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Sample records for polychlorinated biphenyls recorded

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  2. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS: PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemical products which are synthesized by the direct chlorination of biphenyl. he degree of biphenyl ring chlorination determines the physical properties and applications of commercial PCBs and, therefore, it is not surprising that...

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  4. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  5. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  6. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  7. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls inventory in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Kakareka, Sergey V

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) inventory is a key element of the ecologically sound management of these dangerous chemicals. This article presents the findings of the large-scale PCB inventory project that was implemented in Belarus in 2003-2004. Data on PCB-containing equipment of more than 2000 enterprises was recorded: trademarks; volumes of PCBs; dates of manufacture; condition of equipment; levels of operation, descriptions of installations or storage locations. In the course of the inventory about 1500 tones of PCBs were identified, 99% of this total was found in power transformers and capacitors. As it proved most equipment containing PCBs is still in service today due to its long life-time. Additionally, the PCB-containing equipment which has been taken out of service is primarily stored on the territory of enterprises. The distribution of PCBs in Belarus among economy sectors as well as regions is shown. Problems of the PCB inventory and disposal are discussed. It is shown that the inventory needs to be regularly updated in order to estimate temporal changes in PCB-containing equipment condition, current owners and a location. PMID:17597287

  10. History of Inuit community excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls recorded in sewage lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Jackson, Danielle S; Johnson, Glenn W

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is high among the Inuit resulting from ingestion of contaminated wild "country" foods. These contaminants originate in urban/industrial areas and reach the Arctic by long-range atmospheric transport. Ingested PCBs eventually equilibrate into various body components, including feces, which become an indication of body burden. Bulk domestic sewage residue from a community will accumulate PCBs from feces; long-term accumulated sediments from a sewage treatment system are a historical indicator of changes in community-wide PCB excretion. In this study, sediment cores were collected from the domestic sewage treatment lake, known as Annak, for the Inuit Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, Canada (established 1967), and were dated (Pb-210, Cs-137) and analyzed for 127 PCB congeners. We focused our attention on the 47 congeners that were observed consistently. Atmospheric and local inputs to a nearby lake accounted for local background. PCB inputs from sewage grew rapidly from the late 1960s until 1990. The maximum 47 congener SigmaPCB excretion occurred in approximately 1989 (11116 ng person(-1)d(-1)); all sewage PCB inputs were dominated by PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180. PCB ingestion from a Sanikiluaq food survey in 1989 for 11 of the most highly concentrated PCB congeners (7270 ng person(-1)d(-1)) was the same as our excretion estimate for the same congeners (7348 ng person(-1)d(-1)) that year, suggesting that by the late 1980s, the ingested amount of PCB was similar to what was excreted every day, although the latter is a reflection of body burden and not short-term exposure. PMID:20138643

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  12. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS HORMONALLY ACTIVE STRUCTURAL ANALOGUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the environmental chemicals believed to have the potential to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals including humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls are a chemical class of considerable concern. Possible mechanisms by which these chemicals may interfere with endocrine fun...

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  14. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  15. Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Tong, Hebing

    2014-12-15

    The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). PMID:25256297

  16. Estimates of the inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides to the River Thames derived from the sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimshaw, M. D.; Lester, J. N.

    Sediment deposited in the Tilbury Basin exhibited two distinct zones where contamination with organochlorine insecticides (OCL) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) differed by up to an order of magnitude. The upper section of the core had an average concentration of 39 ng g-1 PCB and SigmaDDT (sum of concentrations of DDT, DDD and DDE) 47 ng g-1 whereas in the lower section these were 309 and 87 ng g-1 respectively. This difference was attributed to improvements in waste water treatment technology, specifically the extension of activated sludge treatment at Beckton and its introduction at Crossness sewage treatment works (STW) between 1959 and 1964. At the time Beckton alone was the largest STW in Europe, treating waste from a population of 2.82 million in 1961, with a flow of 1.14 x 106 m3 d-1 through the works making it the largest tributary of the Thames. The abruptness of change in pollutant concentrations observed in cored sediments at -5.82 m below Ordnance Datum Newlyn (OD) was linked to dredging activities within the basin and did not reflect rates of temporal changes in inputs. There was evidence to suggest that dechlorination of PCB had occurred within the deposited sediments. This was expressed as a change in the ratios of lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) congeners relative to those with 5 or more substituted chlorine atoms. An average ratio of 0.23 from the sediment surface to -2.29 m OD changed to 0.32 and subsequently increased to 0.62 between -5.82 m to -9.55 m OD. A number of factors may account for changes in microbial dechlorination activity. However, the possibility that changes in input sources were responsible for such effects cannot be discounted.

  17. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  18. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  19. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  20. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  2. Kinetics of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, D.D.; Brunner, W.

    1985-10-01

    The metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), which comprised the Aroclor 1242 mixture, was greatly enhanced by the addition of biphenyl (BP) to soil. After 49 days, only 25 to 35% of the original PCBs remained in the soil, and 48 to 49% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (including soil carbonates) in treatment enriched with BP; by contrast, 92% of the PCBs remained and less than 2% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the unenriched control. Although the mineralization of PCBs in soils inoculated with Acinetobacter strain P6 was not greater than that in uninoculated BP-enriched soils, the initial and maximum mineralization rates and mineralization of BP was consistent with kinetic models based upon linear-no growth and exponential growth; lower cell densities (< 10/sup 6//g) of BP-oxidizing bacteria gave a better fit for exponential growth, whereas the highest cell density (10/sup 9//g) gave a better fit for linear-no growth. The numbers of BP-oxidizing bacteria declined exponentially upon depletion of the substrate. Since the mineralization of the chlorinated cometabolites was brought about by microorganisms (comensals) other than BP oxidizers, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production could not be fit to either of the two growth models. However, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the highest-density inoculum could be fit to a first-order (no-growth) sequential-reaction series.

  3. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  4. DECHLORINATIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The breakdown of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in situ in sediments heavily contaminated with PCBs by processes called reductive dechlorinations have been reported. hese studies characterized several distinct dechlorination patterns, caused by different strains of anae...

  5. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  6. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  7. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  8. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  9. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  11. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  12. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  13. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN BIOMARKERS OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADOLESCENT CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is two cohort comparison study of endocrine and cytochrome P450 family 1 biomarkers for risk assessment of polychlorinalted biphenyls (PCBs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) induced developmental toxicities in the human. The subjects will be sexually mature adoles...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  15. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  18. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  19. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  20. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this proposed rule to update and clarify several sections of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) regulations associated with the manifesting requirements, which uses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are to......

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICOLOGY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. hey are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. wo large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in ...

  2. FIBER OPTIC FLUOROIMMUNOSENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There currently exists a critical and growing need for cost-effective, real-time, and in situ methods for detection of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). erein reported is a evanescent wave Fluoroimmunosensor for measurement of PCBS. 2,4-5-Trichlor...

  3. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS): NEWBORN EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low-level chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from consumption of Lake Michigan fish was assessed in pregnant women and their newborn offspring. Low levels of PCBs remain in the human body for some time, and caused, in this sample, decreases in birt...

  4. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN PRECIPITATION IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall samples were collected in Chicago, Illinois, and on Beaver Island, Michigan, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The precipitation weighted mean concentration of 35 samples of rain was 111 mg/l. (111 parts per trillion). This would result in the deposition...

  5. HALF-LIFE OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1977 and 1985, serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 58 workers in a Bloomington, Indiana, factory that used PCBs in capacitor manufacture until 1977. ess chlorinated PCBs were quantitated as Aroclor 1242, and more highly chlorinated PCBs were...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  7. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  9. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances...

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  13. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, O.; Sudo, R.

    1980-05-01

    The biodegradation of PCB's by microorganisms and the degradation pathway of PCB's are investigated. Experimental methods and materials are described. Only several strains of bacteria, Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and soil microorganisms were able to decompose PCB's. A possible relationships between the structure and biodegradability of related biphenyl compounds was examined. (5 diagrams, 11 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)

  14. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  16. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 528 was created to address polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination identified during the CAU 262 corrective action investigation. CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): CAS 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination.

  17. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  18. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  19. Chemical signatures of the Anthropocene in the Clyde estuary, UK: sediment-hosted Pb, (207/206)Pb, total petroleum hydrocarbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl pollution records.

    PubMed

    Vane, C H; Chenery, S R; Harrison, I; Kim, A W; Moss-Hayes, V; Jones, D G

    2011-03-13

    The sediment concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Pb and (207/206)Pb isotope ratios were measured in seven cores from the middle Clyde estuary (Scotland, UK) with an aim of tracking the late Anthropocene. Concentrations of TPHs ranged from 34 to 4386 mg kg(-1), total PAHs from 19 to 16,163 μg kg(-1) and total PCBs between less than 4.3 to 1217 μg kg(-1). Inventories, distributions and isomeric ratios of the organic pollutants were used to reconstruct pollutant histories. Pre-Industrial Revolution and modern non-polluted sediments were characterized by low TPH and PAH values as well as high relative abundance of biogenic-sourced phenanthrene and naphthalene. The increasing industrialization of the Clyde gave rise to elevated PAH concentrations and PAH isomeric ratios characteristic of both grass/wood/coal and petroleum and combustion (specifically petroleum combustion). Overall, PAHs had the longest history of any of the organic contaminants. Increasing TPH concentrations and a concomitant decline in PAHs mirrored the lessening of coal use and increasing reliance on petroleum fuels from about the 1950s. Thereafter, declining hydrocarbon pollution was followed by the onset (1950s), peak (1965-1977) and decline (post-1980s) in total PCB concentrations. Lead concentrations ranged from 6 to 631 mg kg(-1), while (207/206)Pb isotope ratios spanned 0.838-0.876, indicative of various proportions of 'background', British ore/coal and Broken Hill type petrol/industrial lead. A chronology was established using published Pb isotope data for aerosol-derived Pb and applied to the cores. PMID:21282161

  20. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  1. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  4. Enhanced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by directed evolution of biphenyl dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamaru, Tetsuya; Suenaga, Hikaru; Mitsuoka, Mariko; Watanabe, Takahito; Furukawa, Kensuke

    1998-07-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenases (BP Dox) from different organisms, which are involved in the initial oxygenation and subsequent degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are similar in structure but have different functions. The large subunit of BP Dox, encoded by the bphA1 gene, is crucial for substrate selectivity. Using the process of DNA shuffling, the authors randomly recombined the bphA1 genes of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and selected for genes that expressed proteins with altered function. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, some of these evolved genes exhibited enhanced degradation capacity, not only for PCB and related biphenyl compounds, but for single aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, which are poor substrates for the original BP Dox.

  5. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls using mesoporous iron-based spinels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linyan; Su, Guijin; Zhang, Aiqian; Shi, Yali; Xia, Chaobo; Lu, Huijie; Li, Liewu; Liu, Sha; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    A series of mesoporous iron-based spinel materials were synthesized to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with CB-209 being used as a model compound. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), pore structure analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison of the dechlorination efficiencies (DEs) of the materials revealed that NiFe2O4 had the highest DE, followed by Fe3O4. Newly produced polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes, hydroxyl species and organic acids were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatograph. Identification of the intermediate products indicates that three degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination, the breakage of CC bridge bond and oxidative reaction, accompanied by one combination reaction, are competitively occurring over the iron-based spinels. The relative amounts of produced three NoCB isomers were illustrated by the CCl BDEs of CB-209 at meta-, para- and ortho-positions, and their energy gap between HOMO and LUMO. The consumption of the reactive oxygen species caused by the transformation of Fe3O4 into Fe2O3 in the Fe3O4 reaction system, and the existence of the highly reactive O2(-) species in the NiFe2O4 reaction system, could provide a reason why the oxidation reaction was more favored over NiFe2O4 than Fe3O4. PMID:23974532

  6. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  7. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl`s (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-07-30

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl`s (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion. PMID:21438643

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  11. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enantiomeric fraction of OH-PCB 136 metabolites was determined in male and female rats treated with racemic PCB 136. The methylated derivatives of two OH-PCB 136 metabolites showed an enantiomeric enrichment in liver tissue, whereas PCB 136 itself was near racemic. PMID:18760792

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transit system electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    The legislative history and current regulatory requirements concerning the continued use of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls PCBs in transit system electrical equipment are presented. The recent rule-making by the EPA is presented in summary form to aid the reader in following the chronology of requirements affecting the continued operation, servicing, marking, and disposal of transit system electrical equipment which contains PCB materials. Types of transit system electrical equipment regulated by the EPA are identified and future regulatory requirements concerning allowable PCB concentration levels of specific electrical equipment are outlined. Transit system procedures for the handling of electrical equipment containing PCBs are presented and recommendations to assist transit systems in eliminating PCBs from electrical equipment are provided.

  13. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium▿

    PubMed Central

    May, Harold D.; Miller, Greg S.; Kjellerup, Birthe V.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlorinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor 1260 in contaminated soil. The isolate requires Desulfovibrio spp. in coculture or cell extract for growth on hydrogen and PCB in mineral medium. This is the first microorganism in pure culture demonstrated to grow by dehalorespiration with PCBs and the first isolate shown to dechlorinate weathered commercial mixtures of PCBs in historically contaminated sediments. The ability of this isolate to grow on PCBs in contaminated sediments represents a significant breakthrough for the development of in situ treatment strategies for this class of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:18223104

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  15. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov). PMID:12117298

  16. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  17. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. [Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in pine needles].

    PubMed

    Kozul, Darija; Herceg Romanić, Snjezana

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a review of methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in pine needles. These compounds are lipophilic, they accumulate in the biotic and abiotic part of the environment in which they are persistent, and their use is forbidden or restricted due to harmful effects on human and animal health. Pine needles are convenient for monitoring the levels of organochlorine compounds in the air because they accumulate them in wax with which they are covered. However, the presence of many other compounds makes them complex for analysis. Analytical methods for determining organochlorine compounds in pine needles include sample collection, extraction of compounds with a suitable solvent, extract clean-up from unwanted compounds and qualitative and quantitative analysis. PCBs and OCPs are present in pine needles in traces, and every part of the analytical procedure has to be as efficient and selective as possible. PMID:18063531

  19. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kafafi, S A; Afeefy, H Y; Ali, A H; Said, H K; Kafafi, A G

    1993-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicities, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the majority of PCBs are likely to interact with AhR in their nonplanar conformations. In addition, we demonstrate that the affinities of PCBs for AhR relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin correlate with corresponding toxic equivalency factors in animals. The reported methodology is likely to be applicable to other polyhalogenated and mixed polyhalogenated bi- and terphenyls and related xenobiotics; thus, it could minimize the number of in vivo studies in laboratory animals and facilitate the identification of potentially hazardous aromatic xenobiotics. Images p422-a Figure 2. PMID:8119253

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  1. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  2. GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PCB ITEMS BY THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a resource and guidelines document to aid EPA Regional Offices in interpreting and applying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations to the thermal destruction of PCBs. As background material, the report describes fundamental processes of combustion, thermal destr...

  3. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  4. TECHNICAL/ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven emerging alternative treatments for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments have been compared and ranked using technical performance, status of development, test and evaluation data needs, and cost as factors. In ranking the processes, weights were assigned ...

  5. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  6. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  7. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  8. PARTITIONING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN SEAWATER OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) between particulate and dissolved phases of seawater was examined along a concentration gradient in New Bedford Harbor, MA. egression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the log of the partition coefficients (...

  9. Tenax-GC Extraction Technique for Residual Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Analysis in Biodegradation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Shiaris, M. P.; Sherrill, T. W.; Sayler, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid Tenax-GC extraction technique has been evaluated for use in conjunction with aqueous biodegradation assays for polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. The method was quantitatively efficient and reproducible for phenanthrene, but variable and not quantitative for Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls). Aqueous sample volumes and varying concentrations of organic matter influenced polychlorinated biphenyl and polyaromatic hydrocarbon extraction efficiency. Phenanthrene recovery was decreased by soil extract but unaffected by spent bacteriological culture medium. Both types of organic matter caused significant reduction of Aroclor 1254 recovery. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation assays, performed with reservoir samples, supported the laboratory evaluation. The study demonstrated the utility of the Tenax-GC extraction technique for phenanthrene analysis in biodegradation assessment; however, Tenax-GC extraction was not appropriate for Aroclor 1254 biodegradation studies. PMID:16345486

  10. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  11. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  12. MONITORING FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM AN ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR DISPOSAL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different air sampling methods were used simultaneously to monitor for PCB emissions arising from a pilot disposal project involving electrolytic capacitors. Analytical results indicated that the primary polychlorinated biphenyl material was Aroclor 1242, and that airborne ...

  13. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION AND CAPACITOR AND TRANSFORMER FILLING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described are methods to measure the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from the stacks of municipal waste, industrial waste, and sewage sludge incinerators and from capacitor and transformer filling plants. The PCB emissions from the incineration plants are collected by im...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four landfills known to contain large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored for atmospheric emissions: Three of these were uncontrolled and contained large numbers of electrical capacitors, many of which were scattered on the surface and leaking PCB askare...

  15. DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH OUTLIER DETECTION AND ELIMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the analysis of capillary column Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) data using regression analysis with outlier checking and elimination, COMSTAR, is presented and evaluated. his algorithm determines the best combination of the commercial PCB mixtures which best fits the...

  16. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  17. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  18. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  19. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  20. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyl Transport, Metabolism and Distribution - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Harrad, Stuart J.; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lee, Cindy M.; Lu, Zhe; Wong, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Chirality can be exploited to gain insight into enantioselective fate processes that may otherwise remain undetected because only biological, but not physical and chemical transport and transformation processes in an achiral environment will change enantiomer compositions. This review provides an in-depth overview of the application of chirality to the study of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), an important group of legacy pollutants. Like other chiral compounds, individual PCB enantiomers may interact enantioselectively (or enantiospecifically) with chiral macromolecules, such as cytochrome P-450 enzymes or ryanodine receptors, leading to differences in their toxicological effects and the enantioselective formation of chiral biotransformation products. Species and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment has been demonstrated in environmental compartments, wildlife and mammals, including humans, typically due to a complex combination of biotransformation processes and uptake via the diet by passive diffusion. Changes in the enantiomer composition of chiral PCBs in the environment have been used to understand complex aerobic and anaerobic microbial transformation pathways, to delineate and quantify PCB sources and transport in the environment, to gain insight into the biotransformation of PCBs in aquatic food webs, and to investigate the enantioselective disposition of PCBs and their methylsulfonyl PCBs metabolites in rodents. Overall, changes in chiral signatures are powerful, but currently underutilized tools for studies of environmental and biological processes of PCBs. PMID:20384371

  1. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  2. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity. PMID:26995917

  3. Volatilization of extensively dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls from historically contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Bush, B.; Barnard, E.L.; Bott, A. |

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted as a preliminary characterization of the ability of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments to volatilize PCBs into the air upon drying under conditions meant to be environmentally relevant. Sediments collected from the St. Lawrence River contained high levels of PCBs. The PCB contamination consisted of high levels of mainly ortho-substituted mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, suggesting that the original contamination had been transformed by microbial reductive dechlorination. These sediments lost 0.07 to 1.7% of their total PCB content to the air during a 24-h drying cycle. Sediments with varying amounts of overlying water lost significantly less PCB to the air within the first few cycles than native sediments with no overlying water. Losses due to PCB volatilization were well correlated to sediment PCB concentration and water loss but not to drying temperatures (4--43 C) within 24-h drying cycles. The PCB congeners representing >90% of those volatilized within the first 24 h of drying were those produced in the sediment samples as a result of microbial reductive dechlorination of the original PCB contamination. The presence of these congeners in volatilized air samples was positively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Fourier transform infrared detection (FTIR). These results strongly suggest that significant amounts of mono-, di-, and trichlorobiphenyls may be volatilized from PCB-contaminated sediments at ambient environmental conditions and that this PCB volatilization may be enhanced by microbial reductive dechlorination.

  4. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation. PMID:20183511

  5. An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Neuropsychologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Data sources Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Data extraction Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual–spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. Data synthesis The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Conclusion Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies. PMID:19165381

  7. Neutrophhil function after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ganey, P.E.; Denison, M.; Roth, R.A.; Robinson, J.P. )

    1993-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be immunotoxic, yet the effects on neutrophil (PMN) function are not well characterized. We incubated PMNs isolated from rat peritoneum with a mixture of PCB congeners, Aroclor 1242, in the absence or presence of either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to stimulate generation of supoxide anion (O[sub 2]) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to induce degranulation (measured as release of [beta]-glucuronidase). Aroclor 1242 alone stimulated O[sub 2] production at a concentration of 10 [mu]g/ml. Significant cytotoxicity was not observed under these conditions. This concentration of Aroclor 1242 also increased O[sub 2] generation in PMNs activated with 20 ng PMA/ml. In the presence of a concentration of PMA (2 ng/ml) that by itself did not stimulate production of O[sub 2], 1 [mu]g Aroclor 1242/ml caused significant generation of O[sub 2], indicating synergy between Aroclor 1242 and PMA. Aroclor 1242 caused release of [beta]-glucuronidase from quiescent PMNs; however, in PMNs stimulated with fMLP to undergo degranulation, Aroclor 1242 inhibited release of [beta]-glucuronidase.

  8. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  9. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls emission from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua; Jin, Yuqi

    2009-12-30

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns were determined in the flue gas from a medical waste incinerator (MWI) using high-resolution gas chromatograph coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). The total PCBs concentration of all homologues (mono- to deca-chlorinated homologues) in the flue gas ranged from 138.01 to 855.35 ng/Nm(3) and the WHO-TEQ value varied from 0.046 to 0.549 ng/Nm(3) under the different operating conditions. PCB-77 concentration was the highest among dioxin-like PCBs and PCB-126 contributed mostly to the WHO-TEQ. The ratios of dioxin-like PCBs in the total PCB concentrations in the flue gas varied between 11.7% and 26.0% (the average value is 18.7%). Three inhibitors, sulfur, urea, and ammonium sulfate were tested to investigate the capacity for preventing PCBs formation. The decomposition efficiency for total PCBs and PCBs TEQ ranged from 38% to 84% and 69% to 92% respectively. It was shown that urea mixed with ammonium sulfate and more activated carbon was proved to be the most effective inhibitor for PCBs formation. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the total PCBs concentration and PCBs TEQ by the bag filter under two conditions were 69% and 85%, and 86% and 94% respectively. PMID:19744782

  11. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  12. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Dhaliwal, Joginder; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in residential dust. Vacuum cleaner samples were collected from 289 homes in the California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds from 2001 to 2010 and 15 PCBs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median concentrations of the most abundant PCBs (i.e., PCBs 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 1.0–5.8 ng per g of dust in the first sampling round and from 0.8–3.4 ng/g in the second sampling round. For each of these eight PCBs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variation into regional variability (6–11%), intra-regional between-home variability (27–56%), within-home variability over time (18–52%), and within-sample variability (9–16%). In mixed-effects models, differences in PCB concentrations between homes were explained by home age, with older homes having higher PCB levels. Differences in PCB concentrations within homes were explained by decreasing time trends. Estimated half-lives ranged from 5–18 years, indicating that PCBs are removed very slowly from the indoor environment. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PCB exposures in studies of children’s health. PMID:24313682

  14. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls in precipitation in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-09-01

    Temporal trend of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing for the first time from February 2009 to March 2011. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 7.00 to 993 ng L-1 in dissolved phase and from 1.00 to 133 ng L-1 in particulate phase, with a two orders of magnitude variation. Concentrations of PCBs were dominated by dissolved phase, which accounted for 82.5% of the total PCBs in precipitation, implying PCBs enrichment in rainwater due to efficient scavenging of highly contaminated gas phase and nonfilterable submicron particles which easily adsorbed organic contaminants in urban atmosphere. Highest concentrations of PCBs were measured in snow, which were about two times higher than those in rainwater, demonstrating more efficient scavenging of PCBs by snow. The sum of bi-, tri- and tetrachlorinated congeners accounted for 70.5% of total PCBs in precipitation, suggesting that PCBs mainly come from the historical usage of domestic PCB product, e.g., trichlorobiphenyl. PCBs concentrations in both dissolved and particulate phases showed slow rate of decline, with a half-life of 16.9 years in precipitation, suggesting that the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were decreasing slowly in Beijing. The wet deposition flux of ∑PCBs ranged from 0.240 to 6.55 μg m-2 month-1 (mean: 1.41 μg m-2 month-1), indicating a relatively high level of PCBs contamination in Beijing atmosphere.

  15. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  16. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) concentrations in Wilson Reservoir catfish, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.; Lowery, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    TVA conducted a study during autumn 1984 to determine concentrations of a variety of contaminants in biota from Wilson and upper Pickwick Reservoirs. Several contaminants were detected, with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in catfish from Wilson Reservoir of greatest interest. PCB concentrations in twenty-two of 45 catfish from Wilson equaled or exceeded the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tolerance of 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the average of all 45 was 2.6 ..mu..g/g. Contamination was widespread and did not show any geographical relationship to an embayment on Wilson Reservoir (Fleet Hollow) known to have PCBs in the sediments. As a result of these findings, the Northwest Alabama Regional Health Department issued an official notice to retail markets in June 1985 to discontinue selling catfish from Wilson Reservoir. TVA initiated studies to determine if there were other areas on Wilson with PCB contaminated sediments or PCB discharges, and an annual catfish collection was started in autumn 1985 to determine the year-to-year trend in PCB levels. As a follow-up to earlier studies, analyses of catfish collected during autumn 1985 indicated substantial reductions in PCB concentrations. Only 4 of 36 catfish had PCB concentrations which equaled or exceeded 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the overall average was 1.0 ..mu..g/g. Statistical analyses indicated PCB concentrations decreased with increased distance from Fleet Hollow. Further monitoring is recommended for 2 more years.

  17. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  18. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Curt T; Wheeler, David C; Deziel, Nicole C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K; Flory, Abigail R; Locke, Sarah J; Colt, Joanne S; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H

    2013-09-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of five PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, and 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998 and 2000 from 1187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad; percentage of developed land; number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences; and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCB levels [all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit (MPQL) vs at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs at least one congener > median concentration] were positively associated with either percentage of developed land [odds ratio (OR) range 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase] or population density (OR 1.08 for every 1000/mi(2)) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  1. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl release from resuspended Hudson River sediment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Abby R; Porter, Elka T; Baker, Joel E

    2007-02-15

    Three shear turbulence resuspension mesocosms (STORM tanks) were used to examine the release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resuspended Hudson River sediment. Twenty-two percent of the resuspended PCBs desorbed after 2 h, and 35% +/- 8% of PCBs were in the dissolved phase after apparent steady state was reached in 2 days. After the first resuspension event, the solids were allowed to settle and the quiescent time was varied to determine whether the labile pool of PCBs is recharged during sediment consolidation. The steady-state log Koc values for the third subsequent resuspension were higher than for the first event due to lower dissolved PCB concentrations; the particulate PCB concentrations were constant between events. With 1 day of consolidation between resuspension events, the dissolved concentration of all congeners decreased an average of 8% +/- 5% between subsequent resuspension events. With 4 days between events, only the dissolved pentachlorinated PCBs decreased significantly (p = 0.002), suggesting that the easily desorbable PCBs recharge when there is sufficient time between resuspension events. PMID:17593705

  3. Amine-enhanced photodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meuser, J.M.; Weimer, W.C.

    1982-07-01

    Uncontrolled releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformers and capacitors pose a significant environmental problem to the electric utility industry. This report describes a series of experiments whose objective was to demonstrate the practicality of using natural solar radiation in conjunction with the application of an amine for in situ degradation of PCBs in contaminated soil. The soil tested was clay from beneath a capacitor rack at a pacific northwest utility substation. While no degradation of the PCBs in soil was found after two weeks of sunlight exposure, further solution experiments indicate that degradation of PCBs does occur in the presence of an amine and simulated solar radiation. In hexane solutions containing 1 ppM Aroclor 1268 with 10 and 100 ppM ethylenediamine, 37% and 53% reductions in PCB concentration, respectively, were found after 70 h of solar simulator irradiation. These results suggest that the clay matrix or other soil components may have interfered with the photodegradation process. Investigations into the reaction mechanism, reaction products, optimum treatment parameters and appropriate matrices appear to be warranted. Successful development of this in situ technique could lead to major savings in mitigation efforts for contaminated soils and surfaces.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  5. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  6. The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P L; Haglund, P; Tysklind, M

    1997-01-01

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AMI) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs). PMID:19005788

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  8. Aqueous solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls related to molecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Opperhulzen, A.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.; Van der Steen, J.M.D.; Hutzinger, O.

    1988-06-01

    Aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls show a linear relationship between logarithms of aqueous activity coefficients and total surface areas (TSA) or total molecular volumes (TMV). The aqueous activity coefficients were calculated from experimental solubility data and values taken from the literature. The correlations improved substantially if a differential heat capacity between supercooled liquid and solid chemical (..delta..C/sub p/) equal to the entropy of fusion (..delta..S/sub f/), instead of ..delta..C/sub p/ = O, was assumed. In addition, it was found that dissolution of 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl was accompanied by positive enthalpy and entropy changes, the entropy being dominant at room temperature. For the former compound, it was shown that the entropy of fusion is approximately to J K/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/, which is in agreement with the Walden rule. For 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, it was shown that a Hildebrand plot provides a constant slope. This supported the assumption that differential heat capacity (..delta..C/sub p/) equals the entropy of fusion.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. PMID:24997912

  11. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  12. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by north sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Kees; van der Meer, Jaap; Kwast, Diana; de Boer, Joost L.

    1997-05-01

    The sediment-water partition coefficients ( Kd) of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and penta- and hexachloro benzene were determined for 37 spiked sediment samples from the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Norwegian Channel. Organic-carbon contents for these sediments were in the range 0.02-2.4%. Log( Kd) values were in the range 1.4 to 5.3. The largest difference between the organic-carbon normalised partition coefficients ( Koc) for individual components amounted to a factor of 10. Koc values for coarse sediments were generally lower than values for fine sediments. The solids concentration effect was evaluated using the Non-Settling Particles model, the Solute Complexation model, the Implicit Adsorbate model, and the Particle Interaction model. The latter three models could be rejected on the basis of the experimental evidence. The validity of ordinary least-squares regression for estimating slope and intercept of log( Koc)-log( KKow) relations is discussed. Differences in sediment characteristics cause changes in the intercept of log( Koc)-log( Kow) relations, but not in the slope. KKoc values of PCB isomers are inversely related to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho position relative to the inter-ring bond. The validity of the data for estimating field values of sorption coefficients is discussed.

  13. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    White, Roberta F; Palumbo, Carole L; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Heaton, Kristin J; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction. PMID:21545807

  14. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

  15. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    White, Roberta F.; Palumbo, Carole L.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Heaton, Kristin J.; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986–1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction. PMID:21545807

  16. Toxicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®).

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Renu; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) are toxic contaminants which are produced in the environment by biological or abiotic oxidation of PCBs. The toxicity of a suite of 23 mono-hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs and 12 parent PCBs was determined using the bacterial bioluminescent assay Microtox(®). All HO-PCBs tested exhibited higher toxicity than the corresponding parent PCB, with effect concentration 50 % (EC50) ranging from 0.07 to 133 mg L(-1). The highest toxicities were recorded with 4-hydroxylated derivatives of di-chlorinated biphenyls (EC50 = 0.07-0.36 mg L(-1)) and 2-hydroxylated derivatives of tri-chlorinated biphenyls carrying a chlorine substituent on the phenolic ring (EC50 = 0.34-0.48 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of HO-PCBs generally decreased when the degree of chlorination increased. Consistently with this observation, a significant positive correlation was measured between toxicity (measured by EC50) and octanol-water partition coefficient (pK ow) for the HO-PCBs under study (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.74), which may be explained by the lower solubility and bioavailability generally associated with higher hydrophobicity. This study is the first one which assessed the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and HO-PCBs using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®), showing an inverse correlation between toxicity and hydrophobicity. PMID:27411941

  17. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOMPONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. ix open reading frames were identified, four of which are, homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  18. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  19. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  20. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  1. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic. PMID:21863827

  2. Damaging effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on chicken primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changge; Zhang, Caiqiao; Xia, Guoliang; Yang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the effects of a commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254, as well as 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone on numbers and histomorphological changes of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in gonadal regions of Day 5 Hyline chicken embryos. The oestrogen receptor antagonist, clomiphen, alone or with PCBs was used in an attempt to protect the developing gonad from oestrogen-like effects of chemical PCBs. The results were as follows: (i) PCBs delayed embryonic development independently of dose (1 microg/egg, P<0.05; 10 microg/egg, P<0.01; 100 microg/egg, P<0.001 v. the control) and caused a dose-independent increase in mortality compared with the control group (10 microg/egg, P<0.01; 100 microg/egg, P<0.05); maximal mortality was observed in the 1 microg/egg group (P<0.001); (ii) PCBs decreased PGC numbers dose dependently (P<0.001) and caused a swollen nucleus with hyperchromatism (pyknosis) or cytoplasm vacuolation as signs of gonadal PGC degeneration in all PCB groups, or even complete disappearance in the 100 microg/egg group; (iii) after PCB treatment, the index of gonadal lesion increased significantly with the decrease of gonadal PGC number (1, 10 and 100 microg/egg, P<0.001); (iv) there were no observed effects of E2, testosterone and clomiphen on PGCs in the experiments; and (v) clomiphen failed to block the damaging effects of PCBs. These results suggest that the adverse effects of PCBs on chicken gonadal and germ cell development were initiated during the early stages of incubation through direct toxic effects, rather than through oestrogen-mimicking actions. As PGC numbers in the gonads decrease and the index of gonadal lesion increases, one may expect reproductive function to be compromised. PMID:12219939

  3. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  4. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  5. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H.; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction ( ϕoil)=30 vol.%; solid concentration ( χ)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 μm, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  6. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  7. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish. PMID:25945423

  8. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  9. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C.; McFarland, Ashley M.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation–dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  10. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  11. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C; McFarland, Ashley M; Meserve, Lee A

    2010-11-30

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation-dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  13. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  15. Seasonal variation of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the seasonality of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Japan. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed simultaneously at 55 sites in spring 2008, summer 2008 and winter 2008/09. Sampler deployment spanned 8 continuous weeks in each season. The non-outlier ranges of the two pollutants (ng/sample) were as follows; ∑190PCBs: 6.5-38.6 (spring), 43.5-220.5 (summer) and 25.9-136 (winter); and ∑63PCNs: 0.4-3.9 (spring), 0.7-7.1 (summer) and 1.1-9.2 (winter). The corresponding values in air were ∑190PCBs (pg m-3): 33-197 (spring), 222-1125 (summer) and 132-694 (winter); and ∑63PCNs (pg m-3): 2.2-20 (spring), 3.5-36 (summer) and 5.7-47 (winter), when sampling rate of 3.5 m3 day-1 was assumed. Thus, the PCBs peaked in summer, while the PCNs mostly peaked in winter; there was an apparent contrast in their seasonality in Japan. For the PCNs, seasonal variability was significant at rural than urban sites. Normally, POPs would show relatively increased air content in summer due to vaporization effect. The PCNs appeared to deviate from such a trend because of overriding input of tri-CNs presumably transported from long range by northwesterly winds in the winter season. The dioxin-like fractions of either pollutant were reduced in winter by about 30-50%.

  16. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  17. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  18. The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r . .42) and PBBs (r . .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  19. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r = .42) and PBBs (r = .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  1. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  2. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    PubMed

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. PMID:22464860

  3. Semiquinone Radicals from Oxygenated Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be oxygenated to form very reactive hydroquinone and quinone products. A guiding hypothesis in the PCB research community is that some of the detrimental health effects of some PCBs are a consequence of these oxygenated forms undergoing one-electron oxidation or reduction, generating semiquinone radicals (SQ•−). These radicals can enter into a futile redox cycle resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species, that is, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Here, we examine some of the properties and chemistry of these semiquinone free radicals. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to detect SQ•− formation, we observed that (i) xanthine oxidase can reduce quinone PCBs to the corresponding SQ•−; (ii) the heme-containing peroxidases (horseradish and lactoperoxidase) can oxidize hydroquinone PCBs to the corresponding SQ•−; (iii) tyrosinase acting on PCB ortho-hydroquinones leads to the formation of SQ•−; (iv) mixtures of PCB quinone and hydroquinone form SQ•− via a comproportionation reaction; (v) SQ•− are formed when hydroquinone-PCBs undergo autoxidation in high pH buffer (≈>pH 8); and, surprisingly, (vi) quinone-PCBs in high pH buffer can also form SQ•−; (vii) these observations along with EPR suggest that hydroxide anion can add to the quinone ring; (viii) H2O2 in basic solution reacts rapidly with PCB-quinones; and (ix) at near-neutral pH SOD can catalyze the oxidization of PCB-hydroquinone to quinone, yielding H2O2. However, using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO) as a spin-trapping agent, we did not trap superoxide, indicating that generation of superoxide from SQ•− is not kinetically favorable. These observations demonstrate multiple routes for the formation of SQ•− from PCB-quinones and hydroquinones. Our data also point to futile redox cycling as being one mechanism by which oxygenated PCBs can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species, but this is most efficient

  4. Rhodococcus biphenylivorans sp. nov., a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Yindong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Hu, Jinxing; Ding, Linxian; Wu, Min; Shen, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and rod-coccus shaped novel actinobacterial strain, designated as TG9(T), was isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Taizhou city, Zhejiang province, eastern China. The isolate was observed to grow at 10-45 °C (optimum 28-32 °C), pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-3.0 %). Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain TG9(T) and other members of the genus Rhodococcus showed that strain TG9(T) shared highest similarities with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans DSM 44555(T) (99.4 %), R. rhodochrous DSM 43241(T) (99.2 %), R. gordoniae DSM 44689(T) (99.2 %) and R. artemisiae DSM 45380(T) (98.2 %). However, low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (15-48 %), which are below the 70 % limit for prokaryotic species identification, were obtained by DNA-DNA hybridization. Strain TG9(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and arabinose and galactose in the whole-cell hydrolysate. Mycolic acids were found to be present. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH, 10-methyl C18:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The only menaquinone detected was MK-8 (H2). The major polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipid and traces of some unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain TG9(T) was determined to be 62.8 %. The combined phenotypic and genotypic data show that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus for which the name Rhodococcus biphenylivorans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain TG9(T) (=CGMCC 1.12975(T) = KCTC 29673(T) = MCCC 1K00286(T)). PMID:25315102

  5. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  6. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  7. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) transport from primary sources to building materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  8. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS INDUCERS OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL ENZYMES: STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of highly purified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers and congeners were synthesized and administered to male Wistar rats at dosage levels of 30 and 150 micromol/kg. The effects of this in vivo treatment on the drug-metabolizing enzymes were determined by measuring t...

  9. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS INDUCERS OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL ENZYMES: EFFECTS OF DI-ORTHO SUBSTITUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All of the 13 possible polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers and congeners substituted at both para positions, at least two meta positions (but not necessarily on the same ring) and at two ortho positions have been synthesized and tested as rat hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers...

  10. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  11. 75 FR 4759 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ..., LLC, which was published in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12053). In addition to... Federal Register notice for the hearing (73 FR 28786, May 19, 2008). In addition to all of the pre... of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste from Mexico for disposal at Veolia's TSCA-approved...

  12. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  13. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  14. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY, CHANGES IN FEMUR MORPHOMETRY AND CALCIUM METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. ischer 344 rats Here dosed daily 1G for 5, 10 or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. fter 5, 10 and 15 weeks,...

  15. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  16. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  17. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  18. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  19. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  1. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF TWO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS ON CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to alter locomotor activity and decrease brain dopamine function in laboratory animals. CBs with orth- and/or para-chlorine substitutions are reportedly most potent in decreasing cell dopamine content in vitro and were dete...

  2. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  3. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL...

  4. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  5. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  6. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC BED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs) for eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in aquatic sediment from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic ERs for PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, and 176 wer...

  7. SOURCES OF EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS INTO THE AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been identified in air samples from many parts of the world since 1960s. This study was undertaken to identify and compare different sources of PCB in indoor and outdoor air. All sampling was performed in central North Carolina. The suspected ...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  9. Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  10. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  11. TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB'S) TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been shown to be widespread in the environment. Their significance in the aquatic environment as a poison is now being revealed. They are being detected in fish and other aquatic life at levels much higher than concentrations found in the wa...

  12. A METHOD FOR THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air. An easily constructed, high-volume sampling system is employed with porous polyurethane foam as the collection medium. The sample is collected at the rate of 0.6 to 1.0 cu m per minut...

  13. SENSITIVITY OF ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASE IN DIFFERENT BRAIN REGIONS TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) mixtures contain a number of different congeners, some of which have been proposed to be neuroactive. Recent studies have suggested that ortho-substituted PCBs may be neuroactive, while "dioxin-like" non-ortho-substituted congeners are not. This st...

  14. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in some U.S. schools are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by un...

  15. GREAT LAKES ECOSYSTEM - MODELING OF THE FATE OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines the Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) problem in the Great Lakes, describes how they got there, describes models of: (1) physical/chemical fate generally; and, (2) specifically, fate of PCBs in aquatic ecosystems. Theory, data and model results are given. Also add...

  16. Hypochlorous acid-activated carbon: an oxidizing agent capable of producing hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Voudrias, E.A.; Larson, R.A.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Chen, A.S.C.; Stapleton, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC), in the presence of dilute aqueous hypochlorite solutions typical of those used in water treatment, was converted to a reagent capable of carrying out free-radical coupling reactions and other oxidations of dilute aqueous solutions of phenols. The products included biphenyls with chlorine and hydroxyl substitution (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls). For example, 2,4-dichlorophenol, a common constituent of waste waters and also natural waters treated with hypochlorite, was converted to 3,5,5'trichloro-2,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl and several related compounds in significant amounts. It is possible that these products pose more of a health hazard than either the starting phenols or the unhydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives.

  17. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 1. Deposition history from an Alpine ice core.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Pavlina Aneva; Schmid, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; Steinlin, Christine; Jenk, Theo M; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-07-15

    We present a highly time-resolved historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from an Alpine ice core (Fiescherhorn glacier, Switzerland). Introduced in the 1940s, PCBs were widely used industrial chemicals. Because of their persistence they are still found in the environment, long after their production phase-out. The Fiescherhorn ice core record covers the entire time period of industrial use of PCBs, that is, 1940-2002. The total concentration of six PCBs varies from 0.5 to 5 ng L(-1) and reveals a temporal trend, with an 8-fold increase from the early 1940s to the peak value in the 1970s. The level in 2002 is comparable to the concentration in the 1940s, when PCBs were introduced into the market. The time trend of PCBs associated with the particulate fraction closely follows the trend found in the dissolved fraction, but the absolute values are a factor of 10 lower. In addition to changing emissions, fluctuations in the PCB record were explained by variabilty in convective transport and postdepositional processes such as surface melting. Concentrations of PCBs are in agreement with data from seasonal snow samples in the Alps, but are a factor of 100 higher than concentrations measured in the Arctic. Contrasting time trends and congener patterns between the Alpine and Arctic region indicate the importance of atmospheric transport and postdepositional effects. PMID:24968761

  19. AVAILABILITY OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PAHS (POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS) TO 'MYTILUJ EDULIS' FROM ARTIFICIALLY RESUSPENDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine sediment containing high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was resuspended into a flowing seawater system. Analysis of the dissolved and particulate phases in the exposure tank indicated a release of some low molecula...

  20. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  1. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  2. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS ON PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS AND PROTEIN KINASE C TRANSLOCATION IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous reports from our laboratory have suggested that the neuroactivity of some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners is associated with perturbations in cellular Ca2+-homeostasis. o characterize the neurochemical effects of PCBs further, the present experiments found that ...

  4. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  5. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB) could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri-) PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L −1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments. PMID:25875180

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in two species of Arctic seabirds from the Svalbard Area

    SciTech Connect

    Daelemans, F.F.; Schepens, P.J.C.; Mehlum, F.

    1992-06-01

    Anthropogenic long-range pollution of the Arctic could lead to rapid environmental changes at a large geographical scale. Arctic ecosystems are regarded as very vulnerable since the energy flow is channeled through only one or a few essential links. The apparent stability and its survival over longer periods is probably due to the large spatial scale involved which provides the mending of regions of disturbance by repopulation from undisturbed areas. The large geographical scale of man-made pollution from the industrialized countries may interfere with this basic factor of stability in the Arctic ecosystem. Organochlorine compounds is one important group of pollutants transported through the atmosphere and ocean currents from the industrial areas to the Arctic. The ability of organochlorine compounds to enter the food chain in significant quantities, as a result of their relative high stability, lipid solubility and tendency for bioaccumulation, poses a possible hazard for the Arctic fauna. In this respect polychlorinated hydrocarbons and more in particular polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) seem to be one of the most dangerous pollutants of the Arctic environment. The archipelago of Svalbard in the European Arctic is an area with only minor local industrial activities, and the anthropogenic pollution recorded in the area is assumed to be mainly of foreign origin. In this paper we present data on PCB levels in two species of Arctic seabirds from the Svalbard area. One is the Glaucous Gull and the other the Black Guillemot. Concentrations of total PCB as well as those of 10 different congeners are given. Special attention is given to three of the most toxic non-orthochlorobiphenyls. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The determination of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: a review with special reference to foods.

    PubMed

    Robards, K

    1990-01-01

    The determination of polychlorinated biphenyls presents several unique analytical problems, not least of which is the need to identify and quantify 209 possible analytes. Moreover, congener-specific analysis is essential because of structure-activity effects on toxicity and environmental stability. Although significant advances have been achieved in identification/quantification procedures with the aid of highly efficient, inert open tubular chromatography columns and coupled GC-MS, sampling and extraction procedures have not developed to the same extent. The primary focus of this review is the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods. However, the problems of separation and identification overshadow the importance of the sample matrix, and relevant data from other areas of analysis are quoted. PMID:2113010

  8. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  9. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  10. A clinical and electrophysiological study of patients with polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, L G; Chu, F L

    1985-01-01

    Neurological examination of 28 patients, 4 years after serious poisoning by polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated cooking oil, are compared with similar examinations of the same patients two years earlier (in 1980). Clinical peripheral sensory neuropathy was found in 54%, headache in 36% and dizziness in 46% of the patients; these findings did not differ (p greater than 0.1) from those in 1980. Although the mean blood polychlorinated biphenyl concentration (19.2 ppb) in the patients was lower (p less than 0.001) than that in 1980 (35.9 ppb), it was still higher than the normal value (less than 4 ppb). There was no difference in the blood polychlorinated biphenyl concentration of patients with neurological manifestation from those without. Although the mean motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) were still slower (p less than 0.06) than the mean normal NCV, the mean MNCV of tibial nerve and SNCV of sural nerve were improved (p less than 0.06) as compared with those in 1980. EEGs were normal except in two cases showing nonspecific slow wave changes. In addition, evoked potentials (somatosensory, visual and brain-stem auditory) were measured in this study and found to be normal in all 12 cases examined. PMID:2995592

  11. Interconversion between Methoxylated and Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rice Plants: An Important but Overlooked Metabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Su, Zhenzhu; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge on the methoxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the relationship between hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) in organisms. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was chosen as the model organism to determine the metabolism of PCBs in plants. Limited para-substituted 4'-OH-CB-61 (major metabolite) and 4'-MeO-CB-61 (minor metabolite) were found after a 5-day exposure to CB-61, while ortho- and meta-substituted products were not detected. Interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in organisms was observed for the first time. The demethylation ratio of 4'-MeO-CB-61 was 18 times higher than the methylation ratio of 4'-OH-CB-61, indicating that formation of OH-PCBs was easier than formation of MeO-PCBs. The transformation products were generated in the roots after 24 h of exposure. The results of in vivo and in vitro exposure studies show that the rice itself played a key role in the whole transformation processes, while endophytes were jointly responsible for hydroxylation of PCBs and demethylation of MeO-PCBs. Metabolic pathways of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and MeO-PCBs in intact rice plants are proposed. The findings are important in understanding the fate of PCBs and the source of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:26928534

  12. Occurrence of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls in salted anchovies.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Giachi, L; Giungato, D; Storelli, A

    2011-05-01

    The most popular brands of salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean were purchased from several Italian supermarkets and grocery stores. Heavy metal (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were determined and assessed by comparing the concentrations in these samples with the maximum permissible limits set by the European Union (Reg EC 629/2008 and Reg EC 1881/2006 [Off. J. Eur. Union L 173:3-9 and 364:5-24, respectively]). The Hg and Cd levels were higher than those of Pb in all samples examined. For Hg and Pb, the concentrations recorded in this study were below the authorized limits, while an appreciable percentage of samples from both locations (Mediterranean Sea, 35%, and Atlantic Ocean, 25%) showed Cd levels exceeding the threshold recommended for human consumption. Concerning PCBs, the results of principal component analysis showed that samples from the two different marine areas appeared to be discriminate, with Mediterranean anchovies more contaminated than the others, in spite of their lower lipid content. However, anchovy samples from both locations had dioxinlike-PCB levels (Mediterranean Sea, 0.011 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [WHO-TEQ] g(-1), wet weight, and Atlantic Ocean, 0.007 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1), wet weight) that were below the WHO-TEQ maximum concentration set by European regulation. The results of this study will help in generating data needed for the assessment of heavy metal and PCB intake from this food. PMID:21549051

  13. Immunoassay screening of sediment cores for polychlorinated biphenyls, Devil's Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Devil?s Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, constructed by dredging in 1973 in Devil?s Swamp along the Mississippi River, is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study investigated the possible historical contribution of PCBs from a hazardous-chemical disposal facility by way of a wastewater drainage ditch that operated from 1971 to 1993. Six sediment cores from the lake and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were collected on October 5, 2004, and analyzed for PCBs using an immunoassay screening method. The results were used to evaluate qualitatively the historical input record of PCBs to the lake. Deposition dates in three of the cores were estimated by assuming that penetration of the push corer was stopped by firmer, pre-lake materials that mark the 1973 subsurface level of dredging. Sixty-one samples from five of the six cores and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were analyzed. PCBs were at higher concentrations in ditch bottom material (about 1.1 to 2.2 milligrams per kilogram) than in cores from sites near where the ditch enters the lake (about 0.1 to 1.0 milligrams per kilogram). The highest concentrations of PCBs (maximum about 15 milligrams per kilogram) were detected in lake-bottom sediment about 350 meters west of where the drainage ditch enters the lake. Detection rates and median PCB concentrations were higher in all of the dated core sediments deposited before about 1990 than after 1990.

  14. Combined effect of microwave and activated carbon on the remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xitao; Yu, Gang

    2006-04-01

    The application of microwave and activated carbon for the treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soil was explored in this study with a model compound of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29). PCB-contaminated soil was treated in a quartz reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450MHz with the addition of granular activated carbon (GAC). In this procedure, GAC acted as microwave absorbent for reaching high temperature and reductant for dechlorination. A sheltered type-K thermocouple was applied to record the temperature rising courses. It was shown that the addition of GAC could effectively promote the temperature rising courses. The determination of PCB residues in soil by gas chromatography (GC) revealed that rates of PCB removal were highly dependent on microwave power, soil moisture content, and the amount of GAC added. GC with mass spectrum (MS) detector and ion chromatography were employed for the analysis of degradation intermediates and chlorine ions, respectively. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of activated carbon might be a potential technology for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:16213557

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from records of PCB concentrations displayed a common pattern with historical PCB production and use, with the maximum peak values detected between the 1960s and the 1980s. Sediments deposited within the last two decades presented a ~40% to ~80% PCB reduction in comparison to the peak levels, reflecting the ban on PCB production and use since the late 1970s. PCB levels along with the presence of high-chlorinated congeners decreased southwards, indicating the Po River as the major source of PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  16. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  17. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  18. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  19. Enhanced mineralization of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil inoculated with chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, W J; Searles, D B; Focht, D D

    1993-01-01

    An Altamont soil containing no measurable population of chlorobenzoate utilizers was examined for the potential to enhance polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mineralization by inoculation with chlorobenzoate utilizers, a biphenyl utilizer, combinations of the two physiological types, and chlorobiphenyl-mineralizing transconjugants. Biphenyl was added to all soils, and biodegradation of 14C-Aroclor 1242 was assessed by disappearance of that substance and by production of 14CO2. Mineralization of PCBs was consistently greatest (up to 25.5%) in soils inoculated with chlorobenzoate degraders alone. Mineralization was significantly lower in soils receiving all other treatments: PCB cometabolizer (10.7%); chlorobiphenyl mineralizers (8.7 and 14.9%); and mixed inocula of PCB cometabolizers and chlorobenzoate utilizers (11.4 and 18.0%). However, all inoculated soils had higher mineralization than did the uninoculated control (3.1%). PCB disappearance followed trends similar to that observed with the mineralization data, with the greatest degradation occurring in soils inoculated with the chlorobenzoate-degrading strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa JB2 and Pseudomonas putida P111 alone. While the mechanism by which the introduction of chlorobenzoate degraders alone enhanced biodegradation of PCBs could not be elucidated, the possibility that chlorobenzoate inoculants acquired the ability to metabolize biphenyl and possibly PCBs was explored. When strain JB2, which does not utilize biphenyl, was inoculated into soil containing biphenyl and Aroclor 1242, the frequency of isolates able to utilize biphenyl and 2,5-dichlorobenzoate increased progressively with time from 3.3 to 44.4% between 15 and 48 days, respectively. Since this soil contained no measurable level of chlorobenzoate utilizers yet did contain a population of biphenyl utilizers, the possibility of genetic transfer between the latter group and strain JB2 cannot be excluded. PMID:8476293

  20. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  1. Pseudomonas putida KF715 bphABCD operon encoding biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl degradation: Cloning, analysis, and expression in soil bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hayase, Nobuki; Taira, Kazunari; Furukawa, Kensuke )

    1990-02-01

    The authors cloned the entire bphABCD genes encoding degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls to benzoate and chlorobenzoates from the chromosomal DNA of Pseudomonas putida KF715. The nucleotide sequence revealed two open reading frames corresponding to the bphC gene encoding 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase and the bphD gene encoding 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (ring-meta-cleavage compound) hydrolase.

  2. Studies on the vapor behavior of selected polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haque, R; Kohnert, R

    1976-01-01

    The vapor loss of several PCB isomers from stainless steel planchets surfaces has been studied. Experiments were carried out under two different conditions. In one case, the vapor loss was observed from 2 molecular layers of PCB, while in the other series, the loss from approximately 200 molecular layers was observed. In both cases the loss of PCB from the surface was substantial, although the controlling mechanism of vapor loss was different. In the first case, the transport was approximated by a simple first order rate law, whereas in the latter case, it was a diffusion controlled process. In general, the vapor loss decreased with increasing number of chlorine atoms present in the isomer. The 4,4(1)-dichlorobiphenyl showed a deviation as compared to others indicating that such factors as the electronic distribution, position of chlorine atom on the biphenyl ring and symmentry of the molecule are also important in discussing the vapor transport. PMID:824339

  3. Hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in albatrosses from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson-Wehler, E.; Bergman, A.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1998-08-01

    Concentrations of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs) were determined in plasma and liver of albatrosses collected from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The mean total concentrations of OH-PCBs in plasma of Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) were 11.5 and 27.1 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Total concentrations of OH-PCBs were only one- to fivefold less than those of total PCBs. 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime},6-heptachlorinated biphenyl and 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorinated biphenyl were the predominant polychlorinated biphenylols, constituting 70 to 90% of the total OH-PCBs. Concentrations of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in liver were between 10.6 and 77 ng/g, lipid weight, approximately 250 times less than those of total PCBs. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs congeners retained in the liver were dominated by those having the methylsulfonyl group in the 3-position.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  5. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  6. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:14963712

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Licata, Patrizia; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo; Fotia, Vincenzo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potorti, Angela Giorgia; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intestine, liver, and muscle samples of 11 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily used as bioindicator for monitoring pollution in environment. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Quantitative determination of OCs and PCBs in the samples examined has been carried out using HRGC-ECD and GC-MS. The results obtained show the presence of concentrations of ∑DDT and ∑PCB in almost all samples. Regarding ∑DDT (4,4(')-DDE, 2,4(')-DDD, 4,4(')-DDD, 2,4(')-DDT, and 4,4(')-DDT), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (0.411 ± 0.050 μg/g) followed by muscle (0.130 ± 0.017 μg/g) and liver samples (0.109 ± 0.014 μg/g). As regards the ∑PCB congeners (PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, PCB-110, PCB-138, PCB-146, PCB-149, PCB-151, PCB-153, PCB-170, PCB-177, PCB-180, PCB-183, and PCB-187), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (1.686 ± 0.144 μg/g) followed by liver (1.064 ± 0.162 μg/g) and muscle samples (0.797 ± 0.078 μg/g). Our data deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Sicily, a region with a very low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries. PMID:21739282

  8. Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovičová, Danka; Turčeková, L'udmila

    2012-11-01

    The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

  9. Electrophysiologic and behavioral effects of perinatal and acute exposure of rats to lead and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, David O; Hussain, Rifat J; Berger, David F; Lombardo, John P; Park, Hye-Youn

    2002-01-01

    Lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both cause a reduction of intelligence quotient and behavioral abnormalities in exposed children that have features in common with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We have used rats as a model to study the effects of both perinatal and acute exposure to lead or PCBs in an effort to compare and understand the mechanisms of these nervous system decrements. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an electrophysiologic measurement that correlates well with cognitive ability. We have determined the effects of chronic perinatal exposure to lead or PCB 153 as well as acute application of these substances to isolated brain slices, with recordings in two areas of the hippocampus, CA1 and CA3. Both substances, whether chronically or acutely applied, significantly reduced LTP in CA1 in animals at age 30 and 60 days. In CA3, they reduced LTP in 30-day animals but potentiated it in 60-day animals. Although neither lead nor PCB 153 alters baseline synaptic transmission at low stimulus strengths, at higher levels they induce changes in the same direction as those of LTP. These results show surprisingly similar actions of these quite different chemicals, and the similarity of effects on chronic and acute application indicates that effects are both pharmacologic and developmental. Behavioral studies of rats exposed to PCBs from contaminated fish show hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and increased frustration relative to unexposed controls. These results demonstrate that lead and PCBs have similar effects on synaptic plasticity and behavior and suggest that the compounds may act through a common mechanism. PMID:12060832

  10. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moukas, Athanasios I; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Calokerinos, Antonios C

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) of high-chlorinated (five or more chlorine atoms) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using toluene as dopant, after liquid chromatographic separation. Mass spectra of PCB 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 199, 206 and 209 were recorded by using liquid chromatography-APPI-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS/MS) in negative ion full scan mode. Intense peaks appeared at m/z that correspond to [M - Cl + O](-) ions, where M is the analyte molecule. Furthermore, a detailed strategy, which includes designs of experiments, for the development and optimization of LC-APPI-MS/MS methods is described. Following this strategy, a sensitive and accurate method with low instrumental limits of detection, ranging from 0.29 pg for PCB 209 to 8.3 pg for PCB 101 on column, was developed. For the separation of the analytes, a Waters XSELECT HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.5 µm) column was used with methanol/water as elution system. This method was applied for the determination of the above PCBs in water samples (surface water, tap water and treated wastewater). For the extraction of PCBs from water samples, a simple liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane was used. Method limits of quantification, ranged from 4.8 ng l(-1), for PCB 199, to 9.4 ng l(-1), for PCB 180, and the recoveries ranged from 73%, for PCB 101, to 96%, for PCB 199. The estimated analytical figures were appropriate for trace analysis of high-chlorinated PCBs in real samples. PMID:25395125

  11. Modulating inhibitors of transthyretin fibrillogenesis via sulfation: polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates as models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2015-02-25

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein's tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  12. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum.

    PubMed

    Klasson, K T; Barton, J W; Evans, B S; Reeves, M E

    1996-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with micro-organisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. PMID:8652118

  13. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.; Evans, B.S.; Reeves, M.E.

    1996-05-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  15. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:23910395

  16. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  17. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in particulate and oily films on impervious surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-12-15

    During this study wipe sampling was applied to various impervious surfaces for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) area concentrations. To that end, a wipe sampling method based on solvent wetted cotton wipes was evaluated and transfer efficiencies of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in particulate films (PFs) and oily liquid films (OFs) during sampling were investigated. For PFs sufficient transfer efficiencies of low concentrated PCB and PCDD/PCDF congeners in 1g/m(2) spiking surrogate were achieved after the first wipe using n-hexane as wetting solvent. Transfer efficiencies for OFs were the highest in the first wipe if n-hexane or n-heptane were used rather than toluene. The spiking experiments of OFs showed a log-linear correlation between the number of wiping procedures and transfer efficiency which indicates that transfer efficiencies were constant in subsequent wipes. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated that pressurized liquid extraction is a suitable tool for the extraction of wipe samples. Finally, the feasibility of this wipe sampling method was demonstrated on various impervious surfaces of different origin, and concentration levels of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in wipe samples are discussed. Hereby, remarkably high ∑CB6 concentrations of up to 1400μg/m(2) (taken at a transformer recycling site) were detected. PMID:26318221

  18. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74.

    PubMed

    Prouty, R M; Reichel, W L; Locke, L N; Belisle, A A; Cromartie, E; Kaiser, T E; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B M; Swineford, D M

    1977-12-01

    Eighty-six bald eagles found sick or dead during 1973-74 in 24 States were analyzed for organochlorine compounds. DDE was detected in all caracasses; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were found in all but two. Seventy-five carcasses contained TDE and/or dieldrin. Four eagles had possibly lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain. Bald eagles continue to retain high residue levels of organochlorine pollutants. Illegal shooting remained the most common cause of death but accounted for a smaller percentage of the mortalities than in the two previous biennial collections. PMID:416416

  19. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-08-09

    This document presents the significant management features for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes in the double-shell tank (DST) system, discussed in Sections 2.0 through 4.0. Section 2.0 delineates the decision limits for acceptance of PCB wastes into and within the DST system. Section 3.0 briefly discusses the process for obtaining a baseline PCB inventory. The PCB inventory tracking system for waste transfers into and within the DST system is described in Section 4.0. The implementation of this PCB management plan is described in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 names the organizations responsible for implementation of the plans elements.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  1. Laboratory data base for isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Campbell, R.D.; Stalling, D.L.; Little, R.L.; Petty, J.D.; Hogan, J.W.; Kaiser, E.M.

    1984-07-01

    A computer-assisted technique for quantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers is described. PCB isomers were identified by use of a retention index system with n-alkyl trichloroacetates as retention index marker compounds. A laboratory data base system was developed to aid in editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in DSM-11 (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the PDP-11 family of computers. 13 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls: A kinetic study of removal of PCBs from mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Filippis, P. de; Scarsella, M.; Pochetti, F.

    1999-02-01

    A kinetic study was done of the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) eliminated from contaminated dielectric oils by using the potassium poly(ethylene glycolate) (KPEG) process. Experimental runs at laboratory scale showed that the kinetics of the removal reaction was first-order for each PCB present and first-order with respect to the KPEG concentration. The PCB elimination grade was also affected by the KOH/PEG ratio. An exponential correlation was found between the kinetic constant for each congener and its respective gas chromatographic relative retention time.

  3. Rapid separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from DDT and its analogues on silica gel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Diane; Reinert, Robert E.

    1971-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), which are used in industry worldwide (i), have been found as residues in numerous wildlife species (2-7). Because of the similarity in chemical characteristics, PCB compounds interfere with gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (8). In the present study, we sought a rapid microanalytical procedure for separation of PCB's from DDT and its analogues before analysis with GLC. A small silica gel column was found to be suitable for removing two of the Aroclor series of PCB's (1254 and 1260) from DDT and its analogues.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in plant foliage: translocation or volatilization from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Gaggi, C.

    1985-11-01

    Physical properties such as water solubility, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constant suggest that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) can easily reach the troposphere as vapor. The potential of plant foliar tissues to take up PCB's as vapor has probably been underrated in some of the previous works. Nevertheless recently it was reported that the level of PCB's found in the foliage is mainly due to vapor transport from the soil, rather than to translocation through the plant. This research has been planned to assess the influence of translocation on the concentration of PCB's in the foliage of different plant species.

  5. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil and in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaychian, Mahnaz; Jones, Cynthia; Poster, Dianne; Silverman, Joseph; Neta, Pedatsur; Huie, Robert; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and in marine sediments has been studied. At low PCB concentrations, complete degradation of the PCBs in transformer oil was achieved without degradation of the oil. Addition of an organic base, triethylamine, enhances the radiolytic dechlorination yield. The mechanism of dechlorination has been shown to involve electron transfer to PCBs from various aromatic radical anions formed in the irradiated oil. At high PCB concentrations, large amounts of triethylamine were necessary to achieve complete radiolytic dechlorination. Preliminary results on PCB-contaminated marine sediments demonstrate that addition of 2-propanol to the sediment/water slurry increases the effectiveness of the electron beam treatment.

  9. Extensive degradation of aroclors and environmentally transformed polychlorinated biphenyls by Alcaligenes eutrophus H850

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Wagner, R.E.; Brennan, M.J.; Haberl, M.L.; Brown, J.F. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized a strain of Alcaligenes eutrophus, designated H850, that rapidly degrades a broad and unusual spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including many tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls and several hexachlorobiphenyls. This strains, which was isolated from PCB-containing dredge spoils by enrichment on biphenyl, grows well on biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl but poorly on 3- and 4-chlorobiphenyl. Capillary gas-chromatographic analysis showed that biphenyl-grown resting cells of H850 degraded the components of 38 of the 41 largest peaks of Aroclor 1242 and 15 of the 44 largest peaks of Aroclor 1254, resulting in an overall reduction of PCBs by 81% for Aroclor 1242 (10 ppm) and 35% for the Aroclor 1254 (10 ppm) in 2 days. Furthermore, H850 metabolized the predominantly ortho-substituted PCB congeners that the resulted from the environmental transformation of the more highly chlorinated congeners of Aroclor 1242 by the upper Hudson River anaerobic meta-, and para-dechlorination agent system. The congener selectivity patterns indicate that a two-step process consisting of anaerobic dechlorination followed by oxidation by H850 can effectively degrade all to congeners in Aroclor 1242 and possibly all those in Aroclor 1254.

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Pocar, Paola; Brevini, Tiziana A L; Antonini, Stefania; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2006-08-01

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oocyte in vitro maturation: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Recent studies provide evidence that exposure to PCBs can cause reproductive problems. PCBs have been identified in the ovarian follicle of women and other mammals and many data in the literature clearly indicate that both follicles and oocytes are particularly susceptible to these pollutants. In the present review we describe the multifaceted effects of PCBs on mammalian oocyte maturation in detail. Published studies clearly indicate that PCB congeners, both singly or as complex mixtures, disrupt mammalian oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Specifically, data point out to the ability of PCBs to interfere with the organization of the microtubules cytoplasmic network resulting in an altered compartmentalization of the ooplasm. Furthermore, a critical role of cumulus cells in mediating PCB ovotoxicity has been observed, most likely related to a disregulation in intracellular communication between the germinal and the somatic compartment. Finally, since coplanar PCBs, induce gene expression via a ligand-dependent transactivating factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, this signalling pathway is also reviewed with respect to understanding the toxic mechanisms of these compounds. PMID:16781112

  11. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, B.C.; Caldwell, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  12. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  13. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  14. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats. PMID:25892208

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil by analog enrichment and bacterial inoculation

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, W.; Sutherland, F.H.; Focht, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-14-labeled polychlorinated biphenyls (PBC) representing the commercial Aroclor 1242 mixture (a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls) were incubated in soil over a 210-d period to determine if biodegradation could be enhanced by additions of straw and sludge, aerobic and anaerobic incubations, or combinations thereof. Although PCB (100 mg/kg) had no effect on microbial respiratory processes in soil, mineralization did not exceed 3% of the total added. Also, neither /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ nor /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ was produced from anaerobic incubations, although both gases were produced from organic matter additions. Further experimentation was undertaken to investigate the possibility that the soil lacked either an indigenous microflora capable of metabolizing PCB or a suitable substrate analog which promoted their activity or growth. Inoculation with Acintobacter P6 (Furukawa) alone did not enhance mineralization of /sup 14/C-PCB. However, when enriched with substrate analog biphenyl, 20 to 27% of the label was recovered as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ over a 63-d period compared to < 1% /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ for the unenriched controls. Uninoculated and enriched treatments also greatly enhanced mineralization yielding 15 to 20% as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, yet the extent of primary degradation of PCB (i.e., disappearance) was greater when both Acinetobacter and biphenyl were added. Analog enrichment with biphenyl is the most important factor effecting PCB degradation in soil, but additional enhancement is brought about by inoculation with Acinetobacter, which is superior to the indigenous microflora with respect to diversity towards metabolism of the isomers present in Aroclor 1242.

  16. Development of field application vectors for bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, C A; Zylstra, G J; DeFlaun, M F; Strom, P F

    1993-01-01

    Field application vectors (FAVs), which are a combination of a selective substrate, a host, and a cloning vector, have been developed for the purpose of expressing foreign genes in nonsterile, competitive environments in which the gene products provide no advantage to the host. Such gene products are exemplified by the enzymes for the cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the biphenyl degradation pathway. Attempts to use highly competent PCB-cometabolizing strains in the environment in the absence of biphenyl have not been successful, while the addition of biphenyl is limited by its human toxicity and low water solubility. Broad-substrate-specificity PCB-degradative genes (bphABC) were cloned from a naturally occurring isolate. Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV307, into broad-host-range plasmid pRK293. The resulting PCB-degrading plasmids were transferred to the FAV host Pseudomonas paucimobilis 1IGP4, which utilizes the nontoxic, water-soluble, nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-720 as a selective growth substrate. Plasmid stability in the recombinant strains was determined in the absence of antibiotic selection. PCB-degrading activity was determined by resting cell assays. Treatment of contaminated soil (10, 100, or 1,000 ppm of Aroclor 1242) by surfactant amendment (1.0% [wt/wt]Igepal CO-720 in wet soil) and inoculation with recombinant isolates of strain 1IGP4 (approximately 4 x 10(6) cells per g of soil) resulted in degradation of many of the individual PCB congeners in the absence of biphenyl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8328798

  17. Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed Central

    Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with long term occupational exposure to PCBs, a group of 326 workers employed in two capacitor manufacturing facilities were investigated in 1976, and 195 of these again in 1979. The median blood values of lower homologues of PCBs were 63 ppb (in plasma) in 1976 and 49 ppb (in serum) in 1979, and of the higher homologues 18 ppb and 17 X 5 ppb respectively. The prevalence of oculodermatological findings potentially related to the effects of PCBs were 9 X 4% and 13 X 3% at the two examinations. There was no significant association between such abnormalities and blood plasma/serum concentrations of PCBs. The observations in this work population exposed to PCBs differ from the yusho and yu-cheng experiences in that fewer clinical abnormalities were found. Suggestions are made that it may be inappropriate to extrapolate findings from the well known PCB poisoning episodes to exposures in occupational settings and that attention should be paid to the importance of polychlorinated dibenzofurans as an aetiological factor in human PCB poisoning. PMID:3924093

  18. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  20. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore » the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Li, Qing X

    2007-05-01

    Blubber, liver and kidney samples of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska were collected during 2000-2001 for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (CoplPCBs). On the lipid weight (lw) base, the total concentrations of PCNs (Sigma PCNs) ranged from 0.3 to 27 ng/g lw, and the total concentrations of CoplPCBs (Sigma CoplPCBs) were 3.6-546 ng/g lw in all the tissue samples. Di-ortho PCBs and mono-ortho PCBs were dominant followed by non-ortho PCBs and PCNs. Sigma Mono-ortho PCBs and Sigma di-ortho PCBs in nursing seals were apparently lower than those in male adult seals, but Sigma PCNs and Sigma non-ortho PCBs in female adults were not significantly different from those in male adults. Differences in PCNs and CoplPCBs congener profiles in female and male adult seals are apparently related to their chemical structure and properties, animal's developmental stages and physiological conditions. A large quantity of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCBs might be transferred to newborns from the nursing seals during lactation, while non-ortho PCBs and PCNs were relatively accumulative in the mother seals. Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in the harbor seals correlated with ages, gender, body weight and blubber thickness, but the blubber Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula (KIAP) did not significantly differ from those in Prince William Sound (PWS). In addition to the new PCB data, this first report on PCN contamination in Alaskan harbor seal tissues is useful for the wildlife and ecosystem management and human health protection. PMID:17223166

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction tehnology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ear...

  6. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ...

  7. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  8. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  9. LAKE MICHIGAN FISH CONSUMPTION AS A SOURCE OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HUMAN CORD SERUM, MATERNAL SERUM, AND MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported consumption of Lake Michigan sport fish was examined in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological samples provided by a sample of maternity patients. Fish consumption was correlated with PCB levels in maternal serum and milk but not in cord...

  10. DYNAMICS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN STRIPED BASS FROM THE HUDSON RIVER. 3. TISSUE DISPOSITION AND ROUTES FOR ELIMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Striped bass were exposed to 14C-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in single-dose and multiple-dose experiments. Samples were analyzed to determine rate constants for PCB elimination from individual tissues, PCB concentration in tissues, the proportion of the PCB burden retained an...

  11. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  14. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  15. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  16. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  17. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  18. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  19. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  20. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  1. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  2. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND OTHER ORGANIC CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FISH FROM MAJOR UNITED STATES WATERSHEDS NEAR THE GREAT LAKES, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-six composite samples of fish were collected during 1978 from United States watersheds near the Great Lakes and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related organic chemicals. PCB mixtures resembling Aroclor 1254 were found in all samples, and mixtures resembl...

  5. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  6. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  7. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  8. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are commonly found as contaminants in complex mixtures in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mo...

  9. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  10. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.15 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a)...

  12. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly. PMID:26332829

  13. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  14. Characterization and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soils and sediments at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Natalie A; Bowman, Jennifer; Lopez, Dina; Migliore, Elizabeth; Jackson, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration. PMID:25113188

  15. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  16. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  17. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners). PMID:24380619

  18. Classification of the biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading strain LB400T and relatives as Burkholderia xenovorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Goris, Johan; De Vos, Paul; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Park, Joonhong; Falsen, Enevold; Quensen, John F; Tiedje, James M; Vandamme, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Strain LB400T is the best-studied polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader. This organism has previously been allocated in the genus Burkholderia, since its 16S rRNA gene sequence shows 98.6 % sequence similarity to the type strains of Burkholderia graminis and Burkholderia terricola. A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the actual taxonomic position of this biotechnologically important organism and of two strains, one recovered from a blood culture vial and one from a coffee plant rhizosphere, both of which resembled strain LB400T in their whole-cell protein patterns. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that the three strains represented a single novel species, for which the name Burkholderia xenovorans sp. nov. is proposed. Strains of this novel species can be differentiated phenotypically from nearly all other Burkholderia species by their inability to assimilate L-arabinose. The whole-cell fatty acid profile of B. xenovorans strains is consistent with their classification in the genus Burkholderia, with 18 : 1omega7c, 16 : 1omega7c, 16 : 0, 14 : 0 3OH, 16 : 0 3OH, 17 : 0 cyclo and 14 : 0 being the most abundant fatty acids. The G + C content of the species varies between 62.4 and 62.9 mol%. The type strain of B. xenovorans is LB400T (= LMG 21463T = CCUG 46959T = NRRL B-18064T). PMID:15388727

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junichi; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the rat medulla oblongata. When extracellular pH was shifted from 7.4 to 7.0, acid-sensitive neurons showed depolarization, which was measured by voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. Exposure to PCB (Aroclor 1254) decreased the amplitude of depolarization in low pH and increased the resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB potentially influences acid-sensitivity through alteration of the membrane potential of acid-sensitive neurons, which could affect the regulation of respiration. PMID:15833269

  20. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  1. Comparative effects of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) and phenanthrene on glucose uptake by freshwater microbial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G S; Lund, L C; Shiaris, M P; Sherrill, T W; Perkins, R E

    1979-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and phenanthrene stress on glucose uptake by natural microbial populations were examined by the heterotrophic potential technique. Temporal and spatial distributions in glucose uptake velocities were examined for natural samples as well as PCB- and phenanthrene-stressed samples. Statistical analysis indicated significant variability among the various samples. It was demonstrated that the environmental variables contributed significantly to the variability in uptake kinetics. Although general trends indicated a PCB-induced stimulation in uptake velocities, these trends were in part masked by sample variability. Data analysis indicated no statistically significant PCB or phenanthrene effect on either total glucose uptake velocities or the proportion of 14CO2 evolved, as compared to natural unstressed samples. PMID:114110

  2. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Y. Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  4. Strain of alcaligenes latus bacteria used for the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Dyadischev, Nikolai Romanovich; Zharikov, Gennady Alekseevich; Kapranov, Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2001-09-11

    Alcaligenes latus bacterial strain TXD-13 VKPM B 75-05 is capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The strain may be employed to detoxicate environment media and PCB-containing industrial waste. To produce biomass, the strain is incubated on media which contain carbon sources, nitrogen sources and mineral salts. The strain is cultivated by a subsurface method up to a titer from 6.0.multidot.10.sup.8 to 2.0.times.10.sup.9 cells per cu cm. The produced biomass is used for degrading PCBs in concentrations from 10.sup.7 to 10.sup.8 cells per cu cm. The strain ensures from 35 to 50% reduction in PCB content in soil and water.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent mayflies from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Schwartz, T.R.; Wiener, J.G.; Lebo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in emergent mayflies (hexagenia bilineata) from a 1250-km reach of the upper mississippi river (umr). Total pcb concentrations (sum of 125 congeners) ranged from 0.21 To 4.1 Mu g/g of dry weight (1.2-29 mu g/g of lipid weight). Concentrations were highest in pools near the twin cities and the quad cities metropolitan areas. Longitudinal movement of pcbs was extensive downstream from the twin cities (175-320 km) but was not apparent downstream from the quad cities. The pcb composition of mayflies was relatively homogeneous throughout most of the river. However, the congener composition in mayflies from two distant locations differed markedly from the other samples and contained a greater abundance of lower molecular weight congeners. Recent pcb discharges from point and nonpoint sources may account for these differences. Emergent mayflies seem to be a useful indicator of pcb contamination of the umr.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  7. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls on sediment

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, K.D.; Wildman, N.J.; Tai, H.

    1983-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants which were freely employed for many years in numerous industrial applications but whose use has now been regulated. Many analytical schemes for monitoring these materials in environmental samples have been developed over the last decades, however, PCBs remain difficult analytical subjects. Most protocols rely on a combination of wet chemical pre-analytical isolation and purification whose complexity depends on the sample matrix. The time required for these manipulations may greatly hamper efforts directed towards emergency cleanup of accidental or illicit contamination of the environment. Thus, a clear need exists for methods which will allow rapid analysis of relatively intransigent samples for PCB contamination. Preliminary experiments directed to assessing the use of pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in determining PCB contamination of soils and sediments are reported. In these experiments pyrolytic desorption at 1000/sup 0/C during 10 sec was used to completely replace more lengthy wet chemical manipulations.

  8. Depositional history of polychlorinated biphenyls in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Aba, Abdul Aziz; Al-Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Uddin, Saif

    2012-05-01

    The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs. PMID:22218707

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl levels in the Saginaw Confined Disposal Facility during disposal operations, Fall 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Pond water samples were collected from the Saginaw confined disposal facility (CDF), Saginaw, MI, during late summer and early fall 1987 and were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), suspended sediments and ammonia nitrogen. During this period, sediments from the Saginaw River was dredged and disposed in the Saginaw CDF. The perimeter dikes at the Saginaw CDF have a prepared limestone core that was designed to be permeable, Effluent monitoring is not practical because the discharge through permeable dikes is diffuse and is quickly diluted to background concentrations. This study, therefore, focused on collection of influent and pond water samples during disposal operations, and on the use of PCB concentrations in pond water samples to estimate the amount of PCB entering the dike and possibly being released from the CDF.

  10. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophil apoptosis, actin cytoskelton, and oxidative state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been proposed as a biomarker for environmental contaminant effects. In this work, we test the hypothesis that in vitro assays of apoptosis are sensitive indicators of immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophils. Apoptosis, necrosis, and viability as well as the related indicators F-actin levels, and active thiol state were measured in purified human neutrophils after treatment with contaminants. Effective concentrations observed were 0.3 μM (60 μg/L) mercury, 750 μg/L Aroclor 1254, and 50 μM (14,500 μg/L) hexachlorocylcohexanes. Concentrations of contaminants that induced apoptosis also decreased cellular F-actin levels. Active thiols were altered by mercury, but not organochlorines. Comparison of these data with levels of contaminants reported to be threats to human health indicate neutrophil apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of mercury toxicity.

  11. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  12. Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

  13. Alteration of Rat Fetal Cerebral Cortex Development after Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; Gérard, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain. PMID:24642964

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  15. Transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary simulated with the water quality model WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuksanovic, V.; De Smedt, F.; Van Meerbeeck, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main processes that govern the behaviour of the industrial compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary are reviewed. It appears that tidal hydrodynamics, suspended sediment transport, and hydrophobic sorption regulate the distribution of PCB within the estuary. The water quality model WASP is applied to simulate the present spatial distribution of 12 selected PCB isomers. The simulations are performed under average hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport regimes. Calculated evolution profiles of the dissolved and sorbed concentrations in the water column indicate a high accumulation of the PCB in the zone of the turbidity maximum. The simulated distributions of the sorbed PCB, suspended sediment and salinity in the water column agree with the observations, but more measurements are needed in order to verify the predictability of the simulations.

  16. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Mamontova, Elena A; Mamontov, Alexander A; Tarasova, Eugenia N; Kuzmin, Mikhail I; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. PMID:23995023

  18. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  19. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation. PMID:25213805

  20. Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, E.; Scatolini, S.; Cotter, J.; Hope, B.

    1995-12-31

    There are large gaps in the understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into lower trophic level marine organisms and, subsequently to higher marine consumers, particularly for the North Pacific Ocean. In this study, twenty PCB congeners were quantified in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota taken from near-shore waters at Midway Atoll. PCB 138, 153, 180, and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analyzed. Bioaccumulation was shifted in favor of higher chlorinated congeners in all species; only aquatic macrophytes displayed significant accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho substituted congeners with toxic potency were below detection levels in the majority of species. Certain mono-ortho congeners, implicated in marine mammal toxicity, comprised only 4.5% of total congener load in potential forage species.

  1. Chromatographic Retention Times of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: from Structural Information to Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacă, Sorana D.; Diudea, Mircea V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a unitary approach of the use of a Molecular Descriptors Family in structure-property/activity relationships, particularly in modelling the chromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls. Starting from molecular structure, viewed as a graph, and considering the bonds and bond types, atom types and often the 3D geometry of the molecule, a huge family of molecular descriptors called MDF was calculated. A preliminary selection of MDF members was done by simple linear regression (LR) against the measured property. The best fitted MDF subset is then submitted to multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis in order to find the best pairs of MDF members that produce a reliable QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) model. The predictive capability was finally tested by randomly splitting of data into training and test sets. The best obtained models are presented and the results are discussed.

  2. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B., Jr.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  3. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal. PMID:15352474

  4. Spatial distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlian; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ruijie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    The residual level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined in the surface sediments collected from the Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of Southern China. The results showed that the total concentration of PCBs ranged from 1.62 to 62.63 ng/g dry wt, with a mean of 9.87 ng/g dry wt. Generally, the average PCBs concentrations in three sample groups descended in this order: inner bay > outer bay > rivers. On a mean level, with respect to the PCBs homologue profiles, the analysis suggested that tetrachlorinated biphenyls was the most abundant PCB, followed by hexachlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorinated biphenyls. PCB profiles varied according to the nature of the site and its proximity to the sources. PCA with multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Aroclor products contributed to the PCBs in Qinzhou Bay. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCBs in sediments of Qinzhou Bay posed no significant risk to human health. PMID:24380702

  5. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    PubMed

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer. PMID:8219584

  6. Loading capacity and chromatographic behavior of a porous graphitic carbon column for polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Feltz, K.; O'Laughlin, J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A porous graphitic carbon column (Hypercarb) was used for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into classes of 2-4 ortho chlorines, 1 ortho chlorine and 0 ortho chlorine congeners. A method was developed that combined the fractionation of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a variety of biotic environmental samples. Many of these samples have high concentrations of PCBs which cause fractionation problems as adsorption sites on the graphitic surface are occupied. The loading capacity of the column for PCBs was determined by injecting up to 1 mg of total PCBs and monitoring changes in chromatographic behavior of tetra-/di-ortho, mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs. Effective loading capacities were 1 mg for tetra-/di-ortho PCBs, but only 3- 5 ??g for non-ortho PCBs and about 2 ??g for mono-ortho PCBs. Loading capacity of the PGC column for environmental fish and avian egg samples was determined to depend on the mono-ortho and non-ortho PCB levels found in these samples.

  7. Continuous coculture degradation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Acinetobacter spp. in an aerobic reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.; Focht, D.D. )

    1990-07-01

    A coculture of two Acinetobacter spp. was applied to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls during a 42-day incubation study in a continuous aerobic fixed-bed reactor system, filled with polyurethane foam boards as support for bacterial biofilm development. The reactor was supplied with mineral medium containing 500 ppm sodium benzoate as a growth (primary) substrate, while the incoming airstream was saturated with biphenyl vapors to induce for PCB cometabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain P6. The chlorobenzoates thus generated from 4,4{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4{prime}-DCBP), 3,4-dichlorobiphenyl (3,4-DCBP), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl were further metabolized by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1. The chlorobenzoate metabolites, as well as ring-fission product ({lambda}{sub max} = 442 nm) from the PCB congeners, accounted for the degradation of 63% (2.8 mM) of the 4,4{prime}-DCBP, 100% (0.5 mM) of the 3,4-DCBP, and 32% (0.12 mM) of the 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TCBP, the biofilm responded with a concurrent higher release of chlorobenzoates and chloride through cosubstrate utilization.

  8. 3D QSAR studies of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as potential xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ingale, Kundan; Wheeler, John S; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are found in human biological samples and lack of data on their potential estrogenic activity has been a source of concern. We have extended our previous in silico 2D QSAR study through the application of advance techniques such as docking and 3D QSAR to gain insights into their estrogen receptor (ERα) binding. The results support our earlier findings that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the compounds; its position, orientation and surroundings in the structure are influential for the binding of OH-PCBs to ERα. This study has also revealed the following additional interactions that influence estrogenicity of these chemicals (a) the aromatic interactions of the biphenyl moieties with the receptor, (b) hydrogen bonding interactions of the p-hydroxyl group with key amino acids ARG394 and GLU353, (c) low or no electronegative substitution at para-positions of the p-hydroxyl group, (d) enhanced electrostatic interactions at the meta position on the B ring, and (e) co-planarity of the hydroxyl group on the A ring. In combination the 2D and 3D QSAR approaches have led us to the support conclusion that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the OH-PCB influencing the binding to estrogen receptors, and have enhanced our understanding of the mechanistic details of estrogenicity of this class of chemicals. Such in silico computational methods could serve as useful tools in risk assessment of chemicals. PMID:26598992

  9. Experimental and theoretical studies on synthesis and structure elucidation of some polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarskiy, Vadim P.; Boyarskaya, Irina А.; Savicheva, Elisaveta A.; Gdaniec, Maria; Fonari, Marina S.; Simonov, Yurii A.

    2010-06-01

    The regioselective methoxycarbonylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (РСВ22), and 2,5,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB31), carried out in the presence of modified Co 2(CO) 8 cobalt carbonyl catalyst proceeds with substitution of chlorine atom in the position 3 for РСВ22 and yields methyl 2-chloro-3-(4-chlorophenyl)benzoate 1, while for PCB31 results in methyl 4-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzoate 2. The substitution of methoxycarbonyl group for chlorine in ortho-position of trichlorobiphenyls seems not to affect the twist angle of the biphenyl unit. However, the twist angle of the methoxycarbonyl group relative to the phenyl ring was found to be significantly larger in the meta-derivative 1 than the ortho-derivative 2. To rationalize conformational differences between the two esters 1 and 2 in their crystal structures the optimized geometries and potential energy curves (relative energy versus torsion angle) were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory.

  10. Continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in air using direct sampling APCI/ITMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masuyoshi; Suga, Masao; Waki, Izumi; Sakamoto, Masami; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-06-01

    We report a continuous monitoring system of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air, which uses direct sampling atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). In APCI, humidity in the atmosphere, which fluctuates from 0 to 10 vol.%, influences PCB sensitivity. In dry air (0.5% humidity), the detection limits of Di- to Hp-chlorinated biphenyls (CB) are 0.01-0.44 [mu]g/Nm3 ([mu]g/m3 at normal condition) with time resolution of 1 min, whereas the sensitivity decreases to less than 1/10 when water vapor concentration is 10 vol.%. The sensitivity decrease is calibrated in real-time using an internal standard, trichlorophenol. In order to obtain the calibration accuracy of +/-30%, we dilute the sample gas by dry air, decreasing the water vapor concentration below 1%. We applied the monitor to measure Di- to Hp-CB in ventilation air from a PCB decomposition plant. The monitored PCB concentration levels agreed well with that by high-resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).

  11. Establishment of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enrichment culture with predominantly meta dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Mohn, W.W.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating microorganisms from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River, N.Y., was attempted. The enrichment strategy was to use pyruvate as the electron donor and dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. The enrichment medium also contained non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments, which were required for the PCB-dechlorinating activity. An enrichment culture (that had stable PCBT-dechlorinating activity over nine serial transfers during 1 year) was established under these conditions; however, the rate of dechlorination did not increase after the second serial transfer. Dechlorination occurred primarily from the meta positions of the biphenyl molecule. Hydrogen could be substituted for pyruvate as the electron donor with equal activity, but when acetate was used as the electron donor a delay in dechlorination was observed. Sulfate and bromethane sulfonate inhibited dechlorination activity. The pyruvate-Aroclor 1242 enrichment also dechlorinated Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260; the extent of chlorine removed was the greatest for Aroclor 1254. For comparison, nonautoclaved non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments used in the assay also dechlorinated Aroclors, but only after 12 to 16 weeks of incubation. This suggests that PCB-dechlorinating organisms were also present in these sediments but in numbers lower than those in the enrichment culture.

  12. Dechlorination of four commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors) by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.; Tiedje, J.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The rate, extent, and pattern of dechlorination of four Aroclors by inocula prepared from two polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments were compared. The four mixtures used, Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260, average approximately three, four, five, and six chlorines, respectively, per biphenyl molecule. All four Aroclors were dechlorinated with the loss of meta plus para chlorines ranging from 15 to 85%. Microorganisms from an Aroclor 1242-contaminated site in the upper Hudson River dechlorinated Aroclor 1242 to a greater extent than did microorganisms from Aroclor 1260-contaminated sediments from Silver Lake, Mass. The Silver Lake inoculum dechlorinated Aroclor 1260 more rapidly than the Hudson River inoculum did and showed a preferential removal of meta chlorines. For each inoculum the rate and extent of dechlorination tended to decrease as the degree of chlorination of the Aroclor increased, especially for Aroclor 1260. The maximal observed dechlorination rates were 0.3, 0.3, and 0.2 {mu}g-atoms of Cl removed per g of sediment per week for Aroclors 1242, 1248, and 1254, respectively. The maximal observed dechlorination rates for Hudson River and Silver Lake organisms for Aroclor 1260 were 0.04 and 0.21 {mu}g-atoms of Cl removed per g of sediment per week, respectively. The dechlorination patterns obtained suggested that the Hudson River microorganisms were more capable than the Silver Lake organisms of removing the last para chlorine.

  13. [Gas chromatographic method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in pine needles].

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Zhang, X; Yao, J; Liu, Z; Lu, P

    1999-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 chemical compounds, in which 1-10 chlorine atoms are attached to a biphenyl molecule. PCBs are members of halogenated aromatic group of environmental pollutants that have been identified worldwide in diverse environmental matrices. PCBs in air, soils, sediment, water, transformer oils and other environmental matrices have been determined in the past years. In this work a method for routine analysis of PCBs in pine needles has been developed. First, extractions were carried out in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane as solvent. Then, a silica gel chromatographic column was applied to pretreat the pine needle samples. The reference standard used was clophen 50. The recovery was about 90%, so the feasibility and reliability were assured. After the analysis of PCBs in pine needle samples from four different regions, the distribution of PCBs in environment can be discussed and monitored. In this method, a Shimadzu GC-7A gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector was used for the analysis of PCBs. From the results, we can see the PCB pollution in different regions. So evaluation of air pollution level through foliage data is feasible. The sample preparation and analytical method mentioned in this paper is reliable and simple. PMID:12552848

  14. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  15. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, where they have been demonstrated to cause mortality and adverse...

  16. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  18. Evaluation of Enhanced Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Recalcitrant Polychlorinated Biphenyl Isomers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separation of some recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in extracts from environmental compartments has been a daunting task for environmental chemists. Summed quantitation values for coeluting PCB isomers are often reported. This composite data obscures the ac...

  19. [Associations of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls with diabetes: based on epidemiological findings].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemical substances that have the common properties of resistance to biodegradation, wide-range transportation, high lipophilicity, bioaccumulation in fat, and biomagnification in the food chain. POPs are persistent in the environment worldwide and have potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known chemicals that are considered as POPs. The association between high-level exposure to dioxins and type 2 diabetes among U.S. Air Force veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the Vietnam War was reported in the late 1990s. This association has been supported by similar epidemiologic studies, whose subjects were exposed to high doses of dioxins in their places of work involving phenoxyacid herbicide production and spraying, and in the industrial accident in Seveso, Italy. Recently, low-level exposure to dioxins and PCBs has been reported to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional studies in the U.S. general population and Japanese general population showed that body burden levels of some dioxins and PCBs were strongly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Very recently, following these cross-sectional studies, several prospective studies have suggested that low-level exposure to some PCBs predicted the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population. Environmental exposure to some dioxins and PCBs, which mainly accumulate in adipose tissue, may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22781010

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Glycaemia and Diabetes in a Population Living in a Highly Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Polluted Area in Northern Italy: a Cross-sectional and Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Claudia; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Feretti, Donatella; Covolo, Loredana; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interests: the authors declare no potential conflict of interests. Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS). Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort) study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases) or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases). Results A total of 53 subjects (10.0%) were diabetics: 28 had diabetes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia. PMID:25170473

  1. Induction of bphA, Encoding Biphenyl Dioxygenase, in Two Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Bacteria, Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas Strain Cam-1 and Mesophilic Burkholderia Strain LB400

    PubMed Central

    Master, Emma R.; Mohn, William W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated induction of biphenyl dioxygenase in the psychrotolerant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader Pseudomonas strain Cam-1 and in the mesophilic PCB degrader Burkholderia strain LB400. Using a counterselectable gene replacement vector, we inserted a lacZ-Gmr fusion cassette between chromosomal genes encoding the large subunit (bphA) and small subunit (bphE) of biphenyl dioxygenase in Cam-1 and LB400, generating Cam-10 and LB400-1, respectively. Potential inducers of bphA were added to cell suspensions of Cam-10 and LB400-1 incubated at 30°C, and then beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately six times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. In contrast, the beta-galactosidase activities in LB400-1 incubated with biphenyl and in LB400-1 incubated with pyruvate were indistinguishable. At a concentration of 1 mM, most of the 40 potential inducers tested were inhibitory to induction by biphenyl of beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10. The exceptions were naphthalene, salicylate, 2-chlorobiphenyl, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, which induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10, although at levels that were no more than 30% of the levels induced by biphenyl. After incubation for 24 h at 7°C, biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately four times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. The constitutive level of beta-galactosidase activity in LB400-1 grown at 15°C was approximately five times less than the level in LB400-1 grown at 30°C. Thus, there are substantial differences in the effects of physical and chemical environmental conditions on genetic regulation of PCB degradation in different bacteria. PMID:11375179

  2. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (∑14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  4. Exposure to a Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans Resulted in a Prolonged Time to Pregnancy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) may affect the female reproductive system in animals and humans. In 1978–1979, a mass poisoning occurred in central Taiwan due to PCB/PCDF-contaminated cooking oil; this incident was called Yucheng (“oil disease” in Chinese). Objective The purpose of our study was to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure affected fertility in exposed women. Methods After the event, we followed the exposed individuals and a reference group who were sex-, age-, and community-matched. In 2003, we obtained fertility histories from Yucheng and reference women by telephone interview. We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox regression to compare time to pregnancy (TTP) between Yucheng and reference women, and we performed multiple logistic regression to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure caused infertility. Results In total, 412 women responded, with a median TTP of 4 months in Yucheng women and 3 months in reference women (p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders by Cox regression, we found a fecundability ratio of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.00] for Yucheng women. Among the 408 women who had noncontraceptive sexual activity for > 12 months, 19.7% of Yucheng women and 9.7% of reference women did not become pregnant (i.e., they were infertile). After we adjusted for confounders by logistic regression, the infertility odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI, 1.23–4.59) for Yucheng women compared with the reference group. Conclusions We found prolonged TTP and reduced fertility among women previously exposed to PCBs/PCDFs. Because of the limited sample size and the relatively small decrease in the fertility rate, these effects require cautious interpretation and further investigation for confirmation. PMID:18470317

  5. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures in soil using phanerochaete chrysosporium in nutrient rich, non-ligninolytic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Yadav, Jagjit S.; Reddy, Chilekampalli A.; Quensen, John F.; Tiedje, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Substantial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures is carried out using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, under nutrient, carbon and nitrogen source rich, non-ligninolytic conditions. The PCBs with various numbers of ortho, meta, and para chlorines were extensively degraded, indicating relative nonspecificity for the position of chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl ring. Maximal degradation of PCBs in a mixture was observed in malt extract medium (18.4% on a molar basis), in which most of the individual PCBs were degraded.

  6. UPTAKE OF PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND 2,3,7,8-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY BIRDS NESTING IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER AND GREEN BAY, WI, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. ccumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyc...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  8. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  9. Early life-stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Andersson, P.L.; Tysklind, M.; Olsson, P.E.

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were examined for embryo and early life stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio). A set of eight PCBs and two hydroxylated PCBs and 17{beta}-estradiol were tested. Of the compounds tested, 4{prime}-OH-PCB30 (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl) and PCB104 were found to be highly toxic to embryos following maternal exposure and transfer to the oocyte. It was also observed that 17{beta}-estradiol exposure resulted in a high incidence of embryo mortality. Analysis of estrogen receptor levels during embryonic development showed increased mRNA (ribonucleic acid) levels from the 1K stage to 50% epiboly. Following injection of the different compounds, the estrogen receptor mRNA levels were also analyzed in adult male fish to determine if there was a correlation between embryo mortality and estrogenicity of the studied PCBs. The two PCBs that were highly embryo toxic were observed to be estrogenic.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the freshwater environment. Topics include sources, distribution, and accumulation rates for specific regions. The citations also discuss PCB bioaccumulation, pollutant pathways, introduction into the food chain, and results of long and short term monitoring of selected areas. Detection methods for PCB accumulation in fish and surficial sediments are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Rapid detection of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in real environmental samples by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10(-6) mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:22346675

  12. Geohydrology and Possible Transport Routes of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Hill, Barry R.; Shade, Patricia J.; Tribble, Gordon W.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, seepage runs, water-budget computation, analysis of stream-gaging records, study of stream sediment, and measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was used to investigate the geohydrology and possible routes of PCB transport from areas of possible contamination in the U.S. Coast Guard's Omega Station in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii. The PCBs were a contaminant in fuel that was sprayed on vegetation and ignited during defoliation efforts at the Omega Station. Haiku Valley is a stream valley eroded into a thick section of dike-intruded, highly permeable lava flows. The valley is partly filled with alluvium, pyroclastics and massive lava flows. A shallow aquifer system is formed by a permeable unit of pyroclastics which is bounded below by less permeable alluvium, massive lava flows, and weathered basalt. A deeper aquifer system is present in the dike-intruded lava flows. Much of the area of suspected PCB-contaminated fuel application in Haiku Valley is situated on the geologic unit that forms the shallow aquifer. A water budget calculated for the drainage area of a stream-gaging station (16275000) at the downgradient boundary of the Omega Station indicates that the shallow and deep aquifers receive recharge of 5.1 cubic feet per second from the 0.98 square-mile drainage area; approximately 10 percent of the drainage area is suspected to have been contaminated by PCBs. Approximately 4 cubic feet per second of water is withdrawn from the aquifers by a well and a water tunnel in the valley, but the geology of the area indicates that some of the water withdrawn by the tunnel also comes from recharge beyond the surface-water divides of Haiku Valley. Base flow to the stream is about 1.2 cubic feet per second. A water-balance calculation between recharge, well and tunnel withdrawals, and stream base flow, indicates that 1.0 cubic feet per second or more of the water recharging the drainage area may travel through the subsurface and

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals. PMID:24273070

  14. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in various tissues of white-backed vulture in India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Muralidharan, S

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑ PAHs, ∑ PCBs, and ∑ OCPs in tissues were 60-2037 ng/g, 30-5790 ng/g, and 3.2-5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p'-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. PMID:24288666

  15. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhananjayan, V.; Muralidharan, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. PMID:24288666

  16. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb dry weight (dry wt.), while in the soil from conventional farming of beets 0.53 ppb dry wt. Among vegetables, higher concentrations of pesticides were detected in organically grown beets (190.63 ppb dry wt.). Soil samples from the organic farming contained lower levels of organochlorine pesticide residues compared to the conventional farming. Taking into account toxicity equivalent (TEQ), the conventionally grown carrots accumulated the most toxic PCBs. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs were also noted in the grain of conventionally grown rye and amounted to 3.05 pg-TEQ/g wet wt. PMID:22428896

  17. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  18. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  19. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc which has a role in cellular growth and proliferation programs. The c-myc up-regulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase which adds the telomeres repeating sequences to the chromosomal ends to compensate for the progressive loss of telomeric sequence. We performed multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the adult population (n = 2413) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. LTL was natural log-transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. Individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of the sum of PCBs were associated with 8.33% (95% CI: 4.08–13.88) and 11.63% (95% CI: 6.18–17.35) longer LTLs, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile, with evidence of a dose–response relationship (p-trend < 0.01). The association of the sum PCBs with longer LTL was found in both sexes. Additionally, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were associated with longer LTL. The age independent association between longer LTL and environmental exposures to PCBs, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may support a role as tumor promoter of these compounds. Further studies to evaluate the effect of these compounds on LTL are needed to more fully understand the implications of our finding. PMID:26844276

  1. Identifying the Correct Biotransformation Model from Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Dioxin Dechlorination Batch Studies.

    PubMed

    Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E

    2014-10-01

    We performed Monte Carlo simulations of batch transformations of hydrophobic compounds using typical numbers of data points, extent of reaction, and measurement error, to identify the most appropriate biotransformation model to describe such data under different conditions. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins present special challenges for parameterization due to low environmental concentrations and slow biotransformation rates, which result in high sample variability, few samples, and limited substrate concentration range. Four models of varying complexity (zero-order, first-order, Monod, and Best) were fit to simulated data. Various combinations of initial concentration (S 0), half saturation concentration (K S), maximum substrate utilization rate (q max), measurement error, number of data points per batch run, and extent of biotransformation were simulated. One thousand Monte-Carlo runs were performed for each parameter combination, and AICc (Akaike's information criterion corrected for small numbers of data points) was used to determine the most appropriate model. Neither the Best model nor the zero-order model ever produced the lowest AICc for a majority of simulations under any combination of test conditions. With 10% measurement error, the first-order model always outperformed the others. In the case of 1% measurement error with 10 evenly-spaced data points, the Monod model was the better choice when S 0>K S and the system was not mass transfer limited [Formula: see text] otherwise, the first-order model was indicated. S 0 is constrained by the compound's aqueous solubility; therefore, for highly hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, a first-order model is likely to fit batch biotransformation data as well or better than a more complicated model. PMID:25317036

  2. Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls: acute toxicity of landfill soil extract to female prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; Li, M H; Saeed, A; Bush, B

    1995-10-01

    Subsurface soil from a National Priorities List landfill containing about 2.5% polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was extracted and the extract cleaned by Florisil slurry and alumina column chromatography. The refined extract contained 48 mg/mL PCB, mainly trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls, traces of polychlorinated naphthalenes, 125 micrograms/mL 2,2-bis-p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), and low levels of chlorinated dibenzofurans. The refined extract was dissolved in corn oil and administered intraperitoneally to weanling (day 20) female rats on days 20 and 21; rats were terminated on day 22. Limited data indicated possible hematopoietic effects, including neutrophilia. There were no changes in relative uterus, kidney, or adrenal gland weights between total doses of 3 to 96 mg/kg total PCB. Relative liver weights increased significantly at 36 mg/kg and activities of P450s 1A1 (as ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase) and 2B (as pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase) increased at 12 mg/kg and plateaued at 36 (P450 1A1) or 48 (P450 2b) mg/kg. Serum total thyroxine (T4) declined significantly at doses of 36 mg/kg and greater; thyroid follicular epithelial cells were significantly larger within the same dose range, but the follicular colloid area decreased to less than 60% control values at 12 mg/kg and remained at this size through 72 mg/kg. Maximum mobilization of T4 apparently occurred at 12 mg/kg and attenuated measured declines in circulating levels. Even though a large proportion of proven and probable estrogenic chlorobiphenyls (CBs) were present, the lower amounts of more potent antiestrogenic aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and/or decreased responsiveness because of low serum T4 levels may have antagonized the uterotropic response. PMID:7487157

  3. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl detection based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent whole-cell sensing system.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kendrick; Xu, Shifen; Pasini, Patrizia; Deo, Sapna; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia

    2007-08-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), have been identified as environmental contaminants. Various studies have shown that some OH-PCBs can potentially contribute to health problems. Detection of these compounds in environmental and biological samples could provide useful information about their levels and lead to a better understanding of their apparent toxicity. To that end, we have developed a whole-cell sensing system for the detection of OH-PCBs by taking advantage of the recognition of a group of related compounds, i.e., hydroxylated biphenyls, by the product of the hbpR gene in the hbp operon from Pseudomonas azelaica strain HBP1. By fusing the luxAB genes, encoding the reporter protein bacterial luciferase, to the hbp regulator-promoter sequence, a whole-cell sensing system was developed. Here, we describe the optimization and application of this whole-cell sensing system for the detection of a model compound, 2-hydroxy-3',4'-dichlorobiphenyl. A detection limit of 1 x 10(-8) M was achieved using this system. The detection of a broad range of individual OH-PCBs as well as an OH-PCB mixture was investigated. The system can detect OH-PCBs in whole serum samples in a trace amount, which is comparable to the detection of these analytes in medium alone. We envision that the method developed can potentially be employed as a rapid and sensitive way to monitor OH-PCBs for toxicological study in the laboratory, as well as a useful tool to evaluate the presence of bioavailable OH-PCBs in natural environments. PMID:17602671

  4. Stimulatory effects of a microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on rat uterine contraction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsuneta, Taeko; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Quensen, John F; Boyd, Stephen A; Hanna, Mona; Grindatti, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Microbially mediated reductive dechlorination has been advocated as the first part of a two-stage (anaerobic/aerobic) biotreatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, and is generally viewed as a detoxication process. However, previous studies suggest that microbial dechlorination increases the ability to stimulate uterine contractions compared with the original PCB mixtures. Here, we investigate the composition and uterotonic activity of the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 before and after incubation with microorganisms eluted from PCB-contaminated sediment of the Hudson River. Incubation with microorganisms resulted in a partially dechlorinated mixture (HR1260) dominated by ortho-substituted PCBs with four or fewer chlorines per biphenyl. Aroclor 1260 that had not been incubated with microorganisms had no significant effect on contraction frequency of rat uterine strips (gestation day 10) in vitro, whereas HR1260 dramatically increased contraction frequency to 718+/-134% of the basal rate at a total PCB concentration of 70 microM (p<0.05). The microbial dechlorination increased 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and one or more of four congeners that co-eluted during chromatography (2,3,3',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,3',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',4,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,2',4,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl) to 24 and 8 mol%, respectively. However, the uterotonic activities of the latter congeners were modest when evaluated either solely or in a reconstituted mixture and could not fully account for the uterotonic activity of HR1260. Nonetheless, the relative abundance of congeners with three or fewer chlorines increased to 14 mol% as a group in HR1260, suggesting that these congeners collectively contribute to the uterotonic activity even though the abundance of any one congener in this group was less than 5 mol%. PMID:18359014

  5. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-01-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes. PMID:15121504

  6. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  7. Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.S.; Garrison, A.W.; Smith, P.D.; Foreman, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic enantiomeric fractions (EFs) were observed for PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 for aquatic and riparian biota from Lake Hartwell, SC, a reservoir heavily contaminated with PCBs, and for these congeners and PCBs 132, 174, 176, and 183 in river fish and bivalves nationwide. Fish and bivalves showed marked differences in EFs as compared to sediment found at the same sampling sites, thus suggesting that PCBs are bioprocessed in biota in a different manner from those found in sediment (e.g., reductive dechlorination). Species-dependent patterns in PCB EFs were observed, which suggest differences in the ability of different species to bioprocess PCBs enantioselectively, most likely by metabolism. The presence of nonracemic PCBs in fish and bivalves suggests greater metabolic degradation of PCBs in these organisms than indicated from previous achiral studies and underscores the powerful potential of chiral analysis as a tracer of environmental bioprocesses.

  8. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, P A; Welty, E; Steele, G; Steinberg, K

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.08) when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level (r = -0.21) and serum albumin (r = -0.24) and total bilirubin (r = 0.30) with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn. PMID:3104024

  9. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects. PMID:21960363

  10. Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in ringed seals from East greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Bossi, Rossana; Dietz, Rune

    2011-02-15

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of +6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding tolerable daily intake rates for seal blubber as traditional Arctic food items. PMID:21247098

  11. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01). PMID:25150824

  12. Toxicological assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites in the liver of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Hirakawa, Shusaku; Eguchi, Akifumi; Kanbara, Chika; Imaeda, Daisuke; Yoo, Jean; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-18

    We have previously reported that high accumulation of dioxins and related compounds induced cytochrome P450 (CYP 1s) isozymes in the liver of wild Baikal seals, implying the enhanced hydroxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study attempted to elucidate the residue concentrations and patterns of PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in the livers of Baikal seals. The hepatic residue concentrations were used to assess the potential effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs in combination with the analyses of serum thyroid hormones, hepatic mRNA levels, and biochemical markers. The hepatic expression levels of CYP1 genes were positively correlated with the concentration of each OH-PCB congener. This suggests chronic induction of these CYP1 isozymes by exposure to PCBs and hydroxylation of PCBs induced by CYP 1s. Hepatic mRNA expression monitoring using a custom microarray showed that chronic exposure to PCBs and their metabolites alters the gene expression levels related to oxidative stress, iron ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. In addition, the concentrations of OH-PCBs were negatively correlated with L-thyroxine (T4) levels and the ratios of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)/reverse 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyroninee (rT3). These observations imply that Baikal seals contaminated with high levels of OH-PCBs may undergo the disruption of mechanisms related to the formation (or metabolism) of T3 and T4 in the liver. PMID:25343573

  13. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, MS; Halling, J; Weihe, P; Jensen, TK; Grandjean, P; Nielsen, F; Jørgensen, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. Objectives The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. Results A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables. Conclusion In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity. PMID:25766940

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota, September 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, wherease PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2 to 4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppM, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppM. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

  15. Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. ); Eyambe, G.S. ); Venables, B.J. ); Cooper, E.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

  16. Decrease in prosaposin in spermatozoon is associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jia-Li; Sun, Ling-Bin; Guo, Zhi-Zhun; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Guan-Chao; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Sha, Ai-Guo; Wang, Chong-Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhi; Zuo, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants and they have been associated with declining male fertility. In the present study, we aimed to determine the responsiveness of prosaposin (Psap) expression to PCB exposure. Male C57 mice were exposed to PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) of environmental related doses by oral gavage. After exposure for 50 days, the expression of Psap was significantly decreased by PCB exposure in epididymides and epydidymal spermatozoa, but not in testis. The Psap abundance in sperm was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the 95% lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL) and Benchmark Dose (BMD) for Psap reduction were 1.25 and 8.89 μg/kg Aroclor 1254, and for sperm motility reduction were 11.85 and 61.9 μg/kg Aroclor 1254. The depressed Psap level also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01, r=-0.531) with PCB accumulation in liver. In men with detectable PCB exposure in semen, Psap expression in sperm was significantly decreased whereas the semen parameters were unaffected. Linear regression showed that a negative association between total PCB level in seminal plasma and Psap level in ejaculated spermatozoa (P<0.05, r=-0.396). In conclusion, our data suggested that the abundance of Psap in sperm sample may be a sensitive endpoint to predict PCB exposure. PMID:26045750

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Kurita-Matsuba, H.; Weseloh, D.V.; Ross, P.S.; Bishop, C.A.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.; Kubiak, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the overall potency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing extracts from double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritis) eggs with an in vitro bioassay system, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Results from the H4IIE bioassay were strongly correlated with the hatching success of eggs in the colonies, whereas conventional methods of PCB analysis correlated poorly with hatching success of eggs from the same colonies. These observations suggest that even though concentrations of total PCB residues have declined in almost all compartments of the environment, their effects are still being observed. The significance of this observation is that the adverse symptoms presently observed in certain Great Lakes fish-eating waterbird populations do not appear to be caused by some as yet unidentified industrial chemical or chemicals and seem not to be the result of pesticides, but rather to the dioxin-like activity of PCBs. Evidence is presented to suggest that the relative enrichment of the potency of PCBs in the environment may play a role in the persistence of the observed adverse symptoms.

  18. Chicago air quality: PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) air-monitoring plan. Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have significant commercial value because of their high chemical and physical stability, resistance to fire, low vapor pressure, and high dielectric (insulating) strength. The chemical stability and physical properties of PCBs that have made them commercially valuable also makes their safe disposal difficult. The environmentally preferred option for disposing of PCB containing wastes is incineration. In order to provide assurance that the operation of the SCA incinerator did not represent a threat to public health, the Illinois EPA initiated an air-sampling study in the vicinity to measure the levels of PCBs in the ambient air. Quality control checks conducted during the study revealed a previously unknown weakness in the analysis method that caused the quantitative results to be unreliable. A revised method has now been validated and will be used to further characterize ambient air quality and assess the environmental impact, if any, of the incineration of PCBs in Chicago. The document presents the overall plan for the project. Objectives: (1) Quantitatively determine PCB levels in the ambient air at three locations in the area of impacted by the SCA incinerator in southeast Chicago; (2) Correlate the air sampling results and meteorological conditions with the operational parameters from the SCA incinerator; (3) Assess the environmental impact associated with the incineration of PCBs; (4) Establish background concentrations of PCBs in the ambient air in the area.

  19. Evidence for novel mechanisms of polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus H850

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Haberl, M.L.; May, R.J.; Brennan, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies indicated that Alcaligenes eutrophus H850 attacks a different spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners than do most PCB-degrading bacteria and that novel mechanisms of PCB degradation might be involved. To delineate this, the authors have investigated the differences in congener selectivity and metabolite production between H850 and Corynebacterium sp. strain MB1, an organism that apparently degrades PCBs via a 2,3-dioxygenase. H850 exhibited a superior ability to degrade congeners via attack on 2-, 2,4-, 2,5-, or 2,4,5-chlorophenyl rings in PCBs but an inferior ability to degrade congeners via attack on a 4-chlorophenyl ring. Reactivity preferences were also reflected in the products formed from unsymmetrical PCBs; thus, MB1 attacked the 2,3-chlorophenyl ring of 2,3,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl to yield 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid, while H850 attacked the 2,5-chlorophenyl ring to yield 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid and a novel metabolite, 2',3'-dichloroacetophenone. Furthermore, H850 oxidized 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, a congener with no adjacent unsubstituted carbons, to 2',4',5'-trichloroacetophenone. The atypical congener selectivity pattern and novel metabolites produced suggest that A. eutrophus H850 may degrade certain PCB congeners by a new route beginning with attack by some enzyme other than the usual 2,3-dioxygenase.

  20. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. PMID:27043381

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Stapanian, Martin A; Madenjian, Charles P; Cott, Peter A; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2014-11-01

    The authors compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about one-sixtieth of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCBs in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and 3 sets of coeluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. The results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies. PMID:25088677

  2. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  3. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:9543510

  4. Analytical services Organization Union Valley sample Preparation facility Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Annual Inventory Document

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Analytical Services Organization (ASO), Union Valley Sample Preparation Facility (UVSPF), provides analytical testing in support of the Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), and associated sites. Samples generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are routinely received at the WSPF for analytical evaluatiotiidentification. Many of these samples are polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulated from a source or being sent to the facility to determine PCB content. PCB laboratory wastes in solid and liquid form are generated during the evaluation of these materials, requiring the WSPF staff to maintain formal storage areas for staging the materials prior to off-site shipment for disposal. The purpose of this report is to fulfill the requirements set forth in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 761.180(a), Subpart J, which requires owners or operators of a facility using or storing PCBS to prepare an annual inventory document by July 1 of the current year which covers the previous calendar year. This report provides documentation of the inventory of PCB materials/wastes that were generated, stored for dispos~ and shipped off site for disposal for the period January 1, 1997, to January 1, 1998. The following is a summary of materials/wastes subject to the aforementioned reporting requirements.

  5. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation included peak disappearance, formation of a phenylhexdienoate ring fission product, and chlorobenzoate accumulation in the culture supernatant. Carvone was not utilized as a growth substrate and was toxic at concentrations of greater than 500 mg liter-1. Several compounds structurally related to l-carvone, including limonene, p-cymene, and isoprene, also induced cometabolism of PCBs by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. A structure-activity analysis showed that chemicals with an unsaturated p-menthane structural motif promoted the strongest cometabolism activity. These data suggest that certain plant-derived terpenoids may be useful for promoting enhanced rates of PCB biodegradation by soil bacteria. PMID:9143124

  6. Characteristic accumulation and soil penetration of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wastewater irrigated farmlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-11-01

    The impact of wastewater irrigation on the distribution of two groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in farm soil was investigated in this study. The concentrations of total analyzed PCBs were in the range 256-2140pgg(-1) on dry weight basis in surface soils. There was a higher accumulation of PCBs in farms irrigated by wastewater, with decachlorobiphenyl (CB-209) as the predominant congener. The spatial distributions of PBDEs were similar although not as obvious as that of PCBs, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener at 2040-496000pgg(-1)dw, accounting for >96% of the total analyzed PBDEs. However, no significant correlations could be found between PCB and PBDE concentrations in the topsoil samples, and also with soil organic content between the different sites. On the other hand, soil vertical profiles showed significant relationship with soil organic content in cores taken from farms irrigated with wastewater. The vertical distribution was quite uniform at the topsoil, corresponding to the plowed layer, and decreased thereafter exponentially. Furthermore, the soil vertical distribution was found to be congener specific for PCBs, where less chlorinated congeners were able to penetrate deeper into the soil while heavier congeners were more restricted in their movement. This fractionation process was however not found for PBDEs. Also, the prevalence and high relative concentrations of CB-11 and CB-209 suggests that these PCB congeners should more often be included in routine environmental analysis in order to identifying unusual contamination sources. PMID:20846706

  7. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chicken hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Sinnige, T.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    The relative potencies of 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in a chicken embryo hepatocyte system. The 20 congeners were selected according to a full 2{sup 4}-factorial design based on the principal properties of all 154 tetra- through heptachlorinated PCBs. The principal properties were obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) on a multitude of different physico-chemical properties of the PCBs. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for seven out of the twenty PCB congeners, viz. PCB{number_sign}41, PCB{number_sign}60, PCB{number_sign}78, PCB{number_sign}126, PCB{number_sign}169, PCB{number_sign}190, and PCB{number_sign}193, which elicit measurable catalytic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the chicken hepatocytes. A multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed by using partial least-squares to latent variables (PLS) in order to model the relationship between the set of physico-chemical descriptors of the PCBs and their TEF-values. The model showed good correlations between observed and predicted TEF-values for this training set of congeners. From the QSAR, TEF-values were predicted for a large number PCB congeners not yet tested regarding EROD activity in chicken hepatocytes. The predicted TEF-values were validated by TEF-values reported in the literature.

  8. Impaired host resistance to endotoxin and malaria in polychlorinated biphenyl- and hexachlorobenzene-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Loose, L D; Silkworth, J B; Pittman, K A; Benitz, K F; Mueller, W

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on murine endotoxin sensitivity and resistance to malaria (Plasmodium berghei NYU-2) infection was studied. The dietary administration of 167 ppm (167 microgram/g) of PCB 1242 or HCB for 3 weeks resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to gram-negative endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa), which was further increased in animals maintained on the diets for 6 weeks. By 6 weeks, a 5.2- or 32-fold increase in endotoxin sensitivity was seen in mice fed PCB or HCB, respectively. A 20% decrease in mean survival time of mice fed PCB 1242 for 3 or 6 weeks and inoculated with malaria was demonstrated. Infected mice that received HCB for 3 or 6 weeks manifested a reduction in mean survival time of 24 or 31%, respectively. Histopathological examination revealed a normal thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and lungs. Centrilobular and pericentral hepatocyte hypertrophy, common to organochlorine exposure, was observed. Electron capture gas chromatographic analysis for PCB 1242 or HCB in the tissues examined histologically revealed a significant deposit of the xenobiotics. HCB concentration was approximately 16 to 25 times greater than that of PCB. The data indicate that environmental chemicals impair host resistance and that the alteration may be related to the presence of the chemicals in the lymphoreticular organs. PMID:97225

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, D.K.; Essumang, D.K.; Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K.

    2012-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  11. Prediction of chromatographic relative retention time of polychlorinated biphenyls from the molecular electronegativity distance vector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Shen; Liu, Yan; Yin, Da-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2006-02-01

    Using the molecular electronegativity distance vector (MEDV) descriptors derived directly from the molecular topological structures, the gas chromatographic relative retention times (RRTs) of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the SE-54 stationary phase were predicted. A five-variable regression equation with the correlation coefficient of 0.9964 and the root mean square errors of 0.0152 was developed. The descriptors included in the equation represent degree of chlorination (nCl), nonortho index (Ino), and interactions between three pairs of atom types, i.e., atom groups -C= and -C=, -C= and >C=, -C= and -Cl. It has been proved that the retention times of all 209 PCB congeners can be accurately predicted as long as there are more than 50 calibration compounds. In the same way, the MEDV descriptors are also used to develop the five- or six-variable models of RRTs of PCBs on other 18 stationary phases and the correlation coefficients in both modeling stage and LOO cross-validation step are not lower than 0.99 except two models. PMID:16524106

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Tree Bark near Former Manufacturing and Incineration Facilities in Sauget, Illinois, United States.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Hann, Richard; Johnson, Glenn W

    2016-06-21

    We collected 27 tree bark samples near Sauget, IL, where 373 000 mt of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was produced between 1936 and 1977 and 10 245 mt was incinerated from 1971 to 1977. Our goal was observe PCB distribution and apparent movement to residential sites, where 24 of 27 samples were collected. Only one of several waste sites was accessible for sampling. We analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, and 85 peaks are reported (other congeners either coeluted or were near or less than the detection limit). Concentrations of ∑PCB ranged from 190 952 to 2 383 988 pg g lipid(-1); 24 of 27 samples had less than 50% of the maximum concentration. Two samples with the highest ∑PCB concentrations were downwind from the plant site in residential areas, but both were among the farthest away from the production facility. One high-concentration sample was near the waste site. The three highest concentrations were in trees that were less than 20 years old, showing recent atmospheric PCB mobility. The percentage of ∑PCB distributions showed a consistent but variable pattern of diCB to nonaCB congeners. DecaCB was inconsistent, because PCB-209, which was manufactured at the site in Aroclor 1270 and 1271, was the most abundant congener in 10 of the samples but lower in others. PMID:27182893

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  14. A simple method for the quantitative microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from soils and sediments.

    SciTech Connect

    Szostek, B.; Tinklenberg, J. A.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Environmental Research

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate the quantitative extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from environmental solids by using a microscale adaptation of pressurized fluid extraction ({mu}PFE). The stainless steel extraction cells are filled with a solid sample and solvent and are heated at elevated temperature. After cooling the cell to room temperature, we determined PCBs in the extract by direct injection to a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detection system. This extraction method was tested on a set of PCB-spiked solid matrices and on a PCB-contaminated river sediment (KIST SRM 1939). Recoveries were measured for eight PCB congeners spiked into two soil types with hexane extraction at 100{sup o}C (>81.9 {+-} 5.4% to 112.5 {+-} 10.1 %). The extraction process for SRM 1939 with hexane at 300{sup o}C provided significantly higher recoveries for several representative PCB congeners than reported for a duplicate 16-hour Soy-Wet extraction with a mixture of organic solvents (acetone/hexane).

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, and potential endocrine disruption in fish from the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sloan, R.J.; Smith, S.B.; Denslow, N.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue residues of total mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lipid-based PCBs; plasma concentrations of endocrine biomarkers; and reproductive and histologic biomarkers were assessed in 460 carp (Cyprinus carpio), bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieui), and bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from eight sites across the Hudson River Basin in the spring of 1998 to determine if endocrine disruption was evident in resident fish species and to evaluate contaminant-biomarker interrelations. Total PCBs in bed sediments (maximum 2,500 ??g kg-1) could explain 64 to 90% of the variability in lipid-based PCB residues in tissues (maximum 1,250 ??g PCB g-lipid-1) of the four species. The 17??-estradiol to 11-ketotestosterone ratio, typically less than 1.0 in male fish and greater than 1.0 in females, exceeded 1.4 in all male largemouth bass and 35% of male carp and bullhead at one site 21 km downstream from a major PCB source. Endocrine biomarkers were significantly correlated with total Hg in female smallmouth bass and carp, and with lipid-based PCBs in males of all four species. Empirical evidence of endocrine modulation in blood plasma of male and female fish from sites with and without high PCB residues in bed sediments and fish tissues suggest that PCBs, Hg, or other contaminants may disrupt normal endocrine function in fish of the Hudson River. ?? Eawag, 2006.

  16. Clearance of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Atropisomers is Enantioselective in Female C57Bl/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the enantiomer composition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can not only be used to investigate environmental and biological transport processes, but also has human health implications because of enantiospecific adverse health effects. To further understand differences in the disposition of PCB atropisomers in vivo, the present study investigates the toxicokinetics of PCB atropisomers in female C57Bl/6 mice after oral administration of a mixture of several PCBs, including racemic PCBs 95, 132, 136, 149, 174 and 176. On the Chirasil-Dex column, an enrichment of the second eluting atropisomers was generally observed, whereas only the first eluting atropisomers E1-PCB 95, (−)-PCB 132 and (−)-PCB 149 had half-lives that were distinctively longer compared to the second eluting atropisomers. The bioavailability normalized clearance of first eluting atropisomers in blood was faster compared to second eluting atropisomers. The opposite trend was observed for the accumulation factors in adipose tissue, which is consistent with the slower clearance of the first eluting atropisomer. The only exception was PCB 174, which showed no differences in the toxicokinetic parameters of both atropisomers. Together, the differences in the toxicokinetics of PCB atropisomers point towards enantioselective biotransformation processes as the origin of PCB’s enantiomeric enrichment in mammals and, possibly, humans. PMID:20384376

  17. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  18. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  19. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from <1 to 100%) and was highly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient (p < 0.0001). A lack of loss for most of these other congeners during hibernation supports the notion that excretion (e.g., fecal or urinary) or lack of uptake during the feeding season underlies their lack of accumulation, because hibernating bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies. PMID:19480534

  20. Courtship behavior of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S A; Bortolotti, G R; Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Marchant, T A; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2001-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect reproduction in birds. Captive adult male and female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were studied to investigate the potential behavioral and hormonal alterations during the courtship period resulting from clinical exposure to PCBs. American kestrels ingested 7 mg/kg/body weight/bird/day of a 1:1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260 through their diet of day-old cockerels. The dietary dosage of Aroclors resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in the eggs, averaging 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean). There was no difference between treatment and control birds in the circulating levels of total androgens (p = 0.44) or in 17 beta-estradiol (p = 0.29), one week following pairing. Male kestrels exposed to dietary PCBs exhibited significantly more sexual behaviors (p = 0.034) and flight behaviors (p = 0.026) than the control males. Sexual behaviors of male kestrels included; nest-box inspections, solicitation of copulation, the offer of food to the female, and giving the female food. The flight behaviors of the male included; flying from one perch to another and aerial display. In addition, the frequency of male sexual behaviors were correlated (r = 0.605, p = 0.001) with total PCB residues in the eggs of their mates. A concurrent study found that these same PCB-exposed kestrels experienced a delay in clutch initiation as well as a greater number of completely infertile clutches. PMID:11462146

  1. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application. PMID:14717194

  2. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Saito, H.; Wakisaka, I.

    1986-10-01

    Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in placenta, maternal blood, cord blood, and milk were carried out. Trichlorobiphenyl, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyls, and hexachlorobiphenyls were identified by the mass chromatogram and the mass spectra. Some minor peaks of PCBs were identified by gas chromatography. The relationship between the PCB concentration in placenta and that in milk is different in each PCB congener. The higher the chlorine content of the PCB congener, the more significant the correlation. No significant but a low negative correlation exists between the concentration of some PCB congeners in the placenta and that in cord blood. On the other hand, a significant linear correlation exists between the concentration of hexachlorobenzene in the placenta and that in cord blood. The transplacental transport of each PCB congener varied depending upon its chemical nature. Trichlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl were more transferable than hexachlorobiphenyls. The results show that the placenta and cord blood are useful human samples to analyze the body burden of environmental pollutants and to estimate their transfer from mother to fetus.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla): influence of physiological and ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Nathalie; Caisey, Xavier; Abarnou, Alain; Loizeau, Véronique; Latrouite, Daniel; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Guillou, Monique

    2007-03-01

    Maja brachydactyla is a decapod crustacean widely distributed along the Northeast Atlantic coasts. The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of ontogenic factors, such as growth, aging, seasonal migrations, and reproduction, on the contamination of this species by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Two populations were studied: One in the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel), which is exposed to greatly contaminated discharges from the Seine River, and one in the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany), which is little contaminated by such man-made compounds. At both sampling areas, PCB analysis revealed concentrations in hepatopancreas that were 10- and 50-fold higher than concentrations in gonads and muscle, respectively. Levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB153) increased with the age of the spider crabs, whereas their seasonal migrations had no direct effect. No significant sex effect was observed with regards to CB153 levels, but adult females exhibited PCB fingerprints different from those of males, probably because of the influence of the reproductive cycle on enzymatic system activity. Finally, spawning gave rise to a higher CB153 decontamination of female body burdens for specimens from the Iroise Sea than for those from the Seine Bay. PMID:17373508

  4. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    PubMed

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from <4 wk to >3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (<4 wk; 5230 ± 2170 ng/g lipid wt) determined to not significantly differ from those quantified in >3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. PMID:24357032

  5. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  6. Sexual difference in polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation rates of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Noguchi, George E.; Haas, Robert C.; Schrouder, Kathrin S.

    1998-01-01

    Adult male walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) exhibited significantly higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations than similarly aged female walleye from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron). To explain this difference, we tested the following three hypotheses: (i) females showed a considerably greater reduction in PCB concentration immediately following spawning than males, (ii) females grew at a faster rate and therefore exhibited lower PCB concentrations than males, and (iii) males spent more time in the Saginaw River system than females, and therefore received a greater exposure to PCBs. The first hypothesis was tested by comparing PCB concentration in gonadal tissue with whole-body concentration, the second hypothesis was tested via bioenergetics modeling, and we used mark-recapture data from the Saginaw Bay walleye fishery to address the third hypothesis. The only plausible explanation for the observed difference in PCB accumulation rate was that males spent substantially more time in the highly contaminated Saginaw River system than females, and therefore were exposed to greater environmental concentrations of PCBs. Based on the results of our study, we strongly recommend a stratified random sampling design for monitoring PCB concentration in Saginaw Bay walleye, with fixed numbers of females and males sampled each year.

  7. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  8. Bioaccumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in northwest Atlantic pilot whales

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Contaminant exposure is widespread among marine mammals but is of unknown significance. This study characterized organochlorine bioaccumulation in pilot whales, and these bioaccumulation patterns are proposed as representative of Northwest (NW) Atlantic cetacea. Samples were collected from whales stranded in Massachusetts and caught in nets. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and chlorinated pesticide concentrations were determined via GC/ECD and found to be similar to those reported for other NW Atlantic odontocetes. The organochlorine in highest concentration was 4,4{prime}-DDE, followed by trans-nonachlor, 4,4{prime}-DDD, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, C14(52), C15(95), C15(101), C15(118), C16(138), C16(149), C16(153), C17(180), and C17(187). The concentration of 19 pesticides was higher in blubber than liver. The concentration of 26 PCB congeners was also greater in blubber than liver. Principal component analysis and ANOVA indicated that blubber accumulated proportionately more of the most recalcitrant compounds, such as 4,4{prime}-DDE and nonmetabolizable PCBs, compared to liver. Whales that stranded together had more similar bioaccumulation than animals of the same gender or maturity. The high variation among individuals in tissue concentrations and the similarity within a stranding group suggest that pilot whale pods are exposed to a large range of pollutant sources, such as through different prey and feeding locations.

  9. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  10. Primary source regions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Burkhart, John F.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the source regions of the three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) 28, 101, and 180 measured at the Arctic stations Alert and Zeppelin, and at Birkenes, which is located in southern Norway. Although the Arctic is remote from the main use areas of these chemicals, PCBs have been found in Arctic air, seawater and biota, which has caused concerns for human and environmental health. We used 20-day backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART to identify the origin of air masses associated with the 20% highest and lowest measured PCB concentrations. At Birkenes, high concentrations are clearly associated with air masses arriving from known source regions (primarily in Europe and Russia), whereas low concentrations are correlated with atmospheric transport from regions with low primary emissions. At Zeppelin, the influence from known source regions is also enhanced when high PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations were measured. At Alert, in contrast, there is no clear link between high/low PCB concentrations and atmospheric transport from source/non-source regions. Additionally, we combined the atmospheric transport patterns with PCB emission data to identify important source regions and their seasonal variability. For the Arctic stations, Western Russia is the dominant source region for PCB-28 and PCB-101. Central Europe is the most important source region for PCB-180, but sources in the US contribute up to 15% to PCB-180 measured at Alert.

  11. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  12. Application of a Tenax model to assess bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls in field sediments.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Elizabeth M; Harwood, Amanda D; Mills, Marc A; Landrum, Peter F; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Recent literature has shown that bioavailability-based techniques, such as Tenax extraction, can estimate sediment exposure to benthos. In a previous study by the authors, Tenax extraction was used to create and validate a literature-based Tenax model to predict oligochaete bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediment; however, its ability to assess sediment remediation was unknown. The present study further tested the Tenax model by examining the impacts of remediation on surface sediment concentrations, Tenax extractable concentrations, and tissue concentrations of laboratory-exposed Lumbriculus variegatus. Tenax extractable concentration was an effective exposure metric to evaluate changes in Lumbriculus exposure preremediation and postremediation, with 75% of the postremediation data corresponding to the Tenax model. At nondredged sites, bioaccumulation was better predicted by the Tenax model, with 86% of the data falling within the 95% confidence intervals, than at dredged sites, for which only 64% of the data fit the Tenax model. In both pre- and postdredge conditions, when the model failed, it was conservative, predicting higher PCB concentrations than observed in the oligochaetes, particularly for the postdredge data. The present study advances understanding of the applicability of the Tenax model for use when examining systems that may have undergone significant disturbances. The Tenax model provides a unique tool for quickly quantifying potential exposure to benthic organisms. PMID:24127319

  13. Radiation induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollutants in paint scrapings.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals which have been commercially used worldwide in many specialty applications. In paints, PCBs were used because of their unique properties such as thermal stability, flame-resistance and low volatility. However, due to their adverse effects on human health and environment, the use of PCBs has now been banned. PCBs are today considered widespread pollutants in the global system . PCBs sources still exist in various products and in waste streams such as oil, paints, rubbers etc. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to detoxify PCBs. In the present study, radiolysis has been investigated as a safe means to reduce or destroy PCBs. Under this study, detoxification of PCBs in paint scrapings by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source has been investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the gamma radiations can be an alternative environment- friendly technology for destroying PCBs. Gamma radiations also have the potential of being a preferred tool in comparison to the most widely used incineration method for destroying PCBs. The method used was found highly effective and destruction efficiency was as high as 91%. The degradation efficiency of PCBs was dependent on absorbed radiation dose, the type of PCBs and also on the source of paint scrapings. PMID:21114157

  14. Label-free impedimetric immunoassay for trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Yukie; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Ohmura, Naoya; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-03-18

    A rapid, ultrasensitive, and practical label-free impedimetric immunoassay for measuring trace levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil was developed. First, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (RU6F9) for PCBs by using a designed immunogen and characterized its binding affinity for a commercial mixtures of PCBs and its main congeners. A micro comblike gold electrode was fabricated, and the antibody was covalently immobilized on the electrode through a self-assembled monolayer formed by dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate. The antigen-binding event on the surface of the functionalized electrode was determined as the change in charge transfer resistance by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting impedimetric immunoassay in aqueous solution achieved a wide determination range (0.01-10 μg/L) and a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.001 μg/L, which was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional flow-based immunoassay for PCBs. By combining the impedimetric immunoassay with a cleanup procedure for insulating oil utilizing a multilayer cleanup column followed by DMSO partitioning, an LOD of 0.052 mg/kg-oil was achieved, which satisfied the Japanese regulation criterion of 0.5 mg/kg-oil. Finally, the immunoassay was employed to determine total PCB levels in actual used insulating oils (n = 33) sampled from a used transformer containing trace levels of PCBs, and the results agreed well with the Japanese official method (HRGC/HRMS). PMID:24528234

  15. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Housatonic River and adjacent aquifer, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, Frederick B.; Frimpter, Michael H.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are sorbed to the fine-grained stream-bottom sediments along the Housatonic River from Pittsfield, Massachusetts, southward to the Massachusetts-Connecticut boundary. The highest PCB concentrations, up to 140,000 micrograms per kilogram, were found in samples of bottom material from a reach of the river between Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lee, Massachusetts. Sediments in Woods Pond have been estimated to contain about 11,000 pounds of PCB's. Approximately 490 pounds per year of PCB's have also been estimated to move past the Housatonic River gaging station at Great Barrington. The distribution of hydraulic heads, water temperatures, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese in ground water shows that industrial water-supply wells in a sand and gravel aquifer adjacent to a stretch of the river called Woods Pond have been inducing ground-water recharge through the PCB-contaminated bottom sediments of the pond since late 1956. These data indicate that, at one location along the shore of the pond, the upper 40 feet of the aquifer contains water derived from induced infiltration. However, this induced recharge has not moved PCB's from the bottom sediments into a vertical section of the aquifer located 5 feet downgradient from the edge of Woods Pond. Samples taken at selected intervals in this section showed that no PCB's sorbed to the aquifer material or dissolved in the ground water within the detection limits of the chemical analyses.

  16. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Ava K; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 h post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. PMID:26561944

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. PMID:24562053

  18. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in nine water sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Xie, Qilai; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Water quality of water sources is a critical issue for human health in South China, which experiences rapid economic development and is the most densely populated region in China. In this study, the pollution of organohalogen compounds in nine important water sources, South China was investigated. Twenty six organohalogen compounds including seventeen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected using gas chromatograph analysis. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.93 to 13.07ngL(-1), with an average value of 7.06ngL(-1). The total concentrations of nine PBDE congeners were found in range not detected (nd) to 7.87ngL(-1) with an average value of 2.59ngL(-1). Compositions of PCBs and PBDEs indicated the historical use of Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260, and commercial PBDEs may be the main source of organohalogen compounds in water sources in South China. The nine water sources could be classified into three clusters by self-organizing map neural network. Low halogenated PCBs and PBDEs showed similar distribution in the nine water sources. Cancer risks of PCBs and PBDEs via water consumption were all below 10(-6), indicating the water quality in the nine water sources, South China was safe for human drinking. PMID:25681605

  19. Biochemical and toxicopathic biomarkers assessed in smallmouth bass recovered from a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Cacela, D; Beltman, D; Teh, S J; Okihiro, M S; Hinton, D E; Denslow, N; Zelikoff, J T

    2003-01-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected to quantify the nature and prevalence of biomarker responses, including biochemical indices, toxicopathic lesions and general health indices, among fish collected from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated and nearby uncontaminated reaches of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, USA. Blood and tissue samples (gill, liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, thyroid and gonads) were collected and preserved at necropsy for biochemical and histological analyses. The body condition factor and liver somatic index were significantly lower in fish collected from the downstream, contaminated site. Plasma vitellogenin was not detected in male fish collected from either site. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and liver and spleen superoxide dismutase activity were significantly depressed in fish collected from the downstream site. Significant toxicopathic lesions such as glycogen depletion, enhanced macrophage aggregates, hepatic foci of cellular alteration (i.e. preneoplastic lesions) and neoplasia were also detected in the liver of fish collected from the downstream site. This study indicates that many of the biochemical and histopathological biomarker responses were associated with liver and body tissue PCB concentrations. Taken together, the biomarkers of exposure and effect strongly suggest that fish within the downstream site are adversely affected by PCBs and other chemical stressors. PMID:14602522

  20. Effect of clofibrate on cholesterol metabolism in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, M.; Shimokawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Ishihara, N.; Kojima, S.

    1986-02-01

    Serum and hepatic cholesterol content in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, KC-400) were increased compared to those of control rats. This increase of cholesterol content was reduced to control level by simultaneous administration of ethyl p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate (CPIB). Also, when lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was expressed as the net cholesterol esterification, the acyltransferase activity in rats treated with PCBs was elevated, while the elevated acyltransferase activity was brought to control level by simultaneous administration of CPIB. On the other hand, the amount of bile of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased, but free and total cholesterol content in bile of these treated rats was decreased to 40-60% of those of control rats. Moreover, cytochrome P-450 content in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased. At the same time, cholesterol-metabolizing activity in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB also was elevated. Similar results were obtained for drug metabolizing (aniline hydroxylation and aminopyrine N-demethylation) activity. In addition, the amount of bile acids excreted from rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased compared to that of control rats. These results suggest that hypercholesterolemia induced by oral ingestion of PCBs is recovered by CPIB treatment and that this hypocholesterolemic effect of CPIB may be related partly to the elevation of hepatic mixed function oxidase activity for cholesterol catabolism.

  1. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  2. Comparison of some specific polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in human and monkey milk

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, J.; Marchand, L.

    1987-11-01

    The presence and levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in monkey milk have been reported earlier as part of studies which investigated the overall toxicity of PCBs in commercial Aroclors. Some of this information has served as a basis for an estimation of the potential health hazard of PCB contaminated breast milk to human infants. To further support such extrapolation from one primate situation to another, it would be desirable to know not only the levels of PCBs in the milk of these primates, but also the isomeric distribution in order to better evaluate the contribution of each isomer to the overall toxicity. A large concentration in breast milk of an isomer of relatively low toxicity may have the same effect on an infant as a smaller concentration of a highly toxic isomer. This paper compares the relative amounts of 29 selected PCB isomers in human milk and monkey milk samples. The selection of isomers was based on the most prevalent PCB isomers in human milk and represented approximately 80% of all reported isomers. In addition, Aroclor 1254, whose toxicity in monkeys has been investigated recently by several investigators, was analyzed for the same 29 selected PCB isomers.

  3. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

  4. Insight into the neuroproteomics effects of the food-contaminant non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Laura; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente; Campagna, Roberta; Airoldi, Luisa; De Paola, Massimiliano; Fanelli, Roberto; Mariani, Alessandro; Mazzoletti, Marco; Pastorelli, Roberta

    2012-04-18

    Recent studies showed that food-contaminant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) congeners (PCB52, PCB138, PCB180) have neurotoxic potential, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal damage are not entirely known. The aim of this study was to assess whether in-vitro exposure to NDL-PCBs may alter the proteome profile of primary cerebellar neurons in order to expand our knowledge on NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Comparison of proteome from unexposed and exposed rat cerebellar neurons was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semi-quantitative mass-spectrometry method. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, that fall into two main classes: (i) novel targets for both PCB138 and 180, mediating the dysregulation of CREB pathways and ubiquitin-proteasome system; (ii) different congeners-specific targets (alpha-actinin-1 for PCB138; microtubule-associated-protein-2 for PCB180) that might lead to similar deleterious consequences on neurons cytoskeleton organization. Interference of the PCB congeners with synaptic formation was supported by the increased expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins quantified by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression alteration of synaptic markers was confirmed in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to these congeners, suggesting an adaptive response to neurodevelopmental toxicity on brain structures. As such, our work is expected to lead to new insights into the mechanisms of NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. PMID:22387315

  5. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  6. Enantiomer fractions of polychlorinated biphenyls in three selected Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joshua A; Bleackley, Derek S; Warner, Nicholas A; Wong, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    The enantiomer composition of six chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in three different certified Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 1946 (Lake Superior fish tissue), SRM 1939a (PCB Congeners in Hudson River Sediment), and SRM 2978 (organic contaminants in mussel tissue--Raritan Bay, New Jersey) to aid in quality assurance/quality control methodologies in the study of chiral pollutants in sediments and biota. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, and 183 were measured using a suite of chiral columns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of target analytes were in agreement with certified values. Target analyte EFs in reference materials were measured precisely (<2% relative standard deviation), indicating the utility of SRM in quality assurance/control methodologies for analyses of chiral compounds in environmental samples. Measured EFs were also in agreement with previously published analyses of similar samples, indicating that similar enantioselective processes were taking place in these environmental matrices. PMID:16777177

  7. Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lloyd R; Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Hwang, Syni-An A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2011-10-01

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Indoor air PCB concentrations in the study area homes were not significantly different than in the comparison area homes. Total PCB concentrations in the study area homes ranged from 0.3 to 114.3 ng/m(3) (median 7.9). For the comparison area homes, concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 233.3 ng/m(3) (median 6.8). No correlations were found between PCB concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, with indoor concentrations generally 20 times higher than outdoor concentrations. Of the home characteristics cataloged, the presence of fluorescent lights was significantly associated with total PCB concentration in the study area only. The indoor PCB concentrations measured in this study are similar to those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States. PMID:21136249

  8. Chiral source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Hudson River estuary atmosphere and food web.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wong, Charles S; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2007-09-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary is subject to significant contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from numerous sources, including the historically contaminated Upper Hudson River, stormwater runoff and sewer overflows, and atmospheric deposition from PCBs originating from the surrounding urban area. However, the relative importance of these sources to the estuary's food web is not fully understood. Sources of PCBs to the estuary were apportioned using chiral signatures of PCBs in air, water, total suspended matter, phytoplankton, and sediment. PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were racemic in the atmosphere of the estuary. However, the other phases contained nonracemic PCB 95 and to a lesser extent PCB 149. Thus, the predominant atmospheric source of these congeners is likely unweathered local pollution and not volatilization from the estuary. The similarity in chiral signatures in the other phases is consistent with dynamic contaminant exchange among them. Chiral signatures in the dissolved phase and total suspended matter were correlated with Upper Hudson discharge, suggesting thatthe delivery of nonracemic contaminated sediment from the Upper Hudson, not the atmosphere, controls phytoplankton uptake of some PCBs. Thus, measures to control PCB contamination in the Upper Hudson should be effective in reducing loadings to the estuary's aquatic ecosystem. PMID:17937297

  9. Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the New York/New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Du, Songyan; Xiao, Baohua; Fennell, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor (also known as the Hudson River Estuary) is heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising in part from inputs from the Upper Hudson River, which is a Superfund site containing historical PCB contamination, and also due to inputs from the New York City metropolitan area. The Contamination Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) measured PCBs and other contaminants in ambient water samples collected throughout the Harbor region during 1998-2001. In order to investigate the sources of PCBs to the NY/NJ Harbor, this data base of PCB concentrations was analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This analysis resolved seven factors that are thought to be associated with sources such as the Upper Hudson River, storm water runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and wastewater effluents. The PMF model also produced a factor that appears to be related to sites contaminated with Aroclor 1260. To the extent that the NY/NJ Harbor is typical of urbanized estuaries throughout the United States, these results suggest that storm water runoff is probably a significant source of PCBs to surface waters in urban areas. PMID:21421250

  10. Fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls volatilizing from the Hudson River, New York measured using micrometeorological approaches.

    PubMed

    Sandy, Andy L; Guo, Jia; Miskewitz, Robert J; McGillis, Wade R; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2012-01-17

    This study represents the first time that a micrometeorological technique, using turbulent transport measurements, has been used to determine the direction and magnitude of air-water exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was conducted during July 2008 on the Hudson River estuary near the Tappan Zee Bridge, which is the site of some of the most serious PCB contamination in the world. Gas-phase ΣPCB concentrations measured at two heights above the water column averaged 1.1 ng m(-3), and concentrations were usually lower in the upper air sample, indicating net transport of PCBs from the water column to the air. Volatilization PCB fluxes were calculated using the modified Thornthwaite-Holzman equation. Values of friction velocity and atmospheric stability were calculated using the Aerodynamic Gradient and Eddy Correlation techniques. The PCB fluxes were corrected for changes in atmospheric stability using the atmospheric stability factor of water vapor (ϕ(w)) calculated from empirical formulations which ranged from 1.0 to 3.2 (neutral to stable atmospheric boundary layer conditions). Vertical ΣPCB fluxes ranged from +0.5 μg m(-2) d (-1) to +13 μg m(-2) d (-1). Mono- through tri-homologues accounted for about half of ΣPCB fluxes, with tetra- through hexa-homologue accounting for the other half. This work demonstrates the utility of a micrometeorological approach to measuring the air-water exchange of organic contaminants. PMID:22191600

  11. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Dachs, Jordi; Eisenreich, Steven J

    2008-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase SigmaPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase SigmaPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of SigmaPCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m(-2) d(-1). Annual fluxes of SigmaPCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 microg m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of SigmaPCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. PMID:17854962

  12. Bayesian model for fate and transport of polychlorinated biphenyl in upper Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, L.J.; Reckhow, K.H.; Wolpert, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Modelers of contaminant fate and transport in surface waters typically rely on literature values when selecting parameter values for mechanistic models. While the expert judgment with which these selections are made is valuable, the information contained in contaminant concentration measurements should not be ignored. In this full-scale Bayesian analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the upper Hudson River, these two sources of information are combined using Bayes` theorem. A simulation model for the fate and transport of the PCBs in the upper Hudson River forms the basis of the likelihood function while the prior density is developed from literature values. The method provides estimates for the anaerobic biodegradation half-life, aerobic biodegradation plus volatilization half-life, contaminated sediment depth, and resuspension velocity of 4,400 d, 3.2 d, 0.32 m, and 0.02 m/yr, respectively. These are significantly different than values obtained with more traditional methods, and are shown to produce better predictions than those methods when used in a cross-validation study.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in fish near the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA).

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Delistraty, Damon; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-03-01

    It is well-known that absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes in fish can alter polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in fish, but these patterns have never been investigated using an advanced source-apportionment tool. In this work, PCB congener patterns in freshwater fish were examined with positive matrix factorization (PMF). PCB congeners were quantified via EPA Method 1668 in fillet and carcass of six species in four study areas in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. Six factors were resolved with PMF2 software. Depletion and enhancement of PCB congeners in factors, relative to Aroclor 1254, suggested biotransformation (via cytochrome P450) and bioaccumulation in fish, respectively. Notable differences were observed among species and across study locations. For example, sturgeon and whitefish exhibited congener patterns consistent with Aroclor weathering, suggesting potential PCB metabolism in these species. In terms of location, average concentration of total PCBs for all species combined was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Hanford 100 and 300 areas, relative to upriver and downriver study sites. Furthermore, a distinct PCB signature in sturgeon and whitefish, collected at Hanford study areas, suggests that Hanford is a unique PCB source. PMID:25621866

  14. Acute effects of polychlorinated biphenyl-containing and -free transformer fluids on rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Andric, S A; Kostic, T S; Dragisic, S M; Andric, N L; Stojilkovic, S S; Kovacevic, R Z

    2000-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer fluids belong to a class of environmentally persistent mixtures with known toxic effects. Here, we studied the acute effects of Askarel (which contains Aroclor 1260) and two substitute transformer fluids (the silicone oil-based DC561 and the mineral oil-based ENOL C) on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Single intraperitoneal (ip; 10 mg/kg body weight) or bilateral intratesticular (itt; 25 microg/testis) injections of Askarel markedly decreased serum androgen levels 24 hr after administration. In acute testicular cultures from these animals, chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone and androgen productions were severely attenuated. When itt was injected or added in vitro, Askarel inhibited 3ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ssHSD), stimulated 17[alpha]-hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17), and did not affect 17ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testicular postmitochondrial fractions. The ip-injected Askarel did not affect 3ssHSD, but inhibited P450c17, suggesting that a more intensive metabolism of peripherally injected Askarel reduces the circulating levels of active ingredients below the threshold needed for inhibition of 3ssHSD and generates a derivative that inhibits P450c17. In contrast to Askarel, itt-injection (25 microg/testis) of DC561 and ENOL C did not affect in vivo and in vitro steroidogenesis. These findings show the acute effects of Askarel, but not silicone and mineral oils, on testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:11049815

  15. Reproduction and polychlorinated biphenyls in Fundulus heteroclitus (linnaeus) from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B.; Mills, L.; McElroy, A.E.

    1998-07-01

    This investigation evaluated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation, survival, and reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus from four stations along a gradient of increasing sediment contamination from West Island in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA, to the most contaminated area of the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. Fish collected during their natural spawning season were held in the laboratory for 5 weeks. Liver concentrations of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs averaged 0.461, 9.48, 20.8, and 29.3 {micro}g/g dry weight, with dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of 0.006, 0.132, 0.543, and 1.56 ng/g: differences among stations were statistically significant. Females from two stations within the Superfund site had significantly greater mortality compared to those within West Island, and growth was reduced. Progeny of fish from the most contaminated station exhibited significantly reduced survival and greater incidence of spinal abnormalities compared to those from West Island. No differences in egg production or food consumption were observed. A significant residue-effect relationship was found between TEQs of liver PCBs and female mortality, consistent with that determined previously from laboratory exposures and validating TEQ as an effects indicator. Embryo and larval survival were inversely related to maternal liver TEQ.

  16. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury exposure in inuit women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, G; Ayotte, P; Dewailly E; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern Québec. We interviewed women from three communities at mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 11 months postpartum. We measured PCBs, Hg, and selenium in maternal blood; Hg was also measured in maternal hair. The women reported eating significant amounts of fish, beluga muktuk/fat, seal meat, and seal fat. Although consumption of fish and seal was associated with lower socioeconomic status, consumption of beluga whale was uniform across strata. Fish and seal meat consumption was associated with increased Hg concentrations in hair. Traditional food intake during pregnancy was unrelated to PCB body burden, which is more a function of lifetime consumption. This study corroborated previous findings relating marine mammal and fish consumption to increased Hg and selenium body burden. Despite widespread knowledge regarding the presence of these contaminants in traditional foods, a large proportion of Inuit women increased their consumption of these foods during pregnancy, primarily because of pregnancy-related changes in food preferences and the belief that these foods are beneficial during pregnancy. PMID:11673127

  17. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Assessment of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls as potential xenoestrogens: a QSAR comparative analysis∗.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Myshkin, E; Quigley, P; Faroon, O; Wheeler, J S; Mumtaz, M M; Brennan, R J

    2013-01-01

    Alternative methods, including quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), are being used increasingly when appropriate data for toxicity evaluation of chemicals are not available. Approximately 40 mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) have been identified in humans. They represent a health and environmental concern because some of them have been shown to have agonist or antagonist interactions with human hormone receptors. This could lead to modulation of steroid hormone receptor pathways and endocrine system disruption. We performed QSAR analyses using available estrogenic activity (human estrogen receptor ER alpha) data for 71 OH-PCBs. The modelling was performed using multiple molecular descriptors including electronic, molecular, constitutional, topological, and geometrical endpoints. Multiple linear regressions and recursive partitioning were used to best fit descriptors. The results show that the position of the hydroxyl substitution, polarizability, and meta adjacent un-substituted carbon pairs at the phenolic ring contribute towards greater estrogenic activity for these chemicals. These comparative QSAR models may be used for predictive toxicity, and identification of health consequences of PCB metabolites that lack empirical data. Such information will help prioritize such molecules for additional testing, guide future basic laboratory research studies, and help the health/risk assessment community understand the complex nature of chemical mixtures. PMID:23557136

  19. Toxic cell concentrations of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, P. |; Halling-Soerensen, B.; Nyholm, N.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.

    1998-09-01

    Algal growth inhibition tests were performed with the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and three {sup 14}C-labeled polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Toxicity was related to external aqueous concentrations and additionally to internal algal bound PCB concentrations. Estimates of the concentrations at 50% effectiveness (EC50s) for the three PCB congeners ranged within a factor of 17 when based on measured aqueous concentrations. When based on internal toxicant concentrations the corresponding range was 6.7 to 14.3 mmol/kg wet weight. Thus, changing the basis from external to internal concentrations reduced the range by almost one order of magnitude. Additional toxic cell concentrations of five monoaromatic compounds and S. capricornutum were calculated from literature data to be in the same order of magnitude as the experimental toxic cell concentrations for the PCBs, whereas EC50 values for all substances ranged by more than four orders of magnitude. The experimental and calculated data indicate that observed differences in the estimated EC50 values were mainly due to differences in bioconcentration behavior rather than to different intrinsic toxicities. These findings are in agreement with the concept of baseline toxicity, meaning that a number of hydrophobic organics exerts their acute toxicity by one relatively nonspecific mode of action.

  20. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  1. Reactivity of Pd/Fe Bimetallic Nanotubes in Dechlorination of Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Elsayed M.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2013-01-01

    A new class of bimetallic materials based on palladium-decorated iron nanotubes is described that demonstrates high reactivity in dechlorination reactions. This high dechlorination efficiency was attributed to the high surface area to volume ratio of the hollow nanotubes structure. Herein, we evaluated the effect of different conditions, such as the nanotube size, and the palladium loading on the efficiency of the dechlorination of PCB 77, a model coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), by the Pd/Fe bimetallic nanotubes system. The efficiency of the dechlorination was lowered by decreasing the tube diameter from 200 to 100 nm. In addition, the interior surface as well as the exterior surface of the as-synthesized Pd/Fe bimetallic nanotubes was found to contribute to the high efficiency of the dechlorination of PCB 77. The dechlorination of PCB 77 by Pd/Fe bimetallic nanotubes demonstrated small activation energy indicating diffusion controlled reaction. The as-prepared Pd/Fe bimetallic nanotubes showed extended lifetime activity when used in multiple dechlorination cycles. PMID:23332879

  2. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n = 290) were evaluated at birth and at 8–14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Results Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and a tendency to a smaller head circumference during childhood. Interpretation Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduce growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. PMID:25042032

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about 1/60 of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCB in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and three sets of co-eluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. Our results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species.

    PubMed

    Tartu, S; Angelier, F; Bustnes, J O; Moe, B; Hanssen, S A; Herzke, D; Gabrielsen, G W; Verboven, N; Verreault, J; Labadie, P; Budzinski, H; Wingfield, J C; Chastel, O

    2015-02-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑₇PCB concentrations (range: 61-115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑₇PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑₇PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. PMID:25541072

  6. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gillan, K.A.; Haffner, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    Green frogs were collected from seven southern Ontario, Canada, locations and analyzed for chlorinated organic chemicals to establish the relative distribution of these chemicals at specific sites. At Hillman Marsh, a wildlife reserve in an agricultural area, green frogs accumulated significantly greater amount of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than green frogs from all other collection sites. The source of PCBs is unknown. At Ancaster, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) accumulated in green frogs to a significantly greater extent than at all other sites. This was attributed to the presence of agriculture at Ancaster and the historic use of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in agriculture. Chemical concentrations measured in green frogs from all locations were considerably lower than reported levels in other species resulting in observable effects. Specific data relating chronic effects in amphibians to environmental exposure to DDE and PCBs is lacking. Contaminant accumulation in southern Ontario amphibians may be an important factor contributing to amphibian declines only at specific sites.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure in L6 myotubes alters glucose metabolism: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Jean-François; Nadeau, Lucien; Caron, Audrey; Chapados, Natalie Ann; Aguer, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are increasingly recognized as metabolic disruptors. Due to its mass, skeletal muscle is the major site of glucose disposal. While muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been shown to play a central role in metabolic disease development, no studies to date have investigated the effect of PCB exposure on muscle energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In this pilot study, we tested the effect of exposure to PCB126 in L6 myotubes (from 1 to 2500 nM for 24 h) on mitochondrial function, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stress. Exposure to PCB126 had no apparent effect on resting, maximal, and proton leak-dependent oxygen consumption rate in intact L6 myotubes. However, basal glucose uptake and glycolysis were inhibited by 20-30 % in L6 myotubes exposed to PCB126. Exposure to PCB126 did not appear to alter skeletal muscle anti-oxidant defense or oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that exposure to a dioxin-like PCB adversely affects skeletal muscle glucose metabolism. Given the importance of skeletal muscle in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, PCB126 could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:26936477

  9. Organochlorine insecticide, herbicide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) inhibition of NaK-ATPase in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Friedhoff, Jacqueline M.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1972-01-01

    The current widespread presence of chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and herbicides in world waterways has elicited much interest in the mechanisms of their toxicity in fishes. Inhibition of Na+,K+-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg-ATPase) by DDT, endosulfan and dicofol has been demonstrated in gill, brain and kidney microsomes of rainbow trout (1,2). Intestinal and gill ATPases in marine teleosts were recently reported to be sensitive to organochlorines (3). CutkonTp et al (4) noted inhibition of NaK-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in bluegill brain, liver, muscle and kidney by DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbons. Inhibition of ATPases by PCB's has been recently shown in bluegill kidney, brain and liver (5). In the present study, we have further examined the NaK-ATPase enzyme system in trout gill as a site for the possible toxicity of selected organopolychlors, i.e., chlorinated insecticides, herbicides and PCB's.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Temperate Alpine Glacier: 2. Model Results of Chemical Fate Processes.

    PubMed

    Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Lüthi, Martin P; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-15

    We present results from a chemical fate model quantifying incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the Silvretta glacier, a temperate Alpine glacier located in Switzerland. Temperate glaciers, in contrast to cold glaciers, are glaciers where melt processes are prevalent. Incorporation of PCBs into cold glaciers has been quantified in previous studies. However, the fate of PCBs in temperate glaciers has never been investigated. In the model, we include melt processes, inducing elution of water-soluble substances and, conversely, enrichment of particles and particle-bound chemicals. The model is validated by comparing modeled and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core collected in the Silvretta accumulation area. We quantify PCB incorporation between 1900 and 2010, and discuss the fate of six PCB congeners. PCB concentrations in the ice core peak in the period of high PCB emissions, as well as in years with strong melt. While for lower-chlorinated PCB congeners revolatilization is important, for higher-chlorinated congeners, the main processes are storage in glacier ice and removal by particle runoff. This study gives insight into PCB fate and dynamics and reveals the effect of snow accumulation and melt processes on the fate of semivolatile organic chemicals in a temperate Alpine glacier. PMID:26632968

  11. Magnitude and origin of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) compounds resuspended in southern Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Smith, Gretchen L.; Miller, Sondra M.; Eadie, Brian J.; Lansing, Margaret B.

    2004-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) compounds are introduced into the water as a result of large-scale storms and sediment resuspension in the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Settling and suspended sediments, as well as air and water samples, were collected in southern Lake Michigan over a 12 month period. Analysis of contaminant fluxes on settling particles shows that approximately 370 kg of PCBs and 110 kg of DDT compounds are resuspended in southern Lake Michigan during a single basin-wide event (January 1999). Examination of contaminant signals indicates strong regional and temporal source-receptor relationships between settling, suspended, and surficial sediments. The settling, suspended, and bottom surficial sediments in the shallow waters of the southern coastal region are enriched in lower molecular weight PCBs. The sediments in the water column and on the lake bottom in the deeper regions are enriched in higher molecular weight PCBs. Furthermore, falling sediments collected in the deeper regions of the lake are enriched in 4,4'-DDT. The unique contaminant signal in deep water regions is surprising and suggests a source/receptor relationship among the bottom sediments and the sediments suspended and settling above them.

  12. Autochthonous ascomycetes in depollution of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil and sediment.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Faure, Mathieu; Gaignaire, Carole; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Mehu, Jacques; Geremia, Roberto A; Mouhamadou, Bello

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of a consortium of ascomycetous strains, Doratomyces nanus, Doratomyces purpureofuscus, Doratomyces verrucisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Phoma eupyrena and Thermoascus crustaceus in the mycoremediation of historically contaminated soil and sediment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of 15 PCB concentrations in three mesocosms containing soil from which the fungal strains had previously been isolated, revealed significant PCB depletions of 16.9% for the 6 indicator PCBs (i-PCBs) and 18.7% for the total 15 PCBs analyzed after 6months treatment. The degradation rate did not statistically vary whether the soil had been treated with non-inoculated straw or colonized straw or without straw and inoculated with the consortium of the six strains. Concerning the sediment, we evidenced significant depletions of 31.8% for the 6 i-PCBs and 33.3% for the 15 PCB congeners. The PCB depletions affected most of the 15 PCBs analyzed without preference for lower chlorinated congeners. Bioaugmented strains were evidenced in different mesocosms, but their reintroduction, after six months treatment, did not improve the rate of PCB degradation, suggesting that the biodegradation could affect the bioavailable PCB fraction. Our results demonstrate that the ascomycetous strains potentially adapted to PCBs may be propitious to the remediation of PCB contaminated sites. PMID:24880600

  13. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclors 1254 and 1016) on fertilization efficiency in Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, R.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure of the eggs of the purple sea urchin Arbacia punctulata to two of the commonly-occurring commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors 1254 and 1016. Eggs were exposed to PCB's 25 minutes prior to insemination and continuously thereafter. The PCB's were administered as a component of a filtered-sea-water medium (FSW). Since Arbacia eggs cleave synchronously following insemination, the percentage of eggs cleaving at 1.75 hr post-insemination was used to determine the fertilization efficiency. Toxicant concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L were employed for both Aroclors. A FSW control and a FSW-acetone control was employed since acetone was used in a 49:1, acetone:PCB ratio, to emulsify the PCB's. Differences in control and PCB exposed groups were tested using Chi square at a 95% level of confidence. Both PCB's affected the fertilization efficiency once the threshold was achieved. The Aroclor 1016 proved to be much more toxic than Aroclor 1254. These results agree with the data previously achieved using Hydraologactis as the experimental organism.

  14. Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-01

    The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (∑(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  16. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  17. Modeling water column partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls to natural organic matter and black carbon.

    PubMed

    Greene, Richard W; Di Toro, Dominic M; Farley, Kevin J; Phillips, Kathy L; Tomey, Cynthia

    2013-06-18

    High volume in situ surface water samples were collected from a tidal tributary of the Delaware Estuary using an Infiltrex sampling system equipped with a 1 μm particle filter and a XAD-2 resin column. Particulate and dissolved phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain detection levels in the femtograms per liter range. The data were fit to a four-phase equilibrium partitioning model including freely dissolved PCB, PCB bound to particulate organic carbon (POC), PCB bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and PCB bound to black carbon (BC). Isotherms were assumed to be linear for POC and DOC and nonlinear for BC. The partition coefficient between BC and dissolved PCB was assumed to depend on the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings. Following parameter optimization, the correlation coefficient between the log of the modeled and measured apparent distribution coefficient Kp,app was 0.94, and the RMSE was 0.189 log units. Including BC in the model reduces the dissolved PCB phase concentration in the water column for all congeners, especially for the non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted congeners. PMID:23714014

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie; Winblad, Bengt; Szutowski, Miroslaw; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2006-02-20

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha-synuclein was accompanied by a transient increase in parkin and synaptophysin levels. Interestingly, in the hypothalamus the levels of alpha-synuclein remained decreased after 21 days post treatment perhaps due to regional differences in the PCBs elimination or perhaps a more specific interaction with the dopaminergic cells that are present in the hypothalamus that needs to be investigated further. PMID:16174552

  19. Investigations of the interaction of Spartina alterniflora loisel. and the chlorinated hydrocarbons, the polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Mrozek, E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are a class of industrial chlorinated hydrocarbons which are toxic to a broad range of organisms, persistent in the environment, and tend to accumulate in estuaries, where they are available to organisms at all trophic levels. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were initiated to characterize the interaction of Spartina alterniflora Loisel, and the PCB's. Particular areas addressed were: (1) uptake, translocation, and accumulation, (2) selectivity of uptake, (3) effects of uptake and/or exposure of PCB's on S. alterniflora growth, and (4) potential for transfer of PCB's from S. alterniflora and marsh substrate to Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). In a greenhouse study it was concluded that S. alterniflora has the capacity to take up, translocate and accumulate /sup 14/C-radioactivity from sand and marsh mud originally treated with /sup 14/C-PCB's. Fiddler crabs (U. pugnax) were exposed to /sup 14/C-PCB's applied to marsh substrate or S. alterniflora plant material which had been grown in the presence of /sup 14/C-PCB's to determine if marsh substrate-to-organism and plant-to-organism PCB transfer was possible. Results indicate that transfer from both sources occurred but that accumulation of /sup 14/C-radioactivity was only observed with crabs exposed to /sup 14/C-PCB treated substrate.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in milk from an agroindustrial zone of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J Jesús; León, Salvador Vega Y; Gutiérrez, Rey; López, Yanet; Faure, Roberto; Escobar, Arturo

    2012-10-01

    The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are zones exposed to the exploration and exploitation of petroleum sources, and the products generated in agricultural zones may become contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) in milk from dairy production units near sources of environmental pollutants. It was confirmed that the seven congeners of nondioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) are present in milk where compounds PCB101, PCB118, PCB153 and PCB180 appear in 100% of the samples analyzed, the rank of concentration for the sum of the seven congeners fluctuating between 2.6 and 26 ng g(-1) with a median of 6 ng g(-1). None of the samples surpassed the provisional value established by the EU of 40 ng g(-1) of milk fat for the sum of the seven congeners, indicator that was not affected by the season of the year (p<0.05), whose median of 8.6 ng g(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for rain and drought respectively. The concentrations of NDL-PCBs found in milk do not represent a problem for human health; however, they alert the existence of spontaneously generated, uncontrolled sources that may represent a potential danger for human and animal health. PMID:22739542

  1. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. PMID:27184129

  2. Particle-Dissolved Phase Partition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in High Altitude Alpine Lakes.

    PubMed

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-08-18

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases in two high altitude alpine lakes was determined by the quantity, size structure, or composition of suspended particles. Within- and between-lakes differences in water-particulate phase partition coefficient (Kp) were not related to total suspended matter, phytoplankton biomass, or taxonomic composition. Yet, a seasonal relationship between Kp and Kow was detected for both lakes, revealing equilibrium of PCBs partition when lakes were ice covered. On the contrary, PCBs partitioning between particles and water appeared kinetically limited during the open water season. Partition is therefore mainly governed by thermodynamic laws during the ice-covered period, while none of the tested physical or biological parameters seemed to explain the distribution of these particle-reactive contaminants in the open water period. PCBs were always mainly associated with particulate matter, but partitioning within different particulate size-fractions varied between seasons and between years during open water periods. When ice cover is absent, PCBs were mainly adsorbed on microplankton, the largest phytoplanktonic size fraction, which is the least likely to get grazed by pelagic microconsumers. PMID:26189929

  3. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  4. Permeation of protective garment material by liquid halogenated ethanes and a polychlorinated biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, R.W. Jr.; McLeod, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    The halogenated ethanes 1,2-dichloroethane; 1,1,1-trichlorethane; and 1,1,2-trichlorethane are used as chemical intermediates and in metal working operations, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have in the past been used by the tens of millions of pounds in various roles in American industry. Because of the widespread use and hazardous or potentially carcinogenic nature of these compounds, a study was performed to determine the degree of protection which was afforded against these compounds by certain protective garment materials. The materials evaluated in these studies have included: butyl rubber, milled nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber latex, nitrile rubber latex, polyethylene, poly(vinyl alcohol), surgical rubber latex, Teflon, and Viton as well as the following composite or multilayered materials: butyl-coated nylon, polyethylene-coated Tyvek, polyurethane-coated nylon, and poly(vinyl chloride)-coated nylon. The breakthrough time at which each liquid phase compound permeated these materials was studied by the time lag method. For the noncomposite materials, the results of these breakthrough studies were correlated with their equilibrium weight changes following immersion in the test liquids. Results of these studies have shown that most materials currently used in the construction of protective garment material in the United States are of a generally unsatisfactory nature with respect to protecting the worker against the halogenated ethanes and the PCB used in this study.

  5. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch). PMID:16583259

  6. Coating effects on the glass adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners.

    PubMed

    Lung, S C; Altshul, L M; Ford, T E; Spengler, J D

    2000-12-01

    The effects of coating materials on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) adsorption in aqueous solution were assessed in an attempt to minimize PCB sorption loss during sampling processes. A coating material, which enhances PCB adsorption and allows adsorbed PCBs to be readily extracted by solvents, can act as a sampling concentrator to reduce PCB losses from both adsorption and evaporation. Several coating materials were evaluated, including paraffin oil, silicone oil, dimethyldichlorosilane (Sylon-CT), Prosil 28 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) with viscosity 0.65, 50 (PDS 50), and 500 (PDS 500) cSt. PDS and silicone oil enhanced adsorption for all five congeners examined (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 101, 138, and 180). Sylon-CT, paraffin oil and Prosil 28 had inconsistent effects on adsorption of different congeners. Desorption of adsorbed PCBs onto all coating types was assessed. The recovery efficiency of extracting PCBs with solvents was enhanced greatly with all coatings as opposed to non-coated surfaces, with the exception of paraffin oil. Coating with silicon oil, PDS 50, and 500 resulted in virtually 100% recovery of adsorbed PCBs. It was also found that Teflon containers were poor substitutes for glass containers and failed to minimize PCB losses. Among the materials studied, the best coating that could be used as a sampling concentrator was PDS 500. PMID:11061308

  7. Dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, Randy K.

    2002-01-01

    Sediments from the Wisconsin River, WI, USA are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Wet weight concentrations of TCDD and PCBs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus; geometric MEAN=7 pg/g TCDD and 0.92 I?g/g PCBs) and lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (Aix sponsa) (<1 pg/g and 0.07 I?g/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) were intermediate (<1 pg/g and 0.33 I?g/g). Positive accumulation rates of TCDD (8a??19 pg/day) and PCBs (0.4a??0.7 I?g/day) in tree swallow nestlings suggest that the Wisconsin River is the source of these contaminants for tree swallow nestlings. The lower representation of trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachorobiphenyls in hooded merganser eggs compared to wood duck or tree swallow eggs suggests that the hooded merganser or its diet has a greater ability to metabolize lower-numbered PCB congeners than wood ducks or tree swallows.

  8. Dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Custer, C M; Hines, R K

    2002-01-01

    Sediments from the Wisconsin River. WI. USA are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Wet weight concentrations of TCDD and PCBs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous = 7 pg/g TCDD a hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus; geometric m ean nd 0.92 microg/g PCBs) a nd lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (Aix sponsa) (< 1 pg/g and 0.07 microg/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) were intermediate (< 1 pg/g and 0.33 pg/g). Positive accumulation rates of TCDD (8-19 pg/day) and PCBs (0.4-0.7 microg/day) in tree swallow nestlings suggest that the Wisconsin River is the source of these contaminants for tree swallow nestlings. The lower representation of trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachorobiphenyls in hooded merganser eggs compared to wood duck or tree swallow eggs suggests that the hooded merganser or its diet has a greater ability to metabolize lower-numbered PCB congeners than wood ducks or tree swallows. PMID:12166666

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Andres; Norström, Karin; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of the first intensive survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surficial sediment of the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago, Indiana, a part of the Calumet River tributary of Lake Michigan that will be dredged to maintain depth for ship traffic. The tributary has previously been reported to be a large source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. PCB congeners were measured using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, a method that provides a high level selectivity and sensitivity for PCBs in complex environmental samples. The PCB concentrations (sum of 163 congeners or coeluting peaks) range from 53 to 35,000 ng g−1 d.w. and are comparable to other PCB concentrations at contaminated tributaries in the United States, most of them (although not IHSC) established by law as Superfund sites. The PCB congener signal strongly resembles the original technical mixture Aroclor 1248 that has experienced a small amount of weathering — less than 2.5% by mass for the statistically different congeners - consistent with desorption, volatilization, and microbial dechlorination. The origin of the PCBs in IHSC is not known but Aroclor 1248 was used in hydraulic fluids, vacuum pumps, plasticizers and adhesives. Possible uses of this mixture in East Chicago included the equipment and auxiliary services for the adjacent steel mill and gas refinery and/or lubrication for the drawbridges spanning the canal. PMID:19268364

  10. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dirinck, Eveline; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites. PMID:27089353

  11. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2013-03-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of "fresh" polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low K(OW) congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs. PMID:23258773

  12. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate Polychlorinated Biphenyls in water from the Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbrugge, David A.; Giesy, John P.; Mora, Miguel A.; Williams, Lisa L.; Rossmann, Ronald; Moll, Russell A.; Tuchman, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The Saginaw River receives water from a major drainage basin in the east-central portion of the lower peninsula of Michigan. Historically the river has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from several sources. The present study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PCBs in both the dissolved and particulate phases of water in the lower Saginaw River, as well as the relative contribution of PCBs from the lower portion of the river relative to more upstream locations. Water samples were collected in 1990–1991, during a range of discharge conditions. Suspended particulates were collected from water onto glass-fiber filters by use of a “Penta-plate” filtration apparatus. Filtered water was subsequently passed through XAD-2 macroreticular resin to collect the “dissolved” PCBs. Concentrations of PCBs in both phases were determined by congener specific gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 11 to 31 ng/L. The concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase ranged from 1.9 to 16 ng/L. The ratio of total PCBs bound to suspended particulates, relative to dissolved PCBs, was 2:1 and remained fairly constant for discharges less than approximately 400 M3/sec. The loading of total PCBs to Saginaw Bay was estimated to be 225 kg/yr, of which approximately 60% was found to be contributed by the lower 8 km of the Saginaw River.

  13. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized. PMID:26081770

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls are selectively neurotoxic in the developing Spisula solidissima embryo.

    PubMed

    Kreiling, J A; Stephens, R E; Kuzirian, A M; Jessen-Eller, K; Reinisch, C L

    2000-12-29

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to toxic levels in the food chain. Using Spisula solidissima (surf clam) embryos as a developmental model, it was shown that Aroclor 1254 specifically targets two neuronal structures during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed to 1, 10), or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254 or an acetone vehicle control posthatching for 24, 48, and 72 h. Embryos labeled with a serotonin antibody or a neural antigen antibody and a rhodamine-conjugated secondary antibody were viewed by confocal microscopy. The cerebropleural ganglion showed a decrease both in serotonin production and in the size of the serotonin-synthesizing region upon exposure to 10 and 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. These decreases were detectable as early as 48 h postfertilization. When exposed to 100 ppm Aroclor 1254, the primitive neural plexus, which coordinates the movements of the mouth and velum, showed a delay in onset and cessation of expression of a molluscan-specific neural antigen. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 did not affect the overall growth and morphology of the embryos. In addition, analyses of total protein profiles and heat-shock protein 70 levels showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 did not trigger protein degradation or cause a stress or shock response. These results show that exposure of Spisula embryos to Aroclor 1254 specifically targets neurogenesis while having no effect on the overall growth of the embryo. PMID:11132696

  15. Residues of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals in biota from Apalachicola River, Florida, 1978.

    PubMed

    Winger, P V; Sieckman, C; May, T W; Johnson, W W

    1984-01-01

    Seventy-seven composite samples composed of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ), channel catfish ( Ictaluras punctatus), threadfin shad ( Dorosoma petenense ), Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea ), burrowing mayfly ( Hexagenia sp.), water snake ( Natrix spp.), and little green heron ( Butorides virescens ) were collected from upper and lower reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida, in 1978 for residue analysis of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and metals. Compared with data from the National Pesticide Monitoring Program and criteria recommended for the protection of aquatic life, residue concentrations were moderately high in the Apalachicola River. Biota from the upper river generally had higher organic and lower metal residues than those from the lower river. Highest residues in the biota were total DDT, total PCBs, and toxaphene. Although individual mean concentrations were below 2 micrograms/g and total organic contaminant residues never exceeded 5 micrograms/g, residue concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and toxaphene (particularly from the upper river) exceeded recommended permissible levels for the protection of aquatic life. Metal residues were generally below 1 microgram/g. Exceptions were arsenic residues in threadfin shad (1.07 micrograms/g) and Asiatic clams (1.75 micrograms/g), and selenium in eggs of channel catfish (1.39 micrograms/g). The residues observed in the biota, particularly from the upper station, indicated moderate contamination of the Apalachicola River system at the time samples were collected. PMID:6427177

  16. Plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and causation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Kohles, Sean S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons that have extensively polluted the environment and bioaccumulated in the food chain. PCBs have been deemed to be probable carcinogens by the Environmental Protection Agency, and exposure to high levels of PCBs has been consistently linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In the present article we present a forensic epidemiologic evaluation of the causal relationship between NHL and elevated PCB levels via application of the Bradford-Hill criteria. Included in the evaluation is a meta-analysis of the results of previously published case-control studies in order to assess the strength of association between NHL and PCBs, resulting in an odds ratio in which the lowest percentile PCB concentration (quartile, quintile, or tertile) has been compared with the highest percentile concentration in the study groups. The weight-adjusted odds ratio for all PCB congeners was 1.43 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.31 to 1.55, indicating a statistically significant causal association with NHL. Because of the lack of an unexposed comparison group, a rationale for the use of a less than 2.0 relative risk causal contribution threshold is presented herein, including an ecologic analysis of NHL incidence and PCB accumulation (as measured by sales volume) over time. The overall results presented here indicate a strong general causal association between NHL and PCB exposure. PMID:22577404

  17. Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in suspended particulate matter from the European Arctic seas

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Moatemri, N.L.; Holsbeek, L.

    1995-12-01

    During the last few decades with the increase of pollution of the hydrosphere by xenobiotic compounds, scientists in general and ecotoxiocologists in particular are in search of {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} areas to determine background concentrations for those residues being both of natural origin and anthropogenic. Real backgrounds are difficult to establish since older environmental data often seem to be affected by contamination either during field collection or during analytical procedures. To establish such background pristine levels in the marine environment, the polar regions provide ideal areas where the human activity is very low. Of the two, Arctic is recommended: unlike Antarctic, it forms a closed basin; the Antarctic is more open and it is subjected to intense pollution as a result of the activities of developing countries. In spite of regular intrusions of polluted air masses known as {open_quotes}Arctic haze{close_quotes}, the Arctic region could be proposed to evaluate background concentrations. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in suspended particulate matter from the Arctic region and to discuss their contamination mechanism. 20 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A

    PubMed Central

    Hijri, Mohamed; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation, we determined the concentration of flavanone at

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean food web.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, B T; Harding, G C; Vass, W P; Erickson, P E; Fowler, B R; Scott, V

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs) and isomers of DDT and DDE were the predominant organochlorine (OC) hydrocarbons measured in epontic particulate matter, zooplankton, pelagic and benthic amphipods and liver tissue from an abyssal fish collected in the Arctic Ocean. Chlordane, dieldrin and other cyclodienes and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers were present at lower concentrations. Levels on a dry weight basis in plankton of various sizes less than 63 microns to 2 mm were similar to those in epontic particulate matter, but on a lipid weight basis, concentrations in smaller plankton were two to five times higher. Organochlorines in amphipods and liver from the glacial eelpout Lycodes frigidus exceeded levels in zooplankton by up to an order of magnitude. Large benthic lysianassid amphipods (Tmetonyx cicada, Anonyx nugax and Eurythenes gryllus) accumulated higher concentrations on a dry and lipid weight basis than small species (Onisimus spp. and Andaniexis spp.) or the under-ice gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus wilkitzkii). No significant differences in OC levels were measured in benthic amphipods collected at different times. However, concentrations in large zooplankton (greater than 500 microns) collected in August, dominated by adult copepods and ctenophores, contained concentrations of alpha-HCH, chlordane isomers and other cyclodienes that were two to four times higher than levels in May. Ratios of alpha-HCH: gamma-HCH (5 to 10) were similar to those in seawater collected simultaneously but there was no difference in ratios in various size categories of planktonic and benthic crustaceans indicating no selective accumulation or metabolic alteration of these isomers. Ratios of cis-chlordane:trans-chlordane concentrations were lower in all sizes of zooplankton (2 to 3) than in shelf amphipods (3 to 6) which corresponded to an increase in the ratio with depth. Higher ratios of DDT:DDE in plankton (2 to 6) than in amphipods (1 to 2

  20. The selective dietary accumulation of planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Zierikzee, Y.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Cofino, W.P.; Straalen, N.M. van; Hattum, B. van

    1997-09-01

    The decline of the populations of otters in Western Europe is assumed to be related to the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in this species. A study was conducted to investigate the trophic transfer of non-ortho, mono-ortho-, and di-ortho-substituted PCBs in the food web of the otter (Lutra lutra) in the Oude Venen lake system in the Netherlands, with relatively low PCB contamination. This area was one of the last strongholds of otters in the Netherlands and the species is considered to be virtually extinct since 1988. A marked increase in concentration of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) was observed with successive trophic levels of the aquatic food web. Mean concentrations of the sum of 28 CB congeners ({Sigma}CB) increased from 142 ng CB/g (organic carbon basis) in sediment and particulate matter to 588 ng CB/g (lipid weight basis) in invertebrates, to 2,450 ng CB/g (lipid weight) in fish, and 70,940 ng CB/g (lipid weight) in otter. A diet-specific biomagnification factor (BMF) of 14 was calculated from fish to otter based on {Sigma}CB; however, on the basis of toxic equivalent concentrations ({Sigma}TEQ), a BMF of 41 was found. This higher BMF on TEQ basis was mainly due to the enrichment of non-ortho-substituted CB 126 in otter, compared to fish. In fish CB 126 contributed 30 to 50% to {Sigma}TEQ, while this congener contributed 60 to 80% in otters. A shift in the CB patterns was found from relatively high concentrations of lowly chlorinated CBs in the abiotic compartments to the higher chlorinated CBs (five to seven chlorine atoms) at the highest trophic level. The relatively low concentrations of CB 77 and CBs with vicinal H-atoms at the meta-para position in otter compared to fish indicates that otters can metabolize these CBs and have P4501A-like and P4502B- like enzyme systems. It appears that even in an ecosystem with relatively low CB contamination, concentrations of CBs can be relatively high in aquatic top predators.

  1. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  2. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  3. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters. PMID:21613298

  4. Metabolic transformation shapes polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether patterns in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2013-04-01

    While the accumulation of persistent contaminants in marine mammals can be attributed directly to their prey, the role of metabolism in shaping patterns is often overlooked. In the present study, the authors investigated the role of metabolic transformation in influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) patterns in offshore and nearshore groups of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and their prey. Congener profiles and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed similar PCB and PBDE patterns in beluga whales feeding either offshore or nearshore, despite divergent contaminant patterns in the putative prey of these two feeding groups. The clustering of PCBs into metabolically derived structure-activity groups (SAGs) and the separation of metabolizable and recalcitrant groups along principal component 1 of the PCA revealed the important role of metabolic transformation in shaping PCB patterns in beluga. Lack of metabolism for congeners with high ortho-chlorine content was revealed by metabolic slopes equal to or greater than 1.0. Metabolic slopes for all other SAGs were less than 1.0 (p<0.001), suggesting metabolism of congeners with ortho-meta and meta-para vicinal hydrogens via induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A/2B/3A). Metabolic indices less than 1.0 for PBDEs (p<0.001) suggested that beluga metabolized these poorly understood flame retardants. The strikingly similar PCB patterns in a captive beluga and free-ranging beluga from the Beaufort Sea provide additional evidence that metabolic transformation is a dominant driver of contaminant patterns in beluga. PMID:23400821

  5. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults. PMID:26142122

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls still pose significant health risks to northwest Atlantic harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Weijs, Liesbeth; Päpke, Olaf; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected at relatively high concentrations in harbor seals, apex predators in the northwest Atlantic. As part of an ongoing assessment of the effects of PCBs on population health, we analyzed tri- to deca-PCBs in the liver of 56 harbor seals (6 adult males, 50 pups) and in 11 blubber samples (4 adult males, 7 pups) and examined tissue-specific accumulation patterns, biomagnification potential, and toxic implications of current PCB concentrations. Hepatic ∑30PCB concentrations (overall mean±standard deviation: 76,860±111,800 ng/g lipid weight, lw) were higher than blubber concentrations (48,180±69,420 ng/g lw). Regional trends were suggestive of fresh PCB inputs from the industrialized, densely populated southern coast of New England versus the rural north. The lack of temporal trends confirmed that tissue concentrations of PCBs have plateaued since the early 1990s. Tissue distribution of PCBs varied significantly by age and, surprisingly by gender among the pups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that lighter PCBs are selectively transferred from mother to pup blubber in relation to lipid solubility (log Kow), but heavier PCBs may be efficiently transferred during late lactation from mother to pup liver. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for ∑6PCBs from prey fish to adult male seals ranged from 90 to 547 in the liver and 88 to 532 in the blubber, and suggested that molecular structure and metabolic capacity were more important influences than log Kow on the retention of PCBs. Blubber concentrations of ∑30PCBs in 87% of the pups were an order of magnitude higher than recent toxic reference values (TRVs) calculated for ∑154PCBs in nursing harbor seals, suggesting that the pups are at risk for PCB-mediated toxicity at a vulnerable stage of development. Given the recurring pattern of epizootics in these seals, the health of the population is of concern. PMID:24875260

  7. Toward ecosystem-based sediment quality guidelines for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Arblaster, Jennifer; Ikonomou, Michael G; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Canada and British Columbia achieve their objective of protecting ecosystems, we measured and compiled concentrations of PCB congeners in sediments, bivalves, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals from 3 areas off the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. The concentration data showed that whereas PCB concentrations in sediments were predominantly below the SQG of 20 µg/kg dry weight, large fractions of the PCB concentrations in fish and shellfish species exceeded the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by wildlife (i.e., 50 µg/kg wet weight [ww]) but were below the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by human populations (i.e., 2000 µg/kg ww). Also, PCB concentrations in marine mammals exceeded toxicity reference concentrations. The concentration data were used to develop species- and location-specific Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAF = Cbiota /Csediment ), that were used to estimate PCB concentrations in wildlife species that may exist if the PCB concentration in sediments are equal to the SQGs. The results show that if the PCB concentration is equal to the SQGs, then PCB concentrations in most wildlife species can be expected to exceed the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by wildlife species and by humans, as well as toxicity reference concentrations for marine mammals. A methodology for developing SQGs for PCBs that are protective of the health of different wildlife species and human consumers of fish and shellfish from general Canadian and coastal First Nations populations was developed and applied. The proposed guidelines may provide useful guidance to establish SQGs for PCBs that can account for the ecological diversity in coastal environments and that better achieve the intent of the guidelines to protect ecosystems. The proposed methodology for

  8. Risk-based analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Mos, Lizzy; Cameron, Marc; Jeffries, Steven J; Koop, Ben F; Ross, Peter S

    2010-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with adverse health effects in marine mammals. However, the complex mixtures to which free-ranging populations are exposed constrain the elucidation of cause-and-effect relationships between specific POPs and the observed health risks. In this study, we 1) assembled data from studies showing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-associated effects on the health of free-ranging harbor seals in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, 2) carried out additional POP analyses on seal samples to broaden the available data on contaminant residues, and 3) derived estimates of individual POPs and their toxic risks. Taken together, these components were used to generate a new toxicity reference value (TRV) for the protection of marine mammal health. In this case study of seals in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA, PCBs were the single most abundant POP and were correlated with several adverse health effects. PCB exposures consistently exceeded regulatory toxicity thresholds for fish-eating wildlife. Nursing seal pups were at particular risk, reflecting their greatly increased dietary intake of PCBs and their sensitivity to developmental toxicity. Based on the collective evidence obtained, we propose TRVs (consisting of 5% tissue residue concentration and dose) of 1.3 mg/kg lipid weight tissue residue in blubber and 0.05 mg/kg lipid weight tolerable daily intake in prey. Insofar as the TRVs are lower than previously established TRVs and regulatory guidelines, our study highlights the current underestimation of risks associated with PCBs in high-trophic-level wildlife. PMID:20872644

  9. Reduced Antibody Responses to Vaccinations in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Carsten; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Nielsen, Flemming; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2006-01-01

    Background Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been implicated as a possible cause of deficient immune function in children. This study was designed to assess whether prenatal and postnatal exposure to PCBs impacts on antibody response to childhood immunizations. Methods and Findings Two birth cohorts were formed in the Faroe Islands, where exposures vary widely, because traditional diets may include whale blubber contaminated with PCBs. Prenatal exposure was determined from maternal concentrations of PCBs in pregnancy serum and milk. Following routine childhood vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, 119 children were examined at 18 mo and 129 children at 7 y of age, and their serum samples were analyzed for tetanus and diphtheria toxoid antibodies and for PCBs. The antibody response to diphtheria toxoid decreased at age 18 mo by 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63–41.9; p = 0.04) for each doubling of the cumulative PCB exposure at the time of examination. The diphtheria response was lower at age 7 y and was not associated with the exposure. However, the tetanus toxoid antibody response was affected mainly at age 7 y, decreasing by 16.5% (95% CI, 1.51–29.3; p = 0.03) for each doubling of the prenatal exposure. Structural equation analysis showed that the early postnatal exposure was the most important predictor of a decreased vaccination response. Conclusions Increased perinatal exposure to PCBs may adversely impact on immune responses to childhood vaccinations. The clinical implications of insufficient antibody production emphasize the need for prevention of immunotoxicant exposures. PMID:16942395

  10. A preliminary compilation and evaluation of a comprehensive emission inventory for polychlorinated biphenyls in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Song; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Liu, Li-Yan; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-11-15

    Emission inventories for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are crucial input data for atmospheric transport modeling and for the study of source-receptor relationships and the environmental behavior of these chemicals. Three types of primary PCB sources are considered in this study: intentionally produced PCBs (IP-PCBs), unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCBs), and PCB emissions from two e-waste sites (EW-PCBs). This study presents the historical emissions of all IP-, UP- and EW-PCBs into the air in China and the gridded Chinese emission inventories at a resolution of 1/6° latitude×1/4° longitude from 1950 to 2010. The UP-TPCB emissions from 1950 to 2010 were re-estimated to be 8.56t from eight emission sources comprising 96.3% of the Chinese UP-TPCB emissions. The EW-TPCB emissions from 1990 to 2010 were estimated to be 103.5 t, of which 7.1t and 12.3t were EW-PCB28 and EW-7PCB congeners (i.e., indicator-PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), respectively. The IP-PCB28 and IP-7PCB congener emissions from 1965 to 2010 were estimated to be 57.4 t and 130.1t, respectively. A significant correlation was found between congener PCB28 and 7PCBs (R(2)=0.988 and P=0.000), which suggests that PCB28 is a good marker congener for describing the emission trends of all 7PCB emission sources. The gridded emission data were compared with published measured atmospheric concentrations for 2004 and 2008, and a significant correlation was found between the modeled emissions and monitoring data. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive gridded emission inventories that include all IP-, UP-, and EW-PCBs on a national scale. PMID:26172591

  11. Formula for the Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Painted Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Loftin, Kathleen; Geiger, Cherie

    2010-01-01

    An activated metal treatment system (AMTS) removes and destroys polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. It may be applied using a "paint-on and wipe-off" process that leaves the structure PCB-free and virtually unaltered in physical form. AMTS is used in conjunction with a solvent solution capable of donating hydrogen atoms. AMTS as a treatment technology has two functions: first, to extract PCBs from the material, and second, to degrade the extracted PCBs. The process for removing PCBs from structures is accomplished as an independent step to the degradation process. The goal is to extract the PCBs out of the paint, without destroying the paint, and to partition the PCBs into an environmentally friendly solvent. The research to date indicates this can be accomplished within the first 24 hours of AMTS contact with the paint. PCBs are extremely hydrophobic and prefer to be in the AMTS over the hardened paint or binder material. The solvent selected must be used to open, but not to destroy, the paint s polymeric lattice structure, allowing pathways for PCB movement out of the paint and into the solvent. A number of solvent systems were tested and are available for use within the AMTS. The second process of the AMTS is the degradation or dehalogenation of the PCBs. The solvent selection for this process is limited to solvents that are capable of donating a hydrogen atom to the PCB structure. Additional AMTS formulation properties that must be addressed for each site-specific application include viscosity and stability. The AMTS must be thick enough to remain where it is applied. Several thickening agents have been tested. Adding a stabilizing agent ensures that the AMTS will not evaporate and leave unprotected, activated metal exposed. During AMTS formulation testing, a number of reagents were evaluated to ensure the rate of dehalogenation was not inhibited by its addition to the system.

  12. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  13. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls in dust from homes in California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production ceased in the U.S. over 30 years ago, but these persistent chemicals remain ubiquitous contaminants. Here, we evaluate potential determinants of PCB levels in dust from California homes including characteristics of the residence as well as the residents’ habits and occupations. Dust was collected from 415 households as part of a large case-control study (the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study), using a high-volume small surface sampler. Dust concentrations of 6 PCBs (PCB-105, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-170, and PCB-180) were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual PCB detection rates ranged from 9% to 54% with PCB concentrations ranging from below detection (1 or 2 ng/g) to 270 ng/g and PCB loadings ranging from below detection to 960 ng/m2. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify potential determinants of residential PCB contamination based on in-home interviews and residential geographic locations. We observed that residences built prior to 1980 had higher odds of PCB detection and higher PCB loadings than more recently constructed homes. Households where residents typically did not remove their shoes had higher PCB dust loadings than households where residents did. PCBs were less likely to be detected in carpet dust from households that had frequently vacuumed or replaced carpets compared to other households. Since we used a cross-sectional dust sampling protocol and report significant, but modest, effects of these determinants on levels of PCBs in residential dust, our results should be interpreted with caution. Longitudinal studies to determine optimal strategies for reducing PCBs in homes are warranted. PMID:25208698

  14. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments.

    PubMed

    Tuikka, A I; Leppänen, M T; Akkanen, J; Sormunen, A J; Leonards, P E G; van Hattum, B; van Vliet, L A; Brack, W; Smedes, F; Kukkonen, J V K

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  15. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils. PMID:26177203

  16. Investigation of potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination on Hanford site arc-loop roads

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Riley, R.G.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Two roads on the Hanford Site, which had been treated during past Site operations with oil for dust suppression, were analyzed for potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. The general locations of these roads are (1) off Washington State Route 240, north of Horn Rapids Dam, and (2) between the 200 East and 200 West areas, south of the 200 Area fire station. Each road had an intact crust of oil/tar on top of the underlying soil surface. A set of control samples were collected at an untreated soil site near the Prosser Barricade air sampling station. Samples were collected of the oil/tar surface crust, the soil immediately beneath the surface crust (0 - 3 cm below the crust), and a deeper soil sample (13 - 23 cm below the surface crust). Samples were collected at two locations on each road. The PCBs were extracted from the samples using a roller technique with methylene chloride, cleaned using column chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography, and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The samples were analyzed for PCBs as the following technical mixtures: Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Aroclor 1254, and Aroclor 1260. All samples at all locations were less than the following detection limits: surface crust (41 ug/kg dry weight) and soil (2.1 ug/kg dry weight). These concentrations are below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX preliminary remediation goals for PCBs in residential soil (66 ug/kg) and well below the preliminary remediation goal for PCBs in industrial soil (340 ug/kg).

  17. Latent cognitive effects from low-level polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Zahara, Alexander R D; Michel, Nicole L; Flahr, Leanne M; Ejack, Leanne E; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-11-01

    Ecotoxicology research on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures has focused principally on short-term effects on reproduction, growth, and other physiological endpoints. Latent cognitive effects from early life exposure to low-level PCBs were examined in an avian model, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Thirty-six birds, divided equally among 4 treatment groups (control = 0 µg, low = 0.35 µg, intermediate = 0.70 µg, and high = 1.05 µg Aroclor 1254/g body weight), were dosed 1 d through 18 d posthatch, then tested 8 mo to 9 mo later in captivity in an analog to an open radial arm maze. Birds were subject to 4 sequential experiments: habituation, learning, cue selection, and memory. One-half of the birds did not habituate to the test cage; however, this was not linked to a treatment group. Although 11 of the remaining 18 birds successfully learned, only 1 was from the high-dosed group. Control and low-dosed birds were among the only treatment groups to improve trial times throughout the learning experiment. High-dosed birds were slower and more error-prone than controls. Cue selection (spatial or color cues) and memory retention were not affected by prior PCB exposure. The results indicate that a reduction in spatial learning ability persists among birds exposed to Aroclor 1254 during development. This may have implications for migration ability, resource acquisition, and other behaviors relevant for fitness. PMID:26033510

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. PMID:24518434

  19. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm responses to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in soil.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-06-01

    (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the metabolic profile of D(2)O-buffer extracted tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms exposed for 2 days to an artificial soil spiked with sub-lethal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254). Univariate statistical analysis of the identified metabolites revealed a significant increase in ATP concentration in earthworms exposed to the highest soil PCB concentration, but detected no significant changes in other metabolites. However, a multivariate approach which considers alterations in multiple metabolites simultaneously, identified a significant linear relationship between earthworm metabolic profiles and PCB concentration (cross-validated PLS-regression with 7 components, R(2)X = 0.99, R(2)Y = 0.77, Q(2)Y = 0.45, P < 0.001). Significant changes in pair-wise metabolic correlations were also detected as PCB concentration increased. For example, lysine and ATP concentrations showed no apparent correlation in control earthworms (r = 0.22, P = 0.54), but were positively correlated in earthworms from the 25 mg/kg treatment (r = 0.87, P = 0.001). Overall, the observed metabolic responses suggest that PCBs disrupted both carbohydrate (energy) metabolism and membrane (osmolytic) function in E. fetida. The ability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to detect these responses suggests that this method offers significant potential for direct assessment of sub-lethal PCB toxicity in soil. PMID:21424327

  20. The Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Song of Two Passerine Species

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Sara; Halitschke, Rayko; Hames, Ralph S.; Kessler, André; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Dhondt, André A.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load) is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution. PMID:24058475