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Sample records for polymeres pour electrolytes

  1. Polymeric electrolytic hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved flow-through electrolytic hygrometer is described which utilizes a long lasting oxidation-resistant, hollow fiber formed from persulfonic acid substituted polytetrafluoroethylene having closely spaced noble metal electrodes in contact with the inner and outer surfaces of the fiber. The fiber is disposed within a chamber so that the moisture-bearing gas passes in contact with at least one surface of the fiber. The electrodes are connected in series to a dc voltage supply and an ammeter. As the gas passes through the chamber, moisture absorbed into the wall of the fiber is electrolyzed to hydrogen and oxygen by the closely spaced electrodes. The amount of electricity required for electrolysis is proportional to the absorbed moisture and is observed on the ammeter.

  2. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  3. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  4. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2006-03-14

    Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

  6. Polymeric electrolytes based on hydrosilyation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, John Borland; Wang, Shanger; Hou, Jun; Sloop, Steven Edward; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao

    2006-09-05

    New polymer electrolytes were prepared by in situ cross-linking of allyl functional polymers based on hydrosilation reaction using a multifunctional silane cross-linker and an organoplatinum catalyst. The new cross-linked electrolytes are insoluble in organic solvent and show much better mechanical strength. In addition, the processability of the polymer electrolyte is maintained since the casting is finished well before the gel formation.

  7. Polymer electrolyte membranes with exceptional conductivity anisotropy via holographic polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derrick M.; Cheng, Shan; Wang, Wenda; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Christopher Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes using an ionic liquid as electrolyte with an ionic conductivity anisotropy of ∼5000 have been fabricated using a holographic polymerization nanomanufacturing technique. The resultant structure is referred to as holographic polymer electrolyte membranes (hPEMs), which are comprised of alternating nanolayers of a room temperature ionic liquid and crosslinked polymer resin, confirmed under TEM imaging. These hPEMs also show no reduction in room temperature conductivity with respect to the loaded ionic liquid when characterized in the plane of ionic liquid nanolayers. At elevated temperatures with the optimal electrolyte volume loading, calculation shows that the free ion concentration is higher than the pure ionic liquid, suggesting that the photopolymer dual-functionalizes as a loadbearing scaffold and an ion-complexing agent, allowing for more ions to participate in charge transfer. These hPEMs provide a promising solution to decoupling mechanical enhancement and ion transport in polymer electrolyte membranes.

  8. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  9. Polymeric Ionic Networks with High Charge Density: Solid-like Electrolytes in Lithium Metal Batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mingtao; Jiang, Xueguang; Fang, Youxing; Veith, Gabriel M.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Polymerized ionic networks (PINs) with six ion pairs per repeating unit are synthesized by nucleophilic-substitution-mediated polymerization or radical polymerization of monomers bearing six 1-vinylimidazolium cations. PIN-based solid-like electrolytes show good ionic conductivities (up to 5.32 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 22 °C), wide electrochemical stability windows (up to 5.6 V), and good interfacial compatibility with the electrodes.

  10. Polymeric Ionic Networks with High Charge Density: Solid-like Electrolytes in Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mingtao; Jiang, Xueguang; Fang, Youxing; Veith, Gabriel M.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Polymerized ionic networks (PINs) with six ion pairs per repeating unit are synthesized by nucleophilic-substitution-mediated polymerization or radical polymerization of monomers bearing six 1-vinylimidazolium cations. PIN-based solid-like electrolytes show good ionic conductivities (up to 5.32 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 22 °C), wide electrochemical stability windows (up to 5.6 V), and good interfacial compatibility with the electrodes.

  11. Polymerized Ionic Networks with High Charge Density: Quasi-Solid Electrolytes in Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mingtao; Yang, Bolun; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Veith, Gabriel M; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-22

    Polymerized ionic networks (PINs) with six ion pairs per repeating unit are synthesized by nucleophilic-substitution-mediated polymerization or radical polymerization of monomers bearing six 1-vinylimidazolium cations. PIN-based solid-like electrolytes show good ionic conductivities (up to 5.32 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 22°C), wide electrochemical stability windows (up to 5.6 V), and good interfacial compatibility with the electrodes. PMID:26523468

  12. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles

    1997-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1997-11-25

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  15. Polymer electrolytes containing guanidinium-based polymeric ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Yang, Li; Fang, Shaohua; Dong, Siming; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Tachibana, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    The electrochemical properties of solvent-free, quaternary polymer electrolytes based on a novel polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and incorporating 1g13TFSI ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and nano-scale silica are reported. The PIL-LiTFSI-1g13TFSI-SiO2 electrolyte membranes are found to be chemically stable even at 80 °C in contact with lithium anode and thermally stable up to 320 °C. Particularly, the quaternary polymer electrolytes exhibit high lithium ion conductivity at high temperature, wide electrochemical stability window, time-stable interfacial resistance values and good lithium stripping/plating performance. Batteries assembled with the quaternary polymer electrolyte at 80 °C are capable to deliver 140 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rates with very good capacity retention.

  16. From polymer chemistry to membrane elaboration. A global approach of fuel cell polymeric electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iojoiu, C.; Chabert, F.; Maréchal, M.; Kissi, N. El.; Guindet, J.; Sanchez, J.-Y.

    The paper tries to make a critical inventory of Ionomers, free of fluorine or fluorine less, which can be used as alternatives to Nafion ® in polymer electrolytes fuel cells, as Ionomer is indisputably one of the main bolts of these technologies. All the Ionomer families are discussed, with their main advantages and drawbacks, in particular in terms of their possible industrial scale-up. Special attention has been paid to the discussions about the choice of the ionic functions and that of polymeric backbones of the Ionomers, with regard to the required electrochemical properties and also to their thermomechanical behaviour. It has been emphasized that a global approach of the polymer electrolytes is essential to progress. This must involve (i) a control of the syntheses up to the pilot scale, (ii) thorough characterizations, (iii) attention to the membrane and the MEA assembly and (iv) durability investigations, including post-mortem characterizations.

  17. Polymeric ionic liquid-plastic crystal composite electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Li, Sijian; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this work, composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), that is, 80%[(1-x)PIL-(x)SN]-20%LiTFSI, are successfully prepared by using a pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquid (P(DADMA)TFSI) as a polymer host, succinonitrile (SN) as a plastic crystal, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as a lithium salt. XRD and DSC measurements confirm that the as-obtained CPEs have amorphous structures. The 80%[50%PIL-50%SN]-20%LiTFSI (50% SN) electrolyte reveals a high room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.74 × 10-4 S cm-1, a wide electrochemical window of 5.5 V, as well as good mechanical strength with a Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa. Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled with the 50% SN electrolyte at 0.1C rate can deliver a discharge capacity of about 150 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, with excellent capacity retention. Furthermore, such cells are able to achieve stable discharge capacities of 131.8 and 121.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and 1.0C rate, respectively. The impressive findings demonstrate that the electrolyte system prepared in this work has great potential for application in lithium ion batteries.

  18. Polymeric gel electrolytes reinforced with glass-fibre cloth for lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ho Cheol; Chun, Jong Han; Kim, Sang Hern; Ko, Jang Myoun; Jo, Soo Ik; Chung, Jae Sik; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    Polymeric gel electrolytes (PGE), based on polyacrylonitrile blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)), which are reinforced with glass-fibre cloth (GFC) to increase the mechanical strength, are prepared for the practical use in lithium secondary batteries. The resulting electrolytes exhibit electrochemical stability at 4.5 V against lithium metal and a conductivity value of (2.0-2.1)×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. The GFC-PGE electrolytes show excellent strength and flexibility when used in batteries even if they contain a plasticiser. A test cell with LiCoO 2 as a positive electrode and mesophase pich-based carbon fibre (MCF) as a negative electrode display a capacity of 110 mAh g -1 based on the positive electrode weight at the 0.2 C rate at room temperature. Over 80% of the initial capacity is retained after 400 cycles. This indicates that GFC is suitable as a reinforcing material to increase the mechanical strength of gel-based electrolytes for lithium secondary batteries.

  19. Ionic Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes via Surfactant-Assisted Polymerization at the Plasma-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quoc Chinh; Bui, Van-Tien; Dao, Van-Duong; Lee, Joong-Kee; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2016-06-29

    We first report an innovative method, which we refer to as interfacial liquid plasma polymerization, to chemically cross-link ionic liquids (ILs). By this method, a series of all-solid state, free-standing polymer electrolytes is successfully fabricated where ILs are used as building blocks and ethylene oxide-based surfactants are employed as an assisted-cross-linking agent. The thickness of the films is controlled by the plasma exposure time or the ratio of surfactant to ILs. The chemical structure and properties of the polymer electrolyte are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Importantly, the underlying polymerization mechanism of the cross-linked IL-based polymer electrolyte is studied to show that fluoroborate or halide anions of ILs together with the aid of a small amount of surfactants having ethylene oxide groups are necessary to form cross-linked network structures of the polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of the obtained polymer electrolyte is 2.28 × 10(-3) S·cm(-1), which is a relatively high value for solid polymer electrolytes synthesized at room temperature. This study can serve as a cornerstone for developing all-solid state polymer electrolytes with promising properties for next-generation electrochemical devices. PMID:27281115

  20. Investigation of microstructure and conducting mechanism of nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes with rectorite clay by PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S.; Gong, J.; Yan, X. L.; Xue, G. B.; Zhong, J.; Wang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Polymeric electrolytes with different modified organic nanoretorite (OREC) content have been prepared. Measurements of the structural transition, the positron annihilation lifetime, free volume and ionic conductivity as a function of the OREC content and the temperature have been performed. According to the variations of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes with temperature, the glass transition temperatures have been determined. A direct relationship between the ionic conductivity and the fractional free volume has been established using based on free volume theory Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF)equations, implying a free-volume transport mechanism. Our experimental results indicated that the segmental chain motion and ionic migration and diffusion could be explained by the free volume theory.

  1. High Modulus, High Conductivity Nanostructured Polymer Electrolyte Membranes via Polymerization-Induced Phase Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Lucas; Schulze, Morgan; Hillmyer, Marc; Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Solvent-free, solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) will play a vital role in next-generation electrochemical devices such as Li-metal batteries and high- T fuel cells. The primary challenge is that these applications require PEMs with substantial mechanical robustness, as well as high ionic conductivity. The key to optimizing orthogonal macroscopic properties is to use a heterogeneous composite with well-defined nanoscopic morphology--specifically, long-range co-continuity of high modulus and ion transport domains, which has proven difficult to achieve in commonly-studied diblock copolymer-based electrolytes. We report a simple synthetic strategy to generate PEMs via polymerization-induced phase separation, where the delicate balance between controlled addition of styrene onto a poly(ethylene oxide) macro-chain transfer agent and simultaneous chemical crosslinking by divinylbenzene results in a disordered structure with domain size of order 10 nm. Crucially, both domains exhibit long-range continuity, which results in PEMs that are glassy solids (modulus ~ 1 GPa) owing to the isotropic network of stiff, crosslinked polystyrene, and are highly conductive (> 1 mS/cm at 70 °C) because ions migrate in channels of low Tg poly(ethylene oxide).

  2. Proton conducting, high modulus polymer electrolyte membranes by polymerization-induced microphase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, Sujay; Hillmyer, Marc; Lodge, Timothy

    Robust solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are vital for designing next-generation lithium-ion batteries and high-temperature fuel cells. However, the performance of diblock polymer electrolytes is generally limited by poor mechanical stability and network defects in the conducting pathways. We present the in-situ preparation of robust cross-linked PEMs via polymerization-induced microphase separation, and incorporation of protic ionic liquid (IL) into one of the microphase separated domains. The facile design strategy involves a delicate balance between the controlled growth of polystyrene from a poly(ethylene oxide) macro-chain transfer agent (PEO-CTA) and simultaneous chemical cross-linking by divinylbenzene in the presence of IL. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of a disordered structure with bicontinuous morphology and a characteristic domain size of order 20 nm. The long-range continuity of the PEO/protic IL conducting nanochannels and cross-linked polystyrene domains imparts high thermal and mechanical stability to the PEMs, with elastic modulus approaching 10 MPa and a high ionic conductivity of 15 mS/cm at 180 °C.

  3. Influence of chemical microstructure of single-ion polymeric electrolyte membranes on performance of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Rohan, Rupesh; Cai, Weiwei; Xu, Guodong; Sun, Yubao; Lin, An; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-10-22

    A novel protocol to generate and control porosity in polymeric structures is presented for fabrication of single ion polymer electrolyte (SIPE) membranes for lithium ion batteries. A series of SIPEs with varying ratios of aliphatic and aromatic segments was successfully synthesized and subsequently blended with PVDF-HFP to fabricate membranes of various sizes of pores. The membranes were characterized using techniques including SEM, solvent uptake capacity measurement and ionic conductivity. We demonstrate that appropriate membrane porosity enhances ionic conductivity, reduces interfacial resistance between electrodes and electrolyte and ultimately boosts performance of Li-ion batteries. The implication of the structure-performance relationship for battery design is discussed. PMID:25225970

  4. Polymeric ionic liquid and carbon black composite as a reusable supporting electrolyte: modification of the electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Joon; Li, Long-Ji; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Little, R Daniel

    2015-03-16

    One of the major impediments to using electroorganic synthesis is the need for large amounts of a supporting electrolyte to ensure the passage of charge. Frequently this causes separation and waste problems. To address these issues, a polymeric ionic liquid-Super P carbon black composite has been formulated. The system enables electrolyses to be performed without adding an additional supporting electrolyte, and its efficient recovery and reuse. In addition, the ability of the composite to modify the electrode surface in situ leads to improved kinetics. A practical consequence is that one can decrease catalyst loading without sacrificing efficiency. PMID:25619992

  5. Anhydrous Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolyte Membranes via Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Sujay A; So, Soonyong; Hillmyer, Marc A; Lodge, Timothy P

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) exhibiting high ionic conductivity coupled with mechanical robustness and high thermal stability are vital for the design of next-generation lithium-ion batteries and high-temperature fuel cells. We present the in situ preparation of nanostructured PEMs incorporating a protic ionic liquid (IL) into one of the domains of a microphase-separated block copolymer created via polymerization-induced microphase separation. This facile, one-pot synthetic strategy transforms a homogeneous liquid precursor consisting of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macro-chain-transfer agent, styrene and divinylbenzene monomers, and protic IL into a robust and transparent monolith. The resulting PEMs exhibit a bicontinuous morphology comprising PEO/protic IL conducting pathways and highly cross-linked polystyrene (PS) domains. The cross-linked PS mechanical scaffold imparts thermal and mechanical stability to the PEMs, with an elastic modulus approaching 10 MPa at 180 °C, without sacrificing the ionic conductivity of the system. Crucially, the long-range continuity of the PEO/protic IL conducting nanochannels results in an outstanding ionic conductivity of 14 mS/cm at 180 °C. We posit that proton conduction in the protic IL occurs via the vehicular mechanism and the PEMs exhibit an average proton transference number of 0.7. This approach is very promising for the development of high-temperature, robust PEMs with excellent proton conductivities. PMID:26927732

  6. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Zeng, Juqin; Di Lupo, Francesca; Garino, Nadia; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Francia, Carlotta; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958178

  7. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958425

  8. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958425

  9. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Zeng, Juqin; Lupo, Francesca Di; Garino, Nadia; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Francia, Carlotta; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10−3 S cm−1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958178

  10. Electrolyte Cations Binding with Extracellular Polymeric Substances Enhanced Microcystis Aggregation: Implication for Microcystis Bloom Formation in Eutrophic Freshwater Lakes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Lv, Hua; Liu, Xin; Wang, Peifang; Jiang, Helong

    2016-09-01

    The hydrodynamic and structural properties of Microcystis extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in electrolytes with different valences and ionic strengths were investigated via using dynamic light scattering, the fluorescence excitation emission matrix coupled with parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The hydrodynamic diameters of EPS colloids exhibited no variation for monovalent NaCl but a substantial increase for divalent CaCl2 and MgCl2. However, the negative electrophoretic mobilities for all complexes indicated that charge neutralization would not be the main mechanism for EPS aggregation. Application of EEM-PARAFAC and 2D-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-COS revealed obvious electrolyte binding potential with both fluorescent phenolic and aromatic compounds and nonfluorescent polysaccharides. The complexation model showed that divalent Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) exhibited a strong binding capability with phenolic -OH, aromatic C═C, and polysaccharide C-O groups, while the monovalent electrolyte exhibited negligible association with these groups. Such a strong complexation can bridge each individual biomolecule together to form EPS aggregates and Microcystis colonies, as supported by in situ Cryo-TEM and light microscope observation, respectively. Given the increased concentration in natural ecosystems, electrolyte cations, especially divalent cations, would play increased roles in Microcystis bloom formation and thus should be considered. PMID:27502019

  11. Electrolytes

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of blood that doesn't contain cells. Sodium, potassium, and chloride levels can also be measured as part of ... in urine. It test the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, and other electrolytes.

  12. Electrolytes

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of blood that doesn't contain cells. Sodium, potassium, and chloride levels can also be measured as part of ... in urine. It test the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, and other electrolytes. References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. ...

  13. Chaotic behavior of ion exchange phenomena in polymer gel electrolytes through irradiated polymeric membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Sangeeta; Saha, Barnamala; Prasad, Awadhesh; Chandra, Amita

    2012-05-01

    A desktop experiment has been done to show the nonlinearity in the I-V characteristics of an ion conducting electrochemical micro-system. Its chaotic dynamics is being reported for the first time which has been captured by an electronic circuit. Polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte comprising of a combination of plasticizers (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) and salts have been prepared to study the exchange of ions through porous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The nonlinearity of this system is due to the ion exchange of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) through a porous membrane. The different regimes of spiking and non-spiking chaotic motions are being presented. The possible applications are highlighted.

  14. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  15. Crystalline, Glassy and Polymeric Electrolytes:. Similarities and Differences in Ionic Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souquet, Jean Louis

    2006-06-01

    Ionocovalent crystals or glasses as well as molten salts or salt polymer complexes are currently studied as electrolytes for high energy density batteries. Their large Red/Ox stability range results from their thermodynamic or kinetic characteristics. For all these electrolytes, charge carriers are the consequence of local deviations from electroneutrality, identified as point defects for ionic crystals or partial dissociation in disordered structures. The charge carriers formation derives from a similar activated process. The main difference comes from the migration process, which depends on the dynamic properties of the surrounding medium. When the structural relaxation time is large, an activated process, mainly enthalpic, prevails for charge carriers migration. It is the usual case for ionic crystals or glasses. In the liquid or overcooled liquid states, the structural relaxation time of the medium is shorter that the time required for the activated migration process to occur and a local reorganization of the medium vanishes the energy barrier and provides the free volume necessary to ionic migration. In that case, the migration is mainly an entropic process. The configurational entropy necessary to this process decreases with temperature and vanishes at the so called ideal glass transition temperature which can be estimated by extrapolation of the transport properties or of the thermodynamic characteristics of the medium. However, at the experiment time scale, this configurational entropy disappears at a somewhat higher temperature, the glass transition temperature at which the structural relaxation time corresponds to the measurement time. Some glass forming ionic melts studied in a large temperature scale, over and below the glass transition temperature, evidence the two, enthalpic and entropic, migration mechanisms, allowing the determination of the thermodynamic characteristics of the charge carriers formation and migration. Some recent results indicate

  16. [Computer modeling the hydrostatic pressure characteristics of the membrane potential for polymeric membrane, separated non-homogeneous electrolyte solutions].

    PubMed

    Slezak, Izabella H; Jasik-Slezak, Jolanta; Rogal, Mirosława; Slezak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of model equation depending the membrane potential deltapsis, on mechanical pressure difference (deltaP), concentration polarization coefficient (zetas), concentration Rayleigh number (RC) and ratio concentration of solutions separated by membrane (Ch/Cl), the characteristics deltapsis = f(deltaP)zetas,RC,Ch/Cl for steady values of zetas, RC and Ch/Cl in single-membrane system were calculated. In this system neutral and isotropic polymeric membrane oriented in horizontal plane, the non-homogeneous binary electrolytic solutions of various concentrations were separated. Nonhomogeneity of solutions is results from creations of the concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membrane. Calculations were made for the case where on a one side of the membrane aqueous solution of NaCl at steady concentration 10(-3) mol x l(-1) (Cl) was placed and on the other aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations from 10(-3) mol x l(-1) to 2 x 10(-2) mol x l(-1) (Ch). Their densities were greater than NaCl solution's at 10(-3) mol x l(-1). It was shown that membrane potential depends on hydrodynamic state of a complex concentration boundary layer-membrane-concentration boundary layer, what is controlled by deltaP, Ch/Cl, RC and zetas. PMID:17022155

  17. [Computer modeling the concentration characteristics of the membrane potential for polymeric membrane, separated non-homogeneous electrolyte solutions].

    PubMed

    Slezak, Izabella H; Jasik-Slezak, Jolanta; Rogal, Mirosława; Slezak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the concentration boundary layers on membrane potential (deltapsis) in a single-membrane system on basis of the Kedem-Katchalsky equations was described in cases of horizontally mounted neutral polymeric membrane separates non-homogeneous (mechanically unstirred) binary electrolytic solutions at different concentrations. Results of calculations of deltapsis as a function of ratio solution concentrations (Ch/Cl) at constant values of: concentration Rayleigh number (Rc), concentration polarization coefficient (zetas) and hydrostatic pressure (deltaP) were presented. Calculations were made for the case where on a one side of the membrane aqueous solution of NaCl at steady concentration 10(-3) mol x l(-1) (Cl) was placed and on the other aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations from 10(-3) mol x l(-1) to 2 x 10(-2) mol x l(-1) (Ch). Their densities were greater than NaCl solution's at 10(-3) mol x l(-1). It was shown that membrane potential depends on hydrodynamic state of a complex concentration boundary layer-membrane-concentration boundary layer, what is controlled by deltaP, Ch/Cl, Rc and zetas. PMID:17022154

  18. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    SciTech Connect

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-22

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  19. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-01

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  20. Amelioration de l'adhesion de revetements organiques deposes par plasma froid sur polymeres pour applications biomedicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbai, Marouan

    Plasma surface modification is commonly used in biomedical field, for example to enhance cell adhesion and growth surrounding the stent covers without affecting its bulk properties. Plasma polymer (PP) deposition used to create thin films rich in functional groups, e.g. primary amines, known to enhance the cellular response and allow grafting of biomolecules especially on stent grafts. Thin film adhesion to stent polymeric cover should be considered especially as they will evolve in a biological environment. The aim of this project is to evaluate the adhesion of PP on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethyleneterephthalate (PET). Thereafter, an ammonia plasma treatment on PTFE is performed prior to deposition of PP to optimize the PP/PTFE adhesion. PP studied here (referred to as "LP") is prepared from a mixture of ethylene (C2H4) and ammonia (NH3). It is deposited on two supports, PET and PTFE. The interfacial adhesion between the LP coating and the substrate was evaluated by "Peel-test 180 °" according to ASTM F1842. Staining of the surface after peel test followed by an image analysis was performed to determine the percentage of removed coating. Adhesion optimization is done by varying operating plasma parameters such as power, pressure and pretreatment time. Chemical analyses and wettability of LP and pretreated surfaces in dry and wet conditions are characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements, respectively. The adhesion of LP/PET was excellent in a dry environment (<1%), but lower under wet conditions (4+/-6% and 44+/-7% as minimum and maximum values at 5min and 60min of immersion in deionized water, respectively). However, 56% to 75% of the LP is removed from virgin PTFE in a dry and wet environment, respectively; percentages can be substantially reduced by plasma pretreatment (0% and 8+/-3% in air and 30min in deionized water). Almost no delamination was observed with NH3 plasma pretreatment at 15s, 100 mTorr and 50W. N2 plasma pretreatment

  1. Free volume and ionic conductivity of poly(ether urethane)-LiClO4 polymeric electrolyte studied by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z. L.; Wang, B.; Li, S. Q.; Wang, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The positron lifetime spectra and ionic conductivity have been measured for poly(ether urethane)-LiClO4 polymeric electrolyte as a function of temperature. The glass transition temperature T(sub g), free-volume V(sub f), and fractional free-volume f were derived from the positron annihilation parameters. A correlation between fractional free-volume f(T) and conductivity sigma above T(sub g), log(sigma/sigma(T(sub g))) = C(sub 1)(f(T) - f(T(sub g)))/f(T), was first experimentally confirmed using measured positron annihilation results. The comparison of the value of the obtained constant C(sub 1) with the universal values for the segmental diffusion of amorphous polymers indicated that the critical free volume required for the ion transport is much smaller than that required for polymer chain segment mobility. Carrier transport and the segmental motion are discussed in terms of the free-volume theory.

  2. Photopolymerized Electrolytes For Electrochromic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Stuart; Rauh, R. David

    1994-01-01

    Thin ion-conducting electrolyte films for use in electrochromic devices now fabricated relatively easily and quickly with any of class of improved formulations containing ultraviolet-polymerizable components. Formulations are liquids in their monomeric forms and self-supporting, transparent solids in their polymeric forms. Thin solid electrolytes form quickly and easily between electrode-bearing substrates. Film thus polymerized acts not only as solid electrolyte but also as glue holding laminate together: feature simplifies fabrication by reducing need for sealants and additional mechanical supports.

  3. Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  4. Investigation of the free volume and ionic conducting mechanism of poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO4 polymeric electrolyte by positron annihilating lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Gong, Zhen-Li; Yan, Xiao-Li; Gao, Shu; Zhang, Zhong-Liang; Wang, Bo

    2012-10-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime and ionic conductivity are each measured as a function of organophilic rectorite (OREC) content and temperature in a range from 160 K to 300 K. According to the variation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime with temperature, the glassy transition temperature is determined. The continuous maximum entropy lifetime (MELT) analysis clearly shows that the OREC and temperature have important effects on o-Ps lifetime and free volume distribution. The experimental results show that the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity obeys the Vogel—Tammann—Fulcher (VTF) and Williams—Landel—Ferry (WLF) equations, implying a free-volume transport mechanism. A linear least-squares procedure is used to evaluate the apparent activation energy related to the ionic transport in the VTF equation and several important parameters in the WLF equation. It is worthwhile to notice that a direct linear relationship between the ionic conductivity and free volume fraction is established using the WLF equation based on the free volume theory for nanocomposite electrolyte, which indicates that the segmental chain migration and ionic migration and diffusion could be explained by the free volume theory.

  5. Electrolytes Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... include other tests such as BUN , creatinine , and glucose . Electrolyte measurements may be used to help investigate conditions that cause electrolyte imbalances such as dehydration , kidney disease , lung diseases , or heart conditions . Repeat testing may then ...

  6. Multifunctional polymeric nanocomposites fabricated by incorporation of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets and their application in bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xian

    The focus of this research is to investigate the potential of using exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets, GNP, as the multifunctional nano-reinforcement in fabricating polymer/GNP nanocomposites and then explore their prospective applications in bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Firstly, HDPE (high density polyethylene)/GNP nanocomposites were fabricated using the conventional compounding method of melt-extrusion followed by injection molding. The mechanical properties, crystallization behaviors, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of the resulting HDPE/GNP nanocomposites were evaluated as a function of GNP concentration. Results showed that HDPE/GNP nanocomposites exhibit equivalent flexural modulus and strength to HDPE composites filled with other commercial reinforcements but they have superior impact strength. By investigating the crystallization behavior of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites, it was found that GNP is a good nucleating agent at low loading levels and as a result can significantly increase crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE. At high GNP loadings, however, the close proximity of GNP particles retards the crystallization process. The thermal stability and thermal conductivity of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites were significantly enhanced due to the excellent thermal properties of GNP. Meanwhile, results indicated that the percolation threshold of these nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-extrusion and injection molding is relatively high at around 10--15 vol% GNP loading. To enhance the electrical conductivity of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites, two special processing methods named solid state ball milling (SSBM) and solid state shear pulverization (SSSP) were studied. The mechanism by which SSBM and SSSP are capable of producing lower percolation or higher electrical conductivity is to coat the polymer surface by GNP platelets which facilitate the formation of conductive networks

  7. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  8. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  9. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  10. Electrolytic dissolver

    DOEpatents

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Fox, R.D.

    1975-08-26

    This patent related to an electrolytic dissolver wherein dissolution occurs by solution contact including a vessel of electrically insulative material, a fixed first electrode, a movable second electrode, means for insulating the electrodes from the material to be dissolved while permitting a free flow of electrolyte therebetween, means for passing a direct current between the electrodes and means for circulating electrolyte through the dissolver. (auth)

  11. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  12. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  13. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  14. Electrolyte Racers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Shawn; Kellie, Tonya; Corbin-Tipton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A fast way to teach investigative skills in science is to tie them to NASCAR using Hot Wheels Formula Fuelers Race Cars. These inexpensive toy cars travel different distances based on the strength of the "electrolyte" (a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water) in their "fuel" tanks. Advertisements for these race cars urge kids…

  15. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1987-05-12

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst system which comprises: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and recovering solid catalyst.

  16. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-10-21

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst comprising: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the steps of: (1) sequentially; (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of zirconium compound; and (2) thereafter; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium compound; (f) recovering solid catalyst; and an organoaluminum compound.

  17. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  18. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  19. Solid electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  20. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  1. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  2. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  3. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  4. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  5. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  6. The improvement of rechargeable lithium battery electrolyte performance with additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The deliberate introduction of additives like 2-methylfuran (2-MeF) is known to improve Li cycleability in cyclic ether electrolytes. The authors found that the proclivity of 2-MeF to polymerize in the bulk electrolyte or on a TiS2 cathode was inhibited by the addition of reduced oxygen species, such as O2- and OH-. Additionally, the polymerization of tetrahydrofuran and dioxolane and the destructive processes initiated by AsF6- decomposition to AsF5 and AsF3 were inhibited by the introduction of reduced oxygen species, particularly OH- at the 10-ppm to 100-ppm level.

  7. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  8. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  9. Fuel cell having electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell having an electrolyte control volume includes a pair of porous opposed electrodes. A maxtrix is positioned between the pair of electrodes for containing an electrolyte. A first layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to one of the electrodes. A portion of the paper is substantially previous to the acceptance of the electrolyte so as to absorb electrolyte when there is an excess in the matrix and to desorb electrolyte when there is a shortage in the matrix. A second layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to the first layer of paper and is substantially impervious to the acceptance of electrolyte.

  10. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  11. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are in your blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes helps your ... them from the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body ...

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1999-10-05

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  15. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, Richard A.; Szydlowski, Donald F.; Sawyer, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  16. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  17. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  18. Plasma-polymerized carbon disulfide thin-film rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhir, R.K.; Schoch, K.F. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses the results on deposition conditions, rates of polymerization, and properties of carbon disulfide films prepared by two techniques, viz., plasma polymerization and argon-plasma-assisted polymerization of carbon disulfide. A higher rate of polymerization and sulfur content was obtained for carbon disulfide films prepared by the plasma-polymerization technique. A Li/LiClO{sub 4} propylene carbonate/PPCS cell was assembled using lithium foil, 2 M LiClO{sub 4}/PC electrolyte with polyolefin separator, and PPCS deposited on Pt foil. The electrode area was 1.3 cm{sup 2}. The cell cycled reversibly between 1 and 3 V and retained its capacity (5 mA h/g) well over 12 cycles. 14 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  20. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  1. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, H.S.

    1989-11-21

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]7] S cm[sup [minus]1] at room temperature.

  2. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Hung S.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-7 S cm.sup.-1 at room temperature.

  3. Electronic structure calculations on lithium battery electrolyte salts.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik

    2007-03-28

    New lithium salts for non-aqueous liquid, gel and polymeric electrolytes are crucial due to the limiting role of the electrolyte in modern lithium batteries. The solvation of any lithium salt to form an electrolyte solution ultimately depends on the strength of the cation-solvent vs. the cation-anion interaction. Here, the latter is probed via HF, B3LYP and G3 theory gas-phase calculations for the dissociation reaction: LiX <--> Li(+) + X(-). Furthermore, a continuum solvation method (C-PCM) has been applied to mimic solvent effects. Anion volumes were also calculated to facilitate a discussion on ion conductivities and cation transport numbers. Judging from the present results, synthesis efforts should target heterocyclic anions with a size of ca. 150 A(3) molecule(-1) to render new highly dissociative lithium salts that result in electrolytes with high cation transport numbers. PMID:17356757

  4. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  5. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  6. Production of porous diaphragm for electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, J.F.

    1983-02-01

    A process for the production of a porous diaphragm suitable for use in an electrolytic cell, particularly a chlor-alkali cell, characterized in that the process comprises irradiating a porous shaped article of an organic polymeric material, for example, a sheet of a fluoropolymer, with high energy radiation, the irradiation being effected in the presence of, or the irradiated shaped article being subsequently contacted with, a reactant selected from ammonia, carbon monoxide and phosgene, and the sheet preferably being subsequently contacted with an aqueous alkaline solution.

  7. Hydrogen selenide treatment of electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J. R.; Virkar, A. V.

    1985-01-29

    A method for lowering the activation energy of a polycrystalline ceramic electrolyte is disclosed. Polycrystalline ceramic electrolytes, such as beta-alumina, when contacted with hydrogen selenide exhibit a lower activation energy than untreated electrolytes.

  8. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  9. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  10. When It Rains, It Pours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  11. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  12. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  13. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

  14. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1999-01-05

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

  15. Polymeric metallic electrodes for rechargeable battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented on the status of plastic metal electrodes, emphasizing the use of polyacetylene as a prototype polymeric material. The electrochemical characteristics of polyacetylene are examined; and the potential use of this material, as well as other types of plastic metal electrodes, in batteries is evaluated. Several problem areas which must be solved before polyacetylene can be widely used in battery applications are discussed, including the problem of electrolyte stability, the problem that the depth of discharge and the energy density is limited by the metal-semiconductor transition, and also the poor electrochemical performance of impure material.

  16. Norbornene-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Iris; Smart, Marshall; Prakash, Surya; Miyazawa, Akira; Hu, Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    Norbornene-based polymers have shown promise as solid electrolytes for lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells. These polymers are characterized as single-ion conductors. Single-ion-conducting polymers that can be used in lithium cells have long been sought. Single-ion conductors are preferred to multiple-ion conductors as solid electrolytes because concentration gradients associated with multiple-ion conduction lead to concentration polarization. By minimizing concentration polarization, one can enhance charge and discharge rates. Norbornene sulfonic acid esters have been synthesized by a ring-opening metathesis polymerization technique, using ruthenium-based catalysts. The resulting polymer structures (see figure) include sulfonate ionomers attached to the backbones of the polymer molecules. These molecules are single-ion conductors in that they conduct mobile Li+ ions only; the SO3 anions in these polymers, being tethered to the backbones, do not contribute to ionic conduction. This molecular system is especially attractive in that it is highly amenable to modification through functionalization of the backbone or copolymerization with various monomers. Polymers of this type have been blended with poly(ethylene oxide) to lend mechanical integrity to free-standing films, and the films have been fabricated into solid polymer electrolytes. These electrolytes have been demonstrated to exhibit conductivity of 2 10(exp -5)S/cm (which is high, relative to the conductivities of other solid electrolytes) at ambient temperature, plus acceptably high stability. This type of norbornene-based polymeric solid electrolyte is in the early stages of development. Inasmuch as the method of synthesis of these polymers is inherently flexible and techniques for the fabrication of the polymers into solid electrolytes are amenable to optimization, there is reason to anticipate further improvements.

  17. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  19. Solid electrolyte cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A solid electrolyte cell including a body of solid ionized gas-conductive electrolyte having mutually spaced surfaces and on which is deposited a multiplicity of mutually spaced electrodes is described. Strips and of bare substances are interposed between electrodes, so that currents of ionic gas may be established between the electrodes via the bare strips, whereby electrical resistance for the cells is lowered and the gas conductivity is enhanced.

  20. Novel solid state proton-conductors based on polymeric non-oxy acids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Gonzalez, E.R.; DesMarteau, D.; Gillette, M.S.; Ghosh, J.K.; Jalan, V.; Desai, M.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this project were to prepare and characterize novel solid state proton-conductors and to evaluate these compounds as fuel cell electrolytes. The thrust was on the synthesis of new proton-conducting ``model`` and ``polymeric`` compounds, based on acid functions of the type (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH and (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 2} in appropriate fluorinated carbon structures, their physics-chemical characterization (Infra-red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and X-ray Diffraction), and is pro. evaluation as candidate fuel cell electrolytes for use at elevated temperatures. This project consisted of four tasks (i) Synthesis of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (ii) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (iii) Electrochemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; and (iv) Evaluation of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Fuel Cells.

  1. CFD study on electrolyte distribution in redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, S.; Toninelli, P.; Maggiolo, D.; Guarnieri, M.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    The most important component in a redox flow battery (RFB) cell is the MEA (membrane electrode assembly), a sandwich consisting of two catalyzed electrodes with an interposed polymeric membrane. In order to allow electrolyte flow toward the electroactive sites, the electrodes have a porous structure that can be obtained with carbon base materials such as carbon felts. The RFB cell is closed by two plates containing the distribution flow channels. Considering that a uniform electrolyte distribution in the reaction region is a prerequisite for high-efficiency operation, the flow pattern is an important parameter to be investigated for the optimization of the cell. In the present work, the effect of different channels patterns on the electrolyte distribution and on the pressure drop is numerically investigated. Three-dimensional simulations have been carried out with ANSYS Fluent code and four different layouts have been considered. Calculations have been performed both in the distribution channels and in the felt porous region.

  2. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  3. [Nephropathy associated with electrolyte disorders].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Nakauchi, M; Hondo, I; Nihei, H

    1995-08-01

    It is well known that renal dysfunction is associated with several types of electrolyte disorders. On the other hand, renal manifestations have been attributed to electrolyte disorders. Hypokalemia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality encountered in clinical practice. The main cause of hypokalemia is due to abuse of laxatives and diuretics or to anorexia nervosa. Hypercalcemia is another major electrolyte abnormality, associated with numerous renal manifestations. Renal tubules damages and chronic interstitial nephritis are characteristic pathological findings in prolonged electrolyte disorders. The mechanism of renal involvement and characteristic clinical manifestations of the electrolyte disorders are reviewed. PMID:7563640

  4. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as a functional monomer and acidic ionic liquid based on a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.5, in molar ratio) as a plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully achieved using a polymer gel electrolyte containing 80 wt% ionic liquid. The polymer gel electrolytes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries. PMID:26511160

  5. Electrolytes in the Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schlanger, Lynn E.; Bailey, James Lynch; Sands, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    The elderly population in the United States continues to grow and is expected to double by 2050. With aging there are degenerative changes in many organs and the kidney is no exception. After age forty there is an increase in cortical glomerulosclerosis and a decline in both glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. These changes may be associated with an inability to excrete a concentrated or a dilute urine, ammonium, sodium, or potassium. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are the most common electrolyte abnormalities found in the elderly and both are associated with a high mortality. Under normal conditions the elderly are able to maintain water and electrolyte balance but this may be jeopardized by an illness, a decline in cognitive ability, and with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the potential electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly that can arise under these various conditions in order to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:20610358

  6. Electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, M. P. S.

    In the role of a secondary energy carrier complementary to electricity in a postfossil-fuel era, hydrogen produced by the elecrolytic splitting of water may be obtained by a variety of methods whose technology development status is presently assessed. Nuclear heat can be converted into hydrogen either directly, via thermal splitting of water, or by means of water electrolysis, which can be of the unipolar tank type or the bipolar filter-press type. An evaluation is made of advanced electrolytic techniques involving exotic materials, as well as solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis and high-temperature water-vapor electrolysis.

  7. Tuning Ion Conducting Pathways Using Holographic Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derrick; Li, Christopher; Dong, Bin; Bunning, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    While much research has demonstrated repeatable characteristics of electrolyte membranes, the fundamentals behind the interactions during ionic diffusion in solid polymer electrolyte membranes for battery applications are not well understood, specifically the role of nanostructures, which hold the key to improving performance of energy storage devices such as fuel cells and Lithium ion batteries. The challenges in fabricating highly controlled model systems are largely responsible for the interdependent ambiguities between nanostructures and the corresponding ion conducting behavior. In this work, Holographic Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (hPEM) volume gratings comprised of alternating layers of crosslinked polymer resin and lithium ion salt were fabricated using holographic polymerization with an average d-spacing of approximately 200 nm. These one-dimensional confinement structures were used to quantitatively study the anisotropic ionic conductivity between the directions of in-plane and normal to the layers, and the unique ion conducting behavior was correlated with nanoscale phase separation. These volume gratings also offer an exciting route to fabricate multifunctional gratings for optic and sensing applications.

  8. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  9. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  10. Improved electrolytes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, G.L.; Roe, D.K.

    1991-06-01

    Present day fuel cells based upon hydrogen and oxygen have limited performance due to the use of phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Improved performance is desirable in electrolyte conductivity, electrolyte management, oxygen solubility, and the kinetics of the reduction of oxygen. Attention has turned to fluorosulfonic acids as additives or substitute electrolytes to improve fuel cell performance. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and electrochemically evaluate new fluorosulfonic acids as superior alternatives to phosphoric acid in fuel cells. (VC)

  11. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  12. Solid electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1984-01-01

    A solid electrolyte structure for fuel cells and other electrochemical devices providing oxygen ion transfer by a multiplicity of exposed internal surfaces made of a composition containing an oxide of a multivalent transition metal and forming small pore-like passages sized to permit oxygen ion transfer while limiting the transfer of oxygen gas.

  13. Polymerization catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a catalyst system for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization. This system consists of: 1. a supported polymerization catalyst or mixture of polymerization catalysts prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate porous support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and (f) recovering solid catalyst component; 2. an organoaluminum compound; and 3. a promotor of chlorinated hydrocarbons having one to 20 carbon atoms.

  14. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  15. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Zavada, Scott R; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes--catalytic proteins--owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol-ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  16. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  17. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  18. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  19. Ambient Temperature Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte Based on Pvk + Pvdf-Hfp for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M. S.; Prabaharan, S. R. S.

    2002-12-01

    Proposed herein is a new ambient temperature Li+ conducting PVDF-HFP-co-polymer based hybrid polymer electrolyte with polyvinyl carbozole (PVK) as additive. The addition of the latter provides high ambient temperature electrolytic conductivity (σi) 0.7 × 10-3S/cm with an ionic transference number of 0.6, besides providing the thermoplastic flexibility to the whole matrix. The membrane is found to exhibit a wide electrochemical potential window, >4.5V against Li/Li+. When prepared properly, the membrane is dry and free standing, yet totally suitable for lithium polymer rechargeable batteries. This paper presents the preparation, microstructure and electrochemical characteristics of this new hybrid polymeric membrane. Finally, the dry polymeric electrolyte membrane has been employed in a lithium polymer cell against LT-LiCo0.8Ni0.2O2 as positive electrode and its interfacial behavior and electrochemical cycling results are presented.

  20. Optimization of electrolytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, R.; Soon, S-A.; Sradther, M.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology was developed for optimizing electrolytic cells described by a potential field distribution along with material, voltage, and economic balance equations. In the present study, the cell consisted of two flow-through porous electrodes separated by a membrane. The model consisted of two nonlinear differential equations, 1 variables, eight equality constraints, and five inequality constraints. The optimum solutions were obtained for simple economic objectives with use of a successive quadratic programming method. The sensitivity of the optimum to operating variables and design constraints was found with the use of Lagrange multipliers. The method may be applied to an electrolytic cell which can be modeled by a combination of differential, algebraic, and polynomial (curve-fit) equations.

  1. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed.

  2. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  3. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  4. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  5. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  6. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  7. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  10. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-06-16

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymer electrolyte membranes based on silicon-containing core-shell structured nanocomposite latex particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Sun, Chenggang; Gao, Yushan; Cui, Xuejun

    2015-09-01

    A series of silicon-containing core-shell structured polyacrylate/2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (SiO2-CS-PA/A) nanocomposite latex particles are prepared by the emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and various amount of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) with colloidal nanosilica particles as seed. The chemical and morphological structures of latex particles with high monomer conversion are determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiO2-CS-PA/A nanocomposite membranes are fabricated through pouring the latex onto a clean surface of glass and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The nanocomposite membranes possess good thermal and dimensional stability. In addition, in comparison to Nafion® 117, the nanocomposite membranes exhibit moderate proton conductivity, significantly better methanol barrier and selectivity. The methanol diffusion coefficient is in the range of 1.03 × 10-8 to 5.26 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 which is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of Nafion® 117 (2.36 × 10-6 cm2 s-1). The SiO2-CS-PA/A 5 membrane shows the highest selectivity value (2.34 × 105 S cm-3) which is approximately 11.0 times of that (2.13 × 104 S cm-3) of Nafion® 117. These results indicate that the nanocomposite membranes are promising candidates to be used as polymer electrolyte membranes in direct methanol fuel cells.

  12. Organocatalyzed Group Transfer Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougen; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the conventional group transfer polymerization (GTP) using a catalyst of either an anionic nucleophile or a transition-metal compound, the organocatalyzed GTP has to a great extent improved the living characteristics of the polymerization from the viewpoints of synthesizing structurally well-defined acrylic polymers and constructing defect-free polymer architectures. In this article, we describe the organocatalyzed GTP from a relatively personal perspective to provide our colleagues with a perspicuous and systematic overview on its recent progress as well as a reply to the curiosity of how excellently the organocatalysts have performed in this field. The stated perspectives of this review mainly cover five aspects, in terms of the assessment of the livingness of the polymerization, limit and scope of applicable monomers, mechanistic studies, control of the polymer structure, and a new GTP methodology involving the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and hydrosilane. PMID:27427399

  13. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  14. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  15. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  16. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  17. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  18. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  19. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  20. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  1. Programmable Supramolecular Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Daan; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2015-07-13

    Living large: Rational design of self-assembly pathways has been demonstrated in supramolecular polymers. By controlling the concentration of an aggregation-competent monomer through intramolecular interactions, living supramolecular polymerization conditions were achieved. This universal approach can be used to obtain aggregates of well-defined length and narrow dispersity, and allows access to new supramolecular polymer architectures. PMID:26095705

  2. Effective integrative supramolecular polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwei; Tian, He

    2014-09-26

    Exercise control: By taking advantage of self-sorting processes among host-guest components, a controlled supramolecular polymerization can be realized, as demonstrated recently with the preparation of a cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular polymer. This method may be used for the design of more ordered supramolecular polymers from complex and discrete components. PMID:25080388

  3. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  4. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  5. Li conductivity in siloxane-based polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Eric; Fan, Fei; Feng, Hongbo; Gainaru, Catalin; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei

    Polymer electrolytes containing lithium ions are ideal candidates for electrochemical devices and energy storage applications. Understanding their ionic transport mechanism is the key for rational designing of highly conductive polymer matrices. Complementing dielectric spectroscopy investigations by results from rheology and differential scanning calorimetry we focused on the interplay between dynamics of lithium ions and the polymer matrix based on polysiloxane backbone. Our results demonstrate that the conductivity and the degree of decoupling between ion dynamics and structural relaxation depend strongly not only on the ions concentration, but also on the polarity and size of the polymeric side-groups. Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States.

  6. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  7. Characteristics of tantalum electrolytic capacitors using soluble polypyrrole electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kwan Sik; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Eung Ju; Lee, Hoosung

    Polypyrrole (Ppy) electrolyte solutions in various organic solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP; chloroform; trifluoroacetic acid) were prepared using Ppy powder doped with di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (Ppy-DEHS) and butylnaphthalene sulfonate sodium salt (Ppy-BNS), respectively. Several tantalum electrolytic capacitors were fabricated by dip coating in these solutions and their electrical properties such as capacitance and tan δ were measured. The capacitors prepared with Ppy-DEHS electrolyte in trifluoroacetic acid showed both high capacitance and low tan δ. Usage of a Ppy electrolyte solution containing both surfactant and a coupling agent also resulted in high capacitance and low tan δ. These phenomena were interpreted in terms of electrical conductivity and chemical structure of the electrolyte, and interactions such as hydrogen bonding, radical addition reaction, covalent bonding between the tantalum oxide layer and the solvent.

  8. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  9. Low electrolytic conductivity standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.C.; Berezansky, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring and control of the quality of feedwater and boiler water are necessary for power plants. The generation of steam at high temperature and pressure requires that contaminants be strictly limited to very low levels to prevent corrosion and scaling. Standards of low electrolytic conductivity were developed to satisfy the demands of the US Navy and American industry for the measurement of high quality water. The criteria for the selection of appropriate solvent and solutes, based on the principles of equivalent conductivity and Onsager`s limiting law, are described. Dilute solutions of potassium chloride and benzoic acid in 30% n-propanol-water have been chosen as standards. The electrolytic conductivity of both sets of these solutions as a function of molality was determined. Solutions of potassium chloride and of benzoic acid are recommended for use as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 {micro}S/cm conductivity standards. Solutions prepared from potassium chloride in 30% n-propanol-water have been certified as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). SRM 3198 and SRM 3199 are certified nominally at 5 and 15 {micro}S/cm, respectively, at 25.000 C.

  10. Electrolytes - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Meutzner, Falk; Ureña de Vivanco, Mateo

    2014-06-16

    Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

  11. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  12. Application of Organic Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, S.

    1982-01-01

    If ions are considered to be solid material which transport electric charges, polymer materials can then be considered as organic solid electrolytes. The role of these electrolytes is discussed for (1) ion concentration sensors; (2) batteries using lithium as the cathode and a charge complex of organic material and iodine in the anode; and (3) elements applying electrical double layer capability.

  13. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  14. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  15. High energy density electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a new type of electrolytic capacitor was developed. This capacitor, the Evans Hybrid, combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitors cathode. The resulting capacitor has four times the energy density of other electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electrical performance. The prototype, a 480 micro F, 200 V device, had an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now, a 680 micro F, 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. Potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V Hybrid capacitors and results of ongolng qualification status of the MJL-style tantalum.

  16. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  17. Electrolytes and thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ions on temperature is studied for cases where the changes in ionic concentrations are induced by direct infusion or injection of electrolyte solutions into the cerebral ventricles or into specific areas of brain tissue; intravenous infusion or injection; eating food or drinking solutions of different ionic composition; and heat or exercise dehydration. It is shown that introduction of Na(+) and Ca(++) into the cerebral ventricles or into the venous system affects temperature regulation. It appears that the specific action of these ions is different from their osmotic effects. It is unlikely that their action is localized to the thermoregulatory centers in the brain. The infusion experiments demonstrate that the changes in sodium balance occurring during exercise and heat stress are large enough to affect sweat gland function and vasomotor activity.

  18. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  19. Polymeric Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.; Maurer, Wayne W.; Lipic, Paul M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Mortensen, Kell; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    1997-08-01

    High molecular weight block copolymers can be viewed as macromolecular surfactants when blended with thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers. This Letter describes the formation of polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions in mixtures containing a model diblock copolymer and two homopolymers. Although we attribute development of this equilibrium morphology to the effects of fluctuations, mean-field theory provides a quantitative strategy for preparing the bicontinuous state at blend compositions near an isotropic Lifshitz point.

  20. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  1. Synthesis and characterizations of novel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthad, Chalathorn

    Polymer electrolytes are an important component of many electrochemical devices. The ability to control the structures, properties, and functions of polymer electrolytes remains a key subject for the development of next generation functional polymers. Taking advantage of synthetic strategies is a promising approach to achieve the desired chemical structures, morphologies, thermal, mechanical, and electrochemical properties. Therefore, the major goal of this thesis is to develop synthetic methods for of novel proton exchange membranes and ion conductive membranes. In Chapter 2, new classes of fluorinated polymer- polysilsesquioxane nanocomposites have been designed and synthesized. The synthetic method employed includes radical polymerization using the functional benzoyl peroxide initiator for the telechelic fluorinated polymers with perfluorosulfonic acids in the side chains and a subsequent in-situ sol-gel condensation of the prepared triethoxylsilane-terminated fluorinated polymers with alkoxide precursors. The properties of the composite membranes have been studied as a function of the content and structure of the fillers. The proton conductivity of the prepared membranes increases steadily with the addition of small amounts of the polysilsesquioxane fillers. In particular, the sulfopropylated polysilsesquioxane based nanocomposites display proton conductivities greater than Nafion. This is attributed to the presence of pendant sulfonic acids in the fillers, which increases ion-exchange capacity and offers continuous proton transport channels between the fillers and the polymer matrix. The methanol permeability of the prepared membranes has also been examined. Lower methanol permeability and higher electrochemical selectivity than those of Nafion have been demonstrated in the polysilsesquioxane based nanocomposites. In Chapter 3, the synthesis of a new class of ionic liquid-containing triblock copolymers with fluoropolymer mid-block and imidazolium methacrylate

  2. [Synthesis and Characterization of a Sugar Based Electrolyte for Thin-film Polymer Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The work performed during the current renewal period, March 1,1998 focused primarily on the synthesis and characterization of a sugar based electrolyte for thin-film polymer batteries. The initial phase of the project involved developing a suitable sugar to use as the monomer in the polymeric electrolyte synthesis. The monomer has been synthesized and characterized completely. Overall the yield of this material is high and it can be produced in relatively large quantity easily and in high purity. The scheme used for the preparation of the monomer is outlined along with pertinent yields.

  3. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, Lawrance J.; Pearson, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  4. Solid electrolytes and impact-resistant ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, C.A.

    1991-08-01

    In this proposal, we describe a program to exploit recent achievements in two distinct areas of materials science, both of them dependent on the independent motion of singly charged ions through an immobile matrix. The first is the area of non-crystalline solid electrolytes in which this laboratory has gained prominence over the past decade. The second is an area proposed for study in our previous proposal and now verified as a principle worthy of considerable further investigation: it involves the use of mobile ions for fast absorption of mechanical energy from short time impacts hence inhibition of crack nucleation and failure in glassy substances. In the first area, we will study both glassy and polymeric systems. For glassy solid electrolytes, we will perform the first electrochemical measurements of cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients in glasses, to provide data to compare with neutron scattering results and thereby to resolve a theoretical dispute. We will look for an important but so-far-unstudied relationship between conductivity/viscosity decoupling in fast ion glasses, and fragility of the liquid above the glass transition temperature. In polymer-salt systems, we will perform both diagnostic and developmental studies. We will try to demonstrate a continuity of behavior, as function of solvent content, between highly decoupled glass and over-coupled salt/polymer solution behavior. This will incorporate a study of polymer-salt liquid immiscibility at high temperatures to seek the relationship between salts and molecular diluent as additives to the polymer solvent. We propose also to study the effects of perfluorination on both polymer fragility and glass transition, and also on carboxylate basicity for possible improvements in overall polymer-salt performance.

  5. Electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in the presence of a surface-modified photopolymer electrolyte: application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Adriano; Bella, Federico; De La Pierre, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Bianco, Stefano; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Since hundreds of studies on photoanodes and cathodes show that the electrode/electrolyte interfaces represent a key aspect at the base of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performances, it is reported here that these interfaces can be managed by a smart design of the spatial composition of quasi-solid electrolytes. By means of a cheap, rapid, and green process of photoinduced polymerization, composition-tailored polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) with siloxane-enriched surfaces are prepared, and their properties are thoroughly described. When assembled in DSSCs, the interfacial action promoted by the composition-tailored PEMs enhances the photocurrent and fill factor values, thus increasing the global photovoltaic conversion efficiency with respect to the non-modified PEMs. Moreover, the presence of the siloxane-chain-enriched surface increases the hydrophobicity and reduces the water vapor permeation into the device, thus enhancing the cell's durability. PMID:25677499

  6. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  7. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  8. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  9. Hermetically sealed aluminum electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors are used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed under NASA-MSFC SBIR contracts. This capacitor contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated at 250 to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and low internal pressure. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering concepts will be discussed.

  10. Electrolyte composition for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Anderson, Karl E.; Roche, Michael F.

    1979-01-01

    A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that employs FeS as the positive electrode reactant and lithium or lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant includes an improved electrolyte composition. The electrolyte comprises about 60-70 mole percent LiCl and 30-40 percent mole percent KCl which includes LiCl in excess of the eutectic composition. The use of this electrolyte suppresses formation of the J phase and thereby improves the utilization of positive electrode active material during cell cycling.

  11. Polymer stability and function for electrolyte and mixed conductor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Paula; Davis, Nicole; Liu, David; Amanchukwu, Chibueze; Lewis, Nate; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Polymers exhibit a number of attractive properties as solid state electrolytes for electrochemical energy devices, including the light weight, flexibility, low cost and adaptive transport properties that polymeric materials can exhibit. For a number of applications, mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials are of interest to achieve transport of electrons and holes or ions within an electrode or at the electrode-electrolyte interface (e.g. aqueous batteries, solar water splitting, lithium battery electrode). Using layer-by-layer assembly, a mode of alternating adsorption of charged or complementary hydrogen bonding group, we can design composite thin films that contain bicontinuous networks of electronically and ionically conducting polymers. We have found that manipulation of salt concentration and the use of divalent ions during assembly can significantly enhance the number of free acid anions available for ion hopping. Unfortunately, for certain electrochemical applications, polymer stability is a true challenge. In separate studies, we have been investigating macromolecular systems that may provide acceptable ion transport properties, but withstand the harsh oxidative environment of lithium air systems. An investigation of different polymeric materials commonly examined for electrochemical applications provides insight into polymer design for these kinds of environments. NSF Center for Chemical Innovation, NDSEG Fellowship and Samsung Corporation.

  12. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  13. Acrylic esters in radiation polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, N.V.; Khoromskaya, V.A.; Shiryaeva, G.V.

    1988-03-01

    The radiation behavior of (meth)acrylic esters of varying structure was studied. It was shown that in radiation polymerization, in contrast to thermal polymerization, the structure of the ester part can significantly affect the reaction rate and capacity for polymerization in the presence of oxygen. The experimental data are explained from the point of view of consideration of nonvalence effects of the substitutent on the reactivity of the double bond.

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  15. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  16. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOEpatents

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  17. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CRANE OPERATOR, TED SEALS, POURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CRANE OPERATOR, TED SEALS, POURING MOLTEN METAL INTO A 1,300 TON ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE OR MIXER. AN ELECTRONIC SCALE RECORDED THAT 50.5 TONS OF METAL WERE POURED INTO THE FURNACE DURING THIS POUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  19. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  2. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  3. Sustainable polymerizations in recoverable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Yan, Feng; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei; Zhou, Yinxia; Chen, Jiaxin; Tang, Yishan; Texter, John

    2010-03-16

    Free radical and atom-transfer radical polymerizations were conducted in monomer/ionic liquid microemulsions. After the polymerization and isolation of the resultant polymers, the mixture of the catalyst and ionic liquids (surfactant and continuous phase) can be recovered and reused, thereby dramatically improving the environmental sustainability of such chemical processing. The addition of monomer to recovered ionic liquid mixtures regenerates transparent, stable microemulsions that are ready for the next polymerization cycle upon addition of initiator. The method combines the advantages of IL recycling and microemulsion polymerization and minimizes environmental disposable effects from surfactants and heavy metal ions. PMID:20170175

  4. Continuous polymerization reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.S.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for contacting olefinic monomer and initiator in a continuous polymerization process comprising of the steps of: creating three turbulent zones in a vessel; introducing the olefinic monomer into a first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones; introducing the initiator into a second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones, wherein the first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones is substantially diametrically opposed to the second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones respectively.

  5. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  6. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  7. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  8. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  9. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  10. [Iatrogenic electrolyte disorders].

    PubMed

    Kettritz, R; Luft, F C

    2015-07-01

    The maintenance of water and electrolyte homeostasis is of enormous importance for the functioning of cells and tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures intentionally or unintentionally influence important regulatory mechanisms of these interdependent balanced systems. Excessive salt intake doesn't only expand the extracellular volume; it can also cause a considerable increase in tonicity. Owing to its insulin-dependent duality of action, glucose can represent an effective or an ineffective osmolyte. This fact has to be considered in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diuretics reduce the volume expansion via renal excretion of sodium (and water); however, in addition to hypokalemia, diuretics can also cause severe alkalosis. Nowadays, hemodialysis is a routine procedure-but even routine procedures can deliver undesirable surprises. Can dialysis cause an increase in calcium levels, or does the procedure remove therapeutically administered radioactive iodine? The current article presents a series of cases we have come across in recent years. These case reports illustrate common, but also rare iatrogenic situations. The discussion of these cases is aimed at raising awareness of the issues involved in a pathophysiological approach to clinical problems. PMID:26036655

  11. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesfeld, S.

    The recent increase in attention to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC's) is the result of significant technical advances in this technology and the initiation of some projects for the demonstration of complete PEFC-based power system in a bus or in a passenger car. A PEFC powered vehicle has the potential for zero emission, high energy conversion efficiency and extended range compared to present day battery powered EV's. This paper describes recent achievements in R&D on PEFC's. The major thrust areas have been: (1) demonstration of membrane/electrode assemblies with stable high performance in life tests lasting 4000 hours, employing ultra-low Pt loadings corresponding to only 1/2 oz of Pt for the complete power source of a passenger car; (2) effective remedies for the high sensitivity of the Pt electrocatalyst to impurities in the fuel feed stream; and (3) comprehensive evaluation of the physicochemical properties of membrane and electrodes in the PEFC, clarifying the water management issues and enabling effective codes and diagnostics for this fuel cell.

  12. Wetting in electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2013-06-01

    Wetting of a charged substrate by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory applied to a lattice model. Within the present model the pure, i.e., salt-free solvent, for which all interactions are of the nearest-neighbor type only, exhibits a second-order wetting transition for all strengths of the substrate-particle and the particle-particle interactions for which the wetting transition temperature is nonzero. The influences of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength on the wetting transition temperature and on the order of the wetting transition are studied. If the substrate is neutral, the addition of salt to the solvent changes neither the order nor the transition temperature of the wetting transition of the system. If the surface charge is nonzero, upon adding salt this continuous wetting transition changes to first-order within the wide range of substrate surface charge densities and ionic strengths studied here. As the substrate surface charge density is increased, at fixed ionic strength, the wetting transition temperature decreases and the prewetting line associated with the first-order wetting transition becomes longer. This decrease of the wetting transition temperature upon increasing the surface charge density becomes more pronounced by decreasing the ionic strength. PMID:23758391

  13. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  14. A Statistical Treatment of Bioassay Pour Fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The binomial probability distribution is used to treat the statistics of a microbiological sample that is split into two parts, with only one part evaluated for spore count. One wishes to estimate the total number of spores in the sample based on the counts obtained from the part that is evaluated (pour fraction). Formally, the binomial distribution is recharacterized as a function of the observed counts (successes), with the total number (trials) an unknown. The pour fraction is the probability of success per spore (trial). This distribution must be renormalized in terms of the total number. Finally, the new renormalized distribution is integrated and mathematically inverted to yield the maximum estimate of the total number as a function of a desired level of confidence ( P(pour fraction. The extension to recovery efficiency corrections is also presented. Now the product of recovery efficiency and pour fraction may be small enough that the likely value may be much larger than the usual calculation: the number of spores divided by that product. The use of this analysis would not be limited to microbiological data.

  15. Self-stabilized magnetic polymeric composite nanoparticles by emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shulai; Ramos, Jose; Forcada, Jacqueline

    2007-12-18

    Self-stabilized magnetic polymeric composite nanoparticles (SS-MPCPs) were prepared by emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization using styrene (St) as a monomer, sodium p-styrenesulfonate (NaSS) as an ionic comonomer, hexadecane (HD) as a hydrophobe, and 2,2'-azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator in the presence of hydrophobic magnetite particles. The hydrophobic magnetite particles with an average size of about 10 nm were prepared by the acidification of the water-based magnetite ferrofluid, previously synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method. Some colloidal features of the synthesized SS-MPCPs were analyzed. The morphology and the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the SS-MPCPs were observed and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface charge density was determined by conductometric titration. The surface hairy layer and the colloidal stability of SS-MPCPs against different electrolytes were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The average Fe3O4 content of SS-MPCPs was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used to analyze the magnetic properties of the SS-MPCPs under dry conditions. The results show that the encapsulation of magnetite is successful and the distribution of magnetite particles inside SS-MPCPs is mainly in the core of the particles. The best SS-MPCPs prepared had a relatively narrow PSD, exhibited superparamagnetism, and possessed some magnetic response. PMID:18031070

  16. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  17. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  18. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  19. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  20. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  1. First come, first served. Does pouring sequence matter for consumption?

    PubMed

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Dieze, Anastasia; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2016-10-01

    Various environmental factors associated with eating and drinking affect people's food choice and food intake. Lately, the role of tableware has been studied in more detail. The aim of this study was to determine whether pouring sequence of food components affects portion size. Study 1 invited participants to pour a beverage containing both apple juice and sparkling water. Pouring apple juice first increased juice by almost 25% compared to pouring water first. Pouring water first increased water by almost 19% compared to pouring juice first confirming our hypothesis that pouring sequence affects the ratio poured. Study 2 asked participants to prepare themselves a snack containing cereals with milk. Within-subject comparisons revealed that pouring milk before cereals significantly increased both milk and cereal amounts resulting in larger overall portion size compared to pouring cereals before adding milk. Habitual tendencies for preparing foods causing a perception bias or a perception bias itself could be possible explanations for the divergent study findings. These findings show for the first time the influence of pouring and preparation sequence on portion size. PMID:27417334

  2. Photopolymer Electrolytes for Sustainable, Upscalable, Safe, and Ambient-Temperature Sodium-Ion Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bella, Federico; Colò, Francesca; Nair, Jijeesh R; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The first example of a photopolymerized electrolyte for a sodium-ion battery is proposed herein. By means of a preparation process free of solvents, catalysts, purification steps, and separation steps, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional polymeric network capable of efficient sodium-ion transport. The thermal properties of the resulting solid electrolyte separator, characterized by means of thermogravimetric and calorimetric techniques, are excellent for use in sustainable energy systems conceived for safe large-scale grid storage. The photopolymerized electrolyte shows a wide electrochemical stability window up to 4.8 V versus Na/Na(+) along with the highest ionic conductivity (5.1 mS cm(-1) at 20 °C) obtained in the field of Na-ion polymer batteries so far and stable long-term constant-current charge/discharge cycling. Moreover, the polymeric networks are also demonstrated for the in situ fabrication of electrode/electrolyte composites with excellent interfacial properties, which are ideal for all-solid-state, safe, and easily upscalable device assembly. PMID:26437583

  3. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  4. Assessment of Lithium-based Battery Electrolytes Developed under the NASA PERS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, NASA formally completed the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Program, which was established in 2000 in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The goal of this program was to ultimately develop an advanced, space-qualified battery technology, which embodied a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and complementary components, with improved performance characteristics that would address future aerospace battery requirements. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. A variety of cell and polymeric electrolyte concepts were pursued as part of the development efforts undertaken at numerous governmental, industrial and academic laboratories. Numerous candidate electrolyte materials were developed, synthesized and optimized for evaluation. Utilizing the component screening facility and the "standardized" test procedures developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, electrochemical screening and performance evaluations of promising candidate materials were completed. This overview summarizes test results for a variety of candidate electrolyte materials that were developed under the PERS Program. Electrolyte properties are contrasted and compared to the original project goals, and the strengths and weaknesses of the electrolyte chemistries are discussed. Limited cycling data for full-cells using lithium metal and vanadium oxide electrodes are also presented. Based on measured electrolyte properties, the projected performance characteristics and temperature limitations of batteries utilizing

  5. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  6. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  7. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  8. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  9. Decoupling Mechanical and Ion Transport Properties in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Lucas D.

    Polymer electrolytes are mixtures of a polar polymer and salt, in which the polymer replaces small molecule solvents and provides a dielectric medium so that ions can dissociate and migrate under the influence of an external electric field. Beginning in the 1970s, research in polymer electrolytes has been primarily motivated by their promise to advance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, such as lithium ion batteries, flexible organic solar cells, and anhydrous fuel cells. In particular, polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) can improve both safety and energy density by eliminating small molecule, volatile solvents and enabling an all-solid-state design of electrochemical cells. The outstanding challenge in the field of polymer electrolytes is to maximize ionic conductivity while simultaneously addressing orthogonal mechanical properties, such as modulus, fracture toughness, or high temperature creep resistance. The crux of the challenge is that flexible, polar polymers best-suited for polymer electrolytes (e.g., poly(ethylene oxide)) offer little in the way of mechanical robustness. Similarly, polymers typically associated with superior mechanical performance (e.g., poly(methyl methacrylate)) slow ion transport due to their glassy polymer matrix. The design strategy is therefore to employ structured electrolytes that exhibit distinct conducting and mechanically robust phases on length scales of tens of nanometers. This thesis reports a remarkably simple, yet versatile synthetic strategy---termed polymerization-induced phase separation, or PIPS---to prepare PEMs exhibiting an unprecedented combination of both high conductivity and high modulus. This performance is enabled by co-continuous, isotropic networks of poly(ethylene oxide)/ionic liquid and highly crosslinked polystyrene. A suite of in situ, time-resolved experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism by which this network morphology forms, and it appears to be tied to the

  10. Stabilization of emulsions using polymeric surfactants based on inulin.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Th F; Vandamme, A; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Stevens, C V

    2004-05-20

    The use of polymeric surfactants for stabilization of emulsions is described. A brief account of general classification and description of polymeric surfactants is given. This is followed by a description of the adsorption and conformation of polymeric surfactants at interfaces. The theoretical approaches for studying polymer adsorption are briefly described. This is followed by a section on the experimental techniques that can be applied to study adsorption and conformation of polymers at the interface. Examples are given to illustrate the experimental techniques. A section is devoted to the interaction between droplets containing adsorbed polymer layers (steric stabilization). The last section gives results on oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilised with a novel graft copolymeric surfactant based on inulin that has been modified by introducing alkyl groups. Two oils were used, namely Isopar M (isoparaffinic oil) and cyclomethicone. Emulsions prepared using the inulin-based surfactant have large droplets, but this could be significantly reduced by addition of a cosurfactant in the oil phase, namely Span 20. The stability of the emulsions was investigated in water, in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) NaCl and in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). These emulsions were stable for more than 1 year up to 50 degrees C in NaCl concentrations up to 2 mol dm(-3) and 1 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). This high stability in high electrolyte concentrations could be attributed to the nature of the hydrophilic (stabilizing) polyfructose chain. This was confirmed using cloud point measurements, which showed high hydration of the polyfructose chain in such high electrolyte concentrations. This ensured the long-term physical stability resulting from the strong steric repulsion between the polyfructose chains. PMID:15072943

  11. Thermoelectricity in Confined Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Mathias; Hardt, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which-for narrow channels-may cause thermovoltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium. PMID:27314730

  12. Thermoelectricity in Confined Liquid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzel, Mathias; Hardt, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which—for narrow channels—may cause thermovoltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium.

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two

  14. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  15. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  16. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  17. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  18. Controllable synthesis of new polymerizable macrosurfactants via CCTP and RAFT techniques and investigation of their performance in emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yan, Lili; Li, Qing; Wang, Caifeng; Chen, Su

    2010-02-01

    We reported herein the synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PMAA-b-PBA) block copolymers (surfmers) and their performance as novel polymerizable macrosurfactants in emulsion polymerization. The surfmers bearing terminal unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds were first successfully designed and sythesized via catalytic chain transfer polymerization (CCTP) and radical addition-fragmentation polymerization (RAFT) techniques. The structures of surfmers were characterized by Raman spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The critical micelle concentration of surfmers was determined. Subsequently, the surfmers were used as emulsifier to prepare polyacrylate latexes (PA-surf). The influence of the surfmer concentration as well as PMAA and PBA chain segment ratios of surfmer on their performance in emulsion polymerization was discussed thoroughly. The particle size, amount of coagulum, and stability against electrolyte solutions of the latexes were evaluated. Also, the relations between monomer conversion in emulsion polymerization, polymerization rate, emulsion particle size, surface tension, and reaction time were investigated, which showed some interesting information for the probable mechanism underlying this emulsion polymerization system. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR FT-IR) were performed to investigate the surface morphology and component distribution of the latex films. The results show high efficiency of these surfmers in emulsion polymerization, suggesting that the resultant PMAA-b-PBA block copolymers act not only as the emulsifier but also as the stabilizer of monomer droplets as well as the so-called comonomer. PMID:19928970

  19. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Gosselink, Denise; Doan, The Nam Long; Sadhu, Mikhail; Cheang, Ho-Jae; Chen, Pu

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes. PMID:24958296

  20. Transparent bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic counter electrodes and iodine-free electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Zhiliang; Rong, Yaoguang; Han, Hongwei

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel bifacially active transparent dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) assembled with a transparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) counter electrode and a colorless iodine-free polymer gel (IFPG) electrolyte was developed. The IFPG electrolyte was prepared by employing an ionic liquid (1,2-dimethyl-3-propylinmidazolium iodide, DMPII) as the charge transfer intermediate and a polymer composite as the gelator without the addition of iodine, exhibiting high conductivity and non-absorption characters. PEDOT electrodes were prepared via a facile electro-polymerization method. By controlling the amount of polymerization charge capacity, we optimized the PEDOT electrodes with high transparency and a favorable activity for catalyzing the IFPG electrolyte. The bifacial DSSCs device fabricated by this kind of transparent PEDOT electrode and colorless IFPG electrolyte showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.35% and 4.98% at 100 mW cm-2 AM1.5 illumination corresponding to front- and rear-side illumination. It is notable that the PCE under rear-side illumination approaches 80% that of front-side illumination. Moreover, the device shows excellent stability as confirmed by aging test. These promising results highlight the enormous potential of this transparent PEDOT CE and colorless IFPG electrolyte in scaling up and commercialization of low cost and effective bifacial DSSCs.

  1. Admicellar polymerization of precipated silica

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.L.; Grady, B.P.; Harwell, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    The tendency of a surfactant molecule to adsorb at a solid-liquid interface is the basis for an in situ surface modification process, termed admicellar polymerization. The four-step admicellar polymerization process includes: (1) adsorption of surfactant at the solid-liquid interface, (2) adsolubilization of monomer into the surfactant bilayer, (3) polymerization using free-radical initiators and heat, (4) removal of excess surfactant to expose the polymer modified surface. The process is used to apply polymer to precipitated silica to enhance the compatibility of the silica when added to filled rubber. The adsorption isotherms were first determined for particular surfactant/silica combinations to find the surfactant concentration that would sufficiently adsolubilize the monomer, while remaining below the critical micelle concentration. A series of experiments were then devised for the polymerization reactions in which the surfactant and monomer amounts were varied over three levels to establish the optimal combination.

  2. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles. PMID:16430253

  3. Alkali metal crystalline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuhong; Gamble, Stephen; Ainsworth, David; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Andreev, Yuri G; Bruce, Peter G

    2009-07-01

    Polymer electrolytes have been studied extensively because uniquely they combine ionic conductivity with solid yet flexible mechanical properties, rendering them important for all-solid-state devices including batteries, electrochromic displays and smart windows. For some 30 years, ionic conductivity in polymers was considered to occur only in the amorphous state above Tg. Crystalline polymers were believed to be insulators. This changed with the discovery of Li(+) conductivity in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). However, new crystalline polymer electrolytes have proved elusive, questioning whether the 6:1 complex has particular structural features making it a unique exception to the rule that only amorphous polymers conduct. Here, we demonstrate that ionic conductivity in crystalline polymers is not unique to the 6:1 complex by reporting several new crystalline polymer electrolytes containing different alkali metal salts (Na(+), K(+) and Rb(+)), including the best conductor poly(ethylene oxide)(8):NaAsF(6) discovered so far, with a conductivity 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). These are the first crystalline polymer electrolytes with a different composition and structures to that of the 6:1 Li(+) complex. PMID:19543313

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Skotheim, T.; Lundstrom, I.

    1982-04-01

    Solid photoelectrochemical cells are described based on PEO-KI/I/sub 2/ electrolytes, n-Si/Pt/PPy photoanodes, and conductive tin-oxide glass counter electrodes. The performance of the present devices is limited by a high series resistance in the polymer film. 22 refs.

  5. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  6. Improved fabrication of electrolytic capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamari, F. J.; Moresi, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    After processing parts for assembly, insulative cup is fitted to bottom of can, then electrolytic solution consisting of white sulfuric acid gel is inserted into can. Pellet is put in can and is fitted tightly into cup. Finally, bead weld is formed between can and header plug.

  7. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  8. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  9. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.

    1980-05-01

    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  10. FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION INTO THREE VERTICAL MOLDS SUBMERGED IN A WATER-FILLED TANK BELOW THE CASTING FLOOR. THE CASTING CREW'S JOBS DURING THIS PHASE OF THE OPERATION INCLUDE REGULATING THE POURING RATE AND MONITORING THE VALVE RODS THAT CONTROL THE WATER SPRAYS ON THE MOLDS. DIFFERENT ALLOYS REQUIRE SPECIFIC POURING SPEEDS AND WATER PRESSURES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L

    2014-04-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li(+)Cl(-) catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  12. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  13. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V.

  14. Electrolytes for high-energy lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Agarwal, Praveen; Jayaprakash, N.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-06-01

    From aqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-air cells to ionic liquid electrolytes that permit continuous, high-rate cycling of secondary batteries comprising metallic lithium anodes, we show that many of the key impediments to progress in developing next-generation batteries with high specific energies can be overcome with cleaver designs of the electrolyte. When these designs are coupled with as cleverly engineered electrode configurations that control chemical interactions between the electrolyte and electrode or by simple additives-based schemes for manipulating physical contact between the electrolyte and electrode, we further show that rechargeable battery configurations can be facilely designed to achieve desirable safety, energy density and cycling performance.

  15. Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

  16. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  17. Polymeric materials in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    Paper of short review type. It is the continuation of and addition to previous review papers "V. E. Skurat. Polymers in Space. In: Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, vol. 4, Wiley and sons, 2010; Ibid., 2012 (on line)". Following topics are considered: (1) Destruction of polymers by solar radiation with various wavelengths in different spectral regions (visible-UV, vacuum UV (VUV), deep UV, soft and hard X-rays) are discussed. In difference with common polymer photochemistry induced by UV radiation, directions of various routs of polymer phototransformations and their relative yields are greatly dependent on wavelength of light (photon energy) during illuminations in VUV, deep UV and X-ray regions. During last twenty years, intensive spacecraft investigations of solar spectrum show great periodic and spontaneous variations of radiation intensities in short-wavelengths regions - up to one - two decimal orders of magnitude for X-rays. As a result, during solar flares the absorbed dose on the polymer surfaces from X-rays can be compared with absorbed dose from VUV radiation. (2) Some new approaches to predictions of reaction efficiencies of fast orbital atomic oxygen in their interaction with polymeric materials are considered. (3) Some aspects of photocatalitic destruction of polymers in vacuum conditions by full-spectrum solar radiation are discussed. This process can take place in enamels containing semiconducting particles (TiO2, ZnO) as pigments. (4) Contamination of spacecraft surfaces from intrinsic outer atmosphere play important role not only from the point of view of deterioration of optical and thermophysical properties. Layers of SiO2 contaminations with nanometer thicknesses can greatly diminish mass losses from perfluorinated polymers under VUV irradiation.

  18. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based

  19. Electrolytic production of neodymium metal from a molten chloride electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, M.F.; Murphy, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments on electrowinning of neodymium metal by using a molten-metal cathode at 650{degrees} C and an electrolyte of 50 mol pet NdCl, (neodymium chloride) and 50 mol pet KCl (potassium chloride). The molten-metal cathodes were alloys of magnesium and zinc or magnesium and cadmium. Current efficiencies were 90 pct with a Mg-Zn cathode and 80 pct with a Mg-Cd cathode. The Mg-Cd cathode was easily separated from the electrolyte. In contrast, the Mg-Zn cathode tended to mix with the electrolyte, making separation difficult. The cathode metals were separated from the neodymium by distillation at 1,100{degrees} C under a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}4} torr. Neodymium metal of 99.9 + purity was recovered from the Mg-Cd alloy cathode after 30 min distillation time. The neodymium recovered from the Mg-Zn system contained almost 2 pct Zn after vacuum distillation. Continuous operation using the Mg-Cd alloy cathode was demonstrated.

  20. Tetraarylborate polymer networks as single-ion conducting solid electrolytes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F.; Aubrey, Michael L.; Alsbaiee, Alaaeddin; Ameloot, Rob; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Dichtel, William R.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-06-23

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes based upon anionic tetrakis(phenyl)borate tetrahedral nodes and linear bis-alkyne linkers is reported. Sonogashira polymerizations using tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate, tetrakis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate and tetrakis(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate delivered highly cross-linked polymer networks with both 1,4-diethynylbeznene and a tri(ethylene glycol) substituted derivative. Promising initial conductivity metrics have been observed, including high room temperature conductivities (up to 2.7 × 10-4 S cm-1), moderate activation energies (0.25–0.28 eV), and high lithium ion transport numbers (up to tLi+ = 0.93). Initial investigations into the effects of important materials parameters such as bulk morphology, porosity, fluorination, and other chemical modification, provide starting design parameters for furthermore » development of this new class of solid electrolytes.« less

  1. Tetraarylborate polymer networks as single-ion conducting solid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F.; Aubrey, Michael L.; Alsbaiee, Alaaeddin; Ameloot, Rob; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Dichtel, William R.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-06-23

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes based upon anionic tetrakis(phenyl)borate tetrahedral nodes and linear bis-alkyne linkers is reported. Sonogashira polymerizations using tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate, tetrakis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate and tetrakis(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate delivered highly cross-linked polymer networks with both 1,4-diethynylbeznene and a tri(ethylene glycol) substituted derivative. Promising initial conductivity metrics have been observed, including high room temperature conductivities (up to 2.7 × 10-4 S cm-1), moderate activation energies (0.25–0.28 eV), and high lithium ion transport numbers (up to tLi+ = 0.93). Initial investigations into the effects of important materials parameters such as bulk morphology, porosity, fluorination, and other chemical modification, provide starting design parameters for further development of this new class of solid electrolytes.

  2. Electrochromic Device with Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Alexander N.; Rabotkin, Sergey V.; Kovsharov, Nikolay F.

    2016-08-01

    In this study a solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) comprised of a WO3 and Prussian blue (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) thin film couple with a Li+-conducting solid polymer electrolyte is discussed. WO3 was deposited on K-Glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method, while Prussian blue layer was formed on the same substrate by electrodeposition method. The parameters of the electrochromic device K-Glass/WO3/Li+-electrolyte/PB/K-Glass, such as change of transmittance, response time and stability were successfully tested using coupled optoelectrochemical methods. The device was colored or bleached by the application of +2 V or -2 V, respectively. Light modulation with transmittance variation of up to 59% and coloration efficiency of 43 cm2/C at a wavelength of 550 nm were obtained. Numerous switching of the ECD over 1200 cycles without the observation of significant degradation has been demonstrated.

  3. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  4. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  5. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  6. Electrochromic Device with Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Alexander N.; Rabotkin, Sergey V.; Kovsharov, Nikolay F.

    2016-05-01

    In this study a solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) comprised of a WO3 and Prussian blue (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) thin film couple with a Li+-conducting solid polymer electrolyte is discussed. WO3 was deposited on K-Glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method, while Prussian blue layer was formed on the same substrate by electrodeposition method. The parameters of the electrochromic device K-Glass/WO3/Li+-electrolyte/PB/K-Glass, such as change of transmittance, response time and stability were successfully tested using coupled optoelectrochemical methods. The device was colored or bleached by the application of +2 V or -2 V, respectively. Light modulation with transmittance variation of up to 59% and coloration efficiency of 43 cm2/C at a wavelength of 550 nm were obtained. Numerous switching of the ECD over 1200 cycles without the observation of significant degradation has been demonstrated.

  7. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  8. Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Kasiraman

    Rheology of complex fluids has been a topic of considerable interest recently. Bicontinuous microemulsions (BmuE), made by mixing appropriate amounts of oil, water and a surfactant, form a unique class of complex fluids. They possess a characteristic nanostructure consisting of undulating surfaces with vanishingly small interfacial curvature. BmuEs can also be generated in polymers by mixing appropriate amounts of two homopolymers and their corresponding diblock copolymer. The main objective of the present research is to study effects of shear on a model polymeric BmuE. Scattering is used as a predominant tool with in situ flow devices, along with optical microscopy and rheology. The model BmuE consists of a ternary blend of poly(ethyl ethylene) (PEE), poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and a PEE-PDMS diblock copolymer. Steady shear experiments reveal four regimes as a function of shear rate. At low shear rates (regime I), Newtonian behavior is observed; there is onset of shear thinning at higher rates (regime II). In regime III, the stress is independent of shear rate, whereas it increases with shear rate once again in regime IV. Morphological characterization was carried out for each of these four regimes using scattering and microscopy, the key result being the evidence for flow-induced phase separation in regime III. Transient rheological measurements were conducted for startup and step changes in shear rate, and the BmuE exhibits features similar to worm-like micellar colloidal systems. Time-resolved light scattering and microscopy also reveal interesting characteristics. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy indicates similarities with neat block copolymers near the order-disorder transition. The equilibrium rheological behavior is intriguing and detailed comparisons are made with Landau-Ginzburg theoretical models. Other areas of research as a part of this thesis include study of structural dynamics of BmuEs with dynamic light scattering, and the rheological

  9. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  10. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  11. Conductivity and Stability of Photopolymerized Polymer Electrolyte Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Chen, Yu-Ming; Mao, Jialin; Zhu, Yu; Kyu'S Group, , Dr.; Zhu'S Group Collaboration, , Dr.

    2014-03-01

    A melt-processing window has been identified within the wide isotropic region of the phase diagram of ternary blends consisting of poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA), tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide (LiTFSI). Upon UV-crosslinking of PEGDA in the isotropic window, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) network thus formed is completely transparent and remains in the single phase without undergoing polymerization-induced phase separation or polymerization-induced crystallization. These PEM networks are solid albeit flexible and light-weight with safety and space saving attributes. The ionic conductivity as determined by AC impedance spectroscopy exhibited very high room-temperature ionic conductivity on the order of ~10-3 S/cm in several compositions, viz., 10/45/45, 20/40/40 and 30/35/35 PEGDA/TEGDME/LiTFSI networks. Cyclic voltammetry measurement of these solid-state PEM networks revealed excellent electrochemical stability against lithium reference electrode. The above study has been extended to the anode (graphite) and cathode (LiFePO4) half-cell configurations with lithium as counter electrode. Charge/discharge cycling behavior of these half cells will be discussed. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070 and University of Akron.

  12. Superionic solid-state polymer electrolyte membrane for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Cao, Jinwei

    2015-03-01

    Completely amorphous, flexible, solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (ss-PEM) consisted of polyethylene glycol diacrylate /succinonitrile plasticizer (SCN)/lithium trifluorosulfonyl imide were fabricated via UV polymerization. The room temperature ionic conductivity of our ss-PEM is extremely high (i.e., 10-3S/cm), which is already in the superionic conductor range of inorganic and/or liquid electrolyte counterparts. Of particular interest is that our ss-PEM is thermally stable up to 140°C, which is superior to the liquid electrolyte counterpart that degrades above 80°C. The ss-PEM exhibits cyclic stability in both LiFePO4/Li and Li4Ti5O12 /Li half-cells up to 50 cycles tested. The trend of conductivity enhancement with temperature is reproducible in the repeated cycles, showing melting transitions of the SCN plastic crystals. In the compositions close to the solid (SCN plastic crystal)-liquid coexistence line, polymerization-induced crystallization occurs during photo-curing. The effect of solid-liquid segregation on ionic conductivity behavior is discussed. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  13. Solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; See, G. G.; Schubert, F. H.; Powell, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A program to design, develop, fabricate and assemble a one-man, self-contained, solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system (SX-1) incorporating solid electrolyte electrolyzer drums was completed. The SX-1 is a preprototype engineering model designed to produce 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day of breathable oxygen (O2) from the electrolysis of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor. The CO2 supply rate was established based on the metabolic CO2 generation rate for one man of 0.998 kg (2.2 lb)/day. The water supply rate (0.254 kg (0.56 lb)/day) was designed to be sufficient to make up the difference between the 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day O2 generation specification and the O2 available through CO2 electrolysis, 0.726 kg (1.6 lb)/day. The SX-1 was successfully designed, fabricated and assembled. Design verification tests (DVT) or the CO Disproportionators, H2 separators, control instrumentation, monitor instrumentation, water feed mechanism were successfully completed. The erratic occurrence of electrolyzer drum leakage prevented the completion of the CO2 electrolyzer module and water electrolyzer module DVT's and also prevented the performance of SX-1 integrated testing. Further development work is required to improve the solid electrolyte cell high temperature seals.

  14. A statistical treatment of bioassay pour fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David

    A bioassay is a method for estimating the number of bacterial spores on a spacecraft surface for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with planetary protection (PP) requirements (Ref. 1). The details of the process may be seen in the appropriate PP document (e.g., for NASA, Ref. 2). In general, the surface is mechanically sampled with a damp sterile swab or wipe. The completion of the process is colony formation in a growth medium in a plate (Petri dish); the colonies are counted. Consider a set of samples from randomly selected, known areas of one spacecraft surface, for simplicity. One may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the bioburden density, which is the ratio of counts to area sampled. The standard deviation represents an estimate of the variation from place to place of the true bioburden density commingled with the precision of the individual sample counts. The accuracy of individual sample results depends on the equipment used, the collection method, and the culturing method. One aspect that greatly influences the result is the pour fraction, which is the quantity of fluid added to the plates divided by the total fluid used in extracting spores from the sampling equipment. In an analysis of a single sample’s counts due to the pour fraction, one seeks to answer the question: What is the probability that if a certain number of spores are counted with a known pour fraction, that there are an additional number of spores in the part of the rinse not poured. This is given for specific values by the binomial distribution density, where detection (of culturable spores) is success and the probability of success is the pour fraction. A special summation over the binomial distribution, equivalent to adding for all possible values of the true total number of spores, is performed. This distribution when normalized will almost yield the desired quantity. It is the probability that the additional number of spores does not exceed a certain value. Of course

  15. A statistical treatment of bioassay pour fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David

    A bioassay is a method for estimating the number of bacterial spores on a spacecraft surface for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with planetary protection (PP) requirements (Ref. 1). The details of the process may be seen in the appropriate PP document (e.g., for NASA, Ref. 2). In general, the surface is mechanically sampled with a damp sterile swab or wipe. The completion of the process is colony formation in a growth medium in a plate (Petri dish); the colonies are counted. Consider a set of samples from randomly selected, known areas of one spacecraft surface, for simplicity. One may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the bioburden density, which is the ratio of counts to area sampled. The standard deviation represents an estimate of the variation from place to place of the true bioburden density commingled with the precision of the individual sample counts. The accuracy of individual sample results depends on the equipment used, the collection method, and the culturing method. One aspect that greatly influences the result is the pour fraction, which is the quantity of fluid added to the plates divided by the total fluid used in extracting spores from the sampling equipment. In an analysis of a single sample’s counts due to the pour fraction, one seeks to answer the question: What is the probability that if a certain number of spores are counted with a known pour fraction, that there are an additional number of spores in the part of the rinse not poured. This is given for specific values by the binomial distribution density, where detection (of culturable spores) is success and the probability of success is the pour fraction. A special summation over the binomial distribution, equivalent to adding for all possible values of the true total number of spores, is performed. This distribution when normalized will almost yield the desired quantity. It is the probability that the additional number of spores does not exceed a certain value. Of course

  16. Optimizing the electrochemical performance of imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquids by varying tethering groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhe

    Increasing efforts have been made in the area of sustainable alternative energy devices in the past few decades in order to develop high efficiency, low-cost electrochemical devices with sufficient long-term stability. Due to the drawbacks of conventional organic liquid electrolytes, such as leakage, volatility, flammability, and toxicity, the synthesis of solvent-free electrolyte materials has been studied world-wide. Among all the alternatives, polymer electrolytes are of great interest and have attracted many research groups. Solid-state polymer electrolytes and in particular, polymer ionic liquids (PILs), considered to be promising candidates, have been under studied widely. Ionic Liquids (ILs), defined as organic/inorganic salts with m.p. lower than 100 °C, offer good chemical stability, low flammability, negligible vapor pressure and high ionic conductivity. PILs, as the polymerized state of ILs, not only present some of the unique properties of ILs, but also benefit from the intrinsic properties of polymers, such as better thermal and chemical stability, enhanced mechanical properties, and tunable solution properties. The constrained structure of PILs may help to overcome fabrication and leakage problems associated with simple liquid electrolytes, but typically also leads to lower ionic conductivity. Once polymerized, the ionic conductivity of PILs drops substantially, usually by several orders of magnitude compared to the corresponding monomers. Therefore, to improve PILs chain mobilitiy is crucial. Previous studies suggest that a flexible tethering group should make the polymer backbone less rigid and increase electrolyte ion mobility. To investigate how tethering groups affect both electrochemical performance and physical properties of free ILs and PILs, we first report the synthesis and characterization of a novel class of imidazolium (Im) based IL model compounds and their corresponding PILs. Poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEOs), considered to be promising

  17. Group transfer polymerization. Mechanism revisted

    SciTech Connect

    Sogah, D.Y.

    1993-12-31

    Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP) is a living polymerization technique that allows control of characteristics of vinyl polymers, especially those derived from methacrylate monomers. Several mechanistic pathways have been proposed by different research groups. This presentation will examine the most plausible mechanisms and the evidence supporting each one. The dependence of the reaction on the type, nature and concentrations of catalysts, other additives, initiators and monomers will be discussed. The crucial role that chiral organosilicon reagents may play will be examined using a novel cyclic initiator containing 2,2`-dialkylsilyl-1,1`-binaphthyl.

  18. Deactivator for olefin polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Rekers, L.J.; Speca, A.N.; Mayhew, H.W.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described comprising deactivating an olefin polymerization catalyst selected from the group consisting of Ziegler-Natta transition element catalysts and catalysts based on transition metal oxides by contacting the catalyst with a copolymer. The copolymer consists of an alpha-olefin having from 2 to about 12 carbon atoms and an unsaturated ester of a carboxylic acid. The deactivating copolymer is present in an amount such that the molar ratio of the unsaturated ester thereof to the sum of the transition element component of the polymerization catalyst and a cocatalyst for the transition element catalyst is in the range of between about 0.1 and about 6.

  19. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  20. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-13

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  1. Foam, emulsion and wetting films stabilized by polyoxyalkylated diethylenetriamine (DETA) polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Khristov, Khr; Petkova, H; Alexandrova, L; Nedyalkov, M; Platikanov, D; Exerowa, D; Beetge, J

    2011-10-14

    This review explores three (A, B, C) polyoxyalkylated diethylenetriamine (DETA) polymeric surfactants belonging to the group of star-like polymers. They have a similar structure, differing only in the number of polymeric branches (4, 6 and 9 in the mentioned order). The differences in these surfactants' ability to stabilize foam, o/w/o and w/o/w emulsion and wetting films are evaluated by a number of methods summarized in Section 2. Results from the studies indicate that differences in polymeric surfactants' molecular structure affect the properties exhibited at air/water, oil/water and water/solid interfaces, such as the value of surface tension, interfacial tension, critical micelle concentration, degree of hydrophobicity of solid surface, etc. Foam, emulsion and wetting films stabilized by such surfactants also show different behavior regarding some specific parameters, such as critical electrolyte concentration, surfactant concentration for obtaining a stable film, film thickness value, etc. These observations give reasons to believe that model studies can support a comprehensive understanding of how the change in polymeric surfactant structure can impact thin liquid films properties. This may enable a targeted design of the macromolecular architecture depending on the polymeric surfactants application purpose. PMID:21807358

  2. Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Shih-To

    This thesis research is devoted to the development of phosphazene-based electrolyte materials for use in various energy applications. Phosphazenes are inorganic-organic materials that provide unusal synthetic advantages and unique process features that make them useful in energy research. This particular thesis consists of six chapters and is focused on four specific aspects: lithium battery, solar cell, and fuel cell electrolytes, and artificial muscles. Chapter 1 is written as an introduction and review of phosphazene electrolytes used in energy applications. In this introduction the basic history and characteristics of the phosphazenes are discussed briefly, followed by examples of current and future applications of phosphazene electrolytes related to energy. Notes are included on how the rest of the chapters relate to previous work. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the conductivity and fire safety of ethyleneoxy phosphazene gel electrolytes. The current highly flammable configurations for rechargeable lithium batteries generate serious safety concerns. Although commercial fire retardant additives have been investigated, they tend to decrease the overall efficiency of the battery. In these two chapters the discussion is focused on ionically conductive, non-halogenated lithium battery additives based on a methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomer and the corresponding high polymer, both of which can increase the fire resistance of a battery while retaining a high energy efficiency. Conductivities in the range of 10 -4 Scm-1 have been obtained for self-extinguishing, ion-conductive methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomers. The addition of 25 wt% high polymeric poly[bis(methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene] to propylene carbonate electrolytes lowers the flammability by 90% while maintaining a good ionic conductivity of 2.5x10--3 Scm -1 Chapter 2 is focused more on the electrochemical properties of the electrolytes and how they compare to other similar materials, while Chapter 3

  3. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  4. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-28

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

  5. Electrolyte for lead plate storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.

    1981-01-13

    An electrolyte for lead plate storage battery is disclosed comprising selenic acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) in aqueous solution at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.3 grams to approximately 4.0 grams of selenic acid per liter of electrolyte; the preferred embodiment of said electrolyte containing additional material selected from the group consisting of ferrous sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/) at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.1 grams to approximately 8.0 grams per liter of electrolyte, sodium chloride (NaCl) at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.1 grams to approximately 4.0 grams per liter of electrolyte, and manganous sulfate (MnSO/sub 4/) at concentrations ranging from approximately 005 grams to approximately 0.1 grams per liter of electrolyte.

  6. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycely O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers. acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors, in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors. weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 1000 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  7. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    DOEpatents

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  9. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  10. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

    1984-09-14

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  11. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. PMID:24623577

  12. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Bloom, Ira D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  13. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1986-04-17

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  14. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1987-04-21

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

  15. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  16. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  17. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  18. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6]/hv.

  19. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  20. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  1. Low vibration polymeric composite engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, David P.; Muench, Rolf K.

    1994-12-01

    An internal combustion engine is constructed with metallic parts in its regions which are subjected to high stress (temperature, pressure) during combustion and polymeric materials in its regions which are subjected to relatively lower stresses. The integrated construction helps realize increased power densities and reductions on engine noise without compromising engine performance. V-configuration Diesel engines particularly benefit from this construction.

  2. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  3. Supramolecular polymerization: Living it up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würthner, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Protein fibril formation is involved in many human diseases and thus has been mechanistically elucidated in the context of understanding -- and in turn treating -- them. This biological phenomenon has now also inspired the design of a supramolecular system that undergoes living polymerization.

  4. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  5. The absorption of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řídký, R.; Popovič, M.; Rolc, S.; Drdlová, M.; Krátký, J.

    2016-06-01

    An absorption capacity of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates is important for wide range of practical applications. Nowadays there are many variants of numerical models suitable for this kind of analysis. The main difficulty is in selection of the most realistic numerical model and a correct setup of many unknown material constants. Cooperation between theoretical simulations and real testing is next crucial point in the investigation process. Standard open source material database offer material properties valid for strain rates less than 250 s-1. There are experiments suitable for analysis of material properties with strain rates close to 2000 s-1. The high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous blast energy absorbing material measured by modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is presented in this study. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. One of the possible solution leads to complex and frequency depended Young modulus of testing bars material. This testing technique was applied to materials composed of porous glass/ceramic filler and polymeric binder, with density of 125 - 300 kg/m3 and particle size in range of 50 µm - 2 mm. The achieved material model was verified in practical application of sandwich structure includes polymeric composites under a blast test.

  6. POLYMERIC INTERFACES FOR STACK MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been performed on the use of polymeric interfaces for in situ continuous stack monitoring of gaseous pollutants. Permeabilities of candidate interface materials to SO2 were measured at temperatures from ambient to 200C, and the results were used to design interfaces ...

  7. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  8. APPARATUS FOR MELTING AND POURING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Harris, F.A.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to a crucible for melting and pouring a metal under controlled atmospheric conditions. The crucible has a frangible plug in the bottom and a retaining device to prevent the entrance of the broken portions of the plug into the mold without interfering with the flow of the melt. After the charge has been melted, a knockout rod is lowered through the charge and forced against the frangible plug sufficiently to break off the closure disk along a previously scored line. The disk drops onto a retaining grid large enough to permit the flow of metal around the disk and into the mold below. Thts arrangement elimnates the entry of broken portions of the plug into the mold, thereby elimnating a common cause of imperfect castings.

  9. Fumed Silica-Based Single-Ion Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Hu, Heyi; Fu, Yanbao; Baker, Gregory L; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-01

    A composite lithium electrolyte composed of polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) is synthesized and characterized. Polyanions immobilized by the silica nanoparticles have reduced anion mobility. Composite nanoparticles grafted by poly(lithium 4-styrenesulfonate) only have moderate conductivity at 60 °C. Almost an order increase of the conductivity to ∼10(-6) S/cm is achieved by co-polymerization of the poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate with sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, which enhances dissociation between lithium cation and polyanion and facilitates lithium ion transfer from the inner part of the polyelectrolyte layer. This composite electrolyte has the potential to suppress lithium dendrite growth and enable the use of lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:26264507

  10. Preparation and electrochemical properties of gel polymer electrolytes using triethylene glycol diacetate-2-propenoic acid butyl ester copolymer for high energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Huanhuan; Li, Hongxiao; Fan, Li-Zhen; Shi, Qiao

    2014-03-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) composed of triethylene glycol diacetate (TEGDA)-2-propenoic acid butyl ester (BA) copolymer and commercial used liquid organic electrolyte are prepared via in situ polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the as-prepared GPE can reach 5.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 with 6 wt% monomers and 94 wt% liquid electrolyte at 25 °C. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is consistent with an Arrhenius temperature behavior in a temperature range of 20-90 °C. Furthermore, the electrochemical stability window of the GPE is 5 V at 25 °C. A Li|GPE|(Li[Li1/6Ni1/4Mn7/12]O2) cell has been fabricated, which shows good charge-discharge properties and stable cycle performance compared to liquid electrolyte under the same test conditions.

  11. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  12. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  13. ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lofthouse, E.

    1954-08-31

    This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

  14. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic -EO- based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm-1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions.

  15. Radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuting; Lyons, Daniel J.; Pan, Ke; Leung, Kwan Yee; Chuirazzi, William C.; Canova, Marcello; Co, Anne C.; Cao, Lei R.

    2016-06-01

    The performance degradation and durability of a Li-ion battery is a major concern when it is operated under radiation conditions, for instance, in deep space exploration, in high radiation field, or rescuing or sampling equipment in a post-nuclear accident scenario. This paper examines the radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte materials separately and their effects on a battery's capacity loss and resistance increase. A60Co irradiator (34.3 krad/h) was used to provide 0.8, 4.1, and 9.8 Mrad dose to LiFePO4 electrodes and 0.8, 1.6, and 5.7 Mrad to 1 M LiPF6 in 1:1 wt% EC:DMC electrolytes. This study shows that the coin cells assembled with irradiated components have higher failure rate (ca. 70%) than that of control group (ca. 14%). A significant battery capacity fade post irradiation was observed. The electrolyte also shows a darkened color a few weeks or months after irradiation. The discovery of this latent effect may be significant because a battery may degrade significantly even showing no sign of degradation immediately after exposure. We investigated electrolyte composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy prior and post irradiation. Polymerization reactions and HF formation are considered as the cause of the discoloration.

  16. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  17. Epoxidised Natural Rubber Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte Systems For Use In Electrochemical Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, Razali; Tasnim, Anis; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad; Hakim, Mas Rosemal; Mohd, Dahlan Hj.; Ghazali, Zulkafli

    2009-09-14

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) comprising epoxy-fimctionalized rubber (ENR), HDDA monomer, mixed plasticizer-propylene carbonate/ethylene carbonate, silica filler and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide), Li[(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]have been prepared using photo-induced polymerization by UV irradiation technique. The irradiated samples of filled and non-filled silica of composites electrolytes have formed dry solid-flexible and transparent films in the self-constructed Teflon mould. Thermal behaviors, FTIR, morphology and ionic conductivity were performed on such ENR based PE polymer composites having varied compositions. The thermal stability has improved slightly in the temperature range 120-200 deg. C with optimized composition. FTIR measurements data revealed that the interaction of lithium with the epoxy groups of the un-bonded electrons within polymer occurred. The results suggest that the variation of conductivity with temperature indicates that the silica filled composite has achieved optimal ionic conductivity 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} and retained high percent of plasticizer. The ionic conductivity behavior of the silica-filled ENR based composite polymer electrolyte is consistent at elevated temperature compared to non-filled CPE system. This finding opens a new pathway for further investigation to diffusion of ions in the complex polymer electrolyte systems.

  18. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic −EO− based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm−1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions. PMID:26791572

  19. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  20. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  1. Polymer electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzer, Matthew J.

    Contemporary interest in organic semiconductors is driven both by questions regarding the fundamentals of charge transport in these materials and by their potential for flexible, low-cost electronic applications. The key device utilized in these endeavors is the organic field-effect transistor (OFET). Attaining large charge carrier densities in OFETs is desirable for two main reasons. First, because the conductivity in an OFET is proportional to the product of carrier mobility and charge density, increasing charge density levels can boost transistor currents significantly and facilitate low-voltage operation. Additionally, the achievement of carrier densities approaching the twodimensional (2D) molecular density (˜5 x 1014 cm-2) in an organic semiconductor monolayer can enable a variety of fundamental transport experiments. The results summarized in this thesis illustrate that charge densities exceeding 1014 charges/cm2 can be attained in a variety of organic semiconductors by using a solid polymer electrolyte as an OFET dielectric. Polymer electrolytes can provide specific capacitances exceeding 10 muF/cm 2, resulting from the migration of ions within a polymer matrix. By measuring the transient gate displacement current caused by ionic motion in a polymer electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (PEG-FET), large electrostatically-injected charge density values can be calculated; these are typically above 1014 charges/cm2 at gate voltages under 3 V. Negative transconductance at large carrier densities is observed in oligomeric, polymeric, and organic single-crystal semiconductors. This phenomenon is ascribed to charge correlations or a nearly complete filling of the semiconductor transport band with carriers. Polymer semiconductors exhibited the highest performance among PEG-FETs with a top gate architecture. Nearly metallic conductivities (˜1000 S/cm), weak ON current temperature dependences, and large linear mobility values (˜3 cm2/V·s) were

  2. Versatile cation transport in imidazolium based polymerized ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Christopher; Segalman, Rachel

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PIL) with tethered imidazolium groups are able to conduct a diverse array of cations relevant for energy applications. The well-known complexation of imidazolium with transition metals is exploited to bind ions such as H +, Li+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ by doping the neutral PIL with the appropriate Cation-TFSI- salt. Conductivities were first determined via AC impedance indicating that H+ salts lead to the highest conductivity (due to low ion mass and potential Grotthus mechanism) followed by Cu2+, Li+, Ag+, and Ni2+. The equilibrium constant for imidazolium complexation is larger for Cu2+ relative to Li-, Ag-, and Ni-imidazolium complexes leading to greater salt dissociation and higher conductivities. For LiTFSI and CuTFSI2 salts, metallic lithium or copper electrodes were employed in battery cells to pass a steady DC current and confirm that the cations are in fact carrying current. Interestingly, the divalent Cu2+ also ionically crosslinks the polymer leading to a plateau in the viscosity. Thus, divalent ions provide an unique route to high conductivity, high modulus polymeric electrolytes. Future studies involving ZnTFSI2 and MgTFSI2 for battery applications are proposed to examine how versatile the PIL platform is for cation transport.

  3. Solid polymer electrolytes derived from polyphenols. Final report, 28 April--27 October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Filler, R.

    1998-11-09

    In the Phase-1 study, Tech Drive synthesized several phenol monomers. Two of these monomers, one of which is new, were converted to phenolic polymers by enzymatic means, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. The monomers and polymers were fully characterize using thin layer chromatography, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and light scattering analyses. Solid polymeric electrolytes (SPEs) were formulated using the processable polyphenols. Ionic conductivity measurements of one of the SPEs based on a substituted polyphenol showed promising levels of ionic conductivity. Addition of a plasticizer dramatically improved the room temperature conductivity of the SPE film. Laboratory cells, fabricated using the SPEs, gave very promising results.

  4. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  5. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  6. Zirconium dioxide nanofilled poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as composite polymer electrolyte for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Puguan, John Marc C.; Chinnappan, Amutha; Kostjuk, Sergei V.; Kim, Hern

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Successful synthesis of electrolyte by blending PVdF-HFP, ZrO{sub 2} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. • ZrO{sub 2} increased electrolyte conductivity by two orders of magnitude. • ZrO{sub 2} doubled bulk mechanical strength of electrolyte in terms of Young’s modulus. • Electrolytes gave a optimum optical transmittance of 52.6%. - Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) polymer electrolyte containing zirconium dioxide nanocrystals (ZrO{sub 2}-NC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) has been synthesized using the conventional solution casting method. The addition of ZrO2-NC into the polymeric substrate gave remarkable properties in terms of the electrolyte’s ionic conductivity as well as its bulk mechanical strength. The enhanced amorphicity of the polymeric substrate due to ZrO{sub 2} and the nanofiller’s high dielectric constant make an excellent combination to increase the ionic conductivity (above 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}). Increasing the nanofiller content raises the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte by two orders of magnitude of which the optimum is 2.65 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC loading. Also, the Young’s modulus, an indicator of electrolyte’s mechanical stability, dramatically increased to 207 MPa upon loading 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC. Using UV–vis spectroscopy, the electrolytes with 13.04% ZrO{sub 2}-NC scanned from 200–800 nm wavelengths exhibited a maximum optical transmittance of 52.6% at 10 μm film thickness. The enhanced conductivity, high mechanical strength and reasonable optical transmittance shown by our composite polymer electrolyte make an excellent electrolyte for future energy saving smart windows such as electrochromic devices.

  7. Apparatus for electrolytically tapered or contoured cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. A. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    An electrolytic machining apparatus for forming tapered or contoured cavities in an electrically conductive and electrochemically erodible piece is presented. It supports the workpiece and an electrode for movement relatively toward each other and has means for pumping an electrolyte between the workpiece and the electrode.

  8. Fabrication of large ceramic electrolyte disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Process for sintering compressed ceramic powders produces large ceramic disks for use as electrolytes in high-temperature electrolytic cells. Thin, strain-free uniformly dense disks as large as 30 cm squared have been fabricated by slicing ceramic slugs produced by this technique.

  9. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  10. Evaluation of Electrochemical Methods for Electrolyte Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents summer research efforts in an attempt to develop an electrochemical method of characterizing electrolytes. The ultimate objective of the characterization would be to determine the composition and corrosivity of Martian soil. Results are presented using potentiodynamic scans, Tafel extrapolations, and resistivity tests in a variety of water-based electrolytes.

  11. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  12. [Study of pure titanium electrolytic polishing].

    PubMed

    Morita, N

    1990-03-01

    This study attempted to polish pure titanium test pieces electrolytically to mirror surface at the size of cast denture frames. Electrolytic polishing of pure titanium could be done on an area of 30 cm2 with a non-aqueous electrolyte. Small pure titanium plates could be polished electrolytically, but a uniformly smooth surface could not be obtained easily with large testpiece. The optimal electrolytic conditions were 30 V for 6 min at 25 degrees C using a solution consisting of 70 ml ethyl alcohol, 30 ml iso-propyl alcohol, 6 g aluminum chloride, and 25 g zinc chloride. The solution was safe and had less restriction of frequency of use. PMID:2135513

  13. Dependence of the pour point of diesel fuels on the properties of the initial components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostashov, V. M.; Bobrovskiy, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the dependence of the pour point of diesel fuels on the pour point and weight relationship of the initial components. For determining the pour point of a multicomponent fuel mixture, it is assumed that the mixture of two components has the pour point of a separate equivalent component, then calculating the pour point of this equivalent component mixed with a third component, etc.

  14. POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO FILL MOLDS ON CONVEYOR LINES AFTER FERRO-SILICON IS ADDED TO ENHANCE DUCTILITY AND FLUIDITY. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE POURING AISLE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE POURING AISLE OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AT ELECTRIC FURNACE X-3. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. 51. VIEW SHOWING THE POURING OF CAP ON PIER 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW SHOWING THE POURING OF CAP ON PIER 7, LOOKING WEST FROM BARGE, December 22, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 13. MASS OF POURED CONCRETE IN IRREGULAR STEPPED LAYERS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MASS OF POURED CONCRETE IN IRREGULAR STEPPED LAYERS AT THE BASE OF THE LEFT (EAST) BUTTRESS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  19. 45. EXPOSEDAGGREGATE CONCRETE AT NICHE, NORTH BOUNDARY, SEVERAL TEXTURES POURED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. EXPOSED-AGGREGATE CONCRETE AT NICHE, NORTH BOUNDARY, SEVERAL TEXTURES POURED AT ONE TIME, October 1987 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. 100. photographer unknown 29 March 1940 PREPARATIONS FOR POURING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. photographer unknown 29 March 1940 PREPARATIONS FOR POURING CONCRETE AROUND PIT LINER OF UNIT NO 3. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 47. Pouring deck columns, steampowered concrete mixer at center; direction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Pouring deck columns, steam-powered concrete mixer at center; direction of view not clear, but probably to north. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  3. POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING HIGH LINE SYSTEM. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTH. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  6. Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Rebecca L.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434

  7. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  8. Polymeric cationic substituted acrylamide surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1983-11-15

    A new composition of matter comprises a copolymer of a surface active quaternary ammonium monomer salt and from 50 to 97% by wt of acrylamide. The new copolymers can have molecular weights substantially greater than 10,000 and still remain water soluble and surface active. Copolymers are prepared by polymerization techniques known in the art. The quaternary ammonium monomer is dispersed under inert atmosphere in aqueous solution which may additionally contain dissolved therein a low molecular weight alcohol such as ethanol, isopropanol, and the like. Acidic polymerization initiator such as the azo initiators, organic peroxides, or redox initiators such as the sulfite- persulfate system is then added in an amount calculated to yield a polymer product of desired molecular weight. (14 claims.

  9. Concurrent Covalent and Supramolecular Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Zhou, Yu; Xie, Zhuang; Alngadh, Ahmed; Keane, Denis T; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Mirkin, Chad A; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-08-22

    Covalent and supramolecular polymerizations, both of which offer their own unique advantages, have emerged as popular strategies for making artificial materials. Herein, we describe a concurrent covalent and supramolecular polymerization strategy-namely, one which utilizes 1) a bis-azide-functionalized diazaperopyrenium dication that undergoes polymeriation covalently with a bis-alkyne-functionalized biphenyl derivative in one dimension as a result of a rapid and efficient β-cyclodextrin(CD)-accelerated, cucurbit[6]uril(CB)-templated azide-alkyne cycloaddition, while 2) the aromatic core of the dication is able to dimerize in a criss-cross fashion by dint of π-π interactions, enabling simultaneous supramolecular assembly, resulting in an extended polymer network in an orthogonal dimension. PMID:27338246

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  11. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  12. Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Hunter, M.; Yang, X.Q.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole and 3-(6-ferrocenyl-6-hydroxyhexyl)pyrrole (P-Fc) yields a ferrocene functionalized polypyrrole with a controlled amount of ferrocene functionalization. Similarly, copolymers of pyrrole and 3-(4-(2,5- dimethoxyphenyl)butyl)pyrrole (P-MP) can be made by electrochemical polymerization and converted to the copolymers containing pH dependent electroactive hydroquinone moieties. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  14. Alcohol polymerization using electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroshi; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Fujiwara, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    We report a means of instantaneous alcohol polymerization using electron emission at room temperature. We selected 1-butanol as a source of alcohol polymer. A 1-butanol molecule has a simple molecular structure and is a good candidate for analyzing reaction mechanisms. Direct electron emission onto the surface of volatile 1-butanol prevented intense discharge and gently composed 1-butanol-polymer at room temperature in air. The strategy enabled exciting liquids and instantaneously composing new materials at room temperature.

  15. Decodeurs rapides pour codes topologiques quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume

    L'encodage topologique de l'information quantique a attire beaucoup d'attention, car c'est un modele qui semble propice a resister aux erreurs locales. Tout d'abord, le modele du calcul topologique est base sur la statistique anyonique non-Abelienne universelle et sur son controle. Des anyons indesirables peuvent apparaitre soudainement, en raison de fluctuations thermiques ou de processus virtuels. La presence de ces anyons peut corrompre l'information encodee, il est necessaire de les eliminer: la correction consiste a fusionner les defauts tout en preservant la topologie du systeme. Ensuite, dans le cas des codes topologiques, on doit aussi proteger l'information encodee dans la topologie. En effet, dans ces systemes, on n'a acces qu'a une fraction de l'information decrivant l'erreur. Elle est recueillie par des mesures et peut etre interpretee en termes de particules. Ces defauts peuplent le code et doivent etre annihiles adequatement dans le but de preserver l'information encodee. Dans ce memoire, nous proposons un algorithme efficace, appele decodeur, pouvant etre utilise dans les deux contextes decrits ci-haut. Pour y parvenir, cet algorithme s'inspire de methodes de renormalisation et de propagation de croyance. Il est exponentiellement plus rapide que les methodes deja existantes, etant de complexite O (ℓ2 log ℓ) en serie et, si on parallelise, O (log ℓ) en temps, contre O (ℓ6) pour les autres decodeurs. Le temps etant le facteur limitant dans le probleme du decodage, cette caracteristique est primordiale. De plus, il tolere une plus grande amplitude de bruit que les methodes existantes; il possede un seuil de ˜ 16.5% sur le canal depolarisant surpassant le seuil deja etabli de ˜ 15.5%. Finalement, il est plus versatile. En effet, en etant limite au code de Kitaev, on ne savait pas decoder les codes topologiques de maniere generale (e.g. codes de couleur). Or, le decodeur propose dans ce memoire peut traiter la grande classe des codes

  16. Two Photon Polymerization of Ormosils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3D structures of hybrid polymers—ORMOSILS (organically modified silicates) were produced via Two Photon Polymerization (2PP) of hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates. Synthetic routes have been used to obtain series of hybrid monomers, their structure and purity being checked by NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Two photon polymerization method (a relatively new technology which allows fast micro and nano processing of three-dimensional structures with application in medical devices, tissue scaffolds, photonic crystals etc) was used for monomers processing. As laser a Ti: Sapphire laser was used, with 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, emitting at 775 nm. A parametric study on the influence of the processing parameters (laser fluence, laser scanning velocity, photo initiator) on the written structures was carried out. The as prepared polymeric scaffolds were tested in mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts cell cultures, with the aim of further obtaining bone and dermal grafts. Cells morphology, proliferation, adhesion and alignment were analyzed for different experimental conditions.

  17. Investigation of ionic conductivity of polymeric electrolytes based on poly (ether urethane) networks using positron probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z. L.; Wang, B.; Li, S. Q.; Wang, S. J.; Liu, H.; Xie, H. Q.

    1994-10-01

    Positron-lifetime measurements have been made for poly (ether urethane) undoped and doped with [LiClO 4]/[Unit]=0.05 in the temperature range of 120-340 K. The measured lifetime spectra were resolved into three components. The lifetime and the intensity of orthopositronium were used to evaluate the amount of the free volume in poly (ether urethane). It was found that the variation of ionic conductivity with temperature and salt concentration can be rationalised in terms of free volume consideration.

  18. Temperature-stable polymeric fluid-loss reducer tolerant to high electrolyte contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, A.J.; Ballard, T.M.; Loftin, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    The suitability of a synthetic copolymer for drilling deep, hot wells was demonstrated through laboratory and field testing. The polymer provided fluid-loss control at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) to clay-free saturated-salt laboratory muds and to low-solids, nondispersed field muds contaminated with drill solids and sodium and calcium salts. High-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) filtrate was kept at less than or equal to 15 cm/sup 3//30 min after 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) heat-aging of a 19-lbm/gal (2277-kg/m/sup 3/) saturated-salt mud. Weighted (> 18-lbm/gal (>2157-kg/m/sup 3/)) potassium muds treated with the polymer showed heat stability and solids and green-cement tolerance. The polymer was successfully field-tested in two offshore wells where bottomhole temperatures (BHT's) reached 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) and salt and calcium chloride flows were encountered.

  19. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  20. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  1. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates

  2. Stretching short DNAs in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizeng; Fan, Xiaojun; Gao, Huajian

    2006-03-01

    This paper is aimed at a combined theoretical and numerical study of the force-extension relation of a short DNA molecule stretched in an electrolyte. A theoretical formula based on a recent discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model of Kierfeld et al. (Eur Phys. J. E, Vol. 14, pp.17-34, 2004) and the classical OSF mean-field theory on electrostatic stiffening of a charged polymer is numerically verified by a set of Brownian dynamics simulations based on a generalized bead-rod (GBR) model incorporating long-ranged electrostatic interactions via the Debye-Hueckel potential (DH). The analysis indicates that the stretching of a short DNA can be well described as a WLC with a constant effective persistent length. This contrasts the behavior of long DNA chains that are known to exhibit variable persistent lengths depending on the ion concentration levels and force magnitudes. PMID:16711068

  3. Diffusion and polymerization of styrene in an aqueous solution of potassium persulfate under static conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Oganesyan, A.A.; Boyadzhyan, V.G.; Gritskova, I.A.; Gukasyan, A.V.; Matsoyan, S.G.; Pravednikov, A.N.

    1985-10-01

    The potassium persulfate-initiated polymerization of styrene in a mechanically agitated mixture of water and monomer leads to the formation of a stable, monodisperse latex. In order to explain the mechanism of the stabilization of the latex particles in this system, the authors present a detailed investigation of the polymerization of styrene in a specially constructed electrochemical cell under static conditions. A schematic of the cell is shown. Results show that the capacity of the electrical double layer on the platinum electrode remains constant with time in a system containing only a solution of electrolyte, either K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/.

  4. Effects of polymer chemistry on polymer-electrolyte dye sensitized solar cell performance: A theoretical and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Yuriy Y.; Nejati, Siamak; Bavarian, Mona; Lee, Daeyeon; Lau, Kenneth K. S.; Soroush, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The effects of polymer chemistry on interfacial properties and overall performance in polymer-electrolyte dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Specifically, polymer electrolytes based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) are considered. These polymers are grown directly within the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode via a single step polymerization and coating using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) to maximize pore filling. The experimental study coupled with a 1-D first-principles macroscopic DSSC mathematical model provides insight into the cell interfacial processes and overall performance. Parameter estimation using the macroscopic model indicates that the pendant groups on the polymers strongly affect the conduction band position of TiO2, the back electron transfer at the photoanode-electrolyte interface, and the exchange current density at the platinum cathode. The estimated difference between the TiO2 conduction band edge and the redox potential of the electrolyte are 0.87, 0.99 and 1.06 eV for P4VP, PGMA, and PHEMA, respectively. Estimated recombination rate constants for P4VP and PGMA are respectively 54% and 19% lower than that of PHEMA. This study indicates that by varying polymer electrolyte chemistry, DSSC characteristics including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor can be tuned.

  5. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload. PMID:26486348

  6. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Alexandre

    Depuis sa formulation, la theorie de l'information a ete basee, implicitement, sur les lois de la physique classique. Une telle formulation est toutefois incomplete puisqu'elle ne tient pas compte de la realite quantique. Au cours des vingt dernieres annees, l'expansion de la theorie de l'information englobant les effets purement quantiques a connu un interet grandissant. La realisation d'un systeme de traitement de l'information quantique, un ordinateur quantique, presente toutefois de nombreux defis. Dans ce document, on s'interesse a differents aspects concernant ces defis. On commence par presenter des concepts algorithmiques comme l'optimisation de calculs quantiques et le calcul quantique geometrique. Par la suite, on s'interesse au design et a differents aspects de l'utilisation de qubits bases sur les jonctions Josephson. En particulier, un nouveau design de qubit supraconducteur est suggere. On presente aussi une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est tres generale puisqu'elle peut etre appliquee a differents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'interesse a la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le detecteur suggere ici a l'avantage de pouvoir etre decouple du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  7. Solid electrolytes and impact-resistant ceramics. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, C.A.

    1991-08-01

    In this proposal, we describe a program to exploit recent achievements in two distinct areas of materials science, both of them dependent on the independent motion of singly charged ions through an immobile matrix. The first is the area of non-crystalline solid electrolytes in which this laboratory has gained prominence over the past decade. The second is an area proposed for study in our previous proposal and now verified as a principle worthy of considerable further investigation: it involves the use of mobile ions for fast absorption of mechanical energy from short time impacts hence inhibition of crack nucleation and failure in glassy substances. In the first area, we will study both glassy and polymeric systems. For glassy solid electrolytes, we will perform the first electrochemical measurements of cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients in glasses, to provide data to compare with neutron scattering results and thereby to resolve a theoretical dispute. We will look for an important but so-far-unstudied relationship between conductivity/viscosity decoupling in fast ion glasses, and fragility of the liquid above the glass transition temperature. In polymer-salt systems, we will perform both diagnostic and developmental studies. We will try to demonstrate a continuity of behavior, as function of solvent content, between highly decoupled glass and over-coupled salt/polymer solution behavior. This will incorporate a study of polymer-salt liquid immiscibility at high temperatures to seek the relationship between salts and molecular diluent as additives to the polymer solvent. We propose also to study the effects of perfluorination on both polymer fragility and glass transition, and also on carboxylate basicity for possible improvements in overall polymer-salt performance.

  8. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  9. Microporous gel electrolytes based on amphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang; Tong, Yongfen

    2012-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP-g-PPEGMA) is simply prepared by single-step synthesis directly via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Thermal, mechanical, swelling and electrochemical properties, as well as microstructures of the prepared polymer electrolytes, are evaluated and the effects of the various contents and average molecular weights of PEGMA on those properties are also been investigated. By phase inversion technique, the copolymer membranes tend to form well-defined microporous morphology with the increase of content and average molecular weight of PEGMA, due to the competition and cooperation between the hydrophilic PEGMA segments and hydrophobic PVDF-HFP. When these membranes are gelled with 1 M LiCF3SO3 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) (1:1, v/v), their saturated electrolyte uptakes (up to 323.5%) and ion conductivities (up to 2.01 × 10-3 S cm-1) are dramatically improved with respect to the pristine PVDF-HFP, ascribing to the strong affinity of the hydrophilic PEGMA segments with the electrolytes. All the polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li+, and show good mechanical properties. Coin cells based on the polymer electrolytes show stable charge-discharge cycles and deliver discharge capacities to LiFePO4 is up to 156 mAh g-1.

  10. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor with an Extended Nanoregime Interface through in Situ Polymer Electrolyte Generation.

    PubMed

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A T, Arun; Veeliyath, Sajna; Vijayakumar, Vidyanand; Badiger, Manohar V; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-01-20

    Here, we report an efficient strategy by which a significantly enhanced electrode-electrolyte interface in an electrode for supercapacitor application could be accomplished by allowing in situ polymer gel electrolyte generation inside the nanopores of the electrodes. This unique and highly efficient strategy could be conceived by judiciously maintaining ultraviolet-triggered polymerization of a monomer mixture in the presence of a high-surface-area porous carbon. The method is very simple and scalable, and a prototype, flexible solid-state supercapacitor could even be demonstrated in an encapsulation-free condition by using the commercial-grade electrodes (thickness = 150 μm, area = 12 cm(2), and mass loading = 7.3 mg/cm(2)). This prototype device shows a capacitance of 130 F/g at a substantially reduced internal resistance of 0.5 Ω and a high capacitance retention of 84% after 32000 cycles. The present system is found to be clearly outperforming a similar system derived by using the conventional polymer electrolyte (PVA-H3PO4 as the electrolyte), which could display a capacitance of only 95 F/g, and this value falls to nearly 50% in just 5000 cycles. The superior performance in the present case is credited primarily to the excellent interface formation of the in situ generated polymer electrolyte inside the nanopores of the electrode. Further, the interpenetrated nature of the polymer also helps the device to show a low electron spin resonance and power rate and, most importantly, excellent shelf-life in the unsealed flexible conditions. Because the nature of the electrode-electrolyte interface is the major performance-determining factor in the case of many electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, along with the supercapacitors, the developed process can also find applications in preparing electrodes for the devices such as lithium-ion batteries, metal-air batteries, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, etc. PMID:26697922

  11. Polymerization rate and mechanism of ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yongqin; Xu, Xi; Baxter, Steven M; Slone, Robert V; Wu, Shuguang; Swift, Graham; Westmoreland, David G

    2002-07-01

    The factors affecting the induction period and polymerization rate in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA) were investigated. The induction period takes only an instant in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of BA without any added initiator by enhancing the N2 flow rate. Increasing temperature, power output and SDS concentration, decreasing the monomer concentration results in further decreasing induction period and enhanced polymerization rate. Under optimized reaction conditions the conversion of BA reaches 92% in 11 min. The polymerization rate can be controlled by varying reaction parameters. The apparatus of ultrasonically initiated semi-continuous and continuous emulsion polymerization were set up and the feasibility was first studied. Based on the experimental results, a free radical polymerization mechanism for ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization was proposed, including the sources of the radicals, the process of radical formation, the locus of polymerization and the polymerization process. Compared with conventional emulsion polymerization, where the radicals come from thermal decomposition of a chemical initiator, ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization has attractive features such as no need for a chemical initiator, lower reaction temperature, faster polymerization rate, and higher molecular weight of the polymer prepared. PMID:12154689

  12. Apparatus for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    Improved electrolytic cells for producing metals by the electrolytic reduction of a compound dissolved in a molten electrolyte are disclosed. In the improved cells, at least one electrode includes a protective layer comprising an oxide of the cell product metal formed upon an alloy of the cell product metal and a more noble metal. In the case of an aluminum reduction cell, the electrode can comprise an alloy of aluminum with copper, nickel, iron, or combinations thereof, upon which is formed an aluminum oxide protective layer.

  13. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  14. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  15. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  16. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  17. Ketoprofen as a photoinitiator for anionic polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Wan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A new photoinitiating system for anionic polymerization of acrylates based on the efficient photodecarboxylation of Ketoprofen (1) and the related derivatives 3 and 4 that generate the corresponding carbanion intermediates is presented. Carbanion intermediates are confirmed by deuterium incorporation in the trapped Michael adducts and by spectroscopic detection using laser flash photolysis (LFP). This novel anionic initiating system features excitation in the near UV and visible regions, potential characteristics of photocontrolled living polymerization, and metal-free photoinitiators generated from photoexcitation, different from typical anionic polymerization where the polymerizations are initiated by heat and strong base containing alkali metals. PMID:25917384

  18. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  19. Molecularly Regulated Reversible DNA Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Niancao; Shi, Xuechen; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Natural polymers are synthesized and decomposed under physiological conditions. However, it is challenging to develop synthetic polymers whose formation and reversibility can be both controlled under physiological conditions. Here we show that both linear and branched DNA polymers can be synthesized via molecular hybridization in aqueous solutions, on the particle surface, and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) without the involvement of any harsh conditions. More importantly, these polymers can be effectively reversed to dissociate under the control of molecular triggers. Since nucleic acids can be conjugated with various molecules or materials, we anticipate that molecularly regulated reversible DNA polymerization holds potential for broad biological and biomedical applications. PMID:27100911

  20. Polymerized nanotube structures new zeolites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernozatonskii, Leonid A.

    1998-11-01

    Polymers of single-wall carbon nanotubes - possible new zeolites - are modeled by molecular mechanics (MM2 calculation method). The polymerization at issue occurs by bonding of 6 sp 3 atomic pairs in each nanotube unit cell with similar atomic pairs located on 6 neighboring tubes like 2+2 cycloaddition in a rhombic two-dimensional C 60 polymer. It is shown these bonding in armchair ( n, n) SWNT ropes ( n=6, 8, 10, 12) changes positive radial curvature of tube segments to a negative one.

  1. Computational studies of polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.

    Polymeric systems involving polyelectrolytes in surfaces and interfaces, semiflexible polyelectrolytes and biopolymers in solution, complex polymeric systems that had applications in nanotechnology were modeled using coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. In the area of polyelectrolytes in surfaces and interfaces, the phenomena of polyelectrolyte adsorption at oppositely charge surface was investigated. Simulations found that short range van der Waals interaction was a major factor in determining morphology and thickness of the adsorbed layer. Hydrophobic polyelectrolytes adsorbed in hydrophobic surfaces tend to be the most effective in forming multi-layers because short range attraction enhances the adsorption process. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes could move freely along the surface which was in contrast to polyelectrolyte brushes. The morphologies of hydrophobic polyelectrolyte brushes were investigated and simulations found that brushes had different morphologies depending on the strength of the short range monomer-monomer attraction, electrostatic interaction and counterion condensation. Planar polyelectrolyte brushes formed: (1) vertically oriented cylindrical aggregates, (2) maze-like aggregate structures, or (3) thin polymeric layer covering a substrate. While, the spherical polyelectrolyte brushes could be in any of the previous morphologies or be in a micelle-like conformation with a dense core and charged corona. In the area of biopolymers and semiflexible polyelectrolytes in solution, simulations demonstrated that the bending rigidity of these polymers was scale-dependent. The bond-bond correlation function describing a chain's orientational memory could be approximated by a sum of two exponential functions manifesting the existence of the two characteristic length scales. The existence of the two length scales challenged the current practice of describing chain stretching experiments using a single length scale. In the field of nanotechnology

  2. Marketing NASA Langley Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    A marketing tool was created to expand the knowledge of LaRC developed polymeric materials, in order to facilitate the technology transfer process and increase technology commercialization awareness among a non-technical audience. The created brochure features four materials, LaRC-CP, LaRC-RP46, LaRC-SI, and LaRC-IA, and highlights their competitive strengths in potential commercial applications. Excellent opportunities exist in the $40 million per year microelectronics market and the $6 billion adhesives market. It is hoped that the created brochure will generate inquiries regarding the use of the above materials in markets such as these.

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, V.W.; Steklenski, D.J.

    1989-02-14

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a lithium anode, a cathode and an electrolyte having a conductivity, and reciprocal ohms per cm, of at least 3.5 in, comprising a lithium salt, propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxypropane.

  4. New interpenetrating network type siloxane polymer electrolyte.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, B.; Hyung, Y.-E.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    An interpenetrating network (IPN), comb-type, siloxane-based solid polymer electrolyte solid polymer electrolyte was prepared and its electrochemical properties were evaluated. The cross-linking reaction conditions were established from accelerated rate calorimetry studies. An IPN solid ploymer electrolyte with 60 wt % of the comb-shaped siloxane showed an ionic conductivity of greater than 5x10{sup -4} S/cm at 37 C, with a wide electrochemical stability window of up to 4.5 V vs. lithium. A Li metal/solid polymer electrolyte/LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cell showed promising discharge capacities above 130 mAh/g and good cycling performance.

  5. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  6. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  7. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  8. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE GLASS POURING PROCESS OVER A KNIFE EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Vitrification is the process of capturing radioactive waste in glass. The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is one of the facilities using the vitrification technology to treat and immobilize radioactive waste. The objective of the project is to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout knife edge. Experiments are run using simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as the radioactive sludge glass, but without radioactive contaminants. The purpose of these tests is to obtain actual glass data that, when combined with previous cold data from other fluids, will provide an overall understanding of the physics of liquids flowing over a pour spout and knife edge, A specific objective is to verify computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with a range of liquid data with particular emphasis on glass so as to provide confidence in use of these CFD models for designing a new improved pour spout for the DWPF melter. The work to be performed at FIU-HCET includes assembling the melting and pouring system that mimics the DWPF melter and determining the key parameters that may influence wicking. Information from the FIU-HCET melter tests will lead to better operating guidelines for the DWPF melter so as to avoid wicking. During FY98, a bench-scale melter complete with pour spout and a knife edge was designed and assembled at FIU-HCET. Initially, the system was tested with glycerine. Subsequently, glass provided by SRS was used for experimentation. Flow visualization tests were performed with the melter in FY98 to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout model simulating a DWPF pour spout of the original design. Simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as sludge glass but without radioactive contaminants was used in the tests. All the tasks and milestones mentioned in the PTP for the project were accomplished. The project completed its second year, and this document

  10. Ionic conduction in polymer composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, M.; Jena, S.; Pradhan, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Conductivity and structural relaxation has been explored from modulus and dielectric loss formalisms respectively for a series of polymer composite electrolytes with zirconia as filler. The temperature dependence of conductivity followed Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior, which suggested a close correlation between conductivity and the segmental relaxation process in polymer electrolytes. Vogel temperature (T0) plays significant role in ion conduction process in these kind of materials.

  11. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  12. Portable electrophoresis apparatus using minimum electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, M. R.; Vickers, J. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electrophoresis unit for use in conducting electrophoretic analysis of specimens is described. The unit includes a sealable container in which a substrate mounted specimen is suspended in an electrolytic vapor. A heating unit is employed to heat a supply of electrolyte to produce the vapor. The substrate is suspended within the container by being attached between a pair of clips which also serve as electrodes to which a direct current power source may be connected.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Wakabayashi, N.

    Electrocatalyst performances and bonding to solid polymer electrolytes used for water electrolysis are investigated. Noble metal and metal alloy catalysts were plated to Nafion perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membranes without a binder by the use of a reducing agent solution held on the opposite side of the membrane from a metal salt solution. It was found that pretreatment of the membrane by hydrothermal treatment or gas plasma surface roughening improves metal adhesivity and thus reduces contact resistance between the membrane and the catalyst. Measurements of the constituents of cell voltage for platinum, rhodium and iridium anodes with platinum cathodes reveals that anodic overvoltage is a major component of voltage loss and depends on the type of electrocatalyst, being greatest for Pd and least for Ir. Ir and Ir-alloy electrodes, which were found to be the best catalysts for oxygen evolution, are found to have Tafel slopes of 0.04-0.06 V/decade. In a cell with a Pt cathode and Ir anode, cell voltage is observed to decrease with increasing temperature, reaching 1.56-1.59 V at a current density of 50 A/sq dm and 90 C, which corresponds to a thermal efficiency of 93-95%.

  14. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  15. Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M A; Gressel, M G; O'Brien, D M; Clark, N J

    1993-05-01

    The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. Data were collected over two 30-min sampling periods while worker activities were monitored using a video camera. Analysis of the data showed that the greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated, full ladle, resulting in an average concentration of at least twice that of the other tasks. The study concluded that the addition of exhaust ventilation such as a moveable hood and duct system during the ladle transport and pouring tasks, and the implementation of a side draft hood at the pigging area, could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes. PMID:8498361

  16. Investigation of waste glass pouring behavior over a knife edge

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of vitrification technology for converting radioactive waste into a glass solid began in the early 1960s. Some problems encountered in the vitrification process are still waiting for a solution. One of them is wicking. During pouring, the glass stream flows down the wall of the pour spout until it reaches an angled cut in the wall. At this point, the stream is supposed to break cleanly away from the wall of the pour spout and fall freely into the canister. However, the glass stream is often pulled toward the wall and does not always fall into the canister, a phenomenon known as wicking. Phase 1 involves the assembly, construction, and testing of a melter capable of supplying molten glass at operational flow rates over a break-off point knife edge. Phase 2 will evaluate the effects of glass and pour spout temperatures as well as glass flow rates on the glass flow behavior over the knife edge. Phase 3 will identify the effects on wicking resulting from varying the knife edge diameter and height as well as changing the back-cut angle of the knife edge. The following tasks were completed in FY97: Design the experimental system for glass melting and pouring; Acquire and assemble the melter system; and Perform initial research work.

  17. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  18. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  19. Lithium-Air Batteries with Hybrid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade, Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptionally high capacity. Introducing aqueous solutions and ceramic lithium superionic conductors to Li-air batteries can circumvent some of the drawbacks of conventional Li-O2 batteries such as decomposition of organic electrolytes, corrosion of Li metal from humidity, and insoluble discharge product blocking the air electrode. The performance of this smart design battery depends essentially on the property and structure of the cell components (i.e., hybrid electrolyte, Li anode, and air cathode). In recent years, extensive efforts toward aqueous electrolyte-based Li-air batteries have been dedicated to developing the high catalytic activity of the cathode as well as enhancing the conductivity and stability of the hybrid electrolyte. Herein, the progress of all aspects of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes is reviewed. Moreover, some suggestions and concepts for tailored design that are expected to promote research in this field are provided. PMID:26977713

  20. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  1. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  2. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOEpatents

    McEwen, Alan B.; Yair, Ein-Eli

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  3. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  4. Boron clusters as highly stable magnesium-battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-03-17

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  5. Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, Anne M.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Banerjee, Pallab; Soo, Philip; Huang, Biying

    2002-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

  6. Nanomechanical testing of polymeric nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E. P. S.; Lim, C. T.

    2005-04-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanofibrous scaffold comprises individual nanofibers where their stiffnesses can promote or undermine the various cellular functions as well as structural integrity of the scaffold. As such, there is a need to investigate the nanomechanical properties of these individual nanofibers. However, conducting mechanical tests of individual fibers at the nanometer scale can pose great challenges and difficulties. Here, we present novel techniques to perform nanomechanical testing of individual polymeric nanofibers. For demonstration of the nano tensile tests, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were produced via electrospinning. These fibers were deposited across two parallel edges of a cardboard frame so that a single nanofiber can be isolated for tensile test using a nano tensile tester. For nanoscale three-point bend test, a Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber was suspended across a microsized groove etched on a silicon wafer. An atomic force microscope (AFM) tip was then used to apply a point load on the mid-span of the suspended fiber. Beam bending theory was then used to calculate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber. For nanoindentation test, a PLLA nanofiber was deposited on a mica substrate and an AFM tip used to indent the nanofiber. Modified Hertz theory for normal contact was then used to evaluate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber.

  7. Mechanisms Underlying Ionic Mobilities in Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Venkat; Hanson, Benjamin; Pryamitsyn, Victor

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a number of experiments have demonstrated that addition of ceramics with nanoscale dimensions can lead to substantial improvements in the low temperature conductivity of the polymeric materials. However, the origin of such behaviors, and more generally, the manner by which nanoscale fillers impact the ion mobilities remain unresolved. In this communication, we report the results of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations which used multibody polarizable force-fields to study lithium ion diffusivities in an amorphous poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) melt containing well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. We observed that the lithium ion diffusivities decrease with increased particle loading. Our analysis suggests that the ion mobilities are correlated to the nanoparticle-induced changes in the polymer segmental dynamics. Interestingly, the changes in polymer segmental dynamics were seen to be related to the nanoparticle's influence on the polymer conformational features. Overall, our results indicate that addition of nanoparticle fillers modify polymer conformations and the polymer segmental dynamics, and thereby influence the ion mobilities of polymer electrolytes.

  8. Electrolyte-induced collapse of a polyelectrolyte brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesalski, M.; Johannsmann, D.; Rühe, J.

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated the electrolyte-induced collapse of a polyelectrolyte brush covalently attached to a planar solid surface. Positively charged poly-4-vinyl [N-methyl-pyridinium] (MePVP) brushes were prepared in situ at the surface by free radical chain polymerization using a surface-immobilized initiator monolayer ("grafting from" technique) and 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, followed by a polymer-analogous quaternization reaction. The height of the brushes was measured as a function of the external salt concentration via multiple-angle null ellipsometry. As predicted by mean-field theory, the height of the MePVP brushes remains unaffected by the addition of low amounts of external salt. At higher salt concentrations the brush height decreases. The extent to which the brush shrinks strongly depends on the nature of the salt present in the environment. MePVP brushes collapse to almost the dry layer thickness upon the addition of potassium iodide to a contacting aqueous medium. In contrast, the collapse of MePVP brushes having bromide or chloride counterions is much less pronounced. These brushes remain in a highly swollen state even after large amounts of salt have been added to the solution.

  9. HEAT AND WATER TRANSPORT IN A POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

  10. Swelling and softening of lithium-ion battery separators in electrolyte solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Cannarella, John; Leng, Collen Z.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Arnold, Craig B.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical stability of inactive polymeric components (e.g. separator and binder) can play an important role in the long term performance of lithium-ion batteries. Here we investigate the effects of electrolyte solvents on the mechanical properties of a polypropylene battery separator through experimental measurements of thickness and elastic modulus of separator samples immersed in different solvent environments. We find that certain electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate cause noticeable softening of the separator. However, in other solvent environments such as propylene carbonate and acetonitrile, the separator retains the mechanical properties of a dry material. We show that the mechanical property reduction can be attributed to polymer swelling and explain these observations in the context of the Hildebrand solubility and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. The solubility/interaction parameter analysis provides a straightforward method for predicting the in situ mechanical behavior of polymer separators in solvent environments. The relationships discussed herein can be used to screen and identify mechanically-stable polymer and electrolyte solvent pairs for use in lithium-ion batteries designed for long life.

  11. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  12. Radiation polymerization of diethyl fumarate [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkassiri, Haroun

    2005-05-01

    Diethyl fumarate (DEF) has been polymerized by gamma irradiation using doses in the range 50-300 kGy, and in this dose range the polymerization yield increased almost linearly. The polymer has a glass transition temperature of about -20 °C, softening point about 15 °C, and decomposition temperature 300 °C.

  13. Targeted polymeric nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Wilson, David R.; Zamboni, Camila G.; Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, advances in designing polymeric nanoparticles for targeted cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Characterization and evaluation of biomaterials, targeting ligands, and transcriptional elements are each discussed. Advances in biomaterials have driven improvements to nanoparticle stability and tissue targeting, conjugation of ligands to the surface of polymeric nanoparticles enable binding to specific cancer cells, and the design of transcriptional elements has enabled selective DNA expression specific to the cancer cells. Together, these features have improved the performance of polymeric nanoparticles as targeted non-viral gene delivery vectors to treat cancer. As polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and to have reduced immunogenicity and tumorigenicity compared to viral platforms, they have significant potential for clinical use. Results of polymeric gene therapy in clinical trials and future directions for the engineering of nanoparticle systems for targeted cancer gene therapy are also presented. PMID:26061296

  14. Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells with two-layer, composite electrolytes - Electrolyte stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using two-layer, composite electrolytes consisting of a solid electrolyte of a significantly higher conductivity compared to zirconia (such as ceria or bismuth oxide) with a thin layer of zirconia or thoria on the fuel side is presented. Electrochemical transport in the two-layer composite electrolytes is examined by taking both ionic and electronic fluxes into account. Similar to most electrochemical transport phenomena, it is assumed that local equilibrium prevails. An equivalent circuit approach is used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen at the interface. It is shown that thermodynamic stability of the electrolyte (ceria or bismuth oxide) depends upon the transport characteristics of the composite electrolyte, in particular the electronic conductivity of the air-side part of the electrolyte. The analysis shows that it would be advantageous to use composite electrolytes instead of all-zirconia electrolytes, thus making low-temperature (about 600-800 C) SOFCs feasible. Implications of the analysis from the standpoint of the desired characteristics of SOFC components are discussed.

  15. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  16. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  17. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  18. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  19. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  20. Oxygen reduction in fuel cell electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Striebel, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Voltage losses in the O{sub 2} cathode represent the major inefficiency in aqueous fuel cells for transportation or stationary applications. Experimental and theoretical studies of oxygen reduction (OR) in novel acid and alkaline electrolytes on smooth and supported Pt have been carried out. Similar kinetically limited rates for OR were measured in the super-acid electrolytes trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMSA) and tetrafluoroethane-1,2-disulfonic acid (TFEDSA), with the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique at 23 C and pH = 1. The mechanism for OR on Pt in alkaline electrolytes is complicated by the concurrent oxidation and reduction of Pt. Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) studies carried out with anodic and cathodic potential sweeps in 0.1 to 6.9 M KOH and 0.1 to 4.0 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} revealed similar currents when corrected for O{sub 2} solubility differences. Porous gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) with supported Pt catalyst were studied in a special cell with low uncompensated solution resistance. Cyclic voltammograms yielded measurements of the wetted areas of carbon and Pt and the local electrolyte composition. Models for the steady-state operation of porous GDE's were developed. These models account for the diffusion and reaction of O{sub 2} and ionic transport in KOH and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The results suggest that modifications of the GDE structure will be necessary to obtain good performance with aqueous carbonate electrolytes.

  1. Silicone as a binder in composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Taro; Takada, Kazunori; Kajiyama, Akihisa; Sasaki, Hideki; Kondo, Shigeo; Watanabe, Mamoru; Murayama, Masahiro; Kanno, Ryoji

    A liquid silicone was used as a binder to make composite solid electrolytes from lithium-ion conductive inorganic solid electrolytes (ISEs): an oxysulfide glass, 0.01Li 3PO 4-0.63Li 2S-0.36SiS 2 and/or a lithium germanium thio-phosphate, Li 3.25Ge 0.25P 0.75S 4. Ionic conductivities of the composites were of the order of 10 -4 Scm -1, even when the silicone was enriched to 10% (v/v). On the other hand, the composite with styrene-butadiene block co-polymer (SBR) or polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PO-EO) co-polymer as binder showed much lower conductivity. In the composite electrolyte, the silicone rubber must partly cover the surface of the ISE particles because the composite electrolyte is molded before the vulcanization of the fluid liquid silicone; and thus, it must rarely interfere with the conduction between the ISE particles. Hydrocarbons were found to be suitable in the preparation process of the composite solid electrolyte (CSE).

  2. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  3. Morphology control in solid polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with high ionic conductivity are important for energy-related applications, such as solid state batteries and fuel cells. In this talk, I will discuss how nanoscale morphology affects the properties of SPEs. In the first part of the talk, I will show quantitatively that the effect of polymer crystallization on ion transport is twofold: structural (tortuosity) and dynamic (tethered chain confinement). We decouple these two effects by designing and fabricating a model polymer single crystal electrolyte system with controlled crystal structure, size, crystallinity, and orientation. Ion conduction is confined within the chain fold region and guided by the crystalline lamellae. We show that, at low ion content, due to the tortuosity effect, the in-plane conductivity is 2000 times greater than through-plane one. Contradictory to the general view, the dynamic effect is negligible at moderate ion contents. Our results suggest that semicrystalline polymer is a valid system for practical polymer electrolytes design. In the second part of the talk, I will discuss how to use holographic photopolymerization (HP) to fabricate long-range, defect-free, ordered SPEs with tunable ion conducting pathways. By incorporating polymer electrolytes into the carefully selected HP system, electrolyte layers/ion channels with length scales of a few tens of nanometers to micrometers can be formed. Confinement effects on ion transport will be reported.

  4. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-04-30

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  5. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  6. Hydrogen ion-selective electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor for pH sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, Johannes; Schmoltner, Kerstin; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2014-05-01

    A H+ ion-selective electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (IS-EGOFET) with a broad detection range between pH 3 and pH 12, is presented. This pH sensor relies on an integrated EGOFET used as a transducer in combination with an ionophore-doped polymeric ion-selective membrane serving as a sensing element. The broad detection range was possible through a dynamic measurement protocol comprising a readjustment of the gate voltage, which ensures a stable device operation at a constant working point. The effectiveness of this dynamic approach is confirmed by stability investigations. On the basis of this pH sensor concept, the importance of an appropriate gating electrolyte is highlighted, giving insights into the working mechanism of EGOFETs.

  7. Femtosecond laser patterning of lithium-ion battery separator materials: impact on liquid electrolyte wetting and cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Schmitz, B.; Niemöeller, A.; Robertz, B.; Schäfer, M.; Torge, M.; Smyrek, P.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    High capacity Li-ion batteries are composed of alternating stacked cathode and anode layers with thin separator membranes in between for preventing internal shorting. Such batteries can suffer from insufficient cell reliability, safety and electrochemical performance due to poor liquid electrolyte wetting properties. Within the electrolyte filling process, homogeneous wetting of cathode, separator and anode layers is strongly requested due to the fact that insufficient electrolyte wetting of battery components can cause limited capacity under challenging operation or even battery failure. The capacity of the battery is known to be limited by the quantity of wetting of the electrode and separator layers. Therefore, laser structuring processes have recently been developed for forming capillary micro-structures into cathode and anode layers leading to improved wetting properties. Additionally, many efforts have been undertaken to enhance the wettability and safety issues of separator layers, e.g. by applying thin coatings to polymeric base materials. In this paper, we present a rather new approach for ultrafast femtosecond laser patterning of surface coated separator layers. Laser patterning allows the formation of micro-vias and micro-channel structures into thin separator membranes. Liquid electrolyte wetting properties were investigated before and after laser treatment. The electrochemical cyclability of batteries with unstructured and laser-structured separators was tested in order to determine an optimal combination with respect to separator material, functional coating and laser-induced surface topography.

  8. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, A.

    2003-09-01

    'utilisation de qubits basés sur les jonctions Josephson. On présente entre autres une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est très générale puisqu'elle peut être appliquée à différents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'intéresse à la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le détecteur suggéré ici a l'avantage de pouvoir être découplé du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  9. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  10. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  11. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  12. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  13. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  14. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  15. ESR studies of semicontinuous emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, W.; Westmoreland, D.G.

    1993-12-31

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used in the detection and quantification of propagating radicals during a semicontinuous emulsion polymerization. The propagating radical concentration is crucial for the determination of kinetic parameters of the emulsion polymerization process. A flow reactor was built which involves a closed-loop flow system that circulates latex from the polymerization reactor through the ESR cavity for free-radical measurements and back to the reactor. With the continuous measurement of the radical concentrations during a polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), {bar n} (average number of radicals per particle) and k{sub p} (propagating rate constant), are measured throughout the entire polymerization. For the polymerization of the MMA system studied, the authors observed a gradual increased in n and decrease in k{sub p} during the run, suggesting a diffusionally controlled process and that the polymerization is not occurring homogeneously throughout the polymer particles. In the glassy pMMA matrix, radicals can be {open_quotes}trapped{close_quotes} within a minimum volume and remain unterminated.

  16. First Concrete Poured for NSLS-II Ring Building

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-20

    The first bits of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) ring building are now taking shape after the concrete-pouring process for the new, world-class facility began on Monday, July 20. Once complete, the 400,000 square-foot building will hou

  17. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  18. STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR UNDER WEATHER SHELTER DURING COLD WINTER. NOTE ABUNDANCE OF BEAMS; THE FLOOR WILL SUPPORT HEAVY LOADS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1175. Unknown Photographer, 12/20/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Pouring and running a protein gel by reusing commercial cassettes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Alexander C; Grey, Paris H; Cuddy, Katrina; Oppenheimer, David G

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is a common technique used by biochemistry and molecular biology researchers. For laboratories that perform daily analyses of proteins, the cost of commercially available polyacrylamide gels (~$10/gel) can be considerable over time. To mitigate this cost, some researchers prepare their own polyacrylamide gels. Traditional methods of pouring these gels typically utilize specialized equipment and glass gel plates that can be expensive and preclude pouring many gels and storing them for future use. Furthermore, handling of glass plates during cleaning or gel pouring can result in accidental breakage creating a safety hazard, which may preclude their use in undergraduate laboratory classes. Our protocol demonstrates how to pour multiple protein gels simultaneously by recycling Invitrogen Nupage Novex minigel cassettes, and inexpensive materials purchased at a home improvement store. This economical and streamlined method includes a way to store the gels at 4°C for a few weeks. By re-using the plastic gel cassettes from commercially available gels, labs that run frequent protein gels can save significant costs and help the environment. In addition, plastic gel cassettes are extremely resistant to breakage, which makes them ideal for undergraduate laboratory classrooms. PMID:22349047

  20. Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall of building - looking northwest. Taken Nov. 15, 1929. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 7165 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sacci, Robert L.; Banuelos, Jose Leobardo; Veith, Gabriel M.; Littrell, Ken C.; Cheng, Yongqiang Q.; Wildgruber, Christoph U.; Jones, Lacy L.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; Rother, Gernot; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-03-25

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  2. Ion Conduction in Polymerized Ionic Liquids with Different Pendant Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Fei; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Tao; Heres, Maximilian F; Saito, Tomonori; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising candidates for energy storage and electrochemical devices applications. Understanding their ionic transport mechanism is the key for designing highly conductive PolyILs. By using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), rheology, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a systematic study has been carried out to provide a better understanding of the ionic transport mechanism in PolyILs with different pendant groups. The variation of pendant groups results in different dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties of these PolyILs. The Walden plot analysis shows that the data points for all these PolyILs fall above the ideal Walden line, and the deviation from the ideal line increases upon approaching the glass transition temperature (Tg). The conductivity for these PolyILs at their Tgs are much higher than the usually reported value 10 15 S/cm for polymer electrolytes, in which the ionic transport is closely coupled to the segmental dynamics. These results indicate a decoupling of ionic conductivity from the segmental relaxation in these materials. The degree of decoupling increases with the increase of the fragility of polymer segmental relaxation. We relate this observation to a decrease in polymer packing efficiency with an increase in fragility.

  3. Ion Conduction in Polymerized Ionic Liquids with Different Pendant Groups

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fan, Fei; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Tao; Heres, Maximilian F; Saito, Tomonori; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising candidates for energy storage and electrochemical devices applications. Understanding their ionic transport mechanism is the key for designing highly conductive PolyILs. By using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), rheology, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a systematic study has been carried out to provide a better understanding of the ionic transport mechanism in PolyILs with different pendant groups. The variation of pendant groups results in different dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties of these PolyILs. The Walden plot analysis shows that the data points for all these PolyILs fall above the ideal Walden line, and the deviationmore » from the ideal line increases upon approaching the glass transition temperature (Tg). The conductivity for these PolyILs at their Tgs are much higher than the usually reported value 10 15 S/cm for polymer electrolytes, in which the ionic transport is closely coupled to the segmental dynamics. These results indicate a decoupling of ionic conductivity from the segmental relaxation in these materials. The degree of decoupling increases with the increase of the fragility of polymer segmental relaxation. We relate this observation to a decrease in polymer packing efficiency with an increase in fragility.« less

  4. Adsorption to goethite of extracellular polymeric substances from Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoike, Anselm; Chorover, Jon

    2006-02-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are heterogeneous biopolymers produced by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells. Adsorption of EPS to minerals can alter the substrata physico-chemistry and influence initial bacterial adhesion processes via conditioning film formation, but the effects of solution chemistry on uptake of EPS remain poorly understood. In this study, the adsorption to goethite (α-FeOOH) of EPS isolated from the early stationary growth-phase culture of Bacillus subtilis was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength ( I) in NaCl background electrolyte using batch studies coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. Proteins, particularly those of higher molar mass, and phosphorylated macromolecules were adsorbed preferentially. Increasing solution I (1-100 mM NaCl) or pH (3.0-9.0) resulted in a decrease in the mass of EPS adsorbed. Batch studies and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectra are consistent with ligand exchange of EPS phosphate groups for surface hydroxyls at Fe metal centers. The data indicate that both electrostatic and chemical bonding interactions contribute to selective fractionation of the EPS solution. Proteins and phosphate groups in phosphodiester bridges of nucleic acids likely play an important role in conditioning film formation at Fe oxide surfaces.

  5. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  6. High-Energy-Density Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in weight and volume make new application possible. Supercapacitors and improved ultracapacitors advanced electrolytic capacitors developed for use as electric-load-leveling devices in such applications as electric vehicle propulsion systems, portable power tools, and low-voltage pulsed power supplies. One primary advantage: offer power densities much higher than storage batteries. Capacitors used in pulse mode, with short charge and discharge times. Derived from commercially available ultracapacitors. Made of lightweight materials; incorporate electrode/electrolyte material systems capable of operation at voltages higher than previous electrode/electrolyte systems. By use of innovative designs and manufacturing processes, made in wide range of rated capacitances and in rated operating potentials ranging from few to several hundred volts.

  7. Composite Solid Electrolyte Containing Li+- Conducting Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, A. John; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2006-01-01

    Improved composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) are being developed for use in lithium-ion power cells. The matrix components of these composites, like those of some prior CSPEs, are high-molecular-weight dielectric polymers [generally based on polyethylene oxide (PEO)]. The filler components of these composites are continuous, highly-Li(+)-conductive, inorganic fibers. PEO-based polymers alone would be suitable for use as solid electrolytes, were it not for the fact that their room-temperature Li(+)-ion conductivities lie in the range between 10(exp -6) and 10(exp -8) S/cm, too low for practical applications. In a prior approach to formulating a CSPE, one utilizes nonconductive nanoscale inorganic filler particles to increase the interfacial stability of the conductive phase. The filler particles also trap some electrolyte impurities. The achievable increase in conductivity is limited by the nonconductive nature of the filler particles.

  8. Method of fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-06

    Fuel cell stacks contain an electrolyte layer surrounded on top and bottom by an electrode layer. Porous electrodes are prepared which enable fuel and oxidant to easily flow to the respective electrode-electrolyte interface without the need for high temperatures or pressures to assist the flow. Rigid, inert microspheres in combination with thin-film metal deposition techniques are used to fabricate porous anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes. Microshperes contained in a liquid are randomly dispersed onto a host structure and dried such that the microsperes remain in position. A thin-film deposition technique is subsequently employed to deposit a metal layer onto the microsperes. After such metal layer deposition, the microspheres are removed leaving voids, i.e. pores, in the metal layer, thus forming a porous electrode. Successive repetitions of the fabrication process result in the formation of a continuous fuel cell stack. Such stacks may produce power outputs ranging from about 0.1 Watt to about 50 Watts.

  9. Thin liquid films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Exerowa, Dotchi; Platikanov, Dimo

    2009-01-01

    The conditions of formation and stability of foam, emulsion, and wetting films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants have been established. Two types of polymeric surfactants - PEO-PPO-PEO three-block copolymers (A-B-A type) and hydrophobically modified inulin graft polymer (AB(n) type) - have been explored. Information about surface forces and nanoscale phenomena in aqueous films containing polymeric surfactants was obtained using the micro-interferometric technique and the Thin Liquid Film-Pressure Balance Technique. Two types of surface forces, which determine the stability of the foam and emulsion films, have been distinguished, namely: DLVO-forces at low electrolyte concentrations and non-DLVO-forces at high electrolyte concentrations. Non-DLVO-forces are steric surface forces of the brush-to-brush and loop-to-loop interaction type according to De Gennes. A substantial difference in the behavior of these two film types has been established and in the case of O/W emulsion films transitions to Newton black film (NBF) have been observed. These films are very stable and so are the respective emulsions. In contrast the wetting films are relatively thicker compared to emulsion films, and their thickness depends on the concentration of the AB(n) polymeric surfactant. The steric repulsion of the loops and tails of the polymeric surfactant determine the film thickness of wetting films on a hydrophilic solid surface. For solid surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity the wetting films are stable only at high polymer concentrations and low degree of hydrophobicity. Otherwise the films are unstable and rupture. Two types of bilayer emulsion films have been distinguished for the first time. One type is related to the brush-to-brush or loop-to-loop interactions according to De Gennes. The other type is a NBF where the forces are also steric between strongly hydrated brush and loops but they are short-range forces acting in a two

  10. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  11. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2011-11-01

    Methods for making a micofluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining a cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  12. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  13. Ionically conductive thin polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization; Preparation and characterization of ultrathin films having fixed sulfonic acid groups with only one mobile species

    SciTech Connect

    Ogumi, Z.; Uchimoto, Y.; Takehara, Z. ); Foulkes, F.R. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Ultrathin solid polymer electrolyte membranes containing sulfonic ester groups were prepared by polymerization of methyl benzenesulfonate and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in a glow discharge plasma. The sulfonic ester groups of the plasma polymer were transformed to lithium sulfonate groups by treatment with lithium iodide. Hybridization of this plasma polymer containing the lithium sulfonate groups with poly(ethylene oxide) (average Mw 300) resulted in the formation of a single lithium ion conductive film. The hybrid polymer electrolyte films were about 1 {mu}m thick, pinhole-free, adherent to various substrates, and showed ionic conductivities at 60{degrees}C of the order of 10{sup {minus} 6} S cm{sup {minus} 1} (10{sup 2} {Omega} cm{sup 2} resistance per unit area of as-prepared solid polymer electrolyte). This material shows promise for electrochemical applications such as all solid-state lithium batteries, sensors, and electrochemical display devices.

  14. Structure Control of Nitrogen-Rich Graphene Nanosheets Using Hydrothermal Treatment and Formaldehyde Polymerization for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-07-20

    Nitrogen-rich graphene nanosheets (NGN) with intentionally crumpled, stacked, and cross-linked sheet structures were developed using hydrothermal and/or formaldehyde polymerization processes. It is revealed that the hydrothermal treatment produced crumpled NGN (6.0 at% N) with a high surface area of 383 m(2)·g(-1). In contrast, the formaldehyde polymerization process yielded stacked NGN (11.3 at% N) with very low surface area. The combination of formaldehyde polymerization synthesis with hydrothermal treatment led to NGN (14.7 at% N) with a cross-linked structure and a moderate surface area of 88 m(2)·g(-1). Interestingly, this cross-linked NGN exhibited the best electrochemical performance compared with other NGN, with a remarkable specific capacitance of 201 F·g(-1) at 0.05 A·g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte, and an excellent retention rate of 96.2% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A·g(-1) was achieved. PMID:27341589

  15. Turbulent mixing of plasma and electrolyte in the multi-channel discharge between a droplet and electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayumov, R. R.; Gaysin, Al F.; Son, E. E.; Gaysin, Az F.; Gaysin, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    The multi-channel discharge between an electrolyte cathode and an electrolyte anode is of significant scientific and practical importance. The physical properties and characteristics of these types of discharges at atmospheric pressure have not yet been studied. This paper is devoted to the study of the multi-channel discharge between an electrolyte droplet cathode and an electrolyte cell anode. The experiments were carried out in the current range of 0.01-1.5 A and the voltage range of 50-1300 V. The flow rate of the droplet forming electrolyte was 0.2 g s-1. A NaCl solution was used as electrolyte.

  16. Analysis of the DWPF glass pouring system using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.; Jantzen, C.M.; Medich, L.; Spennato, N.

    1997-08-05

    Neural networks were used to determine the sensitivity of 39 selected Melter/Melter Off Gas and Melter Feed System process parameters as related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter Pour Spout Pressure during the overall analysis and resolution of the DWPF glass production and pouring issues. Two different commercial neural network software packages were used for this analysis. Models were developed and used to determine the critical parameters which accurately describe the DWPF Pour Spout Pressure. The model created using a low-end software package has a root mean square error of {+-} 0.35 inwc (< 2% of the instrument`s measured range, R{sup 2} = 0.77) with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The model created using a high-end software package has a R{sub 2} = 0.97 with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The models developed for this application identified the key process parameters which contribute to the control of the DWPF Melter Pour Spout pressure during glass pouring operations. The relative contribution and ranking of the selected parameters was determined using the modeling software. Neural network computing software was determined to be a cost-effective software tool for process engineers performing troubleshooting and system performance monitoring activities. In remote high-level waste processing environments, neural network software is especially useful as a replacement for sensors which have failed and are costly to replace. The software can be used to accurately model critical remotely installed plant instrumentation. When the instrumentation fails, the software can be used to provide a soft sensor to replace the actual sensor, thereby decreasing the overall operating cost. Additionally, neural network software tools require very little training and are especially useful in mining or selecting critical variables from the vast amounts of data collected from process computers.

  17. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  18. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Morgan, Chester S.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  19. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  20. Research of advanced electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, H. S.; Yang, C. Y.; McBreen, J.

    1982-02-01

    Research on advanced electrolytic hydrogen production consisted of two areas. One was the development of an electrochemical method for investigation of the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrocatalyst interface, the other was the development of stable photoanodes for photodecomposition of water by coating low barrier n type semiconductor with a thin film of n type TiO2. By using various types of contact electrodes on SPE membranes, it was possible to use modern electrochemical techniques to investigate the SPE electrocatalyst interface under conditions simulating electrolyzer operation. Low barrier heterojunctions of thin films of n type TiO2 on n type Fe2O3 were successfully demonstrated.

  1. Theory of electrohydrodynamic instabilities in electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruinsma, R.; Alexander, S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper develops the theory of the hydrodynamic stability of an electrolytic cell as a function of the imposed electric current. A new electrohydrodynamic instability is encountered when the current is forced to exceed the Nernst limit. The convection is driven by the volume force exerted by the electric field on space charges in the electrolyte. This intrinsic instability is found to be easily masked by extrinsic convection sources such as gravity or stirring. A linear stability analysis is performed and a dimensionless number Le is derived whose value determines the convection pattern.

  2. Polymeric Coatings for Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Schuler, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Two polymeric coatings have been developed for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission. ProSEDS is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster scheduled for launch in August 2000. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, the other end of which is attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire individually coated with 8.7 micrometers (0.35 mil) of an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of 87% Clear Oxygen-Resistant polymer (COR) and 13% polyanaline (PANi), wrapped around a braided Kevlar (TM) 49 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure was performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Conductivity was measured before and after atomic oxygen exposure. High voltage tests, up to 1500 V, of the current collecting ability of the COR/PANi have been completed. Approximately 160 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta 11 second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulation is composed of polyimide overcoated with TOR-BP, another polymeric coating developed by Triton for this mission. TOR-BP acts as both insulator

  3. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  4. Novel reversible and switchable electrolytes based on magneto-rheology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Peng, Gangrou; Shu, Kewei; Wang, Caiyun; Tian, Tongfei; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Replacing organic liquid electrolytes with solid electrolytes has led to a new perspective on batteries, enabling high-energy battery chemistry with intrinsically safe cell designs. However, most solid/gel electrolytes are easily deformed; under extreme deformation, leakage and/or short-circuiting can occur. Here, we report a novel magneto-rheological electrolyte (MR electrolyte) that responds to changes in an external magnetic field; the electrolyte exhibits low viscosity in the absence of a magnetic field and increased viscosity or a solid-like phase in the presence of a magnetic field. This change from a liquid to solid does not significantly change the conductivity of the MR electrolyte. This work introduces a new class of magnetically sensitive solid electrolytes that can enhance impact resistance and prevent leakage from electronic devices through reversible active switching of their mechanical properties. PMID:26493967

  5. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  6. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions.

  7. Novel reversible and switchable electrolytes based on magneto-rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Peng, Gangrou; Shu, Kewei; Wang, Caiyun; Tian, Tongfei; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2015-10-01

    Replacing organic liquid electrolytes with solid electrolytes has led to a new perspective on batteries, enabling high-energy battery chemistry with intrinsically safe cell designs. However, most solid/gel electrolytes are easily deformed; under extreme deformation, leakage and/or short-circuiting can occur. Here, we report a novel magneto-rheological electrolyte (MR electrolyte) that responds to changes in an external magnetic field; the electrolyte exhibits low viscosity in the absence of a magnetic field and increased viscosity or a solid-like phase in the presence of a magnetic field. This change from a liquid to solid does not significantly change the conductivity of the MR electrolyte. This work introduces a new class of magnetically sensitive solid electrolytes that can enhance impact resistance and prevent leakage from electronic devices through reversible active switching of their mechanical properties.

  8. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  9. Performance comparison: Aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthornthwaite, B. G.; Piper, J.; Holland, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several key electrical and environmental parameters of latest technology aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitors were evaluated in terms of price fluctuations of tantalum metal. Performance differences between solid tantalums and aluminum electrolytics are examined.

  10. Novel reversible and switchable electrolytes based on magneto-rheology.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Peng, Gangrou; Shu, Kewei; Wang, Caiyun; Tian, Tongfei; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Wallace, Gordon G; Li, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Replacing organic liquid electrolytes with solid electrolytes has led to a new perspective on batteries, enabling high-energy battery chemistry with intrinsically safe cell designs. However, most solid/gel electrolytes are easily deformed; under extreme deformation, leakage and/or short-circuiting can occur. Here, we report a novel magneto-rheological electrolyte (MR electrolyte) that responds to changes in an external magnetic field; the electrolyte exhibits low viscosity in the absence of a magnetic field and increased viscosity or a solid-like phase in the presence of a magnetic field. This change from a liquid to solid does not significantly change the conductivity of the MR electrolyte. This work introduces a new class of magnetically sensitive solid electrolytes that can enhance impact resistance and prevent leakage from electronic devices through reversible active switching of their mechanical properties. PMID:26493967

  11. Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery electrolyte solutions. Specifically, this invention is directed to boron-containing electrolyte solvents and boron-containing electrolyte solutions.

  12. 21 CFR 177.2250 - Filters, microporous polymeric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filters, microporous polymeric. 177.2250 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2250 Filters, microporous polymeric. Microporous polymeric filters identified in... liquid food. (a) Microporous polymeric filters consist of a suitably permeable, continuous,...

  13. Flow characterization of electroconvective micromixer with a nanoporous polymer membrane in-situ fabricated using a laser polymerization technique

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sangbeom; Song, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvection is known to cause strong convective mixing in a microchannel near a nanoporous membrane or a nanochannel in contact with an electrolyte solution due to the external electric field. This study addresses micromixer behavior subject to electroconvection occurring near a nanoporous membrane in-situ fabricated by a laser polymerization technique on a microfluidic chip. We found that the micromixer behavior can be categorized into three regimes. Briefly, the weak electroconvection regime is characterized by weak mixing performance at a low applied voltage and KCl concentration, whereas the strong electroconvection regime has a high mixing performance when the applied voltage and KCl concentration are moderately high. Finally, the incomplete electroconvection regime has an incomplete electric double-layer overlap in the nanopores of the membrane when the electrolyte concentration is very high. The mixing index reached 0.92 in the strong electroconvection regime. The detailed fabrication methods for the micromixer and characterization results are discussed in this paper. PMID:26064195

  14. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  15. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  16. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  17. Hydrocarbon polymeric binder for advanced solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    A series of DEAB initiated isoprene polymerizations were run in the 5-gallon stirred autoclave reactor. Polymerization run parameters such as initiator concentration and feed rate were correlated with the molecular weight to provide a basis for molecular weight control in future runs. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of n-1,3-alkadienes. By these methods, 1,3-nonadiene was polymerized using DEAB initiator to give an ester-telechelic polynonadiene. This was subsequently hydrogenated with copper chromite catalyst to give a hydroxyl terminated saturated liquid hydrocarbon prepolymer having greatly improved viscosity characteristics and a Tg 18 degrees lower than that of the hydrogenated polyisoprenes. The hydroxyl-telechelic saturated polymers prepared by the hydrogenolysis of ester-telechelic polyisoprene were reached with diisocyanates under conditions favoring linear chain extension gel permeation chromatography was used to monitor this condensation polymerization. Fractions having molecular weights above one million were produced.

  18. Dielectric films improve life of polymeric insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of polymeric insulators may be significantly reduced when polymer surfaces are coated with film having gradation of dielectric constants, larger where it is in contact with polymer and smaller at its exposed surface.

  19. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  20. PERMEABILITY OF POLYMERIC MEMBRANE LINING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeabilities to three gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen), water vapor, and five solvents (methanol, acetone, cyclohexane, xylene, and chloroform) are reported for a broad range of commercial polymeric membranes. Gas and water vapor transmission (WVT) data were determ...

  1. Radiation effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    It is important to study changes in properties of polymeres after irradiation with charged particles, with ultraviolet radiation, and with combinations of both. An apparatus for this purpose has been built at the NASA Langley Research Center. It consists of a chamber 9 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with a port for an electron gun, another port for a mass spectrometer, and a quartz window through which an ultraviolet lamp can be focused. The chamber, including the electron gun and the mass spectrometer, can be evacuated to a pressure of 10 to the 8th power torr. A sample placed in the chamber can be irradiated with electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, sequentially, or simultaneously, while volatile products can be monitored during all irradiations with the mass spectrometer. The apparatus described above has been used to study three different polymer films: lexan; a polycarbonate; P1700, a polysulfone; and mylar, a polyethylene terephthalate. All three polymers had been studied extensively with both electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, but not simultaneously. Also, volatile products had not been monitored during irradiation for the materials. A high electron dose rate of 530 Mrads/hr was used so that a sufficient concentration of volatile products would be formed to yield a reasonable mass spectrum.

  2. Highly elastic conductive polymeric MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhhammer, J.; Zens, M.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Seifert, A.; Woias, P.

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric structures with integrated, functional microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) elements are increasingly important in various applications such as biomedical systems or wearable smart devices. These applications require highly flexible and elastic polymers with good conductivity, which can be embedded into a matrix that undergoes large deformations. Conductive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a suitable candidate but is still challenging to fabricate. Conductivity is achieved by filling a nonconductive PDMS matrix with conductive particles. In this work, we present an approach that uses new mixing techniques to fabricate conductive PDMS with different fillers such as carbon black, silver particles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Additionally, the electrical properties of all three composites are examined under continuous mechanical stress. Furthermore, we present a novel, low-cost, simple three-step molding process that transfers a micro patterned silicon master into a polystyrene (PS) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) replica with improved release features. This PS/PTFE mold is used for subsequent structuring of conductive PDMS with high accuracy. The non sticking characteristics enable the fabrication of delicate structures using a very soft PDMS, which is usually hard to release from conventional molds. Moreover, the process can also be applied to polyurethanes and various other material combinations.

  3. Polyurethane biocidal polymeric surface modifiers.

    PubMed

    Makal, Umit; Wood, Lynn; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2006-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) with soft blocks containing semifluorinated (-CH2OCH2CF3) and 5,5-dimethylhydantoin pendant groups were prepared and employed (2 wt%) as biocidal polymeric surface modifiers (PSMs) for a conventional PU coating comprised of an isophorone diisocyanate/1,4-butanediol-derived hard block (50%) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft block. Surface enrichment of the PSM was verified by dynamic contact angle measurements. The PSM modified PU was activated by converting near-surface amide groups to chloramide with 3wt% hypochlorite. The conversion of near-surface amide to chloramide is reflected in somewhat increased hydrophobic character for the antimicrobial chloramide functionalized surfaces. Biocidal activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) bacteria was demonstrated by using a modified version of American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC-100) test. By changing the PSM concentration it was found that only 1.6 wt% PSM (0.66 wt% biocide, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin) in a conventional PU affected complete kill of P. aeruginosa in 15 min by using this biocidal testing protocol. PMID:16181672

  4. Polymeric conjugates for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nate; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer therapeutics has evolved over the past decade and has resulted in the development of polymer-drug conjugates with a wide variety of architectures and chemical properties. Whereas traditional non-degradable polymeric carriers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (HPMA) copolymers have been translated to use in the clinic, functionalized polymer-drug conjugates are increasingly being utilized to obtain biodegradable, stimuli-sensitive, and targeted systems in an attempt to further enhance localized drug delivery and ease of elimination. In addition, the study of conjugates bearing both therapeutic and diagnostic agents has resulted in multifunctional carriers with the potential to both “see and treat” patients. In this paper, the rational design of polymer-drug conjugates will be discussed followed by a review of different classes of conjugates currently under investigation. The design and chemistry used for the synthesis of various conjugates will be presented with additional comments on their potential applications and current developmental status. PMID:22707853

  5. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  6. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  7. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  8. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  9. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  10. Containerless polymeric microsphere production for biomedical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Hyson, M. T.; Chung, S. K.; Colvin, M.; Chang, M.

    1987-01-01

    A containerless method that produces highly uniform microspheres (greater than 50 microns in diameter) from many materials has been developed for biomedical applications. A piezoelectrically vibrated drop generator forms uniform (monodisperse) monomer droplets that are either electrostatistically levitated and polymerized using UV irradiation, or free-radical polymerized. Spheres of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer have been produced with diameters of 155 microns + or - 1.57 percent.

  11. DNA detection with a polymeric nanochannel device.

    PubMed

    Fanzio, Paola; Mussi, Valentina; Manneschi, Chiara; Angeli, Elena; Firpo, Giuseppe; Repetto, Luca; Valbusa, Ugo

    2011-09-01

    We present the development and the electrical characterization of a polymeric nanochannel device. Standard microfabrication coupled to Focused Ion Beam (FIB) nanofabrication is used to fabricate a silicon master, which can be then replicated in a polymeric material by soft lithography. Such an elastomeric nanochannel device is used to study DNA translocation events during electrophoresis experiments. Our results demonstrate that an easy and low cost fabrication technique allows creation of a low noise device for single molecule analysis. PMID:21750811

  12. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  13. Polymeric Micelles for Acyclovir Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sawdon, Alicia J.; Peng, Ching-An

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. 1H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-PCL. Through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and critical micelle concentration (CMC), the synthesized ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were characterized. It was found that the average size of the polymeric micelles was under 200 nm and the CMCs of ACV-PCLMPEG and ACV-PCL-chitosan were 2.0 mg L−1 and 6.6 mg L−1, respectively. The drug release kinetics of ACV was investigated and cytotoxicity assay demonstrates that ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were non-toxic. PMID:25193154

  14. Catalytic living ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, Amit A.; Kilbinger, Andreas F. M.

    2015-09-01

    In living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), a transition-metal-carbene complex polymerizes ring-strained olefins with very good control of the molecular weight of the resulting polymers. Because one molecule of the initiator is required for each polymer chain, however, this type of polymerization is expensive for widespread use. We have now designed a chain-transfer agent (CTA) capable of reducing the required amount of metal complex while still maintaining full control over the living polymerization process. This new method introduces a degenerative transfer process to ROMP. We demonstrate that substituted cyclohexene rings are good CTAs, and thereby preserve the ‘living’ character of the polymerization using catalytic quantities of the metal complex. The resulting polymers show characteristics of a living polymerization, namely narrow molecular-weight distribution, controlled molecular weights and block copolymer formation. This new technique provides access to well-defined polymers for industrial, biomedical and academic use at a fraction of the current costs and significantly reduced levels of residual ruthenium catalyst.

  15. Nonperturbative Renormalization Group Approach to Polymerized Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essafi, Karim; Kownacki, Jean-Philippe; Mouhanna, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Membranes or membrane-like materials play an important role in many fields ranging from biology to physics. These systems form a very rich domain in statistical physics. The interplay between geometry and thermal fluctuations lead to exciting phases such flat, tubular and disordered flat phases. Roughly speaking, membranes can be divided into two group: fluid membranes in which the molecules are free to diffuse and thus no shear modulus. On the other hand, in polymerized membranes the connectivity is fixed which leads to elastic forces. This difference between fluid and polymerized membranes leads to a difference in their critical behaviour. For instance, fluid membranes are always crumpled, whereas polymerized membranes exhibit a phase transition between a crumpled phase and a flat phase. In this talk, I will focus only on polymerized phantom, i.e. non-self-avoiding, membranes. The critical behaviour of both isotropic and anisotropic polymerized membranes are studied using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach (NPRG). This allows for the investigation of the phase transitions and the low temperature flat phase in any internal dimension D and embedding d. Interestingly, graphene behaves just as a polymerized membrane in its flat phase.

  16. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1976-11-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  17. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chur Hoan; Han, Ji Hyun; Jin, Joon; Yu, Ji Eun; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Min Young

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Methods In a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses. Results In patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46), 26.9% (n=21), 35.9% (n=28), 47.4% (n=37), and 23.1% (n=18), respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all P<0.05). Levels of potassium in serum were positively correlated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) levels (all P<0.05). Levels of inorganic phosphate in serum were positively correlated with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH (all P<0.05), and levels of magnesium in serum were positively correlated with delta ACTH (P<0.01). Conclusion Electrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease. PMID:26485467

  18. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K.

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  19. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  20. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T.; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced—in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures—and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments.

  1. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  2. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  3. Method of making electrolytic capacitor anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, B.; Eickelberg, E.W.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of making an anode for an electrolytic capacitor. The method comprises providing a powder consisting of a film-forming metal, polyethylene oxide, and ammonium carbonate; pressing the powder to form an anode body; and heating the anode body to remove the polyethylene oxide and ammonium carbonate.

  4. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  5. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  6. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-16

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced--in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures--and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments. PMID:26885704

  7. Miniaturized Amperometric Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; Hammond, J. W.; Ward, B.; Lukco, D.; Lampard, P.; Artale, M.; Androjna, D.

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor using Na3Z r2Si2PO12 (NASICON) as a solid electrolyte has been fabricated and de monstrated. Microfabrication techniques were used for sensor fabricat ion to yield a sensing area around 1.0 mm x 1.1 mm. The NASICON solid electrolyte and the Na2CO3/BaCO3 (1:1.7 molar ratio) auxiliary elect rolyte were deposited by sputtering in between and on top of the inte rdigitated finger-shaped platinum electrodes. This structure maximize s the length of the three-phase boundary (electrode, solid electrolyt e, and auxiliary electrolyte), which is critical for gas sensing. The robust CO2 sensor operated up to 600 C in an amperometric mode and a ttempts were made to optimize sensor operating parameters. Concentrat ions of CO2 between 0.02% and 4% were detected and the overall sensor performance was evaluated. Linear response of sensor current output to ln[CO2 concentration] ranging from 0.02% to 1% was achieved.

  8. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  9. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  10. Development of electrolyte plate for molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, C.; Matsuo, T.; Suzuki, A.; Yamamasu, Y.

    1998-07-01

    It is important for the commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) to improve the endurance and the reliability of the electrolyte plate. The electrolyte-loss in the electrolyte plate increases the cell resistance and deteriorates the cell voltage. The formulation of cracks in the electrolyte plate causes a gas cross leakage between the fuel gas and the oxidizer gas. The pore structure of electrolyte plate must be stable and fine to support liquid electrolyte under MCFC operation. It is necessary to prevent the formation of cracks in electrolyte plate during thermal cycling. The authors have improved the stability of electrolyte plate using advanced LiAlO{sub 2} powder and improved the durability of electrolyte plate for thermal cycling by the addition of the ceramic fiber. The initial cell voltage using electrolyte plate with advanced LiAlO{sub 2} powder was 820 mV at current density 150mA/cm{sup 2} and the decay rate of cell voltage was under 0.5%/1,000h for 8,800h. According to the post analyses, the pore structure of the electrolyte plate did not change. The stability of advanced LiAlO{sub 2} powder was confirmed. It was proved that the electrolyte plate reinforced with ceramic fiber is effective for thermal cycling.

  11. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  12. Superacid-Based Lithium Salts For Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Prakash, Surya; Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Olah, George

    1995-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes exhibiting high lithium-ion conductivities made by incorporating salts of superacids into thin films of polyethylene oxide (PEO). These and other solid-polymer electrolytes candidates for use in rechargeable lithium-based electrochemical cells. Increases in room-temperature lithium-ion conductivities of solid electrolytes desirable because they increase achievable power and energy densities.

  13. Ionometry in the analysis of electrolyte solutions (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, O.M.; Rogatinskaya, S.L.; Shipulo, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    The potential usefulness of ionometry in the analytical control of plating electrolytes, etching solutions, and waste effluents has been considered. Complete ionometric analysis of plating electrolytes and determination of metal cyanide complexes have been presented as examples. Ion-selective field-effect transistors (IEFT), semiconductor electrodes, and ISE pairs have been shown to have potential usefulness for the potentiometric titration of plating electrolytes.

  14. Adhesion of Poly(phenylene sulfide) Resin with Polymeric Film of Triazine Thiol on Aluminum Surface Modified by Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Hyuk; Jang, Eun Kyung; Hong, Tae Eun; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Jin, Jong Sung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Shin, Dong Su; Bae, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Euh Duck

    2015-01-01

    Various surface modifications have been applied to improve the adhesion properties of aluminum for the cap plate and sealing quality of electrolyte on Li ion batteries. In this study, we have tried to find the effective condition for the polymerization of triazine thiols (TT) on modified aluminum surfaces by anodic aluminum oxide. Characterization of polymerized films on aluminum was explored by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that meaningful roughness was formed on aluminum surfaces by anodic oxidation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis results represent that the peel strength was found to depend on film thickness and the composition of the adhesion layer. As a result, Al/PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) resin assemblies developed in this study have superior adhesive property. Therefore, these assemblies might be a viable candidate for a sealing technique for Li ion batteries. PMID:26301310

  15. The effect of ionic liquid electrolyte concentrations in dye sensitized solar cell using gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiarti, H.; Arsyad, W. S.; Wulandari, P.; Hidayat, R.

    2014-09-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) have received much attention because of some advantages, such as using environment-friendly materials and requiring less high-tech equipment. Commonly DSSCs are built using conventional electrolyte solution, which is prone to electrolyte leakage and low stability. In this paper, we present the characteristics of DSSCs using gel electrolyte, which was made of ionic liquid and hybrid polymer gel, and the effect of ionic liquid concentration on their characteristics. The hybrid composite polymer was composed of siloxane and ethylene glycol polymer networks. Their working performances were investigated by the current-voltage (J-V) characterizations and small ac impedance measurements, which are correlated with the concentrations of ionic liquid electrolyte. The experimental results showed that cell working performance slightly decreased but the solution leakage problem was eliminated.

  16. Properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes with a polymer layer obtained by plasma polymerization of pyrrole vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, L.; Dmitriev, S.; Lizunov, N.; Satulu, V.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The structure and the charge transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membrane modified by pyrrole plasma were studied. It was found that polymer deposition on the surface of a track membrane via plasma polymerization of pyrrole results in the creation of composite nanomembranes that, in the case of the formation of a semipermeable layer, possess asymmetric conductivity in electrolyte solutions - a rectification effect similar to that of a p-n junction in semiconductors. It is caused by presence in the membranes of two layers with different functional groups and also by the pore geometry. Such membranes can be used to create chemical and biochemical sensors.

  17. Using double-poured alginate impressions to fabricate bleaching trays.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Powe, A

    1998-01-01

    Esthetic and diagnostic treatment often requires two casts of one arch, one for baseline and one for alterations (diagnostic wax-up, bleaching tray, occlusal analysis). The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts generated from a second pour of a properly handled alginate impression with first-poured casts. A maxillary dentoform was indexed with six reference spaces (#8-15, 9-2, 2-15, and incisal-to-gingival of #3, 9, 14). Irreversible hydrocolloid (Jeltrate) impressions were made in perforated steel trays by a single investigator. Impression material was spatulated for 1 minute. The seated impression and dentoform were wrapped in a damp paper towel to simulate intraoral conditions, and allowed to set for 2 minutes. Upon separation, the impression was stored in a damp towel for 5 minutes. The impression was poured in cast stone (Microstone) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The stone-filled impression was immediately rewrapped in a damp paper towel and allowed to set for 45 minutes at room temperature. Upon removal of the stone, the impression was rinsed with cold water, shaken dry, and repoured in the same manner. Ten impressions were made: the first five impressions were poured to make casts for Group A, then repoured as described above for casts for Group B. The remaining five impressions were poured once to make casts for Group C. The six spaces of each cast were measured three times in random order using a dial caliper and the space average calculated for the cast. At each space, analysis of variance showed no significant difference among Groups A, B, or C (P < 0.05). When alginate impressions that have been poured with cast stone are kept moist during stone setting and repoured within 45 minutes, two casts can be generated from one impression with the same degree of accuracy as two casts made from taking two separate impressions, providing the alginate does not tear during first cast removal. PMID:9656923

  18. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  19. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  20. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.; Wielage, B.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na2SiO3·5H2O and K4P2O7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum.