of the incoming non-planar wave is determined using measurements of a nearby bright star by a wavefront sensor. Next, an element in the optical system, such as a deformable mirror, is commanded to correct the shape of the incoming light wave. Additional corrections are made at a rate sufficient to keep up with the dynamically changing atmosphere through which the telescope looks, ultimately producing diffraction-limited images. The fidelity of the wavefront sensor measurement is based upon how well the incoming light is spatially and temporally sampled1. Finer sampling requires brighter reference objects. While the brightest stars can serve as reference objects for imaging targets from several to tens of arc seconds away in the best conditions, most interesting astronomical targets do not have sufficiently bright stars nearby. One solution is to

  9. Improved astigmatic focus error detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    1992-01-01

    All easy-to-implement focus- and track-error detection methods presently used in magneto-optical (MO) disk drives using pre-grooved media suffer from a side effect known as feedthrough. Feedthrough is the unwanted focus error signal (FES) produced when the optical head is seeking a new track, and light refracted from the pre-grooved disk produces an erroneous FES. Some focus and track-error detection methods are more resistant to feedthrough, but tend to be complicated and/or difficult to keep in alignment as a result of environmental insults. The astigmatic focus/push-pull tracking method is an elegant, easy-to-align focus- and track-error detection method. Unfortunately, it is also highly susceptible to feedthrough when astigmatism is present, with the worst effects caused by astigmatism oriented such that the tangential and sagittal foci are at 45 deg to the track direction. This disclosure outlines a method to nearly completely eliminate the worst-case form of feedthrough due to astigmatism oriented 45 deg to the track direction. Feedthrough due to other primary aberrations is not improved, but performance is identical to the unimproved astigmatic method.

  10. Keeping the Hubble Space Telescope in focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin; Lallo, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a Ritchie-Chrétien optical design with a main primary concave mirror followed by a convex secondary. The focus is determined by the position of each of these two mirrors. The truss containing them is made of graphite epoxy which has very low thermal expansion. Nevertheless, temperature variations do cause the mirror separation to vary by several microns within an orbit. Additionally, outgassing of water vapor causes a long-term shrinkage which soon after launch in 1990 varied by more than 2 microns per month. This necessitated adjusting the position of the secondary mirror every few months. Currently this rate is greatly reduced and adjustments are needed less than once per year. The focus is monitored monthly to continually assess the need for such adjustments. The measurements have been used to develop models to predict the focus at times between measurements to assist in the analysis of observations. Detailed focus knowledge is of value in photometry, coronagraphy and image deconvolution. The various focus models that have been applied so far are described with an evaluation of their performance. Continuing attempts to refine the model will be discussed.

  11. (Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules)

    SciTech Connect

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-08

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m{sub p} some 3.6 {times} 10{sup 5} times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100{angstrom}), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5{radical}(m/m{sub p}) times the nozzle diameter d{sub n}. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs.

  12. The focusing energy-critical Hartree equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Miao, Changxing; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    We consider the focusing energy-critical nonlinear Hartree equation iu+Δu=-(|∗|)u. We proved that if a maximal-lifespan solution u:I×R→C satisfies sup‖∇u(t)‖2<‖∇W‖2, where W is the static solution of the equation, then the maximal-lifespan I=R, moreover, the solution scatters in both time directions. For spherically symmetric initial data, similar result has been obtained in [C. Miao, G. Xu, L. Zhao, Global wellposedness, scattering and blowup for the energy-critical, focusing Hartree equation in the radial case, Colloq. Math., in press]. The argument is an adaptation of the recent work of R. Killip and M. Visan [R. Killip, M. Visan, The focusing energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation in dimensions five and higher, preprint] on energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

  13. Particle ordering in inertially focused microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphry, Katherine; Kulkarni, Pandurang; di Carlo, Dino; Edd, Jon; Toner, Mehmet; Morris, Jeffrey; Weitz, David; Stone, Howard

    2008-11-01

    We study inertially driven focusing of particles [1], which has recently been exploited in a controlled fashion in microfluidic devices [2]. In particular, we characterize the focusing as a function of particle and channel Reynolds number by reporting particle position in directions perpendicular to the flow, and a large distance from the fluid inlet. Focusing of dilute suspensions leads to a linear arrangement of particles whose spacing is primarily a function of concentration and channel aspect ratio. All results are compared with simulations, which provide mechanistic insights into particle behavior.[1] G. Segré and A. Silberberg, Nature 189, 209 (1961). [2] D. Di Carlo, D. Irimia, R. G. Tompkins, and M. Toner, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18892 (2007).

  14. MR-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Jean-François; Tanter, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Previous chapters introduced the ability of using focused ultrasound to ablate tissues. It has led to various clinical applications in the treatment of uterine fibroid, prostate or liver cancers. Nevertheless, treating the brain non-invasively with focused ultrasound has been considered beyond reach for almost a century: The skull bone protects the brain from mechanical injuries, but it also reflects and refracts ultrasound, making it difficult to target the brain with focused ultrasound. Fortunately, aberration correction techniques have been developed recently and thermal lesioning in the thalamus has been achieved clinically. This chapter introduces the aberration effect of the skull bone and how it can be corrected non-invasively. It also presents the latest clinical results obtained with thermal ablation and introduces novel non-thermal approaches that could revolutionize brain therapy in the future. PMID:26486334

  15. Fast total focusing method for ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcreff, Ewen; Dao, Gavin; Braconnier, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and total focusing method (TFM) have become popular tools in the field of ultrasonic non destructive testing. In particular, they are employed for detection and characterization of flaws. From data acquired with a transducer array, those techniques aim at reconstructing an image of the inspected object from coherent summations. In this paper, we make a comparison between the standard technique and a migration approach. Using experimental data, we show that the developed approach is faster and offers a better signal to noise ratio than the standard total focusing method. Moreover, the migration is particularly effective for near-surface imaging where standard methods used to fail. On the other hand, the migration approach is only adapted to layered objects whereas the standard technique can fit complex geometries. The methods are tested on homogeneous pieces containing artificial flaws such as side drilled holes.

  16. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  17. Ion heating in a plasma focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Gary, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Ion acceleration and heating in a plasma focus were investigated by the numerical integration of the three-dimensional equations of motion. The electric and magnetic fields given were derived from experimental data. The results obtained show that during the collapse phase of focus formation, ions are efficiently heated to temperatures of several keV. During the phase of rapid current reduction, ions are accelerated to large velocities in the axial direction. The results obtained with the model are in general agreement with experimental results.

  18. Isoelectric focusing of proteins and peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egen, N.

    1979-01-01

    Egg-white solution was chosen as the reference solution in order to assess the effects of operational parameters (voltage, flow rate, ampholine pH range and concentration, and protein concentration) of the RIEF apparatus on protein resolution. Topics of discussion include: (1) comparison of RIEF apparatus to conventional IEF techniques (column and PAG) with respect to resolution and throughput; (2) peptide and protein separation (AHF, Thymosin - Fraction 5, vasoactive peptide, L-asparaginase and ACP); and (3) detection of peptides - dansyl derivatives of amino acids and peptides, post-focusing fluorescent labeling of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and ampholine extraction from focused gels.

  19. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%. PMID:27139747

  20. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H.; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%.