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Sample records for polychlorinated terphenyls pcts

  1. Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

    1996-01-01

    In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8959406

  2. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. PMID:24211498

  3. Sources and Distribution of Polychlorinated Terphenyls at a Major US Aeronautics Research Facility.

    PubMed

    HALE; ENOS; GALLAGHER

    1998-11-01

    / High concentrations of an unusual, complex mixture of chlorinated compounds were discovered in sediments and oysters near a federal aeronautics facility during implementation of a pollutant screening protocol. The mixture was identified as Aroclor 5432, a polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT) formulation, produced in the US until 1972. PCTs, particularly low chlorinated mixtures, have rarely been reported in the environment, despite significant manufacture and usage. Releases were traced to two outfalls. Creek sediments downstream of one contained concentrations as high as 200,000 |gmg/kg (dry weight basis); those in indigenous oysters reached 35,000 |gmg/kg, indicating significant bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential. Subsequent work showed that PCTs were widely disseminated in marsh grass, crabs, and fish. PCTs, PCBs, and mercury were also detected in storm drain lines entering these outfalls. The lines received input from both storm water and research buildings. Historical hydraulic fluid leaks and in-service compressor fluids in some buildings contained PCTs and PCBs. Contaminated materials on-site were removed to minimize pollutant spread. Aroclor 5432 usage, most likely as compressor/hydraulic fluid additives, probably ended about ten years prior to its on-site detection. In terms of biological effects, intraperitoneal injection of fish with Aroclor 5432 induced cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity to a similar degree as PCB Aroclor 1254 and to a greater extent than PCT Aroclor 5460. The presence of high concentrations of PCTs contributed to the facility being included on the National Priorities List. It subsequently became the first US federal facility to sign a Federal Facility Agreement, identifying cleanup responsibilities, prior to formal listing.KEY WORDS: Polychlorinated terphenyls; Aroclor; Contaminated sediments; Hydraulic fluid; Enzyme induction; Polychlorinated biphenyls PMID:9732522

  4. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated terphenyls at a major US aeronautics research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, R.C.; Enos, C.; Gallagher, K.

    1998-11-01

    High concentrations of an unusual, complex mixture of chlorinated compounds were discovered in sediments and oysters near a federal aeronautics facility during implementation of a pollutant screening protocol. The mixture was identified as Aroclor 5432, a polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT) formulation, produced in the US until 1972. PCTs, particularly low chlorinated mixtures, have rarely been reported in the environment, despite significant manufacture and usage. PCBs, and mercury were also detected in storm drain lines entering these outfalls. The lines received input from both storm water and research buildings. Historical hydraulic fluid leaks and in-service compressor fluids in some buildings contained PCTs and PCBs. Contaminated materials on-site were removed to minimize pollutant spread. Aroclor 5432 usage, most likely as compressor/hydraulic fluid additives, probably ended about ten years prior to its on-site detection, in terms of biological effects, intraperitoneal injection of fish with Aroclor 5432 induced cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity to a similar degree as PCB Aroclor 1254 and to a greater extent than PCT Aroclor 5460. The presence of high concentrations of PCTs contributed to the facility being included on the National Priorities List. It subsequently became the first US federal facility to sign a Federal Facility Agreement, identifying cleanup responsibilities, prior to formal listing.

  5. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... means the percent by weight of chlorine for each isomer (ortho, meta, and para). (3) Isomeric ratio... chlorinated terphenyl. (4) A description of the isomeric ratio and extent of chlorination of the...

  6. Structural and mechanistic basis behind the inhibitory interaction of PcTS on α-synuclein amyloid fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Lamberto, Gonzalo R.; Binolfi, Andrés; Orcellet, María L.; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Zweckstetter, Markus; Griesinger, Christian; Fernández, Claudio O.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of aggregation inhibitors and the investigation of their mechanism of action are fundamental in the quest to mitigate the pathological consequences of amyloid formation. Here, characterization of the structural and mechanistic basis for the antiamyloidogenic effect of phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (PcTS) on α-synuclein (AS) allowed us to demonstrate that specific aromatic interactions are central for ligand-mediated inhibition of amyloid formation. We provide evidence indicating that the mechanism behind the antiamyloidogenic effect of PcTS is correlated with the trapping of prefibrillar AS species during the early stages of the assembly process. By using NMR spectroscopy, we have located the primary binding region for PcTS to a specific site in the N terminus of AS, involving the amino acid Tyr-39 as the anchoring residue. Moreover, the residue-specific structural characterization of the AS-PcTS complex provided the basis for the rational design of nonamyloidogenic species of AS, highlighting the role of aromatic interactions in driving AS amyloid assembly. A comparative analysis with other proteins involved in neurodegenerative disorders reveals that aromatic recognition interfaces might constitute a key structural element to target their aggregation pathways. These findings emphasize the use of aggregation inhibitors as molecular probes to assess structural and toxic mechanisms related to amyloid formation and the potential of small molecules as therapeutics for amyloid-related pathologies. PMID:19948969

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  8. Electrical and optical properties of m-terphenyl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, S. W.

    2001-04-01

    In this work the results of m-terphenyl polycrystalline thin films investigations are presented. The main purpose of the investigations was to determine the mechanism of DC conductivity in the disordered m-terphenyl polycrystalline structures. The measurements were carried out for the thin films of m-terphenyl of the thickness varied from 2 to 13 micrometers with the presence of an external electrical field, which strength varied from 0 to 106 V/cm. Applied temperature range was 15-325K. The investigated m-terphenyl thin films were supplied with either the gold and Aluminum or the gold and carbon electrodes. The determined values of activation energy were found to be in the range of kT to 0.2 eV. The study let us determine the influence of an external electric field on the height of the potential barriers between the trapped charge carriers. The results obtained as well as their analysis drive to a conclusion that an injection of an electric charge from the electrodes into the investigated material's bulk takes place through the thermoemission and field emission processes.

  9. Electrical conductivity of the polycrystalline films of p-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, S. W.

    1999-04-01

    Some results of p-terphenyl thin films investigations are presented. The mechanism of DC conductivity within unordered polycrystalline structures of p-terphenyl was investigated. The measurements were carried out for p-terphenyl films' thickness varying from 2 micrometers up to 15 micrometers . During the experiment the polarization voltage and temperature were changed from 0 to 200 V and 15 to 325 K, respectively. The p-terphenyl films were supplied with gold and aluminum electrodes. The obtained results and their analysis indicate that the injection of charge from the electrodes into the area of the investigated material proceeds by field- and thermoemission. The charge transport through the material's bulk is controlled by traps (hopping mechanism and Poole- Frenkel phenomenon). The determined values of the activation energy are in the range of kT (for the hopping area at low temperatures) through 0.06 eV in the range of 100 - 200 K to about 0.6 eV in the metallic conductivity area (220 - 320 K).

  10. In vitro antileishmanial activity of trans-stilbene and terphenyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Germano; Bruno, Federica; Vitale, Fabrizio; Roberti, Marinella; Colomba, Claudia; Giacomini, Elisa; Guidotti, Laura; Cascio, Antonio; Tolomeo, Manlio

    2016-07-01

    Leishmaniasis are globally widespread parasitic diseases which often leads to death if left untreated. Currently available drugs present different drawbacks, so there is an urgent need to develop new, safe and cost-effective drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study we tested a small library of trans-stilbene and terphenyl derivatives against promastigote, amastigotes and intramacrophage amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum. Two compounds of the series, the trans-stilbene 3 and the terphenyl 11, presented the best activity and safety profiles. Terphenyl 11 showed a leshmanicidal activity higher than pentostam and the ability to induce apoptosis selectively in Leishmania infantum while saving macrophages and primary epithelial cells. Our data indicate that terphenyl compounds, as well as stilbenes, are endowed with leishmanicidal activity, showing potential for further studies in the context of leishmanial therapy. PMID:26953250

  11. Luminescence of benzoic acid polycrystals doped with n-terphenyl and n-quaterphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Zarochentseva, E.P.; Korotkov, V.I.; Oleinik, Y.P.

    1994-10-01

    The luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of benzoic acid polycrystals, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, and benzoic acid doped with terphenyl and quaterphenyl are studied. Blue shifts of the fluorescence and fluorscence excitation spectra are found. These shifts result from nonplanar entering of polyphenyl molecules into the unit cell of the benzoic acid dimmers around the acid carbonyl groups. In the impurity polycrystals at room temperature, the internal conversion from the triplet level efficiently occurs resulting in the absence of phosphorescence. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Biphenyl and Terphenyl Arylene–Ethynylene Macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of single-walled carbon nanotube precursors, C3h-symmetric cyclotri(ethynylene)(biphenyl-2,4′-diyl) and cyclotri(ethynylene)(p-terphenyl-2,4″-diyl), have been prepared by a linear stepwise oligomerization–cyclization route and by statistical intermolecular cyclooligomerization. In addition to producing these members of a novel class of arylene ethynylene macrocycles, 1 and 2, the latter statistical process produces the smaller cyclic dimer, cyclodi(ethynylene)(p-terphenyl-2,4″-diyl) and the larger cyclic tetramer cyclotetra(ethynylene)(biphenyl-2,4′-diyl). These macrocycles display large Stokes shifts in their fluorescence spectra. Their biphenyl or terphenyl connectivity prevents these macrocycles from achieving full planarity in the ground state, and the ethynylene moieties could provide synthetic access to cyclic arylene oligomers and discrete carbon nanotube segments. PMID:24506215

  13. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  14. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kafafi, S A; Afeefy, H Y; Ali, A H; Said, H K; Kafafi, A G

    1993-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicities, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the majority of PCBs are likely to interact with AhR in their nonplanar conformations. In addition, we demonstrate that the affinities of PCBs for AhR relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin correlate with corresponding toxic equivalency factors in animals. The reported methodology is likely to be applicable to other polyhalogenated and mixed polyhalogenated bi- and terphenyls and related xenobiotics; thus, it could minimize the number of in vivo studies in laboratory animals and facilitate the identification of potentially hazardous aromatic xenobiotics. Images p422-a Figure 2. PMID:8119253

  15. Properties of single crystal para-terphenyl as medium for high resolution TOF detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Pizzigoni, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the last years organic scintillators have been largely investigated in order to achieve high light yield together with good time response. Pure organic compound with high quality crystalline structure can achieve both this goals. Among a large type of organic compound, para-terphenyl (C18H14) have proven to have practical applications as detector medium for particle physics. In this work, the characterization of different sizes high quality mono-crystal p-terphenyl samples is presented. The optical and scintillation properties (emission spectrum, light yield, attenuation length, and decay time) are investigated. Coupling a Silicon PhotoMultiplier-based readout system to the crystal, a small prototype for a high resolution TOF detector was built; the preliminary results, obtained on a 20×30×3 mm3 sample, with dual-side read-out (Hamamatsu S10931-050P SiPMs) and irradiated with 90Sr source, show a time resolution of 35 ps.

  16. Synthesis, biological evaluation and modeling studies of terphenyl topoisomerase IIα inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jin; Zhao, Baobing; Zhong, Wanxia; Shen, Yuemao; Lin, Houwen

    2015-04-13

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel terphenyls. Compound 17 had the most potent anticancer activity, indicating that the phenolic hydroxyl was a key group. A DNA relaxation test showed that compound 17 had a strong inhibitory effect on TOP2α, but not on TOP1, which was consistent with the docking analysis results. We performed a 3D-QSAR study using CoMFA and CoMSIA to determine, for the first time, the chemical-biological relationship in the inhibition of TOP by terphenyls. The CoMFA and CoMSIA model had good modeling statistics: leave-one-out q(2) of 0.605 and 0.622, r(2) of 0.998 and 0.994, and r(2)pred (test set) of 0.742 and 0.660. These results suggest that the ortho-phenolic hydroxyl on ring A is important for producing terphenyls with more efficacious activity. PMID:25800514

  17. Low-Coordinate First Row Early Transition Metal Complexes Stabilized by Modified Terphenyl Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Jessica Nicole

    The research in this dissertation is focused on the synthesis, structural, and magnetic characterization of two-coordinate open shell (d1-d4) transition metal complexes. Background information on this field of endeavor is provided in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 I describe the synthesis and characterization of the mononuclear chromium (II) terphenyl substituted primary amido complexes and a Lewis base adduct. These studies suggest that the two-coordinate chromium complexes have significant spin-orbit coupling effects which lead to moments lower than the spin only value of 4.90 muB owing to the fact that lambda (the spin orbit coupling parameter) is positive. The three-coordinated complex 2.3 had a magnetic moment of 3.77 muB. The synthesis and characterization of the first stable two-coordinate vanadium complexes are described in Chapter 3. The values suggest a significant spin orbital angular momentum contribution that leads to a magnetic moment that is lower than their spin only value of 3.87 muB. DFT calculations showed that the major absorptions in their UV-Vis spectra were due to ligand to metal charge transfer transitions. The titanium synthesis and characterization of the bisamido complex along with its three-coordinate titanium(III) precursor are described in Chapter 4. Compound 4.1 was obtained via the stoichiometric reaction of LiN(H)AriPr 6 with the Ti(III) complex TiCl3 *2NMe 3 in trimethylamine. The precursor 4.1 has trigonal pyramidal coordination at the titanium atom, with bonding to two amido nitrogens and a chlorine as well as a secondary interaction to a flanking aryl ring of a terphenyl substituent. Compound 4.2 displays a very distorted four-coordinate metal environment in which the titanium atom is bound to two amido nitrogens and to two carbons from a terphenyl aryl ring. This structure is in sharp contrast to the two-coordinate linear structure that was observed in its first row metal (V-Ni) analogs. The synthesis and characterization of

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  19. Four-wave mixing spectroscopy of molecular dimers. Application to dimers of pentacene in p-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsky, Howard; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1982-10-01

    Dispersive coherent Stokes-Raman scattering (CSRS) experiments on pentacene dimers in p-terphenyl were performed to locate the corresponding singly excited, delocalized, dimer levels. In addition the CNRS technique was used to locate the doubly excited dimer state. Future experiments exploring the dynamics of this novel state are discussed.

  20. Density scaling and decoupling in o-terphenyl, salol, and dibutyphthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalini, R.; Bair, S. S.; Roland, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present new viscosity and equation of state (EoS) results extending to high pressures for o-terphenyl, salol, and dibutylphthalate. Using these and data from the literature, we show that the three liquids all conform to density scaling; that is, their reduced viscosities and reorientational relaxation times are a function of the ratio of temperature and density with the latter raised to a constant. Moreover, the functional form of the dependence on this ratio is independent of the experimental probe of the dynamics. This means that there is no decoupling of the viscosities and relaxation times over the measured range of conditions. Previous literature at odds with these results was based on erroneous extrapolations of the EoS or problematic diamond anvil viscosity data. Thus, there are no exceptions to the experimental fact that every non-associated liquid complies with density scaling with an invariant scaling exponent.

  1. Dynamics of a molecular glass former: Energy landscapes for diffusion in ortho-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niblett, S. P.; de Souza, V. K.; Stevenson, J. D.; Wales, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Relaxation times and transport processes of many glass-forming supercooled liquids exhibit a super-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We examine this phenomenon by computer simulation of the Lewis-Wahnström model for ortho-terphenyl. We propose a microscopic definition for a single-molecule cage-breaking transition and show that, when correlation behaviour is taken into account, these rearrangements are sufficient to reproduce the correct translational diffusion constants over an intermediate temperature range in the supercooled regime. We show that super-Arrhenius behaviour can be attributed to increasing negative correlation in particle movement at lower temperatures and relate this to the cage-breaking description. Finally, we sample the potential energy landscape of the model and show that it displays hierarchical ordering. Substructures in the landscape, which may correspond to metabasins, have boundaries defined by cage-breaking transitions. The cage-breaking formulation provides a direct link between the potential energy landscape and macroscopic diffusion behaviour.

  2. Solidification of acoustically levitated o-terphenyl crystals: a Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation of millimeter size o-terphenyl (OTP) crystals was carried out in a variable temperature enclosure. Levitated crystals were melted (MP = 331 K), undercooled and then seeded in order to initiate solidification. The incidence of an oargon laser beam on the sample, during containerless processing, allowed elastic and low frequency (< 200 cm -1) shifted inelastic Raman scattering to be monitored. The Raman spectra undergo remarkable changes during thermal processing, enabling the tracking of inter-molecular structural reconfigurations occurring in the solid and liquid states. Furthermore, the Raman scattered light proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring the kinetics of phase transformation. Thus tracking the peak intensity of a Raman feature allowed a measure of volume fraction transformation rates, during solidification initiated at different undercooling levels. Growth rates as a function of undercooling were inferred from these measurements and are compared to existing models.

  3. Rickenyls A-E, antioxidative terphenyls from the fungus Hypoxylon rickii (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Herrmann, Jennifer; Huch, Volker; Müller, Rolf; Stadler, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Our screening efforts for new natural products with interesting bioactivity have revealed the neotropical ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii as a prolific source. We isolated five secondary metabolites with a p-terphenyl backbone from the mycelial extract of a fermentation of this fungus in 70 l scale by using RP-HPLC, which were named rickenyls A-E (1-5). Their structures were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, complemented by HRESIMS. Two of the compounds contained a quinone core structure in ortho (2) and para-position (5), respectively. We obtained 2 spontaneously and by lead tetraacetate oxidation from 1. All compounds were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidative and cytotoxic activities. Rickenyl A (1) exhibited strong antioxidative effects and moderate cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:26296745

  4. Synthesis of a hybrid m-terphenyl/o-carborane building block: applications in phosphine ligand design.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Christopher A; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L; Lavallo, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    A hybrid terphenyl/o-carborane ligand building block is synthesized by the reaction of m-terphenylalkyne with B10H14. This sterically demanding substituent can be installed into ligands, as demonstrated by the preparation of carboranylphosphine. The bulky phosphine reacts with [ClRh(CO)2]2 to produce monophosphine complex ClRhL(CO)2, which subsequently extrudes CO under vacuum to afford the dimeric species [ClRhL(CO)]2. The latter complex does not react with excess phosphine and is resistant toward cyclometalation, which is in contrast to related o-carborane phosphine complexes. Data from a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study are utilized to quantify the steric impact of the ligand via the percent buried volume approach. PMID:25668570

  5. Nanocalorimetry of vapor-deposited organic glasses: tris-naphthylbenzene, decalin and ortho-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Katherine R.

    Physical vapor deposition can be used to prepare glasses with extraordinary properties. By optimizing the substrate temperature and deposition rate, glasses with low enthalpy, high density and high kinetic stability, as compared to the ordinary liquid-cooled glass, can be produced. The heat capacity of 'stable glasses' has been measured with conventional calorimetry, but such techniques are limited to bulk samples; the properties of more technologically relevant thin films cannot be measured. In this thesis, nanocalorimetry was utilized to measure the heat capacity of thin films of four organic glassformers: alpha,alpha,beta-tris-naphthylbenzene (alphaalphabeta-TNB),cis- and trans-decahydronaphthalene (cis- and trans -decalin) and o-terphenyl. A number of new and important results came out of the AC nanocalorimetry experiments on these molecules. alphaalphabeta-TNB thin films showed thickness dependent transformation times for films up to one micron in thickness, consistent with the work on indomethacin. This result suggested that highly suppressed bulk transformation rates are a general feature associated with the kinetics of stable glass transformation. One way glassformers can be characterized is by their fragility, or their temperature dependent behavior as Tg is approached. Decalin, the molecular glassformer with the highest reported fragility, was shown to be capable of forming stable glasses when vapor-deposited. This result implies that surface mobility, which is deemed the controlling mechanism for stable glass formation, is also present in high fragility systems. Experiments on a variety of cis/trans-decalin mixture compositions showed that vapor deposition can also be used to make stable glasses of mixtures. The ability of an array of compositions to form stable glasses is a strong argument against nanocrystals being responsible for the extraordinary properties of stable glasses. Finally, in situ experiments on o-terphenyl were able to span the range of

  6. Synthesis of meta-Terphenyl-2,2''-diols by Anodic C-C Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lips, Sebastian; Wiebe, Anton; Elsler, Bernd; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Dyballa, Katrin M; Franke, Robert; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-26

    The anodic C-C cross-coupling reaction is a versatile synthetic approach to symmetric and non-symmetric biphenols and arylated phenols. We herein present a metal-free electrosynthetic method that provides access to symmetric and non-symmetric meta-terphenyl-2,2''-diols in good yields and high selectivity. Symmetric derivatives can be obtained by direct electrolysis in an undivided cell. The synthesis of non-symmetric meta-terphenyl-2,2''-diols required two electrochemical steps. The reactions are easy to conduct and scalable. The method also features a broad substrate scope, and a large variety of functional groups are tolerated. The target molecules may serve as [OCO](3-) pincer ligands. PMID:27490451

  7. Improving UV-glass PMTs with a p-Terphenyl Wavelength Shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Rehfuss, Melanie; Duran, Burcu; Paolone, Michael

    2015-10-01

    UV-glass PMTs are often the limiting factor in a Cherenkov detector, due to their poor quantum efficiency (QE) below 300nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This is especially interesting in the context of multi-anode (MA) PMTs, which are supremely suited for application in future open-environment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities due to their small size, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields, and high potential for advanced background rejection. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab entering the 12 GeV era, as well as for a future electron-ion collider. We will discuss the process of coating the PMTs through vacuum evaporation, and the performance testing taking place at Temple University for these multi-anode PMTs, as well as the results obtained with the more traditional 5-inch PMTs that were coated for the low-threshold Cherenkov counter (LTCC) of the CLAS12 spectrometer at Jefferson Lab.

  8. Performance of UV-glass MaPMT with p-Terphenyl Wavelength Shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfuss, Melanie; Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Kaczanowicz, Edward

    2016-03-01

    UV-glass PMTs are often the limiting factor in a Cherenkov detector because of their poor quantum efficiency (QE) below 300nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This is especially interesting in the context of multi-anode (Ma) PMTs, which are supremely suited for application in future open-environment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities due to their small size, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields, and high potential for advanced background rejection due to their pixelization. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab entering the 12 GeV era, as well as for a future electron-ion collider both providing a high luminosity. We will discuss the process of coating the PMTs through vacuum evaporation, and the performance testing taking place at Temple University for Hamamatsu model H12700A-03 multi-anode PMTs as well the background rejection schemes that will be devised using these MaPMTs.

  9. Structural Control of Nonadiabatic Photochemical Bond Formation: Photocyclization in Structurally Modified ortho-Terphenyls.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Molly S; Snyder, Joshua A; DeFrancisco, Justin R; Bragg, Arthur E

    2016-06-16

    Understanding how molecular structure impacts the shapes of potential energy surfaces and prospects for nonadiabatic photochemical dynamics is critical for predicting and controlling the chemistry of molecular excited states. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was used to interrogate photoinduced, nonadiabatic 6π cyclization of a collection of ortho-terphenyls (OTP) modified with alkyl substituents of different sizes and electron-donating/withdrawing character positioned on its central and pendant phenyl rings. OTP alkylated at the 4,4″ and 4',5' positions of the pendant and central rings, respectively, exhibiting biphasic excited-state relaxation; this is qualitatively similar to relaxation of OTP itself, including a fast decrease in excited-state absorption (τ1 = 1-4 ps) followed by formation of metastable cyclized photoproducts (τ2 = 3-47 ps) that share common characteristic spectroscopic features for all substitutions despite variations in chemical nature of the substituents. By contrast, anomalous excited-state dynamics are observed for 3',6'dimethyl-OTP, in which the methyl substituents crowd the pendant rings sterically; time-resolved spectral dynamics and low photochemical reactivity with iodine reveal that methylation proximal to the pendant rings impedes nonadiabatic cyclization. Results from transient measurements and quantum-chemical calculations are used to decipher the nature of excited state relaxation mechanisms in these systems and how they are perturbed by mechanical, electronic, and steric interactions induced by substituents. PMID:27171560

  10. Structural, optical and dynamical properties of a high birefringence laterally fluorinated terphenyl isothiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, D.; Mandal, P. K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2015-02-01

    A doubly fluorinated isothiocyanato butyl terphenyl compound exhibiting a broad range of the nematic and a narrow range of smectic phase has been investigated by X-ray, dielectric and optical methods and compared with the properties of singly and doubly fluorinated ethyl homologues to see the effect of fluorination and chain flexibility. Contrary to common perception, weak antiparallel correlation of molecules is observed in each compound both from X-ray and dielectric studies. Observed dielectric anisotropy is strong enough to ensure a driving voltage suitable for thin film transistor-based liquid crystal display. Measured splay elastic constant suggests that the present compound will exhibit the fastest response. Flip-flop mode relaxations are observed in a few hundred kHz to MHz range. All the compounds exhibit high birefringence (0.373-0.331). They also show high order parameters at low temperatures. These compounds are expected to be suitable for formulating high birefringence nematic mixtures for fast switching displays.

  11. Fast Crystal Growth in o-Terphenyl Glasses: A Possible Role for Fracture and Surface Mobility.

    PubMed

    Powell, C Travis; Xi, Hanmi; Sun, Ye; Gunn, Erica; Chen, Yinshan; Ediger, M D; Yu, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Molecular liquids can develop a fast mode of crystal growth ("GC growth") near the glass transition temperature. This phenomenon remains imperfectly understood with several explanations proposed. We report that GC growth in o-terphenyl conserves the overall volume, despite a 5% higher density of the crystal, and produces fine crystal grains with the same unit cell as normally grown crystals. These results indicate that GC growth continuously creates voids and free surfaces, possibly by fracture. This aspect of the phenomenon has not been considered by previous treatments and is a difficulty for those models that hypothesize a 5% strain without voids. Given the existence of even faster crystal growth on the free surface of molecular glasses, we consider the possibility that GC growth is facilitated by fracture and surface mobility. This notion has support from the fact that GC growth and surface growth are both highly correlated with surface diffusivity and with fast crystal growth along preformed cracks in the glass. PMID:26161577

  12. Solvent-Free Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Amorphous and Crystalline ortho-Terphenyl

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ta-Chung; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Walish, Joseph J.; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Clausen, Andrew M.; Cheetham, Janet C.; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of amorphous and crystalline ortho-terphenyl (OTP) in the absence of glass forming agents is presented in order to gauge the feasibility of applying DNP to pharmaceutical solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and to study the effect of intermolecular structure, or lack thereof, on the DNP enhancement. By way of 1H–13C cross-polarization, we obtained a DNP enhancement (ε) of 58 for 95% deuterated OTP in the amorphous state using the biradical bis-TEMPO terephthalate (bTtereph) and ε of 36 in the crystalline state. Measurements of the 1H T1 and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments showed the crystallization process led to phase separation of the polarization agent, creating an inhomogeneous distribution of radicals within the sample. Consequently, the effective radical concentration was decreased in the bulk OTP phase, and long-range 1H–1H spin diffusion was the main polarization propagation mechanism. Preliminary DNP experiments with the glass-forming anti-inflammation drug, indomethacin, showed promising results, and further studies are underway to prepare DNP samples using pharmaceutical techniques. PMID:23421391

  13. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS: PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemical products which are synthesized by the direct chlorination of biphenyl. he degree of biphenyl ring chlorination determines the physical properties and applications of commercial PCBs and, therefore, it is not surprising that...

  14. Rotational relaxation in ortho-terphenyl: using atomistic simulations to bridge theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Michael P; Chitra, Tarun; Jumper, John M; Palmo, Kim; Pan, Albert C; Shaw, David E

    2013-10-24

    Understanding the nature of the glass transition--the dramatic slowing of dynamics and eventual emergence of a disordered solid from a cooling liquid--is a fundamental challenge in physical science. A central characteristic of glass-forming liquids is a non-exponential main relaxation process. The extent of deviation from exponential relaxation typically becomes more pronounced on cooling. Theories that predict a growth of spatially heterogeneous dynamics as temperature is lowered can explain these observations. In apparent contradiction to these theories, however, some experiments suggest that certain substances--notably including the intensely studied molecular glass-former ortho-terphenyl (OTP)--have a main relaxation process whose shape is essentially temperature independent, even though other observables predicted to be correlated with the degree of dynamical heterogeneity are temperature dependent. Here we report the first simulations based on an atomistic model of OTP that reach equilibrium at temperatures well into the supercooled regime. We first show that the results of these simulations are in reasonable quantitative agreement with experimental data for several basic properties over a wide range of temperatures. We then focus on rotational relaxation, finding nearly exponential behavior at high temperatures with clearly increasing deviations as temperature is lowered. The much weaker temperature dependence observed in light-scattering experiments also emerges from the same simulation data when we calculate correlation functions similar to those probed experimentally; this highlights the diversity of temperature dependencies that can be obtained with different probes. Further analysis suggests that the temperature insensitivity observed in the light-scattering experiments stems from the dependence of these measurements on internal as well as rotational molecular motion. Within the temperature range of our OTP simulations, our results strongly suggest that

  15. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  17. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  18. On the ergodicity of supercooled molecular glass-forming liquids at the dynamical arrest: the o-terphenyl case

    PubMed Central

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of supercooled ortho-terphenyl has been studied using photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the depolarized scattering geometry. The obtained relaxation curves are analyzed according to the mode-coupling theory (MCT) for supercooled liquids. The main results are: i) the observation of the secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation (β) that has its onset just at the dynamical crossover temperature TB (TM > TB > Tg); ii) the confirmation, of the suggestion of a recent statistical mechanical study, that such a molecular system remains ergodic also below the calorimetric glass-transition temperature Tg. Our experimental data give evidence that the time scales of the primary (α) and this secondary relaxations are correlated. Finally a comparison with recent PCS experiments in a colloidal system confirms the primary role of the dynamical crossover in the physics of the dynamical arrest. PMID:24434872

  19. Dipalladium(I) Terphenyl Diphosphine Complexes as Models for Two-Site Adsorption and Activation of Organic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sibo; Herbert, David E.; Velian, Alexandra; Day, Michael W.; Agapie, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    Well-defined models for binding of organic molecules across two metal centers are relatively rare. A paraterphenyl diphosphine was employed to support a dipalladium(I) moiety. Unlike previously reported dipalladium(I) species, the present system provides a single molecular hemisphere for binding of ligands across two metal centers, enabling the characterization and comparison of the binding of a wide variety of saturated and unsaturated organic molecules. The dipalladium(I) terphenyl diphosphine toluene-capped complex was synthesized from a dipalladium(I) hexaacetonitrile precursor in the presence of toluene. The palladium centers display interactions with the π-systems of the central ring of the terphenyl unit and that of the toluene. Exchange of toluene for anisole, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, thiophenes, pyrroles, or furans resulted in well-defined π-bound complexes which were studied by crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and density functional theory. Structural characterization shows that the interactions of the dipalladium unit with the central arene of the diphosphine does not vary significantly in this series allowing for a systematic comparison of the binding of the incoming ligands to the dipalladium moiety. Several of the complexes exhibit rare μ2-η2:η2 or μ2-η2:η1 (O or S) bridging motifs. Hydrogenation of the thiophene and benzothiophene adducts was demonstrated to proceed at room temperature. The relative binding strength of the neutral ligands was determined by competition experiments monitored by NMR spectroscopy. The relative equilibrium constants for ligand substitution span over 13 orders of magnitude. This represents the most comprehensive analysis to date of the relative binding of heterocycles and unsaturated ligands to bimetallic sites. Binding interactions were computationally studied with electrostatic potentials and molecular orbital analysis. Anionic ligands were also demonstrated to form

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  1. One-dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymers containing C2h-symmetric 1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate linkers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Gu, Ja Min; Huh, Seong; Yo, Chul Hyun; Kim, Youngmee

    2015-10-01

    Two new one-dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymers (CPs) containing the C2h-symmetric terphenyl-based dicarboxylate linker 1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate (3,3'-TPDC), namely catena-poly[[bis(dimethylamine-κN)copper(II)]-μ-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylato-κ(4)O,O':O'':O'''] monohydrate], {[Cu(C20H12O4)(C2H7N)2]·H2O}n, (I), and catena-poly[[aquabis(dimethylamine-κN)copper(II)]-μ-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylato-κ(2)O(3):O(3')] monohydrate], {[Cu(C20H12O4)(C2H7N)2(H2O)]·H2O}n, (II), were both obtained from two different methods of preparation: one reaction was performed in the presence of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as a potential pillar ligand and the other was carried out in the absence of the DABCO pillar. Both reactions afforded crystals of different colours, i.e. violet plates for (I) and blue needles for (II), both of which were analysed by X-ray crystallography. The 3,3'-TPDC bridging ligands coordinate the Cu(II) ions in asymmetric chelating modes in (I) and in monodenate binding modes in (II), forming one-dimensional chains in each case. Both coordination polymers contain two coordinated dimethylamine ligands in mutually trans positions, and there is an additional aqua ligand in (II). The solvent water molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds between the one-dimensional coordination polymer chains, forming a two-dimensional network in (I) and a three-dimensional network in (II). PMID:26422225

  2. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs. PMID:21616519

  3. Poly(phenylene) and m-Terphenyl as Powerful Protecting Groups for the Preparation of Stable Organic Hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew G; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Four benzimidazolium hydroxide compounds, in which the C2-position is attached to a phenyl group possessing hydrogen, bromine, methyl groups, or phenyl groups at the ortho positions, are prepared and investigated for stability in a quantitative alkaline stability test. The differences between the stability of the various protecting groups in caustic solutions are rationalized on the basis of their crystal structures and DFT calculations. The highest stability was observed for the m-terphenyl-protected benzimidazolium, showing a half-life in 3 M NaOD/CD3OD/D2O at 80 °C of 3240 h. A high-molecular-weight polymer analogue of this model compound is prepared that exhibits excellent mechanical properties, high ionic conductivity and ion-exchange capacity, as well as remarkable hydroxide stability in alkaline solutions: only 5% degradation after 168 h in 2 M KOH at 80 °C. This is the most stable hydroxide-conducting benzimidazolium polymer to date. PMID:26948285

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  5. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  6. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  7. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS HORMONALLY ACTIVE STRUCTURAL ANALOGUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the environmental chemicals believed to have the potential to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals including humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls are a chemical class of considerable concern. Possible mechanisms by which these chemicals may interfere with endocrine fun...

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls inventory in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Kakareka, Sergey V

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) inventory is a key element of the ecologically sound management of these dangerous chemicals. This article presents the findings of the large-scale PCB inventory project that was implemented in Belarus in 2003-2004. Data on PCB-containing equipment of more than 2000 enterprises was recorded: trademarks; volumes of PCBs; dates of manufacture; condition of equipment; levels of operation, descriptions of installations or storage locations. In the course of the inventory about 1500 tones of PCBs were identified, 99% of this total was found in power transformers and capacitors. As it proved most equipment containing PCBs is still in service today due to its long life-time. Additionally, the PCB-containing equipment which has been taken out of service is primarily stored on the territory of enterprises. The distribution of PCBs in Belarus among economy sectors as well as regions is shown. Problems of the PCB inventory and disposal are discussed. It is shown that the inventory needs to be regularly updated in order to estimate temporal changes in PCB-containing equipment condition, current owners and a location. PMID:17597287

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  11. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  12. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  14. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN BIOMARKERS OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADOLESCENT CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is two cohort comparison study of endocrine and cytochrome P450 family 1 biomarkers for risk assessment of polychlorinalted biphenyls (PCBs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) induced developmental toxicities in the human. The subjects will be sexually mature adoles...

  15. The role of isomerization in the kinetics of self-assembly: p-terphenyl-m-dicarbonitrile on the Ag(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Pérez, David; Recio, J Manuel; Kantorovich, Lev

    2015-05-01

    Using a toolkit of theoretical techniques comprising ab initio density functional theory calculations, the nudged elastic band method and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) modeling, we investigate in great detail how para-terphenyl-meta-dicarbonitrile (pTmDC) molecules diffuse and isomerize to self-assemble on the Ag(111) surface. We show that molecules "walk" on the surface via a pivoting mechanism moving each of its two "legs" one at a time. We then identify a peculiar "under-side" isomerization mechanism capable of changing the molecules chirality, and demonstrate that it is fundamental in understanding the growth of hydrogen bonding assembles of ribbons, linkers, clusters and brickwall islands on the Ag(111) surface, as observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments (ChemPhysChem, 2010, 11, 1446). The discovered underlying atomistic mechanism of self-assembly may be behind the growth of other hydrogen bonding structures of chiral molecules on metal surfaces. PMID:25760805

  16. CORRELATION OF POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES WITH POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FORMED FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isomer composition of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) was measured for municipal waste incinerator fly ash samples,and for emission samples produced from soot and copper deposit experiments conducted at EPA. Two types of PCN isomer patterns were identified. One pattern cxonta...

  17. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  18. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  19. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  20. ON-ROAD SAMPLING OF DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to sample mobile heavy duty diesel engine emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ("PCDD/F") during highway and in-city driving routes was conducted. The post-muffler stacks of two diesel tractors hauling loaded tra...

  1. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  3. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  4. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. ROLE OF COMBUSTION AND SORBENT PARAMETERS IN PREVENTION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN FORMATION DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research uses experimental data and a statistical approach to determine the effect of combustion- and sorbent-injection-related parameters on the mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF, respectively) formation and preven...

  6. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  7. Degradation of polychlorinated naphthalene by mechanochemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yugo; Aono, Sho; Arino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Terada, Akihiko; Noma, Yukio; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) is a hazardous compound that is listed as a new persistent organic pollutants candidate by the United Nations Environment Program. The production, import and use of PCNs are prohibited by the Chemical Substances Control Law in Japan. PCN was milled with calcium oxide as an additive to investigate the feasibility of its degradation by mechanochemical treatment. The milling process cleaved the C-C and C-Cl bonds by the mechanically induced solid-state reaction. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCN was decomposed after 1h milling. The yield of chloride ions reached 100% after 3h milling. This indicates that all PCN was broken down into inorganic compounds after milling, thereby maintaining the chlorine mass balance through the reaction. This experiment, for the first time, exhibited the effectiveness of mechanochemical treatment as a PCN degradation method. PMID:24094772

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  9. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  10. DECHLORINATIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The breakdown of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in situ in sediments heavily contaminated with PCBs by processes called reductive dechlorinations have been reported. hese studies characterized several distinct dechlorination patterns, caused by different strains of anae...

  11. POLYCHLORINATED DIOXIN AND FURAN DISCHARGE DURING CARBON REACTIVATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses are performed on samples collected from various effluent streams of a fluidized-bed and infrared furnace during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) used in treatment of drinking water. These analyses show that polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polych...

  12. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  13. Syntheses, structures and properties of metal-carboxylate chain-based coordination polymers (CPs) with 1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl-2‧,4,4″,5‧-tetracarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinhui; Song, Lin; Li, Liang; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Two coordination polymers (CPs) {[Mg2L(μ2-H2O) (μ2-DMA)]·DMA}n (1), and [Ag4L(DMF)2]n (2) (H4L = 1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl-2‧,4,4″,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamine, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. In 1 and 2, there exist a series of parallel aligned Msbnd Osbnd C chains, which are linked along two directions by para-terphenyl moieties of L4- ligands to lead to the metal-carboxylate chain-based three-dimensional frameworks. The photoluminescence properties of the compounds 1 and 2 have also been investigated. 1 displays blue-violet light emission with the emission maximum at 380 nm. 2 exhibits a broad emission peak from 300 to 800 nm with an emission maximum at 484 nm and some of the shoulder peaks.

  14. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  16. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  17. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  18. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  19. Photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ng, How-Yong

    2008-03-01

    This study employed direct photolysis to treat mixed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) solutions. The solutions included a synthetic standard 17 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners solution and a practical liquid extracted from the bag filter ash of an electric arc furnace. Additionally, this work utilized a coupled catalyst (ZnO/SnO2) under UV irradiation for photocatalytic degradation of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD and OCDD. The direct photolysis rate of PCDFs was faster than that of PCDDs. The degradation rate of international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) for PCDDs and PCDFs in the synthetic standard solution was 1.369 and 1.472 h(-1), respectively, and that in the ash-extracted solution was 0.061 and 0.117 h(-1), respectively. The rate of photocatalytic degradation declined as the number of chlorine atoms increased. No 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners were identified during photocatalytic degradation; additionally, the photolytic rate of the UV/coupled catalyst was higher than that of UV/single catalyst system. Experimental results suggested that the primary degradation pathway for direct photolysis and photocatalysis of PCDD/Fs was the CCl cleavage and CO cleavage, respectively. PMID:17656019

  20. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Human dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ching; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lin, Long-Full; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-05-30

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) levels in a total of 25 food items in Taiwan were surveyed. It was observed that shellfish and saltwater fish possessed the highest PCDD/Fs levels, 9.82 and 3.60 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively, on the lipid basis. The dietary intakes of humans at the ages of 12-18, 19-64, and over 65 were determined. The estimated intake were between 21.8 pg (female teenagers) and 37.6 pg (male seniors) WHO-TEQ/day; the levels varied with the dietary habits. The PCDD/F intakes for all human groups are far below the tolerable limit of 70 pg WHO-TEQ/kg b.w./month. In addition, the daily PCDD/F intake levels for duck-farmers consuming average and large amounts of PCDD/F contaminated duck eggs were examined. The result shows that consuming more than one duck egg with level higher than 10 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid of PCDD/Fs per day could lead to a PCDD/F intake level higher than the tolerable limit. However, for normal population, there is a little risk to ingest intolerable amount of PCDD/Fs because of consuming contaminated duck eggs. PMID:18829161

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in municipal and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Emily N; Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were quantified in 45 effluent samples in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system in Texas. Total PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 13.23 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and from 0.79 to 682.27 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. Generally, industrial facilities contained more PCDD/F contamination than municipal wastewater treatment plants or refuse facilities. World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (WHO-TEQs) ranged from 0.007 to 0.279 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 0.021-1.851 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. The major TEQ contributor was 2,3,7,8-TCDD and overall, TEQs were greatest in industrial effluents. A correlation between high solids and high PCDD/F concentrations was observed and based on the results obtained in this study, the abundance of suspended solids may have largely contributed to high PCDD/F contamination in the suspended phase. Homolog profiles revealed that PCDD/F contamination increased with increasing chlorination and the highest concentrations were primarily from the octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD/F) in both the dissolved and suspended phase. PMID:25935498

  3. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  4. Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Mercury in Rural Soils of the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Pilot Survey Soil Report EPA has released a final report entitled, Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychl...

  5. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  6. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  7. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Seasonal variation of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the seasonality of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Japan. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed simultaneously at 55 sites in spring 2008, summer 2008 and winter 2008/09. Sampler deployment spanned 8 continuous weeks in each season. The non-outlier ranges of the two pollutants (ng/sample) were as follows; ∑190PCBs: 6.5-38.6 (spring), 43.5-220.5 (summer) and 25.9-136 (winter); and ∑63PCNs: 0.4-3.9 (spring), 0.7-7.1 (summer) and 1.1-9.2 (winter). The corresponding values in air were ∑190PCBs (pg m-3): 33-197 (spring), 222-1125 (summer) and 132-694 (winter); and ∑63PCNs (pg m-3): 2.2-20 (spring), 3.5-36 (summer) and 5.7-47 (winter), when sampling rate of 3.5 m3 day-1 was assumed. Thus, the PCBs peaked in summer, while the PCNs mostly peaked in winter; there was an apparent contrast in their seasonality in Japan. For the PCNs, seasonal variability was significant at rural than urban sites. Normally, POPs would show relatively increased air content in summer due to vaporization effect. The PCNs appeared to deviate from such a trend because of overriding input of tri-CNs presumably transported from long range by northwesterly winds in the winter season. The dioxin-like fractions of either pollutant were reduced in winter by about 30-50%.

  10. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  11. Effect of metal catalysts on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran precursors (reannouncement)

    SciTech Connect

    Gullett, B.K.; Bruce, K.R.; Beach, L.O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of an examination of the catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulating that of municipal waste fly ash. Cl2 formed as a result of a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl with O2. Catalytic activity was greatest at a temperature of about 400 C, supporting a theory of de novo synthesis of PCDDs and PCDFs on fly ash particles downstream of waste combustion.

  12. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  13. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  14. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this proposed rule to update and clarify several sections of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) regulations associated with the manifesting requirements, which uses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are to......

  15. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  16. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health assessment document on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins discusses multimedia environmental issues pertaining to the most toxic chlorinated dioxins, namely, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-; 1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-; 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachloro-; and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxi...

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICOLOGY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. hey are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. wo large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in ...

  18. FIBER OPTIC FLUOROIMMUNOSENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There currently exists a critical and growing need for cost-effective, real-time, and in situ methods for detection of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). erein reported is a evanescent wave Fluoroimmunosensor for measurement of PCBS. 2,4-5-Trichlor...

  19. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS): NEWBORN EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low-level chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from consumption of Lake Michigan fish was assessed in pregnant women and their newborn offspring. Low levels of PCBs remain in the human body for some time, and caused, in this sample, decreases in birt...

  20. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN PRECIPITATION IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall samples were collected in Chicago, Illinois, and on Beaver Island, Michigan, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The precipitation weighted mean concentration of 35 samples of rain was 111 mg/l. (111 parts per trillion). This would result in the deposition...

  1. HALF-LIFE OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1977 and 1985, serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 58 workers in a Bloomington, Indiana, factory that used PCBs in capacitor manufacture until 1977. ess chlorinated PCBs were quantitated as Aroclor 1242, and more highly chlorinated PCBs were...

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  3. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  4. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  5. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  8. catena-Poly[[bis­(dimethyl­ammonium) [cadmate(II)-bis­(μ-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ato)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Wook; Gu, Ja-Min; Kim, Youngmee; Huh, Seong

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, {(C2H8N)2[Cd(C20H12O4)2]·2C3H7NO}n, the CdII ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and is in a distorted octa­hedral CdO6 environment, defined by four O atoms of two μ2-coordinated 1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ate (DCT) ligands and two O atoms of two μ1-coordinated DCT ligands. Both types of DCT ligands act as bridging, forming a one-dimensional polymeric structure propagating parallel to [10]. PMID:21522589

  9. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  11. EVALUATION OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HIGH-VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A High-Volume air sampler was evaluated for collection of poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The sampler consists of a filter, polyurethane foam adsorbent cartridge, air pump, and environmental housing. The use of an alternative ad...

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polyschlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasinghe, N.C.A.; Gross, M.L.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, New York and a largely domestic sludge from Sodus, New York were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using combined gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). Concentrations in ppt of the following PCDDs were found in the Syracuse sludge: tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs), 150, hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HxCDDs), 2100, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDDs), 6300, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDDs), greater than 60,000. The following ppt concentrations were found in the Sodus sludge: TCDDs, 7200, HxCDDs, 300 HCDDs, 900, OCDDs 7500. The TCDD was a single but not the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-isomers. PCDFs were mostly nondetectable in the sludges. The toxicology and potential for environmental contamination by these compounds are discussed.

  13. Characterization and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soils and sediments at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Natalie A; Bowman, Jennifer; Lopez, Dina; Migliore, Elizabeth; Jackson, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration. PMID:25113188

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  15. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 528 was created to address polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination identified during the CAU 262 corrective action investigation. CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): CAS 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination.

  16. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  17. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  18. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  19. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  20. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

  1. Crystal structure of 2,2′′-bis­(2,7-di­chloro-9-hy­droxy-9H-fluoren-9-yl)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl tri­ethyl­amine trisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Klien, Henrik; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    In the title solvate, C44H26Cl4O2·3C6H15N, the asymmetric part of the unit cell comprises two halves of the diol mol­ecules, 2,2′′-bis­(2,7-di­chloro-9-hy­droxy-9H-fluoren-9-yl)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl, and three mol­ecules of tri­ethyl­amine, i. e. the diol mol­ecules are located on crystallographic symmetry centres. Two of the solvent mol­ecules are disordered over two positions [occupancy ratios of 0.567 (3):0.433 (3) and 0.503 (3):0.497 (3)]. In the diol mol­ecules, the outer rings of the 1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl elements are twisted with reference to their central arene ring and the mean planes of the fluorenyl moieties are inclined with respect to the terphenyl ring to which they are connected, the latter making dihedral angles of 82.05 (8) and 82.28 (8)°. The presence of two 9-fluoren-9-ol units attached at positions 2 and 2′′ of the terphenyl moiety induces a ‘folded’ geometry which is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions, the latter formed between the fluorenyl units and the central ring of the terphenyl unit [centroid–centroid distances = 3.559 (1) and 3.562 (1) Å]. The crystal is composed of 1:2 complex units, in which the solvent mol­ecules are associated with the diol mol­ecules via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, while the remaining solvent mol­ecule is linked to the host by a C—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The given pattern of inter­molecular inter­actions results in formation of chain structures extending along [010]. PMID:26870400

  2. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  3. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are toxic compounds which are dispersed through the environment by atmospheric transport and deposition. It has been previously shown that there is a varying mixture of these compounds produced by c...

  4. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  5. PAPER FIBERS AS A CARBON SOURCE FOR THE DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzefurans (PCDDs/Fs) from carbons that were produced from pyrolysis of paper fibers and from a wood charcoal was investigated experimentally. Fibers obtained from a filter paper were pyrolyzed at 300 and 800 d...

  6. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  7. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  8. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  10. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  12. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls using mesoporous iron-based spinels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linyan; Su, Guijin; Zhang, Aiqian; Shi, Yali; Xia, Chaobo; Lu, Huijie; Li, Liewu; Liu, Sha; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    A series of mesoporous iron-based spinel materials were synthesized to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with CB-209 being used as a model compound. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), pore structure analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison of the dechlorination efficiencies (DEs) of the materials revealed that NiFe2O4 had the highest DE, followed by Fe3O4. Newly produced polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes, hydroxyl species and organic acids were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatograph. Identification of the intermediate products indicates that three degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination, the breakage of CC bridge bond and oxidative reaction, accompanied by one combination reaction, are competitively occurring over the iron-based spinels. The relative amounts of produced three NoCB isomers were illustrated by the CCl BDEs of CB-209 at meta-, para- and ortho-positions, and their energy gap between HOMO and LUMO. The consumption of the reactive oxygen species caused by the transformation of Fe3O4 into Fe2O3 in the Fe3O4 reaction system, and the existence of the highly reactive O2(-) species in the NiFe2O4 reaction system, could provide a reason why the oxidation reaction was more favored over NiFe2O4 than Fe3O4. PMID:23974532

  13. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  14. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  15. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  16. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Li, Haifeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Li, Changliang

    2013-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are usually considered to be important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). To examine the influence of PCDD/Fs emissions from a MSWI on the surrounding environment, 21 soil samples were collected from various sampling sites distributed at distances of 300-1,700 m away from the stack of a MSWI. International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.07 pg I-TEQ g(-1), with average and median concentrations of 1.08 and 1.05 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. Comparison of the results presented herein with other worldwide studies suggested that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient soil were relatively low, indicating a limited impact on the surrounding environment. The emission concentrations from the incinerator were the critical factor in generating an environmental impact on the surrounding environment. An exponential function was developed, indicating a slight decline in TEQs of PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from the MSWI stack. The ordinary kriging interpolation technique was selected to create a contour map, which intuitively showed that a limited surrounding area (≤1,000 m from the stack) was obviously influenced by the MSWI. PMID:23801339

  17. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in particulate and oily films on impervious surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-12-15

    During this study wipe sampling was applied to various impervious surfaces for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) area concentrations. To that end, a wipe sampling method based on solvent wetted cotton wipes was evaluated and transfer efficiencies of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in particulate films (PFs) and oily liquid films (OFs) during sampling were investigated. For PFs sufficient transfer efficiencies of low concentrated PCB and PCDD/PCDF congeners in 1g/m(2) spiking surrogate were achieved after the first wipe using n-hexane as wetting solvent. Transfer efficiencies for OFs were the highest in the first wipe if n-hexane or n-heptane were used rather than toluene. The spiking experiments of OFs showed a log-linear correlation between the number of wiping procedures and transfer efficiency which indicates that transfer efficiencies were constant in subsequent wipes. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated that pressurized liquid extraction is a suitable tool for the extraction of wipe samples. Finally, the feasibility of this wipe sampling method was demonstrated on various impervious surfaces of different origin, and concentration levels of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in wipe samples are discussed. Hereby, remarkably high ∑CB6 concentrations of up to 1400μg/m(2) (taken at a transformer recycling site) were detected. PMID:26318221

  18. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  19. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H2L)(bix)(H2O)2]·2h2O}n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ni(L)0.5(bpp)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H4L=terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4‧-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H4L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework with H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]n ribbon chains motif, in which the H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η1 and μ1-η1:η0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H4L ligand displays a μ4-bridging coordination mode. The H4L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1-3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion. PMID:21438643

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  3. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enantiomeric fraction of OH-PCB 136 metabolites was determined in male and female rats treated with racemic PCB 136. The methylated derivatives of two OH-PCB 136 metabolites showed an enantiomeric enrichment in liver tissue, whereas PCB 136 itself was near racemic. PMID:18760792

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transit system electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    The legislative history and current regulatory requirements concerning the continued use of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls PCBs in transit system electrical equipment are presented. The recent rule-making by the EPA is presented in summary form to aid the reader in following the chronology of requirements affecting the continued operation, servicing, marking, and disposal of transit system electrical equipment which contains PCB materials. Types of transit system electrical equipment regulated by the EPA are identified and future regulatory requirements concerning allowable PCB concentration levels of specific electrical equipment are outlined. Transit system procedures for the handling of electrical equipment containing PCBs are presented and recommendations to assist transit systems in eliminating PCBs from electrical equipment are provided.

  5. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium▿

    PubMed Central

    May, Harold D.; Miller, Greg S.; Kjellerup, Birthe V.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlorinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor 1260 in contaminated soil. The isolate requires Desulfovibrio spp. in coculture or cell extract for growth on hydrogen and PCB in mineral medium. This is the first microorganism in pure culture demonstrated to grow by dehalorespiration with PCBs and the first isolate shown to dechlorinate weathered commercial mixtures of PCBs in historically contaminated sediments. The ability of this isolate to grow on PCBs in contaminated sediments represents a significant breakthrough for the development of in situ treatment strategies for this class of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:18223104

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  7. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov). PMID:12117298

  8. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  9. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. [Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in pine needles].

    PubMed

    Kozul, Darija; Herceg Romanić, Snjezana

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a review of methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in pine needles. These compounds are lipophilic, they accumulate in the biotic and abiotic part of the environment in which they are persistent, and their use is forbidden or restricted due to harmful effects on human and animal health. Pine needles are convenient for monitoring the levels of organochlorine compounds in the air because they accumulate them in wax with which they are covered. However, the presence of many other compounds makes them complex for analysis. Analytical methods for determining organochlorine compounds in pine needles include sample collection, extraction of compounds with a suitable solvent, extract clean-up from unwanted compounds and qualitative and quantitative analysis. PCBs and OCPs are present in pine needles in traces, and every part of the analytical procedure has to be as efficient and selective as possible. PMID:18063531

  11. (E)-3-(2-Chloro­phen­yl)-1-(4,4′′-difluoro-5′-meth­oxy-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-4′-yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Samshuddin, S.; Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Betz, Richard; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C28H19ClF2O2, is a polysubstituted terphenyl derivative bearing a Michael system in which the C=C double bond has an E conformation. In the crystal, C—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯O contacts connect the mol­ecules into layers lying perpendicular to the a axis. The shortest inter­centroid distance between symmetry-related 4-fluoro­phenyl groups is 3.7547 (16) Å. PMID:22590402

  12. Phototransformation of polychlorinated aromatics in gas phase and on aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong

    1999-12-01

    A number of polychlorinated aromatics have been shown to pose health risks even at very low concentration levels. However, routes of introduction of these toxic congeners into the environment remain unclear. It is speculated that some of the toxic congeners may evolve, in part, from transformation of other less toxic congeners. The most likely route for these transformations is photolysis during atmospheric transport. An investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken in this study, and phototransformation of selected polychlorinated aromatics, representing the compound of environmental concern, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, in gas phase were examined. The study involved monitoring the effect of various atmospheres on phototransformation mechanism and kinetics. The experimental setup consisted of the photoreactor coupled to a vapor generator, a particle generator, an electrostatic classifier, and a particle counter. This arrangement permitted introduction of contaminants at known concentrations in vapor or aerosol form. The contaminants were irradiated for varied periods and the disappearance kinetics was studied as a function of irradiation time. The correlation between congeners and the photodegradation pathway was also investigated. The first order kinetic constants and the quantum yields were measured. The experimental results showed that the vapor phase phototransformation rates are affected by the atmospheric parameters, e.g., phototransformation rates are significantly enhanced in the presence of oxygen. In general, less chlorinated compounds decomposed faster than higher chlorinated ones. The reductive dechlorination was evidenced through the formation of products with less chlorine substitution. The presence of hydrogen donors significantly increased the yield of the reductive dechlorination products. The oxygen dominated the phototransformation rates by the mechanisms other than reductive dechlorination. The phototransformation rates of the PCDDs

  13. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  14. GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PCB ITEMS BY THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a resource and guidelines document to aid EPA Regional Offices in interpreting and applying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations to the thermal destruction of PCBs. As background material, the report describes fundamental processes of combustion, thermal destr...

  15. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  16. TECHNICAL/ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven emerging alternative treatments for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments have been compared and ranked using technical performance, status of development, test and evaluation data needs, and cost as factors. In ranking the processes, weights were assigned ...

  17. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  18. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  19. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  20. PARTITIONING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN SEAWATER OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) between particulate and dissolved phases of seawater was examined along a concentration gradient in New Bedford Harbor, MA. egression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the log of the partition coefficients (...

  1. Tenax-GC Extraction Technique for Residual Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Analysis in Biodegradation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Shiaris, M. P.; Sherrill, T. W.; Sayler, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid Tenax-GC extraction technique has been evaluated for use in conjunction with aqueous biodegradation assays for polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. The method was quantitatively efficient and reproducible for phenanthrene, but variable and not quantitative for Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls). Aqueous sample volumes and varying concentrations of organic matter influenced polychlorinated biphenyl and polyaromatic hydrocarbon extraction efficiency. Phenanthrene recovery was decreased by soil extract but unaffected by spent bacteriological culture medium. Both types of organic matter caused significant reduction of Aroclor 1254 recovery. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation assays, performed with reservoir samples, supported the laboratory evaluation. The study demonstrated the utility of the Tenax-GC extraction technique for phenanthrene analysis in biodegradation assessment; however, Tenax-GC extraction was not appropriate for Aroclor 1254 biodegradation studies. PMID:16345486

  2. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENT BY THREE BENTHIC MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sedim...

  3. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  4. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  5. MONITORING FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM AN ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR DISPOSAL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different air sampling methods were used simultaneously to monitor for PCB emissions arising from a pilot disposal project involving electrolytic capacitors. Analytical results indicated that the primary polychlorinated biphenyl material was Aroclor 1242, and that airborne ...

  6. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION AND CAPACITOR AND TRANSFORMER FILLING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described are methods to measure the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from the stacks of municipal waste, industrial waste, and sewage sludge incinerators and from capacitor and transformer filling plants. The PCB emissions from the incineration plants are collected by im...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four landfills known to contain large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored for atmospheric emissions: Three of these were uncontrolled and contained large numbers of electrical capacitors, many of which were scattered on the surface and leaking PCB askare...

  8. DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH OUTLIER DETECTION AND ELIMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the analysis of capillary column Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) data using regression analysis with outlier checking and elimination, COMSTAR, is presented and evaluated. his algorithm determines the best combination of the commercial PCB mixtures which best fits the...

  9. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  10. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  11. Determination of body burdens for polychlorinated dibenzo-'p'-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) in california residents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.; Turman, K.; Boggess, K.; Cramer, P.

    1989-10-26

    Determination of body burden levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in residents of California was conducted based on a stratified survey design. Stratification factors included two geographical locations (San Francisco and Los Angeles), three age groups (12 to 34, 35 to 49, and 50 plus years), and sex. A total of 57 adipose tissue specimens were collected across the 12 specific strata. Analysis for the specific 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers was achieved based on high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were measured in all samples with isomer patterns consistent with findings in other studies conducted within the United States, Canada, and Europe. A questionnaire focused on the lifestyles of participants in the program was conducted to determine residual and occupational information and possible exposure routes to PCDDs and PCDFs. The data base provides a reference for comparison in future human monitoring programs.

  12. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  13. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  14. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  15. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Li, Qing X

    2007-05-01

    Blubber, liver and kidney samples of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska were collected during 2000-2001 for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (CoplPCBs). On the lipid weight (lw) base, the total concentrations of PCNs (Sigma PCNs) ranged from 0.3 to 27 ng/g lw, and the total concentrations of CoplPCBs (Sigma CoplPCBs) were 3.6-546 ng/g lw in all the tissue samples. Di-ortho PCBs and mono-ortho PCBs were dominant followed by non-ortho PCBs and PCNs. Sigma Mono-ortho PCBs and Sigma di-ortho PCBs in nursing seals were apparently lower than those in male adult seals, but Sigma PCNs and Sigma non-ortho PCBs in female adults were not significantly different from those in male adults. Differences in PCNs and CoplPCBs congener profiles in female and male adult seals are apparently related to their chemical structure and properties, animal's developmental stages and physiological conditions. A large quantity of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCBs might be transferred to newborns from the nursing seals during lactation, while non-ortho PCBs and PCNs were relatively accumulative in the mother seals. Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in the harbor seals correlated with ages, gender, body weight and blubber thickness, but the blubber Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula (KIAP) did not significantly differ from those in Prince William Sound (PWS). In addition to the new PCB data, this first report on PCN contamination in Alaskan harbor seal tissues is useful for the wildlife and ecosystem management and human health protection. PMID:17223166

  16. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  17. Open dumping site in Asian developing countries: a potential source of polychlorinated dibenz-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Minh; Tu, Binh Minh; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shinichi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sasikumar, Karuppian; Pham, Hung Viet; Bui, Cach Tuyen; Tana, Touch S; Prudente, Maricar S

    2003-04-15

    Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates

  18. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyl Transport, Metabolism and Distribution - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Harrad, Stuart J.; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lee, Cindy M.; Lu, Zhe; Wong, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Chirality can be exploited to gain insight into enantioselective fate processes that may otherwise remain undetected because only biological, but not physical and chemical transport and transformation processes in an achiral environment will change enantiomer compositions. This review provides an in-depth overview of the application of chirality to the study of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), an important group of legacy pollutants. Like other chiral compounds, individual PCB enantiomers may interact enantioselectively (or enantiospecifically) with chiral macromolecules, such as cytochrome P-450 enzymes or ryanodine receptors, leading to differences in their toxicological effects and the enantioselective formation of chiral biotransformation products. Species and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment has been demonstrated in environmental compartments, wildlife and mammals, including humans, typically due to a complex combination of biotransformation processes and uptake via the diet by passive diffusion. Changes in the enantiomer composition of chiral PCBs in the environment have been used to understand complex aerobic and anaerobic microbial transformation pathways, to delineate and quantify PCB sources and transport in the environment, to gain insight into the biotransformation of PCBs in aquatic food webs, and to investigate the enantioselective disposition of PCBs and their methylsulfonyl PCBs metabolites in rodents. Overall, changes in chiral signatures are powerful, but currently underutilized tools for studies of environmental and biological processes of PCBs. PMID:20384371

  19. Kinetics of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, D.D.; Brunner, W.

    1985-10-01

    The metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), which comprised the Aroclor 1242 mixture, was greatly enhanced by the addition of biphenyl (BP) to soil. After 49 days, only 25 to 35% of the original PCBs remained in the soil, and 48 to 49% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (including soil carbonates) in treatment enriched with BP; by contrast, 92% of the PCBs remained and less than 2% was converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the unenriched control. Although the mineralization of PCBs in soils inoculated with Acinetobacter strain P6 was not greater than that in uninoculated BP-enriched soils, the initial and maximum mineralization rates and mineralization of BP was consistent with kinetic models based upon linear-no growth and exponential growth; lower cell densities (< 10/sup 6//g) of BP-oxidizing bacteria gave a better fit for exponential growth, whereas the highest cell density (10/sup 9//g) gave a better fit for linear-no growth. The numbers of BP-oxidizing bacteria declined exponentially upon depletion of the substrate. Since the mineralization of the chlorinated cometabolites was brought about by microorganisms (comensals) other than BP oxidizers, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production could not be fit to either of the two growth models. However, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the highest-density inoculum could be fit to a first-order (no-growth) sequential-reaction series.

  20. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  1. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity. PMID:26995917

  2. Volatilization of extensively dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls from historically contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Bush, B.; Barnard, E.L.; Bott, A. |

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted as a preliminary characterization of the ability of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments to volatilize PCBs into the air upon drying under conditions meant to be environmentally relevant. Sediments collected from the St. Lawrence River contained high levels of PCBs. The PCB contamination consisted of high levels of mainly ortho-substituted mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, suggesting that the original contamination had been transformed by microbial reductive dechlorination. These sediments lost 0.07 to 1.7% of their total PCB content to the air during a 24-h drying cycle. Sediments with varying amounts of overlying water lost significantly less PCB to the air within the first few cycles than native sediments with no overlying water. Losses due to PCB volatilization were well correlated to sediment PCB concentration and water loss but not to drying temperatures (4--43 C) within 24-h drying cycles. The PCB congeners representing >90% of those volatilized within the first 24 h of drying were those produced in the sediment samples as a result of microbial reductive dechlorination of the original PCB contamination. The presence of these congeners in volatilized air samples was positively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Fourier transform infrared detection (FTIR). These results strongly suggest that significant amounts of mono-, di-, and trichlorobiphenyls may be volatilized from PCB-contaminated sediments at ambient environmental conditions and that this PCB volatilization may be enhanced by microbial reductive dechlorination.

  3. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation. PMID:20183511

  4. An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Neuropsychologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Data sources Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Data extraction Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual–spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. Data synthesis The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Conclusion Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies. PMID:19165381

  6. Neutrophhil function after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ganey, P.E.; Denison, M.; Roth, R.A.; Robinson, J.P. )

    1993-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be immunotoxic, yet the effects on neutrophil (PMN) function are not well characterized. We incubated PMNs isolated from rat peritoneum with a mixture of PCB congeners, Aroclor 1242, in the absence or presence of either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to stimulate generation of supoxide anion (O[sub 2]) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to induce degranulation (measured as release of [beta]-glucuronidase). Aroclor 1242 alone stimulated O[sub 2] production at a concentration of 10 [mu]g/ml. Significant cytotoxicity was not observed under these conditions. This concentration of Aroclor 1242 also increased O[sub 2] generation in PMNs activated with 20 ng PMA/ml. In the presence of a concentration of PMA (2 ng/ml) that by itself did not stimulate production of O[sub 2], 1 [mu]g Aroclor 1242/ml caused significant generation of O[sub 2], indicating synergy between Aroclor 1242 and PMA. Aroclor 1242 caused release of [beta]-glucuronidase from quiescent PMNs; however, in PMNs stimulated with fMLP to undergo degranulation, Aroclor 1242 inhibited release of [beta]-glucuronidase.

  7. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  8. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls emission from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua; Jin, Yuqi

    2009-12-30

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns were determined in the flue gas from a medical waste incinerator (MWI) using high-resolution gas chromatograph coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). The total PCBs concentration of all homologues (mono- to deca-chlorinated homologues) in the flue gas ranged from 138.01 to 855.35 ng/Nm(3) and the WHO-TEQ value varied from 0.046 to 0.549 ng/Nm(3) under the different operating conditions. PCB-77 concentration was the highest among dioxin-like PCBs and PCB-126 contributed mostly to the WHO-TEQ. The ratios of dioxin-like PCBs in the total PCB concentrations in the flue gas varied between 11.7% and 26.0% (the average value is 18.7%). Three inhibitors, sulfur, urea, and ammonium sulfate were tested to investigate the capacity for preventing PCBs formation. The decomposition efficiency for total PCBs and PCBs TEQ ranged from 38% to 84% and 69% to 92% respectively. It was shown that urea mixed with ammonium sulfate and more activated carbon was proved to be the most effective inhibitor for PCBs formation. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the total PCBs concentration and PCBs TEQ by the bag filter under two conditions were 69% and 85%, and 86% and 94% respectively. PMID:19744782

  10. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  11. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Dhaliwal, Joginder; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in residential dust. Vacuum cleaner samples were collected from 289 homes in the California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds from 2001 to 2010 and 15 PCBs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median concentrations of the most abundant PCBs (i.e., PCBs 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 1.0–5.8 ng per g of dust in the first sampling round and from 0.8–3.4 ng/g in the second sampling round. For each of these eight PCBs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variation into regional variability (6–11%), intra-regional between-home variability (27–56%), within-home variability over time (18–52%), and within-sample variability (9–16%). In mixed-effects models, differences in PCB concentrations between homes were explained by home age, with older homes having higher PCB levels. Differences in PCB concentrations within homes were explained by decreasing time trends. Estimated half-lives ranged from 5–18 years, indicating that PCBs are removed very slowly from the indoor environment. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PCB exposures in studies of children’s health. PMID:24313682

  14. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls in precipitation in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-09-01

    Temporal trend of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing for the first time from February 2009 to March 2011. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 7.00 to 993 ng L-1 in dissolved phase and from 1.00 to 133 ng L-1 in particulate phase, with a two orders of magnitude variation. Concentrations of PCBs were dominated by dissolved phase, which accounted for 82.5% of the total PCBs in precipitation, implying PCBs enrichment in rainwater due to efficient scavenging of highly contaminated gas phase and nonfilterable submicron particles which easily adsorbed organic contaminants in urban atmosphere. Highest concentrations of PCBs were measured in snow, which were about two times higher than those in rainwater, demonstrating more efficient scavenging of PCBs by snow. The sum of bi-, tri- and tetrachlorinated congeners accounted for 70.5% of total PCBs in precipitation, suggesting that PCBs mainly come from the historical usage of domestic PCB product, e.g., trichlorobiphenyl. PCBs concentrations in both dissolved and particulate phases showed slow rate of decline, with a half-life of 16.9 years in precipitation, suggesting that the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were decreasing slowly in Beijing. The wet deposition flux of ∑PCBs ranged from 0.240 to 6.55 μg m-2 month-1 (mean: 1.41 μg m-2 month-1), indicating a relatively high level of PCBs contamination in Beijing atmosphere.

  15. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  16. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) concentrations in Wilson Reservoir catfish, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.; Lowery, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    TVA conducted a study during autumn 1984 to determine concentrations of a variety of contaminants in biota from Wilson and upper Pickwick Reservoirs. Several contaminants were detected, with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in catfish from Wilson Reservoir of greatest interest. PCB concentrations in twenty-two of 45 catfish from Wilson equaled or exceeded the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tolerance of 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the average of all 45 was 2.6 ..mu..g/g. Contamination was widespread and did not show any geographical relationship to an embayment on Wilson Reservoir (Fleet Hollow) known to have PCBs in the sediments. As a result of these findings, the Northwest Alabama Regional Health Department issued an official notice to retail markets in June 1985 to discontinue selling catfish from Wilson Reservoir. TVA initiated studies to determine if there were other areas on Wilson with PCB contaminated sediments or PCB discharges, and an annual catfish collection was started in autumn 1985 to determine the year-to-year trend in PCB levels. As a follow-up to earlier studies, analyses of catfish collected during autumn 1985 indicated substantial reductions in PCB concentrations. Only 4 of 36 catfish had PCB concentrations which equaled or exceeded 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the overall average was 1.0 ..mu..g/g. Statistical analyses indicated PCB concentrations decreased with increased distance from Fleet Hollow. Further monitoring is recommended for 2 more years.

  17. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  18. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Curt T; Wheeler, David C; Deziel, Nicole C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K; Flory, Abigail R; Locke, Sarah J; Colt, Joanne S; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H

    2013-09-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of five PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, and 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998 and 2000 from 1187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad; percentage of developed land; number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences; and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCB levels [all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit (MPQL) vs at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs at least one congener > median concentration] were positively associated with either percentage of developed land [odds ratio (OR) range 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase] or population density (OR 1.08 for every 1000/mi(2)) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  1. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl release from resuspended Hudson River sediment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Abby R; Porter, Elka T; Baker, Joel E

    2007-02-15

    Three shear turbulence resuspension mesocosms (STORM tanks) were used to examine the release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resuspended Hudson River sediment. Twenty-two percent of the resuspended PCBs desorbed after 2 h, and 35% +/- 8% of PCBs were in the dissolved phase after apparent steady state was reached in 2 days. After the first resuspension event, the solids were allowed to settle and the quiescent time was varied to determine whether the labile pool of PCBs is recharged during sediment consolidation. The steady-state log Koc values for the third subsequent resuspension were higher than for the first event due to lower dissolved PCB concentrations; the particulate PCB concentrations were constant between events. With 1 day of consolidation between resuspension events, the dissolved concentration of all congeners decreased an average of 8% +/- 5% between subsequent resuspension events. With 4 days between events, only the dissolved pentachlorinated PCBs decreased significantly (p = 0.002), suggesting that the easily desorbable PCBs recharge when there is sufficient time between resuspension events. PMID:17593705

  3. Amine-enhanced photodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meuser, J.M.; Weimer, W.C.

    1982-07-01

    Uncontrolled releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformers and capacitors pose a significant environmental problem to the electric utility industry. This report describes a series of experiments whose objective was to demonstrate the practicality of using natural solar radiation in conjunction with the application of an amine for in situ degradation of PCBs in contaminated soil. The soil tested was clay from beneath a capacitor rack at a pacific northwest utility substation. While no degradation of the PCBs in soil was found after two weeks of sunlight exposure, further solution experiments indicate that degradation of PCBs does occur in the presence of an amine and simulated solar radiation. In hexane solutions containing 1 ppM Aroclor 1268 with 10 and 100 ppM ethylenediamine, 37% and 53% reductions in PCB concentration, respectively, were found after 70 h of solar simulator irradiation. These results suggest that the clay matrix or other soil components may have interfered with the photodegradation process. Investigations into the reaction mechanism, reaction products, optimum treatment parameters and appropriate matrices appear to be warranted. Successful development of this in situ technique could lead to major savings in mitigation efforts for contaminated soils and surfaces.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  5. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  6. The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P L; Haglund, P; Tysklind, M

    1997-01-01

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AMI) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs). PMID:19005788

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  8. Aqueous solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls related to molecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Opperhulzen, A.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.; Van der Steen, J.M.D.; Hutzinger, O.

    1988-06-01

    Aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls show a linear relationship between logarithms of aqueous activity coefficients and total surface areas (TSA) or total molecular volumes (TMV). The aqueous activity coefficients were calculated from experimental solubility data and values taken from the literature. The correlations improved substantially if a differential heat capacity between supercooled liquid and solid chemical (..delta..C/sub p/) equal to the entropy of fusion (..delta..S/sub f/), instead of ..delta..C/sub p/ = O, was assumed. In addition, it was found that dissolution of 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl was accompanied by positive enthalpy and entropy changes, the entropy being dominant at room temperature. For the former compound, it was shown that the entropy of fusion is approximately to J K/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/, which is in agreement with the Walden rule. For 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, it was shown that a Hildebrand plot provides a constant slope. This supported the assumption that differential heat capacity (..delta..C/sub p/) equals the entropy of fusion.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. PMID:24997912

  11. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  12. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by north sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Kees; van der Meer, Jaap; Kwast, Diana; de Boer, Joost L.

    1997-05-01

    The sediment-water partition coefficients ( Kd) of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and penta- and hexachloro benzene were determined for 37 spiked sediment samples from the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Norwegian Channel. Organic-carbon contents for these sediments were in the range 0.02-2.4%. Log( Kd) values were in the range 1.4 to 5.3. The largest difference between the organic-carbon normalised partition coefficients ( Koc) for individual components amounted to a factor of 10. Koc values for coarse sediments were generally lower than values for fine sediments. The solids concentration effect was evaluated using the Non-Settling Particles model, the Solute Complexation model, the Implicit Adsorbate model, and the Particle Interaction model. The latter three models could be rejected on the basis of the experimental evidence. The validity of ordinary least-squares regression for estimating slope and intercept of log( Koc)-log( KKow) relations is discussed. Differences in sediment characteristics cause changes in the intercept of log( Koc)-log( Kow) relations, but not in the slope. KKoc values of PCB isomers are inversely related to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho position relative to the inter-ring bond. The validity of the data for estimating field values of sorption coefficients is discussed.

  13. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    White, Roberta F; Palumbo, Carole L; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Heaton, Kristin J; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction. PMID:21545807

  14. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

  15. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    White, Roberta F.; Palumbo, Carole L.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Heaton, Kristin J.; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986–1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction. PMID:21545807

  16. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  17. Destruction of polychlorinated aromatic compounds by spinel-type complex oxides.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yun; Lu, Xianbo; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jiping; Sun, Chenglin

    2010-04-15

    Destruction of polychlorinated aromatic compounds was carried out over spinel-type catalysts XY2O4 (where X = Mg, Ca, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Y = Al, Fe). The catalysts were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and FTIR. The performance of these catalysts toward the decomposition of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was evaluated in a closed system. The spinel-type catalyst with mesoporous structure demonstrated high catalytic activity for the hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated aromatic compounds. Among them, the copper-aluminum spinel (CuAl2O4), specifically calcined at 600 degrees C, exhibited the best activity. More than 85% dechlorination efficiency of HCB and 99% decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) were achieved at 250 degrees C for 30 min over the above catalyst which was more effective than the corresponding metallic copper and copper oxide catalysts during the thermal degradation of polychlorinated aromatic compounds. The correlation of catalytic performance to structural characteristics is discussed based on the detailed characterization. The simple preparation procedure and reasonable cost of the spinel-type catalysts present a good potential for the thermal treatment of polychlorinated aromatic pollutants at lower temperatures. PMID:20334415

  18. UPTAKE OF PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND 2,3,7,8-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY BIRDS NESTING IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER AND GREEN BAY, WI, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. ccumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyc...

  19. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners). PMID:24380619

  20. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of S02 on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the post-combustion, downstream region (500 to 300 C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Laboratory ex...

  1. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  2. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  3. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic. PMID:21863827

  5. Damaging effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on chicken primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changge; Zhang, Caiqiao; Xia, Guoliang; Yang, Wei

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the effects of a commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254, as well as 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone on numbers and histomorphological changes of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in gonadal regions of Day 5 Hyline chicken embryos. The oestrogen receptor antagonist, clomiphen, alone or with PCBs was used in an attempt to protect the developing gonad from oestrogen-like effects of chemical PCBs. The results were as follows: (i) PCBs delayed embryonic development independently of dose (1 microg/egg, P<0.05; 10 microg/egg, P<0.01; 100 microg/egg, P<0.001 v. the control) and caused a dose-independent increase in mortality compared with the control group (10 microg/egg, P<0.01; 100 microg/egg, P<0.05); maximal mortality was observed in the 1 microg/egg group (P<0.001); (ii) PCBs decreased PGC numbers dose dependently (P<0.001) and caused a swollen nucleus with hyperchromatism (pyknosis) or cytoplasm vacuolation as signs of gonadal PGC degeneration in all PCB groups, or even complete disappearance in the 100 microg/egg group; (iii) after PCB treatment, the index of gonadal lesion increased significantly with the decrease of gonadal PGC number (1, 10 and 100 microg/egg, P<0.001); (iv) there were no observed effects of E2, testosterone and clomiphen on PGCs in the experiments; and (v) clomiphen failed to block the damaging effects of PCBs. These results suggest that the adverse effects of PCBs on chicken gonadal and germ cell development were initiated during the early stages of incubation through direct toxic effects, rather than through oestrogen-mimicking actions. As PGC numbers in the gonads decrease and the index of gonadal lesion increases, one may expect reproductive function to be compromised. PMID:12219939

  6. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  7. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  8. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  9. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H.; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction ( ϕoil)=30 vol.%; solid concentration ( χ)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 μm, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  10. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  11. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  12. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish. PMID:25945423

  13. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  14. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C.; McFarland, Ashley M.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation–dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  15. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  16. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C; McFarland, Ashley M; Meserve, Lee A

    2010-11-30

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation-dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  18. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (∑14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  20. Exposure to a Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans Resulted in a Prolonged Time to Pregnancy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) may affect the female reproductive system in animals and humans. In 1978–1979, a mass poisoning occurred in central Taiwan due to PCB/PCDF-contaminated cooking oil; this incident was called Yucheng (“oil disease” in Chinese). Objective The purpose of our study was to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure affected fertility in exposed women. Methods After the event, we followed the exposed individuals and a reference group who were sex-, age-, and community-matched. In 2003, we obtained fertility histories from Yucheng and reference women by telephone interview. We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox regression to compare time to pregnancy (TTP) between Yucheng and reference women, and we performed multiple logistic regression to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure caused infertility. Results In total, 412 women responded, with a median TTP of 4 months in Yucheng women and 3 months in reference women (p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders by Cox regression, we found a fecundability ratio of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.00] for Yucheng women. Among the 408 women who had noncontraceptive sexual activity for > 12 months, 19.7% of Yucheng women and 9.7% of reference women did not become pregnant (i.e., they were infertile). After we adjusted for confounders by logistic regression, the infertility odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI, 1.23–4.59) for Yucheng women compared with the reference group. Conclusions We found prolonged TTP and reduced fertility among women previously exposed to PCBs/PCDFs. Because of the limited sample size and the relatively small decrease in the fertility rate, these effects require cautious interpretation and further investigation for confirmation. PMID:18470317

  1. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  2. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  3. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  4. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  5. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    PubMed

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. PMID:22464860

  6. Semiquinone Radicals from Oxygenated Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be oxygenated to form very reactive hydroquinone and quinone products. A guiding hypothesis in the PCB research community is that some of the detrimental health effects of some PCBs are a consequence of these oxygenated forms undergoing one-electron oxidation or reduction, generating semiquinone radicals (SQ•−). These radicals can enter into a futile redox cycle resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species, that is, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Here, we examine some of the properties and chemistry of these semiquinone free radicals. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to detect SQ•− formation, we observed that (i) xanthine oxidase can reduce quinone PCBs to the corresponding SQ•−; (ii) the heme-containing peroxidases (horseradish and lactoperoxidase) can oxidize hydroquinone PCBs to the corresponding SQ•−; (iii) tyrosinase acting on PCB ortho-hydroquinones leads to the formation of SQ•−; (iv) mixtures of PCB quinone and hydroquinone form SQ•− via a comproportionation reaction; (v) SQ•− are formed when hydroquinone-PCBs undergo autoxidation in high pH buffer (≈>pH 8); and, surprisingly, (vi) quinone-PCBs in high pH buffer can also form SQ•−; (vii) these observations along with EPR suggest that hydroxide anion can add to the quinone ring; (viii) H2O2 in basic solution reacts rapidly with PCB-quinones; and (ix) at near-neutral pH SOD can catalyze the oxidization of PCB-hydroquinone to quinone, yielding H2O2. However, using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO) as a spin-trapping agent, we did not trap superoxide, indicating that generation of superoxide from SQ•− is not kinetically favorable. These observations demonstrate multiple routes for the formation of SQ•− from PCB-quinones and hydroquinones. Our data also point to futile redox cycling as being one mechanism by which oxygenated PCBs can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species, but this is most efficient

  7. Rhodococcus biphenylivorans sp. nov., a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Yindong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Hu, Jinxing; Ding, Linxian; Wu, Min; Shen, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and rod-coccus shaped novel actinobacterial strain, designated as TG9(T), was isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Taizhou city, Zhejiang province, eastern China. The isolate was observed to grow at 10-45 °C (optimum 28-32 °C), pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-3.0 %). Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain TG9(T) and other members of the genus Rhodococcus showed that strain TG9(T) shared highest similarities with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans DSM 44555(T) (99.4 %), R. rhodochrous DSM 43241(T) (99.2 %), R. gordoniae DSM 44689(T) (99.2 %) and R. artemisiae DSM 45380(T) (98.2 %). However, low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (15-48 %), which are below the 70 % limit for prokaryotic species identification, were obtained by DNA-DNA hybridization. Strain TG9(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and arabinose and galactose in the whole-cell hydrolysate. Mycolic acids were found to be present. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH, 10-methyl C18:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The only menaquinone detected was MK-8 (H2). The major polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipid and traces of some unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain TG9(T) was determined to be 62.8 %. The combined phenotypic and genotypic data show that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus for which the name Rhodococcus biphenylivorans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain TG9(T) (=CGMCC 1.12975(T) = KCTC 29673(T) = MCCC 1K00286(T)). PMID:25315102

  8. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  9. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  10. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) transport from primary sources to building materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  11. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  12. Development of Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mitchell D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The procedure and sampler described permits detection of less than 50pg of one polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) isomer. The method uses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCNs are collected on a glass fiber filter and two polyurethane foam plugs and extracted with toluene at 25 degrees Celsius. (BB)

  13. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS INDUCERS OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL ENZYMES: STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of highly purified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers and congeners were synthesized and administered to male Wistar rats at dosage levels of 30 and 150 micromol/kg. The effects of this in vivo treatment on the drug-metabolizing enzymes were determined by measuring t...

  14. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS INDUCERS OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL ENZYMES: EFFECTS OF DI-ORTHO SUBSTITUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All of the 13 possible polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers and congeners substituted at both para positions, at least two meta positions (but not necessarily on the same ring) and at two ortho positions have been synthesized and tested as rat hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers...

  15. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  16. 75 FR 4759 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ..., LLC, which was published in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12053). In addition to... Federal Register notice for the hearing (73 FR 28786, May 19, 2008). In addition to all of the pre... of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste from Mexico for disposal at Veolia's TSCA-approved...

  17. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  18. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  19. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY, CHANGES IN FEMUR MORPHOMETRY AND CALCIUM METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. ischer 344 rats Here dosed daily 1G for 5, 10 or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. fter 5, 10 and 15 weeks,...

  20. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  1. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  2. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  3. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on KEY PARAMETERS FOR DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    De novo formation of polychlorinated- dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas- phase environment...

  4. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  5. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  6. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  7. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 28, PCB'S (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the experimental design and the results of the validation study for two analytical methods to detect polychlorinated byphenyls in oil. The methods analyzed for four PCB Aroclors (1016, 1242, 1254, and 1260), 2-chlorobiphenyl, and decachlorobiphenyl. The firs...

  8. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF TWO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS ON CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to alter locomotor activity and decrease brain dopamine function in laboratory animals. CBs with orth- and/or para-chlorine substitutions are reportedly most potent in decreasing cell dopamine content in vitro and were dete...

  10. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  11. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL...

  12. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  13. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  14. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC BED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs) for eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in aquatic sediment from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic ERs for PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, and 176 wer...

  15. SOURCES OF EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS INTO THE AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been identified in air samples from many parts of the world since 1960s. This study was undertaken to identify and compare different sources of PCB in indoor and outdoor air. All sampling was performed in central North Carolina. The suspected ...

  16. MATERNAL TRANSFER OF BIOACTIVE POLYCHLORINATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SPAWNING CHINOOK SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS TSCHAWYTSCHA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological potency (relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCHs) in extracts of eggs and flesh from spawning female chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) from Lake Michigan was determined by measuring the i...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  18. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  19. Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  1. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  2. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  3. TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB'S) TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been shown to be widespread in the environment. Their significance in the aquatic environment as a poison is now being revealed. They are being detected in fish and other aquatic life at levels much higher than concentrations found in the wa...

  4. DECONVOLUTING THE FORMATION PATHWAYS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS/ DIBENZOFURANS (PCDD/F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during the operation a sooting flame have been observed in prior work on an entrained flow reactor (EFR) in a project addressing the parameters important for such formation (i.e., fly ash type and amount,...

  5. A METHOD FOR THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air. An easily constructed, high-volume sampling system is employed with porous polyurethane foam as the collection medium. The sample is collected at the rate of 0.6 to 1.0 cu m per minut...

  6. SENSITIVITY OF ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASE IN DIFFERENT BRAIN REGIONS TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) mixtures contain a number of different congeners, some of which have been proposed to be neuroactive. Recent studies have suggested that ortho-substituted PCBs may be neuroactive, while "dioxin-like" non-ortho-substituted congeners are not. This st...

  7. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in some U.S. schools are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by un...

  8. GREAT LAKES ECOSYSTEM - MODELING OF THE FATE OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines the Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) problem in the Great Lakes, describes how they got there, describes models of: (1) physical/chemical fate generally; and, (2) specifically, fate of PCBs in aquatic ecosystems. Theory, data and model results are given. Also add...

  9. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  10. AVAILABILITY OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PAHS (POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS) TO 'MYTILUJ EDULIS' FROM ARTIFICIALLY RESUSPENDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine sediment containing high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was resuspended into a flowing seawater system. Analysis of the dissolved and particulate phases in the exposure tank indicated a release of some low molecula...

  11. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  12. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  13. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  14. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS ON PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS AND PROTEIN KINASE C TRANSLOCATION IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous reports from our laboratory have suggested that the neuroactivity of some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners is associated with perturbations in cellular Ca2+-homeostasis. o characterize the neurochemical effects of PCBs further, the present experiments found that ...

  15. FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND PCBS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, and have been demonstrated to cause mortality a...

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  17. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Hongbiao; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2010-04-01

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China. PMID:20176394

  18. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  19. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  20. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  1. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:14963712

  2. The determination of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: a review with special reference to foods.

    PubMed

    Robards, K

    1990-01-01

    The determination of polychlorinated biphenyls presents several unique analytical problems, not least of which is the need to identify and quantify 209 possible analytes. Moreover, congener-specific analysis is essential because of structure-activity effects on toxicity and environmental stability. Although significant advances have been achieved in identification/quantification procedures with the aid of highly efficient, inert open tubular chromatography columns and coupled GC-MS, sampling and extraction procedures have not developed to the same extent. The primary focus of this review is the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods. However, the problems of separation and identification overshadow the importance of the sample matrix, and relevant data from other areas of analysis are quoted. PMID:2113010

  3. Hypochlorous acid-activated carbon: an oxidizing agent capable of producing hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Voudrias, E.A.; Larson, R.A.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Chen, A.S.C.; Stapleton, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC), in the presence of dilute aqueous hypochlorite solutions typical of those used in water treatment, was converted to a reagent capable of carrying out free-radical coupling reactions and other oxidations of dilute aqueous solutions of phenols. The products included biphenyls with chlorine and hydroxyl substitution (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls). For example, 2,4-dichlorophenol, a common constituent of waste waters and also natural waters treated with hypochlorite, was converted to 3,5,5'trichloro-2,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl and several related compounds in significant amounts. It is possible that these products pose more of a health hazard than either the starting phenols or the unhydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives.

  4. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  5. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors. PMID:10448567

  6. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  7. Sigillin A, a unique polychlorinated arthropod deterrent from the snow flea Ceratophysella sigillata.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Witali; Schulze, Thies M; Brasse, Gregor; Nagrodzka, Edyta; Maczka, Michael; Zettel, Jürg; Jones, Peter G; Grunenberg, Jörg; Hilker, Monika; Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Braun, Ute; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-06-22

    The snow flea Ceratophysella sigillata, a winter-active species of springtail, produces unique polychlorinated octahydroisocoumarins to repel predators. The structure of the major compound, sigillin A, was elucidated through isolation, spectroscopic analysis, and X-ray crystallography. Sigillin A showed high repellent activity in a bioassay with predatory ants. A promising approach for the total synthesis of members of this new class of natural compounds was also developed. PMID:25968581

  8. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Suhara, H; Daikoku, C; Takata, H; Suzuki, S; Matsufuji, Y; Sakai, K; Kondo, R

    2003-10-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/ micro l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. PMID:12827316

  9. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  10. Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed Central

    Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with long term occupational exposure to PCBs, a group of 326 workers employed in two capacitor manufacturing facilities were investigated in 1976, and 195 of these again in 1979. The median blood values of lower homologues of PCBs were 63 ppb (in plasma) in 1976 and 49 ppb (in serum) in 1979, and of the higher homologues 18 ppb and 17 X 5 ppb respectively. The prevalence of oculodermatological findings potentially related to the effects of PCBs were 9 X 4% and 13 X 3% at the two examinations. There was no significant association between such abnormalities and blood plasma/serum concentrations of PCBs. The observations in this work population exposed to PCBs differ from the yusho and yu-cheng experiences in that fewer clinical abnormalities were found. Suggestions are made that it may be inappropriate to extrapolate findings from the well known PCB poisoning episodes to exposures in occupational settings and that attention should be paid to the importance of polychlorinated dibenzofurans as an aetiological factor in human PCB poisoning. PMID:3924093

  11. A clinical and electrophysiological study of patients with polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, L G; Chu, F L

    1985-01-01

    Neurological examination of 28 patients, 4 years after serious poisoning by polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated cooking oil, are compared with similar examinations of the same patients two years earlier (in 1980). Clinical peripheral sensory neuropathy was found in 54%, headache in 36% and dizziness in 46% of the patients; these findings did not differ (p greater than 0.1) from those in 1980. Although the mean blood polychlorinated biphenyl concentration (19.2 ppb) in the patients was lower (p less than 0.001) than that in 1980 (35.9 ppb), it was still higher than the normal value (less than 4 ppb). There was no difference in the blood polychlorinated biphenyl concentration of patients with neurological manifestation from those without. Although the mean motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) were still slower (p less than 0.06) than the mean normal NCV, the mean MNCV of tibial nerve and SNCV of sural nerve were improved (p less than 0.06) as compared with those in 1980. EEGs were normal except in two cases showing nonspecific slow wave changes. In addition, evoked potentials (somatosensory, visual and brain-stem auditory) were measured in this study and found to be normal in all 12 cases examined. PMID:2995592

  12. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Interconversion between Methoxylated and Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rice Plants: An Important but Overlooked Metabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Su, Zhenzhu; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge on the methoxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the relationship between hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) in organisms. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was chosen as the model organism to determine the metabolism of PCBs in plants. Limited para-substituted 4'-OH-CB-61 (major metabolite) and 4'-MeO-CB-61 (minor metabolite) were found after a 5-day exposure to CB-61, while ortho- and meta-substituted products were not detected. Interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in organisms was observed for the first time. The demethylation ratio of 4'-MeO-CB-61 was 18 times higher than the methylation ratio of 4'-OH-CB-61, indicating that formation of OH-PCBs was easier than formation of MeO-PCBs. The transformation products were generated in the roots after 24 h of exposure. The results of in vivo and in vitro exposure studies show that the rice itself played a key role in the whole transformation processes, while endophytes were jointly responsible for hydroxylation of PCBs and demethylation of MeO-PCBs. Metabolic pathways of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and MeO-PCBs in intact rice plants are proposed. The findings are important in understanding the fate of PCBs and the source of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:26928534

  14. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  15. Characterization of polychlorinated naphthalenes in stack gas emissions from waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Changliang; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke; Gao, Lirong

    2013-05-01

    Nine typical waste incinerating plants were investigated for polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) contents in their stack gas. The incinerators investigated include those used to incinerate municipal solid, aviation, medical, and hazardous wastes including those encountered in cement kilns. PCNs were qualified and quantified by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry techniques. An unexpectedly high concentration of PCNs (13,000 ng Nm(-3)) was found in the stack gas emitted from one waste incinerator. The PCN concentrations ranged from 97.6 to 874 ng Nm(-3) in the other waste incinerators. The PCN profiles were dominated by lower chlorinated homologues, with mono- to tetra-CNs being the main homologues present. Furthermore, the relationships between PCNs and other unintentional persistent organic pollutants involving polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene were examined to ascertain the closeness or otherwise of their formation mechanisms. A good correlation was observed between ΣPCN (tetra- to octa-CN) and ΣPCDF (tetra- to octa-CDF) concentrations suggesting that a close relationship may exist between their formation mechanisms. The results would provide an improved understanding of PCN emissions from waste incinerators. PMID:23054784

  16. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation. PMID:17948789

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group. PMID:24779909

  18. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  19. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  20. Placental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids correlate weakly with placental polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and are uncorrelated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at delivery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Brenna, J Thomas; Sun, Pei-Yi; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li

    2011-08-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), ARA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) have positive effects and environment pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans(PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have negative effects on neural development during early life. Placental dioxin/PCB serves as markers for cumulative exposure to fetus. Fatty acid composition of placenta depends on nutrient supply during pregnancy, serving as indicators for fetal ARA and DHA accretion. This study investigated correlation between placental PCDD/F and PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) and LC-PUFA in 34 pregnant women from Taiwan. Placental PCDF TEQ were inversely correlated with placental ARA (p=0.020), C20:3n-6 (p=0.01), C22:4n-6 (p=0.04), C22:5n-6 (p<0.01) and with DHA (p=0.03), but ARA and DHA did not vary with PCDD, dioxin-like and indicator PCB. After adjustment for age and body mass index, a one-unit PCDF TEQ increase was associated with 1.021%w/w and 0.312%w/w decreases in ARA (β=-1.021, p=0.03) and DHA (β=-0.312, p=0.03). Since ARA and DHA were unrelated to three classes of toxins, and a weak negative association was found with PCDF, these data provide no basis for discouraging marine fish consumption during pregnancy for Taiwan women on the basis of these organics. Pregnant women should consume fish for its unique package of nutrients while avoiding few species with high organic pollutant or mercury contamination. PMID:21549173

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S; Anderson, Wayne A; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean F; Evans, Rhodri I; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael P; Keane, Declan P; Malisch, Rainer; McBride, John; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. PMID:22560976

  2. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Karin; Sporring, Sune; Haglund, Peter; Björklund, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method previously developed for bulk PCBs. The method utilizes sulfuric acid impregnated silica inside the extraction cell to oxidize coextracted fat. Extractions were performed at 100 degrees C with n-heptane for 5 min in two cycles. Data obtained by selective PLE combined with gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) were compared to concentrations derived from reference laboratories applying conventional sample preparation and GC-HRMS. Experiments performed on spiked vegetable oil, naturally contaminated crude fish oil and oil containing compound feed samples showed good results for these relatively simple matrices. The accuracy was generally +/-20% as compared to spiked levels or to values obtained by the reference laboratories. The precision, measured as the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency values (TEQs), was below 10% in all cases. The method was also tested on naturally contaminated herring tissue, chicken tissue, pork tissue and sepiolitic clay, which all caused some trouble. It was observed that sufficient amounts of sodium sulfate should be used for dehydration of tissue samples and additionally, the cells should not be packed too dense in order to avoid suppressed extraction efficiency. Once this was attended to, satisfactory data could be obtained, except for sepiolithic clay. This study demonstrates that selective PLE can be applied with success to a number of food and feed matrices in analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since the fat removal step is on-line, the selective PLE method will reduce time and solvent consumption for sample preparation as compared to traditional clean-up. PMID:17109872

  3. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources. PMID:26282439

  5. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. PMID:23806670

  6. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment. PMID:22765049

  7. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    PubMed Central

    NC, Deziel; Nuckols; JS, Colt; AJ, De Roos; A, Pronk; C, Gourley; RK, Severson; W, Cozen; Cerhan; P, Hartge; MH, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998–2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

  8. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  10. Optimization of separation and detection conditions for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the most toxic compounds known. The current predominant method of analysis is too expensive and cumbersome, and comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spect...

  11. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  12. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  13. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buser, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.

  14. [Associations of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls with diabetes: based on epidemiological findings].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemical substances that have the common properties of resistance to biodegradation, wide-range transportation, high lipophilicity, bioaccumulation in fat, and biomagnification in the food chain. POPs are persistent in the environment worldwide and have potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known chemicals that are considered as POPs. The association between high-level exposure to dioxins and type 2 diabetes among U.S. Air Force veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the Vietnam War was reported in the late 1990s. This association has been supported by similar epidemiologic studies, whose subjects were exposed to high doses of dioxins in their places of work involving phenoxyacid herbicide production and spraying, and in the industrial accident in Seveso, Italy. Recently, low-level exposure to dioxins and PCBs has been reported to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional studies in the U.S. general population and Japanese general population showed that body burden levels of some dioxins and PCBs were strongly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Very recently, following these cross-sectional studies, several prospective studies have suggested that low-level exposure to some PCBs predicted the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population. Environmental exposure to some dioxins and PCBs, which mainly accumulate in adipose tissue, may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22781010

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74.

    PubMed

    Prouty, R M; Reichel, W L; Locke, L N; Belisle, A A; Cromartie, E; Kaiser, T E; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B M; Swineford, D M

    1977-12-01

    Eighty-six bald eagles found sick or dead during 1973-74 in 24 States were analyzed for organochlorine compounds. DDE was detected in all caracasses; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were found in all but two. Seventy-five carcasses contained TDE and/or dieldrin. Four eagles had possibly lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain. Bald eagles continue to retain high residue levels of organochlorine pollutants. Illegal shooting remained the most common cause of death but accounted for a smaller percentage of the mortalities than in the two previous biennial collections. PMID:416416

  16. Selective and Serial Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions of Polychlorinated Aromatics with Alkyl Pinacol Boronic Esters.

    PubMed

    Laulhé, Sébastien; Blackburn, J Miles; Roizen, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Among cross-coupling reactions, the Suzuki-Miyaura transformation stands out because of its practical advantages, including the commercial availability and low toxicity of the required reagents, mild reaction conditions, and functional group compatibility. Nevertheless, few conditions can be used to cross-couple alkyl boronic acids or esters with aryl halides, especially 2-pyridyl halides. Herein, we describe two novel Suzuki-Miyaura protocols that enable selective conversion of polychlorinated aromatics, with a focus on reactions to convert 2,6-dichloropyridines to 2-chloro-6-alkylpyridines or 2-aryl-6-alkylpyridines. PMID:27537216

  17. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-08-09

    This document presents the significant management features for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes in the double-shell tank (DST) system, discussed in Sections 2.0 through 4.0. Section 2.0 delineates the decision limits for acceptance of PCB wastes into and within the DST system. Section 3.0 briefly discusses the process for obtaining a baseline PCB inventory. The PCB inventory tracking system for waste transfers into and within the DST system is described in Section 4.0. The implementation of this PCB management plan is described in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 names the organizations responsible for implementation of the plans elements.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  19. Laboratory data base for isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Campbell, R.D.; Stalling, D.L.; Little, R.L.; Petty, J.D.; Hogan, J.W.; Kaiser, E.M.

    1984-07-01

    A computer-assisted technique for quantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers is described. PCB isomers were identified by use of a retention index system with n-alkyl trichloroacetates as retention index marker compounds. A laboratory data base system was developed to aid in editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in DSM-11 (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the PDP-11 family of computers. 13 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls: A kinetic study of removal of PCBs from mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Filippis, P. de; Scarsella, M.; Pochetti, F.

    1999-02-01

    A kinetic study was done of the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) eliminated from contaminated dielectric oils by using the potassium poly(ethylene glycolate) (KPEG) process. Experimental runs at laboratory scale showed that the kinetics of the removal reaction was first-order for each PCB present and first-order with respect to the KPEG concentration. The PCB elimination grade was also affected by the KOH/PEG ratio. An exponential correlation was found between the kinetic constant for each congener and its respective gas chromatographic relative retention time.

  1. Rapid separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from DDT and its analogues on silica gel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Diane; Reinert, Robert E.

    1971-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), which are used in industry worldwide (i), have been found as residues in numerous wildlife species (2-7). Because of the similarity in chemical characteristics, PCB compounds interfere with gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (8). In the present study, we sought a rapid microanalytical procedure for separation of PCB's from DDT and its analogues before analysis with GLC. A small silica gel column was found to be suitable for removing two of the Aroclor series of PCB's (1254 and 1260) from DDT and its analogues.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in plant foliage: translocation or volatilization from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Gaggi, C.

    1985-11-01

    Physical properties such as water solubility, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constant suggest that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) can easily reach the troposphere as vapor. The potential of plant foliar tissues to take up PCB's as vapor has probably been underrated in some of the previous works. Nevertheless recently it was reported that the level of PCB's found in the foliage is mainly due to vapor transport from the soil, rather than to translocation through the plant. This research has been planned to assess the influence of translocation on the concentration of PCB's in the foliage of different plant species.

  3. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  4. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil and in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaychian, Mahnaz; Jones, Cynthia; Poster, Dianne; Silverman, Joseph; Neta, Pedatsur; Huie, Robert; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and in marine sediments has been studied. At low PCB concentrations, complete degradation of the PCBs in transformer oil was achieved without degradation of the oil. Addition of an organic base, triethylamine, enhances the radiolytic dechlorination yield. The mechanism of dechlorination has been shown to involve electron transfer to PCBs from various aromatic radical anions formed in the irradiated oil. At high PCB concentrations, large amounts of triethylamine were necessary to achieve complete radiolytic dechlorination. Preliminary results on PCB-contaminated marine sediments demonstrate that addition of 2-propanol to the sediment/water slurry increases the effectiveness of the electron beam treatment.

  7. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    PubMed

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer. PMID:8219584

  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Pocar, Paola; Brevini, Tiziana A L; Antonini, Stefania; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2006-08-01

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oocyte in vitro maturation: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Recent studies provide evidence that exposure to PCBs can cause reproductive problems. PCBs have been identified in the ovarian follicle of women and other mammals and many data in the literature clearly indicate that both follicles and oocytes are particularly susceptible to these pollutants. In the present review we describe the multifaceted effects of PCBs on mammalian oocyte maturation in detail. Published studies clearly indicate that PCB congeners, both singly or as complex mixtures, disrupt mammalian oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Specifically, data point out to the ability of PCBs to interfere with the organization of the microtubules cytoplasmic network resulting in an altered compartmentalization of the ooplasm. Furthermore, a critical role of cumulus cells in mediating PCB ovotoxicity has been observed, most likely related to a disregulation in intracellular communication between the germinal and the somatic compartment. Finally, since coplanar PCBs, induce gene expression via a ligand-dependent transactivating factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, this signalling pathway is also reviewed with respect to understanding the toxic mechanisms of these compounds. PMID:16781112

  9. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, B.C.; Caldwell, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  10. Hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in albatrosses from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson-Wehler, E.; Bergman, A.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1998-08-01

    Concentrations of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs) were determined in plasma and liver of albatrosses collected from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The mean total concentrations of OH-PCBs in plasma of Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) were 11.5 and 27.1 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Total concentrations of OH-PCBs were only one- to fivefold less than those of total PCBs. 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime},6-heptachlorinated biphenyl and 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorinated biphenyl were the predominant polychlorinated biphenylols, constituting 70 to 90% of the total OH-PCBs. Concentrations of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in liver were between 10.6 and 77 ng/g, lipid weight, approximately 250 times less than those of total PCBs. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs congeners retained in the liver were dominated by those having the methylsulfonyl group in the 3-position.

  11. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  12. Dechlorination of polychlorinated methanes by a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Smith, G B

    2000-04-01

    A two-stage bioreactor has been developed to link dechlorination of halogenated methane compounds to the anaerobic processes of methanogenesis and denitrification. A digester methanogenic consortium was shown to dechlorinate chloroform (CF) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) to dichloromethane (DCM), and DCM was then mineralized by an acclimated denitrifying biological activated carbon consortium. Combining these two processes, a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor (SMDB) system that completely degraded polychlorinated methanes including CT, CF, and DCM was developed. More than 95% of the added CT and CF was dechlorinated in the methanogenic bioreactor with methanol as the primary substrate, and the resultant DCM was biodegraded in the denitrifying bioreactor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. In the denitrifying bioreactor, the residual CF was completely removed, and the DCM removal efficiency was more than 95%. This novel bioreactor system eliminates the need for aeration and so avoids the air contamination associated with aerobic biotreatment of volatile chlorinated pollutants. This SMDB system provides an alternative to conventional biotreatment of wastewaters and other matrices contaminated with polychlorinated methanes and is, to our knowledge, the first report on such a sequential anoxic system. PMID:10803908

  13. Measurement of octanol-air partition coefficients for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Bidleman, T.F. |

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of the octanol-air partition coefficient, K{sub OA}, are reported for 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 24 polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as a function of temperature over the range (0 to 50) C. Results for PAHs are within a factor of 1.5 to 2 of values calculated as the ratio of the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficients. The enthalpies of transfer from octanol to air, {Delta}{sub O}{sup A}H, for fluorene, phananthrene and pyrene are (82.9, 75.5, and 76.3) kJ/mol, respectively. Except for fluorene, these are within the range of reported values of the enthalpy of vaporization, {Delta}{sub vap}H. There is also good agreement between {Delta}{sub O}{sup A}H and the temperature coefficient for vegetation-atmosphere partitioning (Q{sub D}). Correlations of log K{sub OA} against log vapor pressure (p{sup 0}) are compared with previous results for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Values of log K{sub OA} for PCNs show a stepwise change and increase by more than 3 orders of magnitude from the 2-Cl to 6-Cl homologue groups.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  15. Oxidative 4-dechlorination of polychlorinated phenols is catalyzed by extracellular fungal lignin peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, K.E.; Tardone, P.J.

    1988-08-23

    The extracellular lignin peroxidases (ligninases) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyzed H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-dependent spectral changes in several environmentally significant polychlorinated phenols: 2,4-dichloro-, 2,4,5-trichloro-, 2,4,6-trichloro-, and pentachlorophenol. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of reduced and acetylated reaction products showed that, in each case, lignin peroxidase catalyzed a 4-dechlorination of the starting phenol to yield a p-benzoquinone. The oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol also yielded a dechlorinated coupling dimer, tentatively identified as 2-chloro-6-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-p-benzoquinone. Experiments on the stoichiometry of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol oxidation showed that this substrate was quantitatively dechlorinated to give the quinone and inorganic chloride. H/sub 2//sup 18/O-labeling experiments on 2,4,6-trichlorophenol oxidation demonstrated that water was the source of the new 4-oxo substituent in 2,6-di-chloro-p-benzoquinone. The results indicate a mechanism whereby lignin peroxidase oxidizes a 4-chlorinated phenol to an electrophilic intermediate, perhaps the 4-chlorocyclohexadienone cation. Nucleophilic attack by water and elimination of HCl then ensue at the 4-position, which produces the quinone. Lignin peroxidases have previously been implicated in the degradation by Phanerochaete of several nonphenolic aromatic pollutants. It appears likely from their results that these peroxidases could also catalyze the initial dechlorination of certain polychlorinated phenols in vivo.

  16. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  17. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D'Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-06-15

    The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds. PMID:24794981

  18. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  19. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. PMID:26476048

  20. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats. PMID:25892208

  1. The environmental behaviour of polychlorinated phenols and its relevance to cork forest ecosystems: a review.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Iain; Carvalho, Mariana; Silva Pereira, Cristina; Hursthouse, Andrew; Morrison, Calum; Tatner, Paul; Martins, Isabel; San Romão, M Vitória; Leitão, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as a herbicide, biocide and preservative worldwide since the 1930s and as a result, extensive and prolonged contamination exists. The environmental impact increases when its many degradation products are taken into consideration. A number of chloroanisols and their related chlorophenols have been found in cork slabs collected from Portuguese oak tree forests before stopper manufacturing, and contamination by PCP and polychlorinated anisole (PCA) has been detected in Canadian forests. It is suggested that the use of polychlorinated phenols, in particular PCP, is thought to be a cause of the cork taint problem in wine, a major socio-economic impact not only for industry but on sensitive and highly biodiverse ecosystems. It also highlights particular issues relating to the regional regulation of potentially toxic chemicals and global economics world wide. To fully understand the impact of contamination sources, the mechanisms responsible for the fate and transport of PCP and its degradation products and assessment of their environmental behaviour is required. This review looks at the current state of knowledge of soil sorption, fate and bioavailability and identifies the challenges of degradation product identification and the contradictory evidence from field and laboratory observations. The need for a systematic evaluation of PCP contamination in relation to cork forest ecosystems and transfer of PCP between trophic levels is emphasised by discrepancies in bioaccumulation and toxicity. This is essential to enable long term management of not only transboundary contaminants, but also the sustainable management of socially and economically important forest ecosystems. PMID:17909638

  2. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-/ital p/-dioxins in transformers and capacitors: Volume 2, Formation of PCDF (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) and PCDD (polychlorinated dibenzo-/ital p/-dioxins) in Askarel and contaminated mineral oil equipment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, W.M.; DeRoos, F.L.

    1988-03-01

    A study was conducted by five independent laboratories to evaluate methods for the measurement of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in utility dielectric liquids. Each laboratory evaluated a different analytical method. The method evaluated by Battelle involved spiking with labelled internal standards, analyte enrichment by column chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Baseline analyses of five dielectric fluids were conducted by each laboratory as an initial test of their methods. The variability of results between the five methods was within expectations, and the five methods were deemed suitable for round robin evaluation. The in-service liquids used in this study were found to have relatively low levels of PCDDs and trace amounts of PCDF. Liquids from transformers with more than 25 years of service had higher PCDF levels than liquids from newer transformers. Liquids from utility appliances exposed to thermal and electrical stresses did not have elevated PCDD or PCDF levels. PCDF levels increased as the Aroclor number (and relative amount of chlorination) increased. 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  3. Loading capacity and chromatographic behavior of a porous graphitic carbon column for polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Feltz, K.; O'Laughlin, J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A porous graphitic carbon column (Hypercarb) was used for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into classes of 2-4 ortho chlorines, 1 ortho chlorine and 0 ortho chlorine congeners. A method was developed that combined the fractionation of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a variety of biotic environmental samples. Many of these samples have high concentrations of PCBs which cause fractionation problems as adsorption sites on the graphitic surface are occupied. The loading capacity of the column for PCBs was determined by injecting up to 1 mg of total PCBs and monitoring changes in chromatographic behavior of tetra-/di-ortho, mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs. Effective loading capacities were 1 mg for tetra-/di-ortho PCBs, but only 3- 5 ??g for non-ortho PCBs and about 2 ??g for mono-ortho PCBs. Loading capacity of the PGC column for environmental fish and avian egg samples was determined to depend on the mono-ortho and non-ortho PCB levels found in these samples.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL(-1) for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL(-1) for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL(-1) for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9-2054 pg g(-1) and 16 PCNs present at 0.2-15.7 pg g(-1) in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID

  5. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  6. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  7. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly. PMID:26332829

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  12. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction tehnology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ear...

  13. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ...

  14. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  15. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  16. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  17. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenols (PCBs) commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment, including in animal tissues. For more than a decade the USEPA and other organizations have estimated the combined risks that such mixtures...

  19. LAKE MICHIGAN FISH CONSUMPTION AS A SOURCE OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HUMAN CORD SERUM, MATERNAL SERUM, AND MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported consumption of Lake Michigan sport fish was examined in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological samples provided by a sample of maternity patients. Fish consumption was correlated with PCB levels in maternal serum and milk but not in cord...

  20. Influence of polychlorinated aromatic compounds on the biotransformation and toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OP) to the Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopii, V.; Zagrebin, A.; Sherstneva, L.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of different polychlorinated aromatics (DDT, Aroclor 1254, certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans) on the toxicity of OP (DDVP paraoxon, malaoxon) to Daphnia magna was studied. Pretreatment of daphnids with chlorinated compounds during 72 hours in nontoxic concentrations (1/5--1/20 CL{sub 50}) has been shown to reduce the toxicity of OP for hydrobionts. For study of influence of chlorinated compounds on biotransformation of OP the activity of enzymes which are hydrolyzing the OP was investigated in Daphnia`s homogenates or microsomes. The activity of carboxylesterase (tributyrinase, aliesterase) and arylesterase (phosphorylphosphatase) with usage as substrates accordingly {alpha}-naphthylacetate and paraoxon was measured. Besides that the activity of cholinesterase with application of propionylthiocholine as substrate was determined. After polychlorinated aromatic compounds treatment of daphnids activities of both aryl-and carboxylesterase increased markedly. It decreased the inhibition of Daphnia`s cholinesterase caused by incubation with OP in concentrations 0.5--1.0 CL{sub 50}. Thus the induction by chlorinate aromatics of OP metabolizing enzymes seems to play the important role in reduction of OP toxicity to Daphnia magna. Perhaps the aryl- and carboxylesterase of Daphnia can be used as biomarkers of pollution by polychlorinated aromatics in water.

  1. DYNAMICS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN STRIPED BASS FROM THE HUDSON RIVER. 3. TISSUE DISPOSITION AND ROUTES FOR ELIMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Striped bass were exposed to 14C-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in single-dose and multiple-dose experiments. Samples were analyzed to determine rate constants for PCB elimination from individual tissues, PCB concentration in tissues, the proportion of the PCB burden retained an...

  2. EVALUATION OF A SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high esolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were valuated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibe...

  3. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  5. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  6. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  7. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  8. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  14. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  15. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  16. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  17. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: CORRELATION BETWEEN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) elicit a number of common biologic and toxic responses which are triggered by their initial binding to a cytosolic receptor protein. hese effects include the induction of several cytochrome P-448 dependent monoox...

  18. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND OTHER ORGANIC CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FISH FROM MAJOR UNITED STATES WATERSHEDS NEAR THE GREAT LAKES, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-six composite samples of fish were collected during 1978 from United States watersheds near the Great Lakes and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related organic chemicals. PCB mixtures resembling Aroclor 1254 were found in all samples, and mixtures resembl...

  19. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  20. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  1. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  2. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management. PMID:14552017

  3. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are commonly found as contaminants in complex mixtures in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mo...

  4. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION BY POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS ASSOCIATED WITH PULP AND PAPER MILL DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge from seven pulp and paper mills was analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The level of contamination ranged from not detectable (1pg/g) to over 400 pg/g. Analyses for other planar polychlorinated contaminants indicated high levels of contamination by other PCDDs and PCDFs. Polychlori...

  6. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  7. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.15 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a)...

  8. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37–70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms. PMID:26374495

  9. Crystal structure of a one-dimensional looped-chain silver(I) coordination polymer: catena-poly[[silver(I)-bis-{μ-4-[1-(5'-isopropyl-[1,1':3',1''-terphen-yl]-2'-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]pyridine-κ(2) N:N'}] nitrate methanol monosolvate monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Hee; Park, Ki-Min; Kang, Youngjin

    2016-07-01

    In the title compound, {[Ag(C29H25N3)2]NO3·CH3OH·H2O} n , the Ag(I) cation is four-coordinated by two pyridine N atoms and two imidazole N atoms from four individual 4-(1-(5'-isopropyl-[1,1':3',1''-terphen-yl]-2'-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (i-pro-pyim) ligands. This gives rise to a highly distorted tetra-hedral geometry with bond angles falling in the range 100.33 (19)-122.76 (19)°. Two crystallographically independent i-pro-pyim ligands (A and B) adopt very similar conformations to one another, such that the dihedral angles between the pyridyl and imidazolyl rings in the two ligands are 40.7 (3) and 42.2 (3)°, respectively. Each i-pro-pyim ligand binds two symmetry-related Ag(+) cations, leading to the formation of 14-membered cyclic dimers, in which the Ag(I) atoms are separated by 6.963 (2) Å for the Ag-A 2-Ag dimer and 7.020 (2) Å for Ag-B 2-Ag. These cyclic dimers are alternately connected to each other by sharing Ag(I) atoms, resulting in the formation of a looped-chain structure extending along the [100] direction. Moreover, adjacent looped chains are connected by inter-molecular π-π inter-actions [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.689 (4) Å], giving rise to the formation of a two-dimensional supra-molecular network propagating parallel to (110). Several inter-molecular C-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds further contribute to the stabilization of the crystal structure. PMID:27555943

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junichi; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the rat medulla oblongata. When extracellular pH was shifted from 7.4 to 7.0, acid-sensitive neurons showed depolarization, which was measured by voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. Exposure to PCB (Aroclor 1254) decreased the amplitude of depolarization in low pH and increased the resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB potentially influences acid-sensitivity through alteration of the membrane potential of acid-sensitive neurons, which could affect the regulation of respiration. PMID:15833269

  11. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  12. Comparative effects of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) and phenanthrene on glucose uptake by freshwater microbial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G S; Lund, L C; Shiaris, M P; Sherrill, T W; Perkins, R E

    1979-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and phenanthrene stress on glucose uptake by natural microbial populations were examined by the heterotrophic potential technique. Temporal and spatial distributions in glucose uptake velocities were examined for natural samples as well as PCB- and phenanthrene-stressed samples. Statistical analysis indicated significant variability among the various samples. It was demonstrated that the environmental variables contributed significantly to the variability in uptake kinetics. Although general trends indicated a PCB-induced stimulation in uptake velocities, these trends were in part masked by sample variability. Data analysis indicated no statistically significant PCB or phenanthrene effect on either total glucose uptake velocities or the proportion of 14CO2 evolved, as compared to natural unstressed samples. PMID:114110

  13. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  14. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Y. Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  15. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl`s (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-07-30

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl`s (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6.

  16. Modulating inhibitors of transthyretin fibrillogenesis via sulfation: polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates as models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2015-02-25

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein's tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  18. Strain of alcaligenes latus bacteria used for the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Dyadischev, Nikolai Romanovich; Zharikov, Gennady Alekseevich; Kapranov, Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2001-09-11

    Alcaligenes latus bacterial strain TXD-13 VKPM B 75-05 is capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The strain may be employed to detoxicate environment media and PCB-containing industrial waste. To produce biomass, the strain is incubated on media which contain carbon sources, nitrogen sources and mineral salts. The strain is cultivated by a subsurface method up to a titer from 6.0.multidot.10.sup.8 to 2.0.times.10.sup.9 cells per cu cm. The produced biomass is used for degrading PCBs in concentrations from 10.sup.7 to 10.sup.8 cells per cu cm. The strain ensures from 35 to 50% reduction in PCB content in soil and water.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent mayflies from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Schwartz, T.R.; Wiener, J.G.; Lebo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in emergent mayflies (hexagenia bilineata) from a 1250-km reach of the upper mississippi river (umr). Total pcb concentrations (sum of 125 congeners) ranged from 0.21 To 4.1 Mu g/g of dry weight (1.2-29 mu g/g of lipid weight). Concentrations were highest in pools near the twin cities and the quad cities metropolitan areas. Longitudinal movement of pcbs was extensive downstream from the twin cities (175-320 km) but was not apparent downstream from the quad cities. The pcb composition of mayflies was relatively homogeneous throughout most of the river. However, the congener composition in mayflies from two distant locations differed markedly from the other samples and contained a greater abundance of lower molecular weight congeners. Recent pcb discharges from point and nonpoint sources may account for these differences. Emergent mayflies seem to be a useful indicator of pcb contamination of the umr.

  20. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum.

    PubMed

    Klasson, K T; Barton, J W; Evans, B S; Reeves, M E

    1996-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with micro-organisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. PMID:8652118

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  2. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls on sediment

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, K.D.; Wildman, N.J.; Tai, H.

    1983-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants which were freely employed for many years in numerous industrial applications but whose use has now been regulated. Many analytical schemes for monitoring these materials in environmental samples have been developed over the last decades, however, PCBs remain difficult analytical subjects. Most protocols rely on a combination of wet chemical pre-analytical isolation and purification whose complexity depends on the sample matrix. The time required for these manipulations may greatly hamper efforts directed towards emergency cleanup of accidental or illicit contamination of the environment. Thus, a clear need exists for methods which will allow rapid analysis of relatively intransigent samples for PCB contamination. Preliminary experiments directed to assessing the use of pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in determining PCB contamination of soils and sediments are reported. In these experiments pyrolytic desorption at 1000/sup 0/C during 10 sec was used to completely replace more lengthy wet chemical manipulations.

  3. Depositional history of polychlorinated biphenyls in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Aba, Abdul Aziz; Al-Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Uddin, Saif

    2012-05-01

    The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs. PMID:22218707

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl levels in the Saginaw Confined Disposal Facility during disposal operations, Fall 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Pond water samples were collected from the Saginaw confined disposal facility (CDF), Saginaw, MI, during late summer and early fall 1987 and were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), suspended sediments and ammonia nitrogen. During this period, sediments from the Saginaw River was dredged and disposed in the Saginaw CDF. The perimeter dikes at the Saginaw CDF have a prepared limestone core that was designed to be permeable, Effluent monitoring is not practical because the discharge through permeable dikes is diffuse and is quickly diluted to background concentrations. This study, therefore, focused on collection of influent and pond water samples during disposal operations, and on the use of PCB concentrations in pond water samples to estimate the amount of PCB entering the dike and possibly being released from the CDF.

  6. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophil apoptosis, actin cytoskelton, and oxidative state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been proposed as a biomarker for environmental contaminant effects. In this work, we test the hypothesis that in vitro assays of apoptosis are sensitive indicators of immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophils. Apoptosis, necrosis, and viability as well as the related indicators F-actin levels, and active thiol state were measured in purified human neutrophils after treatment with contaminants. Effective concentrations observed were 0.3 μM (60 μg/L) mercury, 750 μg/L Aroclor 1254, and 50 μM (14,500 μg/L) hexachlorocylcohexanes. Concentrations of contaminants that induced apoptosis also decreased cellular F-actin levels. Active thiols were altered by mercury, but not organochlorines. Comparison of these data with levels of contaminants reported to be threats to human health indicate neutrophil apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of mercury toxicity.

  7. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  8. Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

  9. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.; Evans, B.S.; Reeves, M.E.

    1996-05-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Alteration of Rat Fetal Cerebral Cortex Development after Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; Gérard, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain. PMID:24642964

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  12. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  13. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:23910395

  14. Transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary simulated with the water quality model WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuksanovic, V.; De Smedt, F.; Van Meerbeeck, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main processes that govern the behaviour of the industrial compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary are reviewed. It appears that tidal hydrodynamics, suspended sediment transport, and hydrophobic sorption regulate the distribution of PCB within the estuary. The water quality model WASP is applied to simulate the present spatial distribution of 12 selected PCB isomers. The simulations are performed under average hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport regimes. Calculated evolution profiles of the dissolved and sorbed concentrations in the water column indicate a high accumulation of the PCB in the zone of the turbidity maximum. The simulated distributions of the sorbed PCB, suspended sediment and salinity in the water column agree with the observations, but more measurements are needed in order to verify the predictability of the simulations.

  15. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Mamontova, Elena A; Mamontov, Alexander A; Tarasova, Eugenia N; Kuzmin, Mikhail I; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. PMID:23995023

  17. Enhanced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by directed evolution of biphenyl dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamaru, Tetsuya; Suenaga, Hikaru; Mitsuoka, Mariko; Watanabe, Takahito; Furukawa, Kensuke

    1998-07-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenases (BP Dox) from different organisms, which are involved in the initial oxygenation and subsequent degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are similar in structure but have different functions. The large subunit of BP Dox, encoded by the bphA1 gene, is crucial for substrate selectivity. Using the process of DNA shuffling, the authors randomly recombined the bphA1 genes of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and selected for genes that expressed proteins with altered function. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, some of these evolved genes exhibited enhanced degradation capacity, not only for PCB and related biphenyl compounds, but for single aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, which are poor substrates for the original BP Dox.

  18. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  19. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation. PMID:25213805

  20. Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, E.; Scatolini, S.; Cotter, J.; Hope, B.

    1995-12-31

    There are large gaps in the understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into lower trophic level marine organisms and, subsequently to higher marine consumers, particularly for the North Pacific Ocean. In this study, twenty PCB congeners were quantified in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota taken from near-shore waters at Midway Atoll. PCB 138, 153, 180, and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analyzed. Bioaccumulation was shifted in favor of higher chlorinated congeners in all species; only aquatic macrophytes displayed significant accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho substituted congeners with toxic potency were below detection levels in the majority of species. Certain mono-ortho congeners, implicated in marine mammal toxicity, comprised only 4.5% of total congener load in potential forage species.

  1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Chinese forest soil: Will combustion become a major source?

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Zheng, Qian; Pan, Suhong; Luo, Chunling; Zhu, Haolin; Nizzetto, Luca; Zhang, Gan

    2015-09-01

    We collected O- and A-horizon soil samples in 26 Chinese mountainous forests to investigate the content, spatial pattern, and potential sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Spatial patterns were influenced mainly by the approximation to sources and soil organic contents. High concentrations often occurred close to populated or industrialized areas. Combustion-related activities contributed to PCN pollution. Relatively high proportions of CN-73 in northern China may be attributed to coke consumption, while CN-51 could be an indicator of biomass burning in Southwest China. There are evidences that PCNs may largely derived from unintentional production. If uncontrolled, UP-PCN (unintentionally produced PCNs) emissions could increase with industrial development. The abnormally high concentrations at Gongga and Changbai Mountains appear to be associated with the high efficient of forest filter of atmospheric contaminants at these densely forested sites. We question whether this is caused by ecotones between forests, and raise additional questions for future analyses. PMID:25935613

  2. Chromatographic Retention Times of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: from Structural Information to Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacă, Sorana D.; Diudea, Mircea V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a unitary approach of the use of a Molecular Descriptors Family in structure-property/activity relationships, particularly in modelling the chromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls. Starting from molecular structure, viewed as a graph, and considering the bonds and bond types, atom types and often the 3D geometry of the molecule, a huge family of molecular descriptors called MDF was calculated. A preliminary selection of MDF members was done by simple linear regression (LR) against the measured property. The best fitted MDF subset is then submitted to multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis in order to find the best pairs of MDF members that produce a reliable QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) model. The predictive capability was finally tested by randomly splitting of data into training and test sets. The best obtained models are presented and the results are discussed.

  3. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  4. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B., Jr.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  5. Seasonal and spatial distributions of atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Die, Qingqi; Nie, Zhiqiang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Gao, Xingbao; Tian, Yajun; He, Jie; Liu, Feng; Huang, Qifei; Tian, Shulei

    2016-02-01

    Air samples were collected in Shanghai during summer and winter 2013, and the gas and particulate concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured. All 75 congeners were quantified and the corresponding toxic equivalents (TEQs) were calculated. PCN concentrations were higher in summer than winter, at 8.22-102 pg/m(3) (average of 61.3 pg/m(3)) in summer and 16.5-61.1 pg/m(3) (average of 37.7 pg/m(3)) in winter. Their seasonal TEQ values were in contrast, at 1.35-7.31 fg/m(3) (average of 3.84 fg/m(3)) in summer and 4.08-23.3 fg/m(3) (average of 8.80 fg/m(3)) in winter, because of the seasonal change in congener profiles. Tri-CNs were the predominant homologs in both the summer and winter samples. However, the major congeners in summer were PCNs containing less chlorine, but these decreased over winter. Air mass back trajectories suggested that wind direction over various sites was similar in the summer and winter seasons, yet there were clear seasonal variations in atmospheric PCN concentrations. Ratios of several characteristic congeners were calculated and the results indicated that the ratios varied only to a limited extent with PCN emissions profile from industrial thermal sources, but varied strongly with profiles of technical PCN and PCN contaminants in polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures. The results of principal component analysis suggest that local industrial thermal emissions (thermal processes containing waste incineration and secondary metal smelting processes) still play a considerable role in influencing the atmospheric PCNs in Shanghai. PMID:26583296

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc which has a role in cellular growth and proliferation programs. The c-myc up-regulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase which adds the telomeres repeating sequences to the chromosomal ends to compensate for the progressive loss of telomeric sequence. We performed multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the adult population (n = 2413) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. LTL was natural log-transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. Individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of the sum of PCBs were associated with 8.33% (95% CI: 4.08–13.88) and 11.63% (95% CI: 6.18–17.35) longer LTLs, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile, with evidence of a dose–response relationship (p-trend < 0.01). The association of the sum PCBs with longer LTL was found in both sexes. Additionally, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were associated with longer LTL. The age independent association between longer LTL and environmental exposures to PCBs, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may support a role as tumor promoter of these compounds. Further studies to evaluate the effect of these compounds on LTL are needed to more fully understand the implications of our finding. PMID:26844276

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in two species of Arctic seabirds from the Svalbard Area

    SciTech Connect

    Daelemans, F.F.; Schepens, P.J.C.; Mehlum, F.

    1992-06-01

    Anthropogenic long-range pollution of the Arctic could lead to rapid environmental changes at a large geographical scale. Arctic ecosystems are regarded as very vulnerable since the energy flow is channeled through only one or a few essential links. The apparent stability and its survival over longer periods is probably due to the large spatial scale involved which provides the mending of regions of disturbance by repopulation from undisturbed areas. The large geographical scale of man-made pollution from the industrialized countries may interfere with this basic factor of stability in the Arctic ecosystem. Organochlorine compounds is one important group of pollutants transported through the atmosphere and ocean currents from the industrial areas to the Arctic. The ability of organochlorine compounds to enter the food chain in significant quantities, as a result of their relative high stability, lipid solubility and tendency for bioaccumulation, poses a possible hazard for the Arctic fauna. In this respect polychlorinated hydrocarbons and more in particular polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) seem to be one of the most dangerous pollutants of the Arctic environment. The archipelago of Svalbard in the European Arctic is an area with only minor local industrial activities, and the anthropogenic pollution recorded in the area is assumed to be mainly of foreign origin. In this paper we present data on PCB levels in two species of Arctic seabirds from the Svalbard area. One is the Glaucous Gull and the other the Black Guillemot. Concentrations of total PCB as well as those of 10 different congeners are given. Special attention is given to three of the most toxic non-orthochlorobiphenyls. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Identifying the Correct Biotransformation Model from Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Dioxin Dechlorination Batch Studies.

    PubMed

    Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E

    2014-10-01

    We performed Monte Carlo simulations of batch transformations of hydrophobic compounds using typical numbers of data points, extent of reaction, and measurement error, to identify the most appropriate biotransformation model to describe such data under different conditions. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins present special challenges for parameterization due to low environmental concentrations and slow biotransformation rates, which result in high sample variability, few samples, and limited substrate concentration range. Four models of varying complexity (zero-order, first-order, Monod, and Best) were fit to simulated data. Various combinations of initial concentration (S 0), half saturation concentration (K S), maximum substrate utilization rate (q max), measurement error, number of data points per batch run, and extent of biotransformation were simulated. One thousand Monte-Carlo runs were performed for each parameter combination, and AICc (Akaike's information criterion corrected for small numbers of data points) was used to determine the most appropriate model. Neither the Best model nor the zero-order model ever produced the lowest AICc for a majority of simulations under any combination of test conditions. With 10% measurement error, the first-order model always outperformed the others. In the case of 1% measurement error with 10 evenly-spaced data points, the Monod model was the better choice when S 0>K S and the system was not mass transfer limited [Formula: see text] otherwise, the first-order model was indicated. S 0 is constrained by the compound's aqueous solubility; therefore, for highly hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, a first-order model is likely to fit batch biotransformation data as well or better than a more complicated model. PMID:25317036

  10. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal. PMID:15352474

  11. Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls: acute toxicity of landfill soil extract to female prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; Li, M H; Saeed, A; Bush, B

    1995-10-01

    Subsurface soil from a National Priorities List landfill containing about 2.5% polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was extracted and the extract cleaned by Florisil slurry and alumina column chromatography. The refined extract contained 48 mg/mL PCB, mainly trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls, traces of polychlorinated naphthalenes, 125 micrograms/mL 2,2-bis-p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), and low levels of chlorinated dibenzofurans. The refined extract was dissolved in corn oil and administered intraperitoneally to weanling (day 20) female rats on days 20 and 21; rats were terminated on day 22. Limited data indicated possible hematopoietic effects, including neutrophilia. There were no changes in relative uterus, kidney, or adrenal gland weights between total doses of 3 to 96 mg/kg total PCB. Relative liver weights increased significantly at 36 mg/kg and activities of P450s 1A1 (as ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase) and 2B (as pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase) increased at 12 mg/kg and plateaued at 36 (P450 1A1) or 48 (P450 2b) mg/kg. Serum total thyroxine (T4) declined significantly at doses of 36 mg/kg and greater; thyroid follicular epithelial cells were significantly larger within the same dose range, but the follicular colloid area decreased to less than 60% control values at 12 mg/kg and remained at this size through 72 mg/kg. Maximum mobilization of T4 apparently occurred at 12 mg/kg and attenuated measured declines in circulating levels. Even though a large proportion of proven and probable estrogenic chlorobiphenyls (CBs) were present, the lower amounts of more potent antiestrogenic aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and/or decreased responsiveness because of low serum T4 levels may have antagonized the uterotropic response. PMID:7487157

  12. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, where they have been demonstrated to cause mortality and adverse...

  13. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  14. Resuspension of Polychlorinated BiPhenyl-contaminated Field Sediment: Release to the Water Column and Determination of Site-Specific Kdoc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive...

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  16. Evaluation of Enhanced Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Recalcitrant Polychlorinated Biphenyl Isomers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separation of some recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in extracts from environmental compartments has been a daunting task for environmental chemists. Summed quantitation values for coeluting PCB isomers are often reported. This composite data obscures the ac...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Glycaemia and Diabetes in a Population Living in a Highly Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Polluted Area in Northern Italy: a Cross-sectional and Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Claudia; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Feretti, Donatella; Covolo, Loredana; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interests: the authors declare no potential conflict of interests. Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS). Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort) study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases) or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases). Results A total of 53 subjects (10.0%) were diabetics: 28 had diabetes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia. PMID:25170473

  18. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  19. Early life-stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Andersson, P.L.; Tysklind, M.; Olsson, P.E.

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were examined for embryo and early life stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio). A set of eight PCBs and two hydroxylated PCBs and 17{beta}-estradiol were tested. Of the compounds tested, 4{prime}-OH-PCB30 (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl) and PCB104 were found to be highly toxic to embryos following maternal exposure and transfer to the oocyte. It was also observed that 17{beta}-estradiol exposure resulted in a high incidence of embryo mortality. Analysis of estrogen receptor levels during embryonic development showed increased mRNA (ribonucleic acid) levels from the 1K stage to 50% epiboly. Following injection of the different compounds, the estrogen receptor mRNA levels were also analyzed in adult male fish to determine if there was a correlation between embryo mortality and estrogenicity of the studied PCBs. The two PCBs that were highly embryo toxic were observed to be estrogenic.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the freshwater environment. Topics include sources, distribution, and accumulation rates for specific regions. The citations also discuss PCB bioaccumulation, pollutant pathways, introduction into the food chain, and results of long and short term monitoring of selected areas. Detection methods for PCB accumulation in fish and surficial sediments are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples. PMID:15752488

  2. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume. PMID:19019381

  3. Theoretical Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of Polychlorinated Naphthalene from 2-Chlorophenol as Forerunner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Ruiming; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are dioxins-like compounds and are formed along with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in thermal and combustion procedures. Chlorophenols (CPs) are the most important forerunners of PCNs. A comprehensive comprehension of PCN formation procedure from CPs is a precondition for reducing the discharge of PCNs. Experiments on the formation of PCNs from CPs have been hindered by PCN toxicity and short of precise detection methods for active intermediate radicals. In this work, PCN formation mechanism in gas-phase condition from 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) as forerunner was studied by quantum chemistry calculations. Numbers of energetically advantaged formation routes were proposed. The rate constants of key elementary steps were calculated over 600–1200 K using canonical variational transition-state theory (CVT) with small curvature tunneling contribution (SCT) method. This study illustrates formation of PCNs with one chlorine atom loss from 2-CP is preferred over that without chlorine atom loss. In comparison with formation of PCDFs from 2-CP, PCN products are less chlorinated and have lower formation potential. PMID:26516839

  4. Theoretical Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of Polychlorinated Naphthalene from 2-Chlorophenol as Forerunner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Ruiming; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are dioxins-like compounds and are formed along with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in thermal and combustion procedures. Chlorophenols (CPs) are the most important forerunners of PCNs. A comprehensive comprehension of PCN formation procedure from CPs is a precondition for reducing the discharge of PCNs. Experiments on the formation of PCNs from CPs have been hindered by PCN toxicity and short of precise detection methods for active intermediate radicals. In this work, PCN formation mechanism in gas-phase condition from 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) as forerunner was studied by quantum chemistry calculations. Numbers of energetically advantaged formation routes were proposed. The rate constants of key elementary steps were calculated over 600-1200 K using canonical variational transition-state theory (CVT) with small curvature tunneling contribution (SCT) method. This study illustrates formation of PCNs with one chlorine atom loss from 2-CP is preferred over that without chlorine atom loss. In comparison with formation of PCDFs from 2-CP, PCN products are less chlorinated and have lower formation potential. PMID:26516839

  5. Rapid detection of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in real environmental samples by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10(-6) mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:22346675

  6. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  7. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  8. Host and environmental determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in serum of adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A; Den Hond, Elly M; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Fagard, Robert; Thijs, Lutgarde; Winneke, Gerhard; Roels, Harry A

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated host factors and environmental factors as potential determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) in serum of adolescents. We recruited 200 participants (80 boys and 120 girls), with a mean age of 17.4 years (SD, 0.8), in Belgium from a rural control area (Peer) and from two polluted suburbs of Antwerp where a nonferrous smelter (Hoboken) and waste incinerators (Wilrijk) are located. We quantified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; congeners 138, 153, and 180) in serum by gas chromatography and obtained the toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCAHs in serum with the chemically activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX). Serum PCB concentration was higher in boys than in girls (1.67 vs. 1.02 nmol/L or 377 vs. 210 pmol/g serum lipids; p< 0.001). In the whole adolescent group, multiple regression showed that serum PCB concentration decreased 0.06 nmol/L per 1% increase in body fat content (p< 0.001) and increased 0.39 nmol/L and 0.14 nmol/L per 1 mmol/L increase in serum concentrations of triglycerides (p < 0.001) and cholesterol (p = 0.002), respectively. Host factors explained 44% of the serum PCB variance. In the same model, serum PCB concentration increased 0.14 nmol/L with 10 weeks of breast-feeding (p< 0.001) and 0.06 nmol/L with intake of 10 g animal fat per day (p < 0.001), and was associated with residence in the waste incinerator area (9% higher; p = 0.04); 11% of the variance could be explained by these environmental factors. The geometric mean of the serum TEQ value was similar in boys and girls (0.15 TEQ ng/L or 33.0 pg/g serum lipids). In multiple regression, TEQ in serum decreased 0.03 ng/L per centimeter increase in triceps skinfold (p = 0.006) and was 29% higher in subjects living close to the nonferrous smelter (p < 0.001). This study showed that in 16- to 18-year-old teenagers host factors are important determinants of serum concentrations of PCAHs, whereas environmentally related determinants may to some

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean food web.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, B T; Harding, G C; Vass, W P; Erickson, P E; Fowler, B R; Scott, V

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs) and isomers of DDT and DDE were the predominant organochlorine (OC) hydrocarbons measured in epontic particulate matter, zooplankton, pelagic and benthic amphipods and liver tissue from an abyssal fish collected in the Arctic Ocean. Chlordane, dieldrin and other cyclodienes and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers were present at lower concentrations. Levels on a dry weight basis in plankton of various sizes less than 63 microns to 2 mm were similar to those in epontic particulate matter, but on a lipid weight basis, concentrations in smaller plankton were two to five times higher. Organochlorines in amphipods and liver from the glacial eelpout Lycodes frigidus exceeded levels in zooplankton by up to an order of magnitude. Large benthic lysianassid amphipods (Tmetonyx cicada, Anonyx nugax and Eurythenes gryllus) accumulated higher concentrations on a dry and lipid weight basis than small species (Onisimus spp. and Andaniexis spp.) or the under-ice gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus wilkitzkii). No significant differences in OC levels were measured in benthic amphipods collected at different times. However, concentrations in large zooplankton (greater than 500 microns) collected in August, dominated by adult copepods and ctenophores, contained concentrations of alpha-HCH, chlordane isomers and other cyclodienes that were two to four times higher than levels in May. Ratios of alpha-HCH: gamma-HCH (5 to 10) were similar to those in seawater collected simultaneously but there was no difference in ratios in various size categories of planktonic and benthic crustaceans indicating no selective accumulation or metabolic alteration of these isomers. Ratios of cis-chlordane:trans-chlordane concentrations were lower in all sizes of zooplankton (2 to 3) than in shelf amphipods (3 to 6) which corresponded to an increase in the ratio with depth. Higher ratios of DDT:DDE in plankton (2 to 6) than in amphipods (1 to 2

  10. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  11. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  12. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore » the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  13. Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.S.; Garrison, A.W.; Smith, P.D.; Foreman, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic enantiomeric fractions (EFs) were observed for PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 for aquatic and riparian biota from Lake Hartwell, SC, a reservoir heavily contaminated with PCBs, and for these congeners and PCBs 132, 174, 176, and 183 in river fish and bivalves nationwide. Fish and bivalves showed marked differences in EFs as compared to sediment found at the same sampling sites, thus suggesting that PCBs are bioprocessed in biota in a different manner from those found in sediment (e.g., reductive dechlorination). Species-dependent patterns in PCB EFs were observed, which suggest differences in the ability of different species to bioprocess PCBs enantioselectively, most likely by metabolism. The presence of nonracemic PCBs in fish and bivalves suggests greater metabolic degradation of PCBs in these organisms than indicated from previous achiral studies and underscores the powerful potential of chiral analysis as a tracer of environmental bioprocesses.

  14. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, P A; Welty, E; Steele, G; Steinberg, K

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.08) when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level (r = -0.21) and serum albumin (r = -0.24) and total bilirubin (r = 0.30) with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn. PMID:3104024

  15. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects. PMID:21960363

  16. Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in ringed seals from East greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Bossi, Rossana; Dietz, Rune

    2011-02-15

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of +6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding tolerable daily intake rates for seal blubber as traditional Arctic food items. PMID:21247098

  17. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01). PMID:25150824

  18. Toxicological assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites in the liver of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Hirakawa, Shusaku; Eguchi, Akifumi; Kanbara, Chika; Imaeda, Daisuke; Yoo, Jean; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-18

    We have previously reported that high accumulation of dioxins and related compounds induced cytochrome P450 (CYP 1s) isozymes in the liver of wild Baikal seals, implying the enhanced hydroxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study attempted to elucidate the residue concentrations and patterns of PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in the livers of Baikal seals. The hepatic residue concentrations were used to assess the potential effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs in combination with the analyses of serum thyroid hormones, hepatic mRNA levels, and biochemical markers. The hepatic expression levels of CYP1 genes were positively correlated with the concentration of each OH-PCB congener. This suggests chronic induction of these CYP1 isozymes by exposure to PCBs and hydroxylation of PCBs induced by CYP 1s. Hepatic mRNA expression monitoring using a custom microarray showed that chronic exposure to PCBs and their metabolites alters the gene expression levels related to oxidative stress, iron ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. In addition, the concentrations of OH-PCBs were negatively correlated with L-thyroxine (T4) levels and the ratios of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)/reverse 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyroninee (rT3). These observations imply that Baikal seals contaminated with high levels of OH-PCBs may undergo the disruption of mechanisms related to the formation (or metabolism) of T3 and T4 in the liver. PMID:25343573

  19. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, MS; Halling, J; Weihe, P; Jensen, TK; Grandjean, P; Nielsen, F; Jørgensen, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. Objectives The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. Results A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables. Conclusion In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity. PMID:25766940

  20. Occurrence of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls in salted anchovies.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Giachi, L; Giungato, D; Storelli, A

    2011-05-01

    The most popular brands of salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean were purchased from several Italian supermarkets and grocery stores. Heavy metal (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were determined and assessed by comparing the concentrations in these samples with the maximum permissible limits set by the European Union (Reg EC 629/2008 and Reg EC 1881/2006 [Off. J. Eur. Union L 173:3-9 and 364:5-24, respectively]). The Hg and Cd levels were higher than those of Pb in all samples examined. For Hg and Pb, the concentrations recorded in this study were below the authorized limits, while an appreciable percentage of samples from both locations (Mediterranean Sea, 35%, and Atlantic Ocean, 25%) showed Cd levels exceeding the threshold recommended for human consumption. Concerning PCBs, the results of principal component analysis showed that samples from the two different marine areas appeared to be discriminate, with Mediterranean anchovies more contaminated than the others, in spite of their lower lipid content. However, anchovy samples from both locations had dioxinlike-PCB levels (Mediterranean Sea, 0.011 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [WHO-TEQ] g(-1), wet weight, and Atlantic Ocean, 0.007 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1), wet weight) that were below the WHO-TEQ maximum concentration set by European regulation. The results of this study will help in generating data needed for the assessment of heavy metal and PCB intake from this food. PMID:21549051

  1. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota, September 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, wherease PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2 to 4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppM, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppM. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

  3. Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. ); Eyambe, G.S. ); Venables, B.J. ); Cooper, E.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

  4. Decrease in prosaposin in spermatozoon is associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jia-Li; Sun, Ling-Bin; Guo, Zhi-Zhun; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Guan-Chao; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Sha, Ai-Guo; Wang, Chong-Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhi; Zuo, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants and they have been associated with declining male fertility. In the present study, we aimed to determine the responsiveness of prosaposin (Psap) expression to PCB exposure. Male C57 mice were exposed to PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) of environmental related doses by oral gavage. After exposure for 50 days, the expression of Psap was significantly decreased by PCB exposure in epididymides and epydidymal spermatozoa, but not in testis. The Psap abundance in sperm was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the 95% lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL) and Benchmark Dose (BMD) for Psap reduction were 1.25 and 8.89 μg/kg Aroclor 1254, and for sperm motility reduction were 11.85 and 61.9 μg/kg Aroclor 1254. The depressed Psap level also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01, r=-0.531) with PCB accumulation in liver. In men with detectable PCB exposure in semen, Psap expression in sperm was significantly decreased whereas the semen parameters were unaffected. Linear regression showed that a negative association between total PCB level in seminal plasma and Psap level in ejaculated spermatozoa (P<0.05, r=-0.396). In conclusion, our data suggested that the abundance of Psap in sperm sample may be a sensitive endpoint to predict PCB exposure. PMID:26045750

  5. Continuous coculture degradation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Acinetobacter spp. in an aerobic reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.; Focht, D.D. )

    1990-07-01

    A coculture of two Acinetobacter spp. was applied to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls during a 42-day incubation study in a continuous aerobic fixed-bed reactor system, filled with polyurethane foam boards as support for bacterial biofilm development. The reactor was supplied with mineral medium containing 500 ppm sodium benzoate as a growth (primary) substrate, while the incoming airstream was saturated with biphenyl vapors to induce for PCB cometabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain P6. The chlorobenzoates thus generated from 4,4{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4{prime}-DCBP), 3,4-dichlorobiphenyl (3,4-DCBP), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl were further metabolized by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1. The chlorobenzoate metabolites, as well as ring-fission product ({lambda}{sub max} = 442 nm) from the PCB congeners, accounted for the degradation of 63% (2.8 mM) of the 4,4{prime}-DCBP, 100% (0.5 mM) of the 3,4-DCBP, and 32% (0.12 mM) of the 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TCBP, the biofilm responded with a concurrent higher release of chlorobenzoates and chloride through cosubstrate utilization.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Kurita-Matsuba, H.; Weseloh, D.V.; Ross, P.S.; Bishop, C.A.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.; Kubiak, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the overall potency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing extracts from double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritis) eggs with an in vitro bioassay system, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Results from the H4IIE bioassay were strongly correlated with the hatching success of eggs in the colonies, whereas conventional methods of PCB analysis correlated poorly with hatching success of eggs from the same colonies. These observations suggest that even though concentrations of total PCB residues have declined in almost all compartments of the environment, their effects are still being observed. The significance of this observation is that the adverse symptoms presently observed in certain Great Lakes fish-eating waterbird populations do not appear to be caused by some as yet unidentified industrial chemical or chemicals and seem not to be the result of pesticides, but rather to the dioxin-like activity of PCBs. Evidence is presented to suggest that the relative enrichment of the potency of PCBs in the environment may play a role in the persistence of the observed adverse symptoms.

  7. Chicago air quality: PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) air-monitoring plan. Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have significant commercial value because of their high chemical and physical stability, resistance to fire, low vapor pressure, and high dielectric (insulating) strength. The chemical stability and physical properties of PCBs that have made them commercially valuable also makes their safe disposal difficult. The environmentally preferred option for disposing of PCB containing wastes is incineration. In order to provide assurance that the operation of the SCA incinerator did not represent a threat to public health, the Illinois EPA initiated an air-sampling study in the vicinity to measure the levels of PCBs in the ambient air. Quality control checks conducted during the study revealed a previously unknown weakness in the analysis method that caused the quantitative results to be unreliable. A revised method has now been validated and will be used to further characterize ambient air quality and assess the environmental impact, if any, of the incineration of PCBs in Chicago. The document presents the overall plan for the project. Objectives: (1) Quantitatively determine PCB levels in the ambient air at three locations in the area of impacted by the SCA incinerator in southeast Chicago; (2) Correlate the air sampling results and meteorological conditions with the operational parameters from the SCA incinerator; (3) Assess the environmental impact associated with the incineration of PCBs; (4) Establish background concentrations of PCBs in the ambient air in the area.

  8. Evidence for novel mechanisms of polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus H850

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Haberl, M.L.; May, R.J.; Brennan, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies indicated that Alcaligenes eutrophus H850 attacks a different spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners than do most PCB-degrading bacteria and that novel mechanisms of PCB degradation might be involved. To delineate this, the authors have investigated the differences in congener selectivity and metabolite production between H850 and Corynebacterium sp. strain MB1, an organism that apparently degrades PCBs via a 2,3-dioxygenase. H850 exhibited a superior ability to degrade congeners via attack on 2-, 2,4-, 2,5-, or 2,4,5-chlorophenyl rings in PCBs but an inferior ability to degrade congeners via attack on a 4-chlorophenyl ring. Reactivity preferences were also reflected in the products formed from unsymmetrical PCBs; thus, MB1 attacked the 2,3-chlorophenyl ring of 2,3,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl to yield 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid, while H850 attacked the 2,5-chlorophenyl ring to yield 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid and a novel metabolite, 2',3'-dichloroacetophenone. Furthermore, H850 oxidized 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, a congener with no adjacent unsubstituted carbons, to 2',4',5'-trichloroacetophenone. The atypical congener selectivity pattern and novel metabolites produced suggest that A. eutrophus H850 may degrade certain PCB congeners by a new route beginning with attack by some enzyme other than the usual 2,3-dioxygenase.

  9. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. PMID:27043381

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Stapanian, Martin A; Madenjian, Charles P; Cott, Peter A; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2014-11-01

    The authors compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about one-sixtieth of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCBs in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and 3 sets of coeluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. The results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies. PMID:25088677

  11. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  12. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:9543510

  13. Analytical services Organization Union Valley sample Preparation facility Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Annual Inventory Document

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Analytical Services Organization (ASO), Union Valley Sample Preparation Facility (UVSPF), provides analytical testing in support of the Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), and associated sites. Samples generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are routinely received at the WSPF for analytical evaluatiotiidentification. Many of these samples are polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulated from a source or being sent to the facility to determine PCB content. PCB laboratory wastes in solid and liquid form are generated during the evaluation of these materials, requiring the WSPF staff to maintain formal storage areas for staging the materials prior to off-site shipment for disposal. The purpose of this report is to fulfill the requirements set forth in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 761.180(a), Subpart J, which requires owners or operators of a facility using or storing PCBS to prepare an annual inventory document by July 1 of the current year which covers the previous calendar year. This report provides documentation of the inventory of PCB materials/wastes that were generated, stored for dispos~ and shipped off site for disposal for the period January 1, 1997, to January 1, 1998. The following is a summary of materials/wastes subject to the aforementioned reporting requirements.

  14. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation included peak disappearance, formation of a phenylhexdienoate ring fission product, and chlorobenzoate accumulation in the culture supernatant. Carvone was not utilized as a growth substrate and was toxic at concentrations of greater than 500 mg liter-1. Several compounds structurally related to l-carvone, including limonene, p-cymene, and isoprene, also induced cometabolism of PCBs by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. A structure-activity analysis showed that chemicals with an unsaturated p-menthane structural motif promoted the strongest cometabolism activity. These data suggest that certain plant-derived terpenoids may be useful for promoting enhanced rates of PCB biodegradation by soil bacteria. PMID:9143124

  15. Temperature-dependent formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dibenzofurans from chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyong; Mulholland, James A

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the gas-phase formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from chlorinated phenols in combustion exhaust gas, experiments were performed with each of the three chlorophenols in a laminar flow reactor over the range of 550-750 degrees C under oxidative conditions. Maximum PCN and PCDF yields were observed between 625 and 725 degrees C. The degree of chlorination of naphthalene and dibenzofuran products decreased as temperature increased, and on average, the naphthalene congeners were less chlorinated than the dibenzofuran congeners. Congener distributions are consistent with proposed PCN and PCDF formation pathways, both involving phenoxy radical coupling at unchlorinated ortho-carbon sites to form a dihydroxybiphenyl keto tautomer intermediate. Tautomerization of this intermediate and subsequent fusion via H2O loss results in PCDF formation, whereas CO elimination and subsequent fusion with hydrogen and/or chlorine loss leads to PCN formation. PCDF isomer distributions were found to be weakly dependent on temperature. PCN isomer distributions were found to be more temperature sensitive, however, with selectivity to particular isomers decreasing with increasing temperature. These results contribute to the understanding of PCN and PCDF formation in combustion and provide information on how to predict and minimize these emissions. PMID:16124322

  16. In Situ Remediation of Polychlorinated Bephenyls Using Palladium Coated Iron or Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Cherie L.

    2003-01-01

    The remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other chlorinated synthetic aromatic compounds are of great concern due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. When released into the environment, PCBs are sorbed to particulate matter that can then disperse over large areas. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they are still present in the environment posing possible adverse health affects to both humans and animals. Thus, it is of utmost importance to develop a method that remediates PCB-contaminated soil, sediments, and water. The objective of our research was to develop an in-situ PCB remediation technique that is applicable for the treatment of soils and sediments. Previous research conducted at the University of Central Florida (UCF) proved the feasibility of using an emulsified system to dehalogenate a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source, such as TCE, in the subsurface by means of an in-situ injection. The generation of a hydrophobic emulsion system drew the DNAPL TCE, through the oil membrane where it diffused to the iron particle and underwent degradation. TCE continued to enter, diffuse, degrade and exit the droplet maintaining a concentration gradient across the membrane, thus maintaining the driving force of the reaction.

  17. Characteristic accumulation and soil penetration of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wastewater irrigated farmlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-11-01

    The impact of wastewater irrigation on the distribution of two groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in farm soil was investigated in this study. The concentrations of total analyzed PCBs were in the range 256-2140pgg(-1) on dry weight basis in surface soils. There was a higher accumulation of PCBs in farms irrigated by wastewater, with decachlorobiphenyl (CB-209) as the predominant congener. The spatial distributions of PBDEs were similar although not as obvious as that of PCBs, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener at 2040-496000pgg(-1)dw, accounting for >96% of the total analyzed PBDEs. However, no significant correlations could be found between PCB and PBDE concentrations in the topsoil samples, and also with soil organic content between the different sites. On the other hand, soil vertical profiles showed significant relationship with soil organic content in cores taken from farms irrigated with wastewater. The vertical distribution was quite uniform at the topsoil, corresponding to the plowed layer, and decreased thereafter exponentially. Furthermore, the soil vertical distribution was found to be congener specific for PCBs, where less chlorinated congeners were able to penetrate deeper into the soil while heavier congeners were more restricted in their movement. This fractionation process was however not found for PBDEs. Also, the prevalence and high relative concentrations of CB-11 and CB-209 suggests that these PCB congeners should more often be included in routine environmental analysis in order to identifying unusual contamination sources. PMID:20846706

  18. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chicken hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Sinnige, T.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    The relative potencies of 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in a chicken embryo hepatocyte system. The 20 congeners were selected according to a full 2{sup 4}-factorial design based on the principal properties of all 154 tetra- through heptachlorinated PCBs. The principal properties were obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) on a multitude of different physico-chemical properties of the PCBs. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for seven out of the twenty PCB congeners, viz. PCB{number_sign}41, PCB{number_sign}60, PCB{number_sign}78, PCB{number_sign}126, PCB{number_sign}169, PCB{number_sign}190, and PCB{number_sign}193, which elicit measurable catalytic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the chicken hepatocytes. A multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed by using partial least-squares to latent variables (PLS) in order to model the relationship between the set of physico-chemical descriptors of the PCBs and their TEF-values. The model showed good correlations between observed and predicted TEF-values for this training set of congeners. From the QSAR, TEF-values were predicted for a large number PCB congeners not yet tested regarding EROD activity in chicken hepatocytes. The predicted TEF-values were validated by TEF-values reported in the literature.

  19. Impaired host resistance to endotoxin and malaria in polychlorinated biphenyl- and hexachlorobenzene-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Loose, L D; Silkworth, J B; Pittman, K A; Benitz, K F; Mueller, W

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on murine endotoxin sensitivity and resistance to malaria (Plasmodium berghei NYU-2) infection was studied. The dietary administration of 167 ppm (167 microgram/g) of PCB 1242 or HCB for 3 weeks resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to gram-negative endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa), which was further increased in animals maintained on the diets for 6 weeks. By 6 weeks, a 5.2- or 32-fold increase in endotoxin sensitivity was seen in mice fed PCB or HCB, respectively. A 20% decrease in mean survival time of mice fed PCB 1242 for 3 or 6 weeks and inoculated with malaria was demonstrated. Infected mice that received HCB for 3 or 6 weeks manifested a reduction in mean survival time of 24 or 31%, respectively. Histopathological examination revealed a normal thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and lungs. Centrilobular and pericentral hepatocyte hypertrophy, common to organochlorine exposure, was observed. Electron capture gas chromatographic analysis for PCB 1242 or HCB in the tissues examined histologically revealed a significant deposit of the xenobiotics. HCB concentration was approximately 16 to 25 times greater than that of PCB. The data indicate that environmental chemicals impair host resistance and that the alteration may be related to the presence of the chemicals in the lymphoreticular organs. PMID:97225

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.