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Sample records for polymeric films obtained

  1. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  2. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  3. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  4. Dielectric films improve life of polymeric insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of polymeric insulators may be significantly reduced when polymer surfaces are coated with film having gradation of dielectric constants, larger where it is in contact with polymer and smaller at its exposed surface.

  5. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  6. Plasma-polymerized carbon disulfide thin-film rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhir, R.K.; Schoch, K.F. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses the results on deposition conditions, rates of polymerization, and properties of carbon disulfide films prepared by two techniques, viz., plasma polymerization and argon-plasma-assisted polymerization of carbon disulfide. A higher rate of polymerization and sulfur content was obtained for carbon disulfide films prepared by the plasma-polymerization technique. A Li/LiClO{sub 4} propylene carbonate/PPCS cell was assembled using lithium foil, 2 M LiClO{sub 4}/PC electrolyte with polyolefin separator, and PPCS deposited on Pt foil. The electrode area was 1.3 cm{sup 2}. The cell cycled reversibly between 1 and 3 V and retained its capacity (5 mA h/g) well over 12 cycles. 14 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Non-traditional plasticization of polymeric films.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; McGinity, J W

    1999-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of methylparaben, ibuprofen, chlorpheniramine maleate and theophylline on the thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric films of Eudragit RS 30 D. The effects of methylparaben and ibuprofen in the film coating on the rate of drug release from Eudragit RS 30 D coated beads were also studied. The physical and mechanical properties of the cast films and coated beads were investigated using thermal analysis, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution testing. The results demonstrated that the glass transition temperature of the Eudragit RS 30 D decreased with increasing levels of methylparaben, ibuprofen and chlorpheniramine maleate in the film. Theophylline exerted no influence on the thermal properties of the polymer. The higher levels of the ibuprofen and methylparaben incorporated into the film resulted in a decrease in the tensile strength of the film. The decrease in Young's modulus of Eudragit RS 30 D coated beads was attributed to an increase in the flexibility of the polymeric films when the level of methylparaben or ibuprofen in the polymeric dispersion was increased. The dissolution data demonstrated that the rate of release of the ibuprofen from coated beads was decreased by increasing the amount of ibuprofen and methylparaben in the polymeric film coating. PMID:10205601

  8. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  9. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  10. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  11. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  12. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  13. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization from chitin nanofiber macroinitiator film.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yoshida, Sho; Kadokawa, Jun-Ichi

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (CNF-g-polyHEA) films by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of HEA monomer from a CNF macroinitiator film. First, a CNF film was prepared by regeneration from a chitin ion gel with an ionic liquid. Then, acylation of the CNF surface with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide was carried out to obtain the CNF macroinitiator film having the initiating moieties (α-bromoisobutyrate group). The surface-initiated graft polymerization of HEA from the CNF macroinitiator film by ATRP was performed to produce the CNF-g-polyHEA film. The IR, XRD, and SEM measurements of the resulting film indicated the progress of the graft polymerization of HEA on surface of CNFs. The molecular weights of the grafted polyHEAs increased with prolonged polymerization times, which affected the mechanical properties of the films under tensile mode. PMID:25129725

  14. Preparation of polymeric diacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Mcmanus, Samuel P. (Inventor); Paley, Mark S. (Inventor); Donovan, David N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing polymeric diacetylene thin films having desirable nonlinear optical characteristics has been achieved by producing amorphous diacetylene polymeric films by simultaneous polymerization of diacetylene monomers in solution and deposition of polymerized diacetylenes on to the surface of a transparent substrate through which ultraviolet light has been transmitted. These amorphous polydiacetylene films produced by photo-deposition from solution possess very high optical quality and exhibit large third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, such properties being suitable for nonlinear optical devices such as waveguides and integrated optics.

  15. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-04-26

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  16. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (<10 .mu.m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectively dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to be successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  17. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Junying; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-08-01

    Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  18. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Reed, Scott T.

    1984-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  19. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  20. Foam, emulsion and wetting films stabilized by polyoxyalkylated diethylenetriamine (DETA) polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Khristov, Khr; Petkova, H; Alexandrova, L; Nedyalkov, M; Platikanov, D; Exerowa, D; Beetge, J

    2011-10-14

    This review explores three (A, B, C) polyoxyalkylated diethylenetriamine (DETA) polymeric surfactants belonging to the group of star-like polymers. They have a similar structure, differing only in the number of polymeric branches (4, 6 and 9 in the mentioned order). The differences in these surfactants' ability to stabilize foam, o/w/o and w/o/w emulsion and wetting films are evaluated by a number of methods summarized in Section 2. Results from the studies indicate that differences in polymeric surfactants' molecular structure affect the properties exhibited at air/water, oil/water and water/solid interfaces, such as the value of surface tension, interfacial tension, critical micelle concentration, degree of hydrophobicity of solid surface, etc. Foam, emulsion and wetting films stabilized by such surfactants also show different behavior regarding some specific parameters, such as critical electrolyte concentration, surfactant concentration for obtaining a stable film, film thickness value, etc. These observations give reasons to believe that model studies can support a comprehensive understanding of how the change in polymeric surfactant structure can impact thin liquid films properties. This may enable a targeted design of the macromolecular architecture depending on the polymeric surfactants application purpose. PMID:21807358

  1. Inhomogeneous Growth of Micrometer Thick Plasma Polymerized Films.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Menges, Bernhard; Förch, Renate

    2016-05-17

    Plasma polymerization is traditionally recognized as a homogeneous film-forming technique. It is nevertheless reasonable to ask whether micrometer thick plasma polymerized structures are really homogeneous across the film thickness. Studying the properties of the interfacial, near-the-substrate (NTS) region in plasma polymer films represents particular experimental challenges due to the inaccessibility of the buried layers. In this investigation, a novel non-destructive approach has been utilized to evaluate the homogeneity of plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAc) and 1,7-octadiene (PPOD) films in a single measurement. Studying the variations of refractive index throughout the depth of the films was facilitated by a home-built surface plasmon resonance (SPR)/optical waveguide (OWG) spectroscopy setup. It has been shown that the NTS layer of both PPAc and PPOD films exhibits a significantly lower refractive index than the bulk of the film that is believed to indicate a higher concentration of internal voids. Our results provide new insights into the growth mechanisms of plasma polymer films and challenge the traditional view that considers plasma polymers as homogeneous and continuous structures. PMID:27111265

  2. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  3. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  4. Response of Plasma-Polymerized Hexamethyldisiloxane Films to Aqueous Environments.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Noemi E; Naik, Vikrant V; Geue, Thomas; Kahle, Olaf; Hegemann, Dirk; Heuberger, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Thin plasma polymer films were deposited in hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and HMDSO/O2 low-pressure discharges and their chemical structures analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and neutron reflectometry (NR). The (plasma-polymerized) ppHMDSO film exhibits hydrophobic, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-like properties, while the retention of carbon groups is reduced by O2 addition, yielding a more inorganic, hydrophilic ppSiOx film. Both films show a minor (vertical) density gradient perpendicular to the substrate, where the exposed film surface seems to be more oxidized, indicating oxidative aging reactions upon contact with air. The hydration and water uptake abilities of the films in aqueous environments were investigated in humid environments using ellipsometry, NR in D2O, and multiple transmission-reflection IR measurements after equilibration of the films in water. PMID:26451512

  5. Thin liquid films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Exerowa, Dotchi; Platikanov, Dimo

    2009-01-01

    The conditions of formation and stability of foam, emulsion, and wetting films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants have been established. Two types of polymeric surfactants - PEO-PPO-PEO three-block copolymers (A-B-A type) and hydrophobically modified inulin graft polymer (AB(n) type) - have been explored. Information about surface forces and nanoscale phenomena in aqueous films containing polymeric surfactants was obtained using the micro-interferometric technique and the Thin Liquid Film-Pressure Balance Technique. Two types of surface forces, which determine the stability of the foam and emulsion films, have been distinguished, namely: DLVO-forces at low electrolyte concentrations and non-DLVO-forces at high electrolyte concentrations. Non-DLVO-forces are steric surface forces of the brush-to-brush and loop-to-loop interaction type according to De Gennes. A substantial difference in the behavior of these two film types has been established and in the case of O/W emulsion films transitions to Newton black film (NBF) have been observed. These films are very stable and so are the respective emulsions. In contrast the wetting films are relatively thicker compared to emulsion films, and their thickness depends on the concentration of the AB(n) polymeric surfactant. The steric repulsion of the loops and tails of the polymeric surfactant determine the film thickness of wetting films on a hydrophilic solid surface. For solid surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity the wetting films are stable only at high polymer concentrations and low degree of hydrophobicity. Otherwise the films are unstable and rupture. Two types of bilayer emulsion films have been distinguished for the first time. One type is related to the brush-to-brush or loop-to-loop interactions according to De Gennes. The other type is a NBF where the forces are also steric between strongly hydrated brush and loops but they are short-range forces acting in a two

  6. Material properties of novel polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gene

    This dissertation will study the material properties of two types of novel polymer films (polyelectrolyte multilayer films and photolithographic polymer films). The formation of polylelectrolyte multilayer films onto functionalized aluminum oxide surfaces and functionalized poly(ethylene terephthaltate) (PET) were studied. Functionalization of the aluminum oxide surfaces was achieved via silane coupling. Functionalization of PET surfaces was achieved via hydrolysis and amidation. Surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to monitor the polyelectrolyte multilayer formation. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide supported polyelectrolyte multilayer films were tested using a simplified peel test. XPS was used to analyze the surfaces before and after peel. Single lap shear joint specimens were constructed to test the adhesive shear strength of the PET-supported polyelectrolyte multilayer film samples with the aid of a cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive shear strength and its relation with the type of functionalization, number of polyelectrolyte layers, and the effect of polyelectrolyte conformation using added salt were explored. Also, characterization on the single lap joints after adhesive failure was carried out to determine the locus of failure within the multilayers by using XPS and SEM. Two types of photolithographic polymers were formulated and tested. These two polymers (photocrosslinkable polyacrylate (PUA), and a photocrosslinkable polyimide (HRP)) were used to investigate factors that would affect the structural integrity of these particular polymers under environmental variables such as processing (time, UV cure, pressure, and temperature) and ink exposure. Thermomechanical characterization was carried out to see the behavior of these two polymers under these environmental variables. Microscopic techniques were employed to study the morphological behavior of

  7. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  8. Novel Patterned Films by Free-Radical Polymerization Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer H.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed novel techniques for the preparation of micropatterned structures by the block copolymerization of thin layers using UV free-radical polymerizations. The process involves polymerizing the first layer in the presence of an iniferter (initiator-transfer agent-terminator) with a dithiocarbamate group to make a photosensitive polymer. Upon application of a second monomer layer on the first polymer layer and irradiation, a copolymer is formed between the two layers. Patterns are created on the films by applying a mask and selectively irradiating the surface. Applications of this type of material are in biomaterials and biosensors for the selective adhesion of cells and proteins. We have successfully polymerized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) onto a layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the presence of tetraethylthiuran disulfide. Cells will adhere to the exposed PMMA areas but not to the PEG surfaces. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation grant No. DGE-9972770.

  9. Molecularly Oriented Polymeric Thin Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St.Clair, Anne K.

    1997-01-01

    The increased commitment from NASA and private industry to the exploration of outer space and the use of orbital instrumentation to monitor the earth has focused attention on organic polymeric materials for a variety of applications in space. Some polymeric materials have exhibited short-term (3-5 yr) space environmental durability; however, future spacecraft are being designed with lifetimes projected to be 10-30 years. This gives rise to concern that material property change brought about during operation may result in unpredicted spacecraft performance. Because of their inherent toughness and flexibility, low density, thermal stability, radiation resistance and mechanical strength, aromatic polyimides have excellent potential use as advanced materials on large space structures. Also, there exists a need for high temperature (200-300 C) stable, flexible polymeric films that have high optical transparency in the 300-600nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polymers suitable for these space applications were fabricated and characterized. Additionally, these polymers were molecularly oriented to further enhance their dimensional stability, stiffness, elongation and strength. Both unoriented and oriented polymeric thin films were also cryogenically treated to temperatures below -184 C to show their stability in cold environments and determine any changes in material properties.

  10. Waveguides in Thin Film Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakisov, Sergey; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Teague, Zedric

    1996-01-01

    Results on the fabrication of integrated optical components in polymeric materials using photo printing methods will be presented. Optical waveguides were fabricated by spin coating preoxidized silicon wafers with organic dye/polymer solution followed by soft baking. The waveguide modes were studied using prism coupling technique. Propagation losses were measured by collecting light scattered from the trace of a propagation mode by either scanning photodetector or CCD camera. We observed the formation of graded index waveguides in photosensitive polyimides after exposure of UV light from a mercury arc lamp. By using a theoretical model, an index profile was reconstructed which is in agreement with the profile reconstructed by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculation technique using a modal spectrum of the waveguides. Proposed mechanism for the formation of the graded index includes photocrosslinking followed by UV curing accompanied with optical absorption increase. We also developed the prototype of a novel single-arm double-mode interferometric sensor based on our waveguides. It demonstrates high sensitivity to the chance of ambient temperature. The device can find possible applications in aeropropulsion control systems.

  11. Ultrathin films of variable polarity and crystallinity obtained from 1,2-polybutadiene nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Morant-Miñana, Maria Carmen; Korthals, Brigitte

    2011-06-21

    Characterization of ultrathin films of different polymer nanoparticles obtained at room temperature via spin-coating of aqueous dispersions and their morphology are described. Very small nanoparticles of semicrystalline 1,2-polybutadiene (PB), noncrystalline poly(1-butene) (PH), and poly(1-butenal) (PHF) were prepared via catalytic emulsion polymerization and subsequent hydrogenation or hydroformylation. The prefabricated nanoparticles were used as building blocks. The thin films obtained are continuous and transparent (n=1.5; κ=0). The properties of these films, formed from different constituents, are analyzed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the PB-films are very smooth (rms roughness=10 nm) and polycrystalline. Recrystallization of these PB films reveals that edge-on lamellae are the constituent units. Films with very low roughness values (rms roughness <2 nm) are obtained with PH nanoparticles, due to the soft character of the nanoparticles. The AFM profile of the PHF films reveals that the surface remains structured after drying due to the high degree of the internal cross-linking that occurs in the nanoparticles. Quantification of the films' polarity (I(3)/I(1)=0.89, 1.3, and 2.1 for PHF, PB, and PH, respectively) agrees well with the previous values obtained for the polymer dispersions. Surfactant molecules are desorbed during the film formation; however, these aggregates can be removed by rinsing with water with no undesirable effects observed on the films. PMID:21591698

  12. Skylab D024 thermal control coatings and polymeric films experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, William L.; Hurley, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The Skylab D024 Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Films Experiment was designed to determine the effects of the external Skylab space environment on the performance and properties of a wide variety of selected thermal control coatings and polymeric films. Three duplicate sets of thermal control coatings and polymeric films were exposed to the Skylab space environment for varying periods of time during the mission. The specimens were retrieved by the astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVA) and placed in hermetically sealed return containers, recovered, and returned to the Wright Laboratory/Materials Laboratory/WPAFB, Ohio for analysis and evaluation. Postflight analysis of the three sets of recovered thermal control coatings indicated that measured changes in specimen thermo-optical properties were due to a combination of excessive contamination and solar degradation of the contaminant layer. The degree of degradation experienced over-rode, obscured, and compromised the measurement of the degradation of the substrate coatings themselves. Results of the analysis of the effects of exposure on the polymeric films and the contamination observed are also presented. The D024 results were used in the design of the LDEF M0003-5 Thermal Control Materials Experiment. The results are presented here to call to the attention of the many other LDEF experimenters the wealth of directly related, low earth orbit, space environmental exposure data that is available from the ten or more separate experiments that were conducted during the Skylab mission. Results of these experiments offer data on the results of low altitude space exposure on materials recovered from space with exposure longer than typical STS experiments for comparison with the LDEF results.

  13. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.C.; Day, J.R.

    1980-04-22

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  14. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Charlene C.; Day, Jack R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  15. Water barrier properties of starch films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals obtained from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2014-09-22

    Water transport in edible films based on hydrophilic materials such as starch, is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Starch and starch/CNC films were formulated and their water barrier properties were studied. The measured film solubility, contact angle, and water sorption isotherm indicated that reinforced starch/CNC films have a lower affinity to water molecules than starch films. The effects that the driving force and the water activity (aw) values at each side of the film have on permeability were analyzed. Permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients indicated that the permeation process depends mostly on the tortuous pathway formed by the incorporation of CNC and therefore were mainly controlled by water diffusion. The interaction between CNC and starch chain is favoured by the chemical similarities of both molecules. PMID:24906728

  16. Study of DC discharge plasma polymerization kinetics, film properties and applications and initial study of silica powder surface modification by RF plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheyu

    1998-09-01

    In this work, two kinds of plasma polymerization for surface modification are discussed. In part-I, DC plasma polymerization is investigated for film properties, film growth mechanism and film application. The monomers heaxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and pyrrole were selected to study the deposition rates change with discharge parameters such as pressure, flow rate, power, discharge current density. Structures and properties of film deposited at extreme conditions (high power/low pressure or low power/high pressure) were studied with FT-IR, SEM, TOF-SIMS, AIM, surface energy measurement and tribology test. This work also investigated DC plasma polymerization kinetics by combining plasma parameters with film deposited rate at different conditions. Both single and double Langmuir probes were used to measure the plasma parameters in pulsed power and continuous discharges. Plasma density and electron temperature are reported. A DC plasma polymerization kinetic model is Proposed based on the experimental data and a best-fit mathematical method. DC plasma polymerization application was the other object of this study. Cold-rolled steel and copper were coated with pyrrole and HMDSO, respectively. Corrosion rate were obtained from electrochemical polarization methods, and tests in humidity chamber directly. Various monomers were used to change the substrate surface energy. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface were achieved respectively by different monomers. A water-soluble film was obtained with acrylic acid in mild plasma conditions. In part-II, a initial study of powder surface modification has been done. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of changing powder surface properties with plasma-polymerized coatings. RF inductive plasma was used as a source to excite plasma polymerization for powder treatment. Plasma-polymerized pyrrole films were deposited on silica surface. Several techniques such as SEM, EDX, TOF-SIMS, FT-IF, DSC&TGA, and surface energy

  17. Protein adsorption resistance of PVP-modified polyurethane film prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huihui; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Minbo

    2016-02-01

    An anti-fouling surface of polyurethane (PU) film grafted with Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was prepared through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). And the polymerization time was investigated to obtain PU films with PVP brushes of different lengths. The surface properties and protein adsorption of modified PU films were evaluated. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of PU-PVP films were improved with the increase of polymerization time, which was not positive correlation with the surface roughness due to the brush structure. Additionally, the protein resistance performance was promoted when prolonging the polymerization time. The best antifouling PU-PVP (6.0 h) film reduced the adsoption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and brovin serum fibrinogen (BFG) by 93.4%, 68.3%, 85.6%, respectively, compared to the unmodified PU film. The competitive adsorption of three proteins indicated that LYS preferentially adsorbed on the modified PU film, while BFG had the lowest adsorption selectivity. And the amount of BFG on PU-PVP (6.0 h) film reduced greatly to 0.08 μg/cm2, which was almost one-tenth of its adsorption from the single-protein system. Presented results suggested that both hydrophilicity and surface roughness might be the important factors in all cases of protein adsorption, and the competitive or selective adsorption might be related to the size of the proteins, especially on the non-charged films.

  18. A high-sensitivity torsional pendulum for polymeric films and fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghili-Kermani, H.; Obrien, T.; Armeniades, C. D.; Roberts, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A free oscillation torsion pendulum is described, which has been designed to measure accurately the dynamic shear modulus and logarithmic decrement of polymeric thin films and fibers, at frequencies of 0.1 to 10 Hz and a temperature range of 4.2 to 450 K. The instrument can also provide in situ tensile deformations of up to 5%. The specimen geometry necessary to obtain reliable modulus measurements with thin films is discussed, and typical data are presented which exhibit hitherto unreported relaxation processes, discernible by this instrument.

  19. Diffusion in multi-component polymeric systems: Diffusion of non-volatile species in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Kind, M.; Cairncross, R.; Schabel, W.

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric films for high-tech products like LCD-panels, transdermal patches or medical test strips typically consist of a polymer and one or more non-volatile additives. If during the production process a multi-component solution is coated and subsequently dried, the diffusion of solvents and non-volatile species in the polymeric systems plays an important role. Recent experiments revealed that the drying conditions can have a significant influence on the formation of inhomogeneous distribution of the non-volatile components in the final foil and therefore affects desired product properties. The distribution of the non-volatile components in the final film has an important impact on the physical and chemical properties, including mechanical and optical properties, wetting behavior or drug release rates i.e. the product quality of the polymeric system. To be able to describe the diffusion of non-volatile species in a multi-component polymeric system during drying correctly, reliable information about the influence of the solvent concentration on the mobility of the additive are essential. To obtain information about the mobility of the additive in the polymeric solution new experiments were performed and observed by means of Inverse-Micro-Raman-Spectroscopy (IMRS). By fitting simulated concentration profiles to the experimental data, the temperature and concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of the non-volatile additive in the polymer solution was determined. The investigations are part of a bilateral funding of NFG in the US and DFG in Germany. Diffusion of volatile species in multicomponent polymeric systems are investigated by the group of Richard Cairncross.

  20. A method for the visual detection of holes in thin polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Volkli, A. D.; Wiedekamp, K. E.

    1970-01-01

    Back-lighting polymeric film with polarized light from a polarizing plate and viewing it through a second plate cross-polarized to the back-lighting provides visual contrast between the flaw and the transparent film.

  1. Stability Enhancement of Polymeric Sensing Films Using Fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Brian; Shevade, Abhijit; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Kisor, Adam; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Manatt, Kenneth; Homer, Margie; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown the stability enhancement of polymeric sensing films on mixing the polymer with colloidal filler particles (submicron-sized) of carbon black, silver, titanium dioxide, and fumed silicon dioxide. The polymer films are candidates for potential use as sensing media in micro/nano chemical sensor devices. The need for stability enhancement of polymer sensing films arises because such films have been found to exhibit unpredictable changes in sensing activity over time, which could result in a possible failure of the sensor device. The changes in the physical properties of a polymer sensing film caused by the sorption of a target molecule can be measured by any of several established transduction techniques: electrochemical, optical, calorimetric, or piezoelectric, for example. The transduction technique used in the current polymer stability experiments is based on piezoelectric principles using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The surface of the QCM is coated with the polymer, and the mass uptake by the polymer film causes a change in the oscillating frequency of the quartz crystal. The polymer used for the current study is ethyl cellulose. The polymer/ polymer composite solutions were prepared in 1,3 dioxolane solvent. The filler concentration was fixed at 10 weight percent for the composites. The polymer or polymer composite solutions were cast on the quartz crystal having a fundamental frequency of about 6 MHz. The coated crystal was subjected to a multistage drying process to remove all measurable traces of the solvent. In each experiment, the frequency of oscillation was measured while the QCM was exposed to clean, dry, flowing air for about 30 minutes, then to air containing a known concentration of isopropanol for about 30 minutes, then again to clean dry air for about 30 minutes, and so forth. This cycle of measurements for varying isopropanol concentrations was repeated at intervals for several months. The figure depicts some of the

  2. Synthesis and characterization of the oxide nanoparticles obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raba, A. M.; Bautista, J.; Murillo, E.

    2016-02-01

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) nanoparticles were prepared by the polymeric precursor method using citric acid as a chelating agent and ethylene glycol as a polymerizing agent. The powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the presence of HNO3, HCl or NH4OH in the employed aqueous solution favour the solubility of the used precursor salt, as well as also inside the oxide phase formation. The initial Nb2O5 powders were amorphous. The amorphous powders heated at 500°C contained Nb2O5 TT-phase, whereas at 650°C the Nb2O5 T-phase was obtained. In this way an increase in the synthesis temperature is related to the increase of the crystallinity, according to the values of the crystallite sizes that were estimated using the Scherrer method.

  3. Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  4. Polymeric Films Loaded with Vitamin E and Aloe vera for Topical Application in the Treatment of Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  5. Flexible polymeric ultrathin film for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, Virginia; Taccola, Silvia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Ciofani, Gianni; Menciassi, Arianna; Perut, Francesca; Salerno, Manuela; Dario, Paolo; Baldini, Nicola

    2011-07-01

    Ultrathin films (also called nanofilms) are two-dimensional (2-D) polymeric structures with potential application in biology, biotechnology, cosmetics and tissue engineering. Since they can be handled in liquid form with micropipettes or tweezers they have been proposed as flexible systems for cell adhesion and proliferation. In particular, with the aim of designing a novel patch for bone or tendon repair and healing, in this work the biocompatibility, adhesion and proliferation activity of Saos-2, MRC-5 and human and rat mesenchymal stem cells on poly(lactic acid) nanofilms were evaluated. The nanofilms did not impair the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Moreover, nanofilm adhesion to rabbit joints was evident under ex vivo conditions. PMID:21421086

  6. Investigation of the feasibility of developing low permeability polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggatt, J. T.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing the gas permeability rate of Mylar and Kapton films without drastically effecting their flexibility characteristics at cryogenic temperatures was considered. This feasibility was established using a concept of diffusion bonding two layers of metallized films together forming a film-metal-film sandwich laminate. The permeability of kapton film to gaseous helium was reduced from a nominal ten = to the minus 9 power cc-mm/sq cm sec. cm Hg to ten to the minus 13 power cc-mm/ sq cm - sec. cm Hg with some values as low as ten to the minus 15 power cc - mm/sq cm m-sec - cm Hg being obtained. Similar reductions occurred in the liquid hydrogen permeability at -252 C. In the course of the program the permeability, flexibility and bond strength of plain, metalized and diffusion bond film were determined at +25 C, -195 C and -252 C. The cryogenic flexibility of Kapton film was reduced slightly due to the metallization process but no additional loss in flexibility resulted from the diffusion bonding process.

  7. Immobilization of yeast cells on hydrogel carriers obtained by radiation-induced polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Lu Zhao; Carenza, Mario; Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Yoshida, Masaru; Fujimura, Takashi

    Polymer hydrogels were obtained by radiation-induced copolymerization at -78°C of aqueous solutions of acrylic and methacrylic esters. The matrices were characterized by equilibrium water content measurements, by optical microscopy observations and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Yeast cells were immobilized on these hydrogels and the ethanol productivity by batch fermentation was determined. Matrix hydrophilicity and porosity were found to deeply influence the adhesion of yeast cells and, hence, the ethanol productivity. The latter as well as other physico-chemical properties were also affected by the presence of a crosslinking agent added in small amounts to the polymerizing mixture.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate)/β-cyclodextrin hydrogels obtained by frontal polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nuvoli, Daniele; Alzari, Valeria; Nuvoli, Luca; Rassu, Mariella; Sanna, Davide; Mariani, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    For the first time, the synthesis of polymeric hydrogels containing cyclodextrins (CDs) obtained by frontal polymerization (FP) is reported. In particular, the effects of CDs on poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate) hydrogel properties are investigated. In a first series of materials, β-cyclodextrin is dispersed into the polymer matrix, while in the second one acryloyl-β-cyclodextrin is grafted to poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate) chains. FP parameters (front velocity and maximum temperature), swelling properties, glass transition temperatures and mechanical properties of the hydrogels are studied. Results show that both types of cyclodextrin influence the above properties, and the major effects are found for concentration higher than 1mol% of acryloyl-β-cyclodextrin. Namely, a significant increase of glass transition temperature and of compression moduli are found. Finally, this study demonstrates that FP is a convenient technique to obtain CD-containing hydrogels, in which the type and amount of cyclodextrin can be suitably modulated to tune polymer properties, in function of the desired hydrogel applications. PMID:27312626

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC SOAPS OBTAINED BY RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was converted to a polysoap via a two-step synthetic procedure of catalytic ring-opening polymerization (PESO), followed by hydrolysis with a base (HPESO). Various molecular weights of PESO and HPESO were prepared by varying the reaction temperature and/or catalyst conc...

  10. Nanometric thin polymeric films based on molecularly imprinted technology: towards electrochemical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg-Turgeman, Roni; Mandler, Daniel

    2010-09-28

    A new approach for assembling selective electrodes based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is presented. The approach is based on the radical polymerization of a mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of an initiator, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and an activator, N,N'-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMpT) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. To form nanometric thin polymeric films the polymerization solution was spin-coated in the course of polymerization. The different physical and chemical parameters that affected the properties of the films, such as the spinning rate and the EGDMA:MAA ratio, were studied and optimized. A variety of techniques, e.g., rheoscopy, SEM, AFM, profilometry and electrochemistry, were used to characterize the films and the polymerization process. By optimizing the conditions very thin and reproducible films could be prepared and imprinted. The electrochemical behavior of the films showed that they were permeable to water-soluble electroactive species providing that either polyethylene glycol or template species were added to the polymerization mixture. Finally, we demonstrated that films imprinted with ferrocenylmethyl alcohol (Fc-MeOH) successfully extracted the imprinted species after their removal from MIPs. PMID:20668737

  11. Stability study of polyacrylic acid films plasma-polymerized on polypropylene substrates at medium pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Trentesaux, Martine; Gengembre, Léon; Dubruel, Peter; Leys, Christophe; Payen, Edmond

    2010-11-01

    Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid has become an interesting research subject, since these coatings are expected to be beneficial for biomedical applications due to their high surface density of carboxylic acid functional groups. However, the application of these monomers is counteracted by their low stability in humid environments, since a high stability is a required characteristic for almost any biological application. The present work investigates whether it is possible to obtain stable deposits with a high retention of carboxylic acid functions by performing plasma polymerization on polypropylene substrates with a dielectric barrier discharge operating at medium pressure. In order to obtain coatings with the desired properties, the plasma parameters need to be optimized. Therefore, in this paper, the influence of discharge power and location of the substrate in the discharge chamber is examined in detail. The properties of the deposited films are studied using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, to determine whether the obtained deposits are soluble in water, the coatings are once again analyzed after rinsing in water. This paper will clearly show that stable COOH-rich surfaces can be obtained at high discharge power and close to the monomer inlet, which might open perspectives for future biomedical applications.

  12. Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films obtained from rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, K. C.; Mukherjee, D.; Biswas, A. K.; Acharya, H. N.

    1991-08-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon ( a-Si: H) films were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silanes generated by the acid hydrolysis of magnesium silicide (Mg 2Si) obtained from rice husk. The films were deposited at various substrate temperatures ( Ts) ranging from 430 to 520°C. The results show that the films have room temperature (294 K) dark conductivity (σ d) of the order of 10 -8 - 10 -10 (ohm-cm) -1 with single activation energy (Δ Ed) and the photoconductivity (σ ph) decreases with increase of Ts. Optical band gap ( Eopt) lies between 1.60-1.73 eV and hydrogen content ( CH) in the films is at best 8.3 at %. Au/ a-Si: H junction shows that it acts as a rectifier contact with Schottky barrier height ( VB) 0.69 eV. The films are contaminated by traces of impurities like Na, K, Al, Cl and O as revealed by secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis.

  13. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  14. Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; W. Roger Cannon; Paul A. Lessing; Recep Avci; Muhammedin Deliorman; Mark Wolfenden; Doug W. Akers; J. Keith Jewell

    2013-02-01

    Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uranium–plutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H2O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the C–O and C–C bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with Hradical dot and OHradical dot. Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp2 carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H2O or a H2O–methanol solution, and hence the bulk of the material could not be analyzed using electrospray. However a series of oligomers was leached from the bulk material that produced ion series in the ESI-MS analyses that were identified octylphenyl ethoxylate oligomers. Upon Li ion bombardment, these shifted to a lower average molecular weight, but more importantly showed the emergence of three new ion series that are being formed as a result of radiation damage. Surface analysis of the paraffinic polymers using SIMS produced spectra that were

  15. Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Cannon, W. Roger; Lessing, Paul A.; Avci, Recep; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Wolfenden, Mark; Akers, Doug W.; Jewell, J. Keith; Zuck, Larry D.

    2013-02-01

    Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H2O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the C-O and C-C bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with Hrad and OHrad . Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp2 carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H2O or a H2O-methanol solution, and hence the bulk of the material could not be analyzed using electrospray. However a series of oligomers was leached from the bulk material that produced ion series in the ESI-MS analyses that were identified octylphenyl ethoxylate oligomers. Upon Li ion bombardment, these shifted to a lower average molecular weight, but more importantly showed the emergence of three new ion series that are being formed as a result of radiation damage. Surface analysis of the paraffinic polymers using SIMS produced spectra that were wholly dominated by

  16. Antimicrobial films obtained from latex particles functionalized with quaternized block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Paino, Marta; Juan-Rodríguez, Rafael; Cuervo-Rodríguez, Rocío; Tejero, Rubén; López, Daniel; López-Fabal, Fátima; Gómez-Garcés, José L; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Fernández-García, Marta

    2016-04-01

    New amphiphilic block copolymers with antimicrobial properties were obtained by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and copper catalyzed cycloaddition following two approaches, a simultaneous strategy or a two-step synthesis, which were proven to be very effective methods. These copolymers were subsequently quaternized using two alkyl chains, methyl and butyl, to amplify their antimicrobial properties and to investigate the effect of alkyl length. Antimicrobial experiments in solution were performed with three types of bacteria, two gram-positive and one gram-negative, and a fungus. Those copolymers quaternized with methyl iodide showed better selectivities on gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, against red blood cells, demonstrating the importance of the quaternizing agent chosen. Once the solution studies were performed, we prepared poly(butyl methacrylate) latex particles functionalized with the antimicrobial copolymers by emulsion polymerization of butyl methacrylate using such copolymers as surfactants. The characterization by various techniques served to test their effectiveness as surfactants. Finally, films were prepared from these emulsions, and their antimicrobial activity was studied against the gram-positive bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial efficiency of the films depends not only on the copolymer activity but also on other factors such as the surface segregation of the antimicrobial agent to the interface. PMID:26741269

  17. ESEM analysis of polymeric film in EVA-modified cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.A. . E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-10-01

    Portland cement pastes modified by 20% weight (polymer/cement ratio) of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) were prepared, cured, and immersed in water for 11 days. The effects of water saturation and drying on the EVA polymeric film formed in cement pastes were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allowed the imaging of the EVA film even in saturated samples. The decrease of the relative humidity inside the ESEM chamber did not cause any visual modification of the polymeric film during its drying.

  18. The Effect of Montmorillonite Clay on the Crystallinity of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposites Obtained by Solution Intercalation and In Situ Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Antonio de Pádua C B, Cunha; Maria Inês Bruno, Tavares; Emerson Oliveira, Silva; Soraia, Zaioncz

    2015-04-01

    In this study, PVAL/sodic clay nanocomposite materials were obtained using different clay ratios. The nanocomposites were prepared by solution and in situ polymerization. They were characterized through proton relaxometry and X-ray diffraction, the latter technique used to determine the crystallinity of the PVAL matrix in the nanocomposites through the addition of unmodified montmorillonite clay. The relaxation data for the nanocomposite films obtained by solution intercalation showed a decrease in the proton spin-lattice relaxation values with increased clay proportion, forming a nanostructured material with high exfoliation degree, as a result of two phenomena: the higher molecular mobility of the polymer chains around the clay layers and the presence of paramagnetic metals in the clay layers, which accelerates the hydrogen relaxation process, causing a decrease in the relaxation value. The samples obtained through in situ polymerization were mixed nanocomposites (partly exfoliated and partly intercalated). The NMR relaxation data for the systems analyzed showed the solution intercalation process was more efficient than in situ polymerization in relation to the generation of nanostructured polymers with higher degree of exfoliated clay. PMID:26353498

  19. Thermally and photoinduced polymerization of ultrathin sexithiophene films

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, Anke; Hammer, Rene; Duncker, Klaus; Förster, Stefan; Widdra, Wolf

    2014-09-14

    The thermally-induced polymerization of α-sexithiophene (6T) molecules on Ag(001) and Au(001) gives rise to long unbranched polymer chains or branched polymer networks depending on the annealing parameters. There, the onset temperature for polymerization depends on the strength of interaction with the underlying substrate. Similar polymerization processes are also induced by ultraviolet radiation with photon energies between 3.0 and 4.2 eV. Radical formation by an electronic excitation in the 6T molecule is proposed as the driving mechanism that necessitates the interplay with the metallic substrate.

  20. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, K.; Bhowmik, K. L.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  1. Amine Enrichment of Thin-Film Composite Membranes via Low Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Antimicrobial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; He, Li; She, Fenghua; Orbell, John D; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Duke, Mikel C

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film composite membranes, primarily based on poly(amide) (PA) semipermeable materials, are nowadays the dominant technology used in pressure driven water desalination systems. Despite offering superior water permeation and salt selectivity, their surface properties, such as their charge and roughness, cannot be extensively tuned due to the intrinsic fabrication process of the membranes by interfacial polymerization. The alteration of these properties would lead to a better control of the materials surface zeta potential, which is critical to finely tune selectivity and enhance the membrane materials stability when exposed to complex industrial waste streams. Low pressure plasma was employed to introduce amine functionalities onto the PA surface of commercially available thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. Morphological changes after plasma polymerization were analyzed by SEM and AFM, and average surface roughness decreased by 29%. Amine enrichment provided isoelectric point changes from pH 3.7 to 5.2 for 5 to 15 min of plasma polymerization time. Synchrotron FTIR mappings of the amine-modified surface indicated the addition of a discrete 60 nm film to the PA layer. Furthermore, metal affinity was confirmed by the enhanced binding of silver to the modified surface, supported by an increased antimicrobial functionality with demonstrable elimination of E. coli growth. Essential salt rejection was shown minimally compromised for faster polymerization processes. Plasma polymerization is therefore a viable route to producing functional amine enriched thin-film composite PA membrane surfaces. PMID:26083007

  2. Effect of deposition conditions on properties of plasma polymerized carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhir, R.K.; Schoch, K.F. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the results on deposition conditions, rates of polymerization and properties of carbon disulfide films prepared by two techniques viz. plasma polymerization and argon-plasma-assisted polymerization of carbon disulfide. A higher rate of polymerization and sulfur content was obtained for carbon disulfide films prepared by plasma polymerization technique. The ultimate objective of this research work was to prepare thin film solid state batteries using the optimized carbon disulfide polymer films deposited by plasma techniques, as active material.

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Polymeric Films Containing Combinations of Antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Ayman; Agashe, Hrushikesh; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Devlin, Brid; Shi, Yuan; Uranker, Kevin; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop polymeric films containing dual combinations of anti-HIV drug candidate tenofovir, maraviroc and dapivirine for vaginal application as topical microbicides. Methods A solvent casting method was used to manufacture the films. Solid phase solubility was used to identify potential polymers for use in the film formulation. Physical and chemical properties (such as water content, puncture strength and in vitro release) and product stability were determined. The bioactivity of the film products against HIV was assessed using the TZM-bl assay and a cervical explant model. Results Polymers identified from the solid phase solubility study maintained tenofovir and maraviroc in an amorphous state and prevented drug crystallization. Three combination film products were developed using cellulose polymers and polyvinyl alcohol. The residual water content in all films was < 10% (w/w). All films delivered the active agents with release of > 50% of film drug content within 30 minutes. Stability testing confirmed that the combination film products were stable for 12 months at ambient temperature and 6 months under stressed conditions. Antiviral activity was confirmed in TZM-bl and cervical explant models. Conclusions Polymeric films can be used as a stable dosage form for the delivery of antiretroviral combinations as microbicides. PMID:25079391

  4. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  5. POLYMERIC ACRYLATE-BASED HYBRID FILMS CONTAINING LEAD AND IRON PATTERNED BY UV PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Han, Huilan; Bissell, John; Yaghmaie, Frank; Davis, Cristina E.

    2009-01-01

    The development and processing of hybrid inorganic-organic thin film materials plays a critical role in advancing interdisciplinary sciences and device manufacturing. Here we present a novel approach to synthesize and deposit acrylate-containing organic/inorganic hybrid films. The material is based on a chemical solution and includes specifically desired metal dopants that are fully-integrated into the backbone of the polymer structure. The film can be deposited by simple spin coating, and we confer photosensitive properties to the material making it directly patterned by traditional UV photolithography techniques. Film thickness, chemical characterization and wet/dry etching capability of the film are also investigated. We believe this innovative material has the potential to be used in a broad range of applications for electronic, photonic, biology and other interdisciplinary fields. PMID:19795818

  6. Charge transport and structural dynamics in ultra-thin films of polymerized ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heres, Maximilian; Cosby, Tyler; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronica; Benson, Roberto; Sangoro, Joshua

    Ion conduction and structural dynamics in a series of ultra-thin films of imidazolium based polymerized ionic liquids are investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ellipsometry. No alteration in the characteristic charge transport rate is observed between bulk sample and films as thin as 12nm. These results are discussed within the recent approaches proposed to explain the confinement effects on structural dynamics in polymers and low molecular weight ionic liquids. NSF DRM Polymers Program.

  7. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. Marra, F.

    2015-12-17

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  8. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  9. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films. 175.320 Section 175.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use...

  10. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films. 175.320 Section 175.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.320...

  11. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films. 175.320 Section 175.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use...

  12. Interaction forces in thin liquid films stabilized by hydrophobically modified inulin polymeric surfactant. 2. Emulsion films.

    PubMed

    Exerowa, D; Gotchev, G; Kolarov, T; Khristov, Khr; Levecke, B; Tadros, Th

    2007-02-13

    The interaction forces in emulsion films stabilized using hydrophobically modified inulin (INUTEC SP1) were investigated by measuring the disjoining pressure of a microscopic horizontal film between two macroscopic emulsion drops of isoparaffinic oil (Isopar M). A special measuring cell was used for this purpose whereby the disjoining pressure Pi was measured as a function of the equivalent film thickness hw. The latter was determined using an interferometric method. In this way Pi-hw curves were established at a constant INUTEC SP1 concentration of 2x10(-5) mol.dm-3 and at various NaCl concentrations. At a constant disjoining pressure of 36 Pa, a constant temperature of 22 degrees C, and a film radius of 100 microm, hw decreased with an increase in the NaCl concentration, Cel, and reached a constant value of 11 nm at Cel=5x10(-2) mol.dm-3. This reduction in film thickness is due to the compression of the electrical double layer, and at the above critical NaCl concentration any electrostatic repulsion is removed and only steric interaction remains. This critical electrolyte concentration represents the transition from electrostatic to steric interaction. At a NaCl concentration of 2x10(-4) mol.dm-3 the Pi-hw isotherms showed a gradual decrease in hw with an increase in capillary pressure, after which there was a jump in hw from approximately 30 to approximately 7.2 nm when Pi reached a high value of 2-5.5 kPa. This jump is due to the formation of a Newton black film (NBF), giving a layer thickness of the polyfructose loops of approximately 3.6 nm. The film thickness did not change further when the pressure reached 45 kPa, indicating the high stability of the film. Pi-hw isotherms were obtained at various NaCl concentrations, namely, 5x10(-2), 5x10(-1), 1.0, and 2.0 mol.dm-3. The initial thicknesses are within the range 9-11 nm, after which a transition zone starts, corresponding to a pressure of about 0.5 kPa. In this zone all films transform to an NBF with a jump

  13. Lignocellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Polystyrene Produced from Composite Microspheres Obtained in Suspension Polymerization Shows Superior Mechanical Performance.

    PubMed

    Ballner, Daniel; Herzele, Sabine; Keckes, Jozef; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Saake, Bodo; Liebner, Falk; Potthast, Antje; Paulik, Christian; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    A facile approach to obtaining cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polystyrene with greatly improved mechanical performance compared to unreinforced polystyrene is presented. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained by mechanical fibrillation of partially delignified wood (MFLC) and compared to nanofibers obtained from bleached pulp. Residual hemicellulose and lignin imparted amphiphilic surface chemical character to MFLC, which enabled the stabilization of emulsions of styrene in water. Upon suspension polymerization of styrene from the emulsion, polystyrene microspheres coated in MFLC were obtained. When processed into polymer sheets by hot-pressing, improved bending strength and superior impact toughness was observed for the polystyrene-MFLC composite compared to the un-reinforced polystyrene. PMID:27163488

  14. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Structure and Growth of Polymer Films Prepared by Interfacial Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2015-11-10

    Interfacial polymerization of tri- and bifunctional monomers (A3B2 polymerization) is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics to reveal an effect of cross-linking on the reaction kinetics and structure of the growing polymer film. Regardless of the comonomer reactivity and miscibility, the kinetics in an initially bilayer melt passes from the reaction to diffusion control. Within the crossover period, branched macromolecules undergo gelation, which drastically changes the scenario of the polymerization process. Comparison with the previously studied linear interfacial polymerization (Berezkin, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V. Linear Interfacial Polymerization: Theory and Simulations with Dissipative Particle Dynamics J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 141, 194906) shows similar conversion rates but very different product characteristics. Cross-linked polymer films are markedly heterogeneous in density, their average polymerization degree grows with the comonomer miscibility, and end groups are mostly trapped deeply in the film core. Products of linear interfacial polymerization demonstrate opposite trends as they are spontaneously homogenized by a convective flow of macromolecules expelled from the reactive zone to the film periphery, which we call the reactive extrusion effect and which is hampered in branched polymerization. Influence of the comonomer architecture on the polymer film characteristics could be used in various practical applications of interfacial polymerization, such as fabrication of membranes, micro- and nanocapsules and 3D printing. PMID:26471239

  15. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal decomposition of nanoclay polyurethane elastomers obtained by bulk polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliano, Javier; Bocchio, Javier

    2014-08-01

    Thermoplastic urethane (TPU) nanocomposite was prepared successfully by dispersion at high shear stress of the nanoclay in polyol and further bulk polymerization. Our results from DSC studies showed an increase in decomposition temperature when nanoclay was loaded at 3,5% on elastomeric PU made from TDI, PTMEG and BDO, while not when nanoclay content was lower (1,5%). The exotherms at 370-375°C could be adscribed to the decomposition of the hard segments according to previous work.

  16. Modeling of gas transmission properties of polymeric films used for MA packaging of fruits.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, S; Goswami, T K; Panda, D K

    2015-09-01

    High value fruits namely, apple (cv. Royal Delicious), guava (cv. Baruipur) and litchi (cv. Shahi) harvested at their commercial maturity were considered for MA packaging to enhance storage life. Polymeric films namely LDPE, BOPP, PVC, PVDC of different thickness were used for MA packaging study and various film characteristics such as gas transmission rates, water vapour transmission rate, clarity, strength and durability were evaluated. Mathematical model was developed based on Arrhenius type equation to predict gas transmission rate (GTR) and the developed model was found to be very good fit with the mean relative deviation modulus value quite less than 10 %. The GTR of the films increased with the increase in storage temperature and the magnitude of the increase varied with the film type and thickness. Regression models have been suitably developed to predict the oxygen transmission rate and carbon dioxide transmission rate of selected polymeric films and combined film laminates as a function of temperatures. Since, none of the individual films could meet the gas transmission requirements of MAP for selected fruits, two different films were tailored to form laminates that sufficed the requirements for prolonged storage with maintaining original quality. PMID:26344961

  17. A functionally graded titanium/hydroxyapatite film obtained by sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Kazuhide; Yuhta, Toshio; Fukui, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Hideki; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2002-03-01

    A functionally graded film of titanium/hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared on a titanium substrate using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ratio of titanium to HA was controlled by moving the target shutter. The film was composed of five layers, with overall film thickness of 1 microm. The HA was concentrated close to the surface, while the titanium concentration increased with proximity to the substrate. The bonding strength between the film and the substrate was 15.2 MPa in a pull-out test and the critical load from a scratch test was 58.85 mN. The corresponding values of a pure HA sputtered film were 8.0 MPa and 38.47 mN, respectively. The bonding strength of a pure HA plasma spray coating was 10.4 MPa in the pull-out test. The graded film and the pure HA film were sputter-coated to a thickness of 1 microm on titanium columns (10 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter). These columns were implanted in diaphyses of the femora of six adult dogs and a push-out test was carried out after 2, 4, and 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the push-out strengths of the graded film, the pure HA film and the non-coated columns were 3.7, 3.5, and 1.0 MPa. PMID:15348621

  18. Polymerization of spin-casted epoxy films induced by electron beam or UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Takezaki, J.

    Polymerization of spin-casted epoxy oligomer resin-films was initiated by electron beam (EB) or UV irradiation and the conversion to polymer was studied as a function of the thickness of the film. The film thickness was varied from 1 to 25 μm. In the EB-irradiation, the number of oligomer molecules reacted per 100 eV of energy absorption ( G-value) increased with increasing thickness up to 10 μm but did not change above this value. In the UV-irradiation, the G-value increased linearly with increasing film thickness. The result was explained by the difference in the penetrating power of the two radiations. The G-values and the quantum yields of the polymerization in the EB- and the UV-irradiations were compared on the basis of the same energy absorbed in the systems; it was found that the EB-irradiation was more effective than the UV-irradiation. Some anomalous polymerization behaviors were observed in thin, spin-casted films.

  19. Determination of charge carrier transport in radio frequency plasma polymerized aniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, Sajeev; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2010-02-01

    The carrier transport mechanism of polyaniline (PA) thin films prepared by radio frequency plasma polymerization is described in this paper. The mechanism of electrical conduction and carrier mobility of PA thin films for different temperatures were examined using the aluminium-PA-aluminium (Al-PA-Al) structure. It is found that the mechanism of carrier transport in these thin films is space charge limited conduction. J-V studies on an asymmetric electrode configuration using indium tin oxide (ITO) as the base electrode and Al as the upper electrode (ITO-PA-Al structure) show a diode-like behaviour with a considerable rectification ratio.

  20. Wettability control by laser texturing process generating localized gold nanoparticles on polymeric thin films.

    PubMed

    Spano, F; Castellano, A; Massaro, A; Fragouli, D; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A

    2012-06-01

    In this work a new approach is introduced for surface properties control by laser texturing process. By UV laser irradiation, we are able to control the surface wettability of a chitosan polymeric film in which is introduced a chloroauric acid salt by immersion. Specifically the UV irradiation is responsible for the creation of gold nanoparticles at the irradiated surface of the polymeric film. This photolytic process allows us to localize and design accurately surface patterns and moreover to tune metallic particle size in the range of nanoscale. After the characterization of our gold textured surfaces by atomic force and scanning electron microscopies, we demonstrate the link between wettability surface properties and gold nanoparticles size. The experimental results indicate the influence of the laser intensity, the irradiation time and the polymer film thickness (by increasing the gold concentration) on the gold nanoparticle density and size. PMID:22905535

  1. Novel biocompatible and biodegradable ultrathin films of poly (L-Lactic acid) by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Chun-Chih; Chen, Ying-Chu; Yang, A. C.-M.; Liu, Y. C.

    2006-03-01

    Ultra-thin films (<= 50 nm) of biodegradable poly (L-lactic acid) were prepared through efficient RF plasma synthesis. The surface morphology of deposited films was amorphous and molecularly uniform (Ra = 0.7 nm). The chemical compositions as determined from FTIR and NMR demonstrated extraordinarily high retention of ester groups with a small fraction of chain cross-linking that could be controlled by process parameters. The chemical routes of the polymerization were described and discussed. This versatile thin film coating technique is very useful for surface engineering of general biomedical devices and implants for improved biocompatibility. In addition, PLLA polymerized in the liquid phase by plasma was also explored and will be presented. This work is supported by National Science Council of Taiwan.

  2. Direct molding of nanopatterned polymeric films: Resolution and errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaroni, O.; Schilardi, P. L.; Salvarezza, R. C.; Gago, R.; Vázquez, L.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of the direct polymer molding method to transfer ordered nanopatterns from a surface-modified silicon template to polymeric materials, such as polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) is investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lateral resolution of the method for both materials is 54±1 nm while the vertical resolution is 5±1 nm and 3±1 nm, for PS and HIPS, respectively. This difference is explained by considering the different nanomechanical properties of the polymers. In contrast, HIPS surfaces are more resistant to the wear induced by the repetitive "reading" of the surface structure with the AFM tip.

  3. Long Duration Exposure Facility M0003-5 recent results on polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Charles J.; Jones, Michele D.

    1992-01-01

    The M0003-5 polymeric film specimens orbited on the LDEF M0003 Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials were a part of a Wright Laboratories Materials Directorate larger thermal control materials experiment. They were selected from new materials which emerged from development programs during the 1978-1982 time frame. Included were materials described in the technical literature which were being considered or had been applied to satellites. Materials that had been exposed on previous satellite materials experiments were also included to provide data correlation with earlier space flight experiments. The objective was to determine the effects of the LDEF environment on the physical and optical properties of polymeric thin film thermal control materials, the interaction of the LDEF environment with silvered spacecraft surfaces, and the performance of low outgassing adhesives. Sixteen combinations of various polymeric films, metallized and unmetallized, adhesively bonded and unbonded films were orbited on LDEF in the M0003-5 experiment. The films were exposed in two separate locations on the vehicle. One set was exposed on the direct leading edge of the satellite. The other set was exposed on the direct trailing edge of the vehicle. The purpose of the experiment was to understand the changes in the properties of materials before and after exposure to the space environment and to compare the changes with predictions based on laboratory experiments. The basic approach was to measure the optical and physical properties of materials before and after long-term exposure to a low earth orbital environment comprised of UV, VUV, electrons, protons, atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, vacuum, debris and micrometeoroids. Due to the unanticipated extended orbital flight of LDEF, the polymeric film materials were exposed for a full five years and ten months to the space environment.

  4. Method of obtaining intensified image from developed photographic films and plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, B. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A method is explained of obtaining intensified images from silver images on developed photographic films and plates. The steps involve converting silver of the developed film or plate to a radioactive compound by treatment with an aqueous alkaline solution of an organo-S35 compound; placing the treated film or plate in direct contact with a receiver film which is then exposed by radiation from the activated film; and developing and fixing the resulting intensified image on the receiver film.

  5. The physicodynamic properties of mucoadhesive polymeric films developed as female controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Wook; Dharmala, Kiran; Lee, Chi H

    2006-02-17

    To develop an efficient female controlled drug delivery system (FcDDS) against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the polymeric films containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were prepared with various compositions of Carbopol 934P, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The physicochemical properties of mucoadhesive polymeric films, such as tensile strength, contact angle, swelling ratio and erosion rate in a vaginal fluid stimulant (VFS), were characterized. In addition, the drug release profile of SDS from the films and mucosal residence time were evaluated using a simulated dynamic vaginal system. It was demonstrated that the films made of Carbopol, HPMC and PEG were colorless, thin and soft and had proper physicodynamic properties for FcDDS. An increase in Carbopol content elevated tensile strength and swelling ratio but decreased the contact angle, erosion rate and the SDS release rate from the films. The films containing 0.25% (w/v) PEG as well as 0.75% (w/v) of combining Carbopol and HPMC remained on the vaginal tissue for up to 6h. The films containing the ratio of Carbopol:HPMC:PEG=1.5:1.5:1 and 1:2:1 seem to be optimal compositions for FcDDS, as they showed good peelability, relatively high swelling index and moderate tensile strength, and achieved the target release rate of SDS for 6h. PMID:16376036

  6. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Sebastian, Víctor; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Blanco-Prieto, María J.; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography.A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading

  7. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load.

    PubMed

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Sebastian, Víctor; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Blanco-Prieto, María J; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-03-28

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  8. Elastic Moduli of Polymeric Thin Films of Nanocomposites and Blends via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Marszalek-Kempke, Jolanta; Verma, Prateek; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical properties are important for the long term durability of polymeric thin films. Unfortunately, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of sub-micron thin films with high accuracy and repeatability. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of nanocomposite and blend films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) / Cloisite 30B nanocomposite thin films and polycaprolactone (PCL) / PLA blend thin films were prepared via spin-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. Results showed the strengthening effect of Cloisite 30B on PLA systems. The effect of nanoparticle concentrations and the influences of crystallinity and phase separation of blends will be presented.

  9. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles

    1997-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1997-11-25

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  11. Morphology and thermal properties of clay/PMMA nanocomposites obtained by miniemulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    García-Chávez, Karla I; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Flores-Gallardo, Sergio G; Soriano-Corral, Florentino; Saucedo-Salazar, Esmeralda; Zaragoza-Contreras, E Armando

    2013-06-01

    Miniemulsion polymerization was used as the synthetic method to produce clay/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites. Two kinds of interfacial interactions clay-polymer particle were observed by electron microscopy, one where the polymer particles are adhered on the surface of the larger fragments of clay, and another where nanometric fragments of clay are encapsulated by polymer particles. Variations in the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and thermomechanical properties of the matrix, as function of clay content, were observed. In particular, at the highest clay loading (1.0 wt%) depression of T(g) and thermomechanical properties were observed. The increased clay-polymer matrix interfacial area appears to be the conditioning factor that determines such behavior. PMID:23541871

  12. Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films

    PubMed Central

    Worfolk, Brian J.; Andrews, Sean C.; Park, Steve; Reinspach, Julia; Liu, Nan; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    With consumer electronics transitioning toward flexible products, there is a growing need for high-performance, mechanically robust, and inexpensive transparent conductors (TCs) for optoelectronic device integration. Herein, we report the scalable fabrication of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films via solution shearing. Specific control over deposition conditions allows for tunable phase separation and preferential PEDOT backbone alignment, resulting in record-high electrical conductivities of 4,600 ± 100 S/cm while maintaining high optical transparency. High-performance solution-sheared TC PEDOT:PSS films were used as patterned electrodes in capacitive touch sensors and organic photovoltaics to demonstrate practical viability in optoelectronic applications. PMID:26515096

  13. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F. N.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical-chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  14. Si film separation obtained by high energy proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, C.; Mazen, F.; Papon, A.-M.; Rieutord, F.; Charvet, A.-M.; Ntsoenzok, E.

    2012-11-06

    High energy protons implantation in the 1-1.5 MeV range can be used to detach free-standing thin silicon films with thickness between 15 and 30 {mu}m. Recently, we showed that Si orientation has a strong effect on the layer separation threshold fluence and efficiency. While complete delamination of (111)Si films is achieved, (100)Si films separation is more challenging due to blistering phenomena or partial separation of the implanted layer. In this work, we study the fracture mechanism in (100) and (111)Si after high energy implantation in order to understand the origin of such a behavior. We notably point out that fracture precursor defects, i.e. the platelets, preferentially form on (111) planes, as a consequence of the low strain level in the damaged region in our implantation conditions. Fracture therefore propagates easily in (111)Si, while it requires higher fluence to overcome unfavorable precursors orientation and propagate in (100)Si.

  15. Plasma lithography--thin-film patterning of polymeric biomaterials by RF plasma polymerization I: Surface preparation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Goessl, A; Garrison, M D; Lhoest, J B; Hoffman, A S

    2001-01-01

    Plasma lithography, combining plasma deposition with photolithography, is described as a versatile method to manufacture all-polymeric substrates with thin-film patterns for applications in biomedical engineering. Patterns of a hydrophobic fluorocarbon plasma polymer with feature sizes between 5 and 100 microm were deposited on a base substrate in a lift-off process: an intermediate tetraglyme plasma polymer layer provides non-fouling properties to the base substrate. Careful analysis of critical process parameters identified the narrow window of process conditions that led to the formation of functional surface patterns. High pattern fidelity, aspect ratios, and resolution of the patterns are demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to characterize the surfaces, showing good retention of the original chemical structure of the pattern components throughout the process. SIMS imaging was used for specific chemical imaging of the components. Potential applications for the patterned polymer films, e.g., for studying cell behavior in vitro in dependence of shape and size of adhering cells, are discussed. PMID:11587037

  16. Preparation of polystyrene brush film by radical chain-transfer polymerization and micromechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Miao; An, Yanqing; Liu, Jianxi; Yan, Fengyuan

    2008-12-01

    A radical chain-transfer polymerization technique has been applied to graft-polymerize brushes of polystyrene (PSt) on single-crystal silicon substrates. 3-Mercapto-propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), as a chain-transfer agent for grafting, was immobilized on the silicon surface by a self-assembling process. The structure and morphology of the graft-functionalized silicon surfaces were characterized by the means of contact-angle measurement, ellipsometric thickness measurement, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanotribological and micromechanical properties of the as-prepared polymer brush films were investigated by frictional force microscopy (FFM), force-volume analysis and scratch test. The results indicate that the friction properties of the grafted polymer films can be improved significantly by the treatment of toluene, and the chemically bonded polystyrene film exhibits superior scratch resistance behavior compared with the spin-coated polystyrene film. The resultant polystyrene brush film is expected to develop as a potential lubrication coating for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  17. Surface characteristics of a self-polymerized dopamine coating deposited on hydrophobic polymer films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinhong; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Baoku; Xu, Youyi

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to explore the fundamental surface characteristics of polydopamine (pDA)-coated hydrophobic polymer films. A poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was surface modified by dip coating in an aqueous solution of dopamine on the basis of its self-polymerization and strong adhesion feature. The self-polymerization and deposition rates of dopamine on film surfaces increased with increasing temperature as evaluated by both spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Changes in the surface morphologies of pDA-coated films as well as the size and shape of pDA particles in the solution were also investigated by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface roughness and surface free energy of pDA-modified films were mainly affected by the reaction temperature and showed only a slight dependence on the reaction time and concentration of the dopamine solution. Additionally, three other typical hydrophobic polymer films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polyimide (PI) were also modified by the same procedure. The lyophilicity (liquid affinity) and surface free energy of these polymer films were enhanced significantly after being coated with pDA, as were those of PVDF films. It is indicated that the deposition behavior of pDA is not strongly dependent on the nature of the substrates. This information provides us with not only a better understanding of biologically inspired surface chemistry for pDA coatings but also effective strategies for exploiting the properties of dopamine to create novel functional polymer materials. PMID:22011109

  18. Polymeric fibre optic sensor based on a SiO2 nanoparticle film for humidity sensing on wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, David; Morgan, Stephen P.; Hayes Gill, Barrie R.; Korposh, Serhiy

    2016-05-01

    Optical fibre sensors have the potential to be incorporated into wound dressings to monitor moisture and predict healing without the need to remove the dressing. A low cost polymeric optical fibre humidity sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is demonstrated for skin humidity measurement. The sensor is fabricated by coating the fibre with a hydrophilic film based on bilayers of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and SiO2 mesoporous nanoparticles. The Layer-by-Layer method was used for the deposition of the layers. Multimode polymeric optical fibre with a cladding diameter of 250μm was covered by 7 layers of PAH/SiO2 film on the central region of an unclad fibre with a diameter of 190μm. The length of the sensitive region is 30mm. Experiment results show a decrease in light intensity when relative humidity increases due to refractive index changes of the fibre coating. The sensitivity obtained was 200mV/%RH and the sensor was demonstrated to provide a faster response to changes in the humidity of the skin microenvironment than a commercial sensor.

  19. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  20. Polymerization of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde on Ordered (WO3)3 Films on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Zhenrong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2011-05-19

    Polymerization of formaldehyde, H2CO, and acetaldehyde, CH3CHO, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on a model catalyst consisting of an ultra-thin WO3 film supported on Pt(111). The onset of polymerization is observed at very low temperatures of 70 and 80 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as documented by the evolution of the IRAS spectra. The amount of polymer increases with increasing coverage and saturates at 5 and 8 monolayers (ML) for the H2CO and CH3CHO multilayer films that are thicker than 10 and 15 ML, respectively. Upon heating, the polymers decompose around 250 and 190 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as evidenced mass spectrometrically by the desorption of their monomers and oligomers into the gas phase. The heats of H2CO and CH3CHO sublimation and polymerization determined based on our experiments are in good agreement with previously published values.

  1. Assembly of oriented zeolite monolayers and thin films on polymeric surfaces via hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Baoquan; Zhu, Huiming

    2008-10-21

    The b-oriented monolayers of microsized silicalite-1 crystals have been manually assembled on glass plate supported poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films via hydrogen bonding with much enhanced binding strength and satisfactory degrees of coverage and close packing. The exerted pressure and rubbing time in the manual assembly do not affect the binding strength of the silicalite-1 monolayer on the glass plate supported polymeric film. This manual assembly has been further applied to fabricate zeolite monolayers on commercially available Plexiglas surfaces and b-oriented multilayered films of silicalite-1 crystals on glass plates. The assembly method established in this study provides a feasible way to produce zeolite monolayers on polymer-modified solid substrates and Plexiglas and to fabricate zeolite-polymer composite membranes by means of the layer-by-layer technique. PMID:18785711

  2. The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo Yun

    2013-06-01

    To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

  3. Monitoring molecular orientational order in NLO push-pull based polymeric films via photoacoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Zúñiga, V.; Castañeda-Guzmán, R.; Morales-Saavedra, O. G.; Pérez-Martínez, A. L.; Ogawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    The pulsed-laser photoacoustic-technique (PLPA) was implemented to characterize molecular orientational order and anisotropy in push-pull poled polymeric films as function of temperature and laser polarization. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals are considered to be directly proportional to the linear optical absorption in amorphous media. In this work, however, it is shown that photoacoustic signals can also be highly sensitive to the material anisotropy when convenient polarization dependent photoacoustic analyses are performed. Thus, variation of the molecular orientation in organic films, comprising rod-like polar chromophores, can be unambiguously monitored via rms-analyses performed on the amplitude of the generated opto-acoustical PLPA-signals as function of the incident laser polarization. This result can be useful for the characterization of organic-based nonlinear optical (NLO) poled films and, in general, in studies of anisotropic materials. In fact, in this work we were able to accurately determine the molecular order parameter ( ϕ) of a NLO-active spin-coated polymeric film containing optically active push-pull chromophores. These molecules, previously oriented via an electrical-poling procedure, are capable to exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) effects. The PLPA-measurements were systematically compared to the linear UV-vis optical absorbance spectra while heating the poled film sample in order to monitor the thermally induced molecular disorder, so that the order parameter may be photo-acoustically evaluated via the PLPA-signals generated from the poled to the unpoled film phase. These PLPA-experiments were performed taking into account the UV-vis reference spectra for calibration and comparison purposes in the evaluation of the order parameter. A significant advantage of the PLPA-technique over commonly used optical spectral methodologies is its convenient applicability in samples exhibiting poor or null optical transmission.

  4. High sulfur content polymer nanoparticles obtained from interfacial polymerization of sodium polysulfide and 1,2,3-trichloropropane in water.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeewoo; Jung, Unho; Joe, Won Tae; Kim, Eui Tae; Pyun, Jeffrey; Char, Kookheon

    2015-06-01

    Sulfur-rich materials have recently attracted keen interest for their potentials in optical, electrochemical, and pesticidal applications as well as their utility in dynamic covalent bond chemistry. Many sulfur-rich polymers, however, are insoluble and processing methods are therefore very limited. The synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible polymer nanoparticles (NPs) with the sulfur content exceeding 75% by weight, obtained from the interfacial polymerization between 1,2,3-trichloropropane and sodium polysulfide in water is reported here. The interfacial polymerization yields well-defined sulfur-rich NPs in the presence of surfactants, which are capable of serving a dual role as a phase transfer catalyst on top of emulsifiers. Such dual role allows for the control of the product NP size by varying its concentration. The surfactants can be easily removed by centrifugation and redispersion in water is also reported here. The resulting sulfur-rich NPs are characterized through elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25847485

  5. Facile electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole film applied as cathode material in dual rotating disk photo fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Hongbo; Tang, Tiantian; Tang, Yanping; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-08-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) film is synthesized on Ti substrate through electrochemical polymerization method and is applied as cathode material in a TiO2 NTs-PPy dual rotating disk photo fuel cell (PFC). The optimized PPy electrochemical polymerization is carried out using linear sweep voltammetry from 0 V to 1.2 V (vs. SCE) with scan rate of 0.1 V s-1, 100 circles. Sixty milliliter real textile wastewater with the initial COD and conductivity of 408 ± 6 mgO2 L-1 and 20180 μS cm-1 is treated in this PFC under UV irradiation. About 0.46 V open-circuit voltage (VOC) and 1.8-2.2 mA short-circuit current (JSC) are obtained. Due to the effective electron-hole separation effect, the COD removal rate is as high as 0.0055 min-1. Stable current and COD removal can be obtained at different output voltage. Two influence factors including rotating speed and pH are investigated. Better electricity generation performance and COD removal activity are achieved at high rotating speed and in acidic condition. In comparison with platinized cathode, though VOC is lower, similar JSC is measured. Considering the high cost of Pt, PPy is a promising alternative cathode material in PFC that can also generate electricity efficiently and stably.

  6. Facile electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole film applied as cathode material in dual rotating disk photo fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Hongbo; Tang, Tiantian; Tang, Yanping; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-08-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) film is synthesized on Ti substrate through electrochemical polymerization method and is applied as cathode material in a TiO2 NTs-PPy dual rotating disk photo fuel cell (PFC). The optimized PPy electrochemical polymerization is carried out using linear sweep voltammetry from 0 V to 1.2 V (vs. SCE) with scan rate of 0.1 V s-1, 100 circles. Sixty milliliter real textile wastewater with the initial COD and conductivity of 408 ± 6 mgO2 L-1 and 20180 μS cm-1 is treated in this PFC under UV irradiation. About 0.46 V open-circuit voltage (VOC) and 1.8-2.2 mA short-circuit current (JSC) are obtained. Due to the effective electron-hole separation effect, the COD removal rate is as high as 0.0055 min-1. Stable current and COD removal can be obtained at different output voltage. Two influence factors including rotating speed and pH are investigated. Better electricity generation performance and COD removal activity are achieved at high rotating speed and in acidic condition. In comparison with platinized cathode, though VOC is lower, similar JSC is measured. Considering the high cost of Pt, PPy is a promising alternative cathode material in PFC that can also generate electricity efficiently and stably.

  7. Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of polymeric film damage, constituting the stratospheric super pressurized balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Makram; Chaabane, Makram; Dalverny, Olivier; Deramecourt, Arnaud; Mistou, Sébastien

    The super-pressure balloons developed by CNES are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding to the flight level and the lifespan of the balloon. It appears during the working stages of the super pressure balloons that these last can exploded prematurely in the course of the first hours of flight. For this reason CNES and LGP are carrying out research programs about experimentations and modelling in order to predict a good stability of the balloons flight and guarantee a life time in adequacy with the technical requirement. This study deals with multilayered polymeric film damage which induce balloons failure. These experimental and numerical study aims, are a better understanding and predicting of the damage mechanisms bringing the premature explosion of balloons. The following damages phenomena have different origins. The firsts are simple and triple wrinkles owed during the process and the stocking stages of the balloons. The second damage phenomenon is associated to the creep of the polymeric film during the flight of the balloon. The first experimental results we present in this paper, concern the mechanical characterization of three different damage phenomena. The severe damage induced by the wrinkles of the film involves a significant loss of mechanical properties. In a second part the theoretical study, concerns the choice and the development of a non linear viscoelastic coupled damage behavior model in a finite element code.

  8. Monitoring of diisopropyl fluorophosphate hydrolysis by fluoride-selective polymeric films using absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Madhumati; Wang, Lin; Wild, James R; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Meyeroff, Mark E; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2010-05-14

    In this study, a novel system for the detection and quantification of organofluorophosphonates (OFP) has been developed by using an optical sensing polymeric membrane to detect the fluoride ions produced upon OFP hydrolysis. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a structural analogue of type G chemical warfare agents such as Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD), is used as the surrogate target analyte. An optical sensing fluoride ion selective polymeric film was formulated from plasticized PVC containing aluminum(III) octaethyl porphyrin and ETH 7075 chromoionophore (Al[OEP]-ETH 7075). Selected formulations were used to detect the fluoride ions produced by the catalytic hydrolysis of DFP by the enzyme organophosphate hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1). The changes in absorbance that corresponded to the deprotonated state of chromoionophore within the film results from simultaneous coextraction of fluoride and protons as DFP hydrolysis takes place in the solution phase in contact with the film. The developed sensing system demonstrates excellent sensitivity for concentrations as low as 0.1microM DFP. PMID:20441875

  9. Monitoring of Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate Hydrolysis by Fluoride-Selective Polymeric Films Using Absorbance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Madhumati; Wang, Lin; Wild, James R.; Meyeroff, Mark E.; Simonian, Aleksandr L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel system for the detection and quantification of organofluorophosphonates (OFP) has been developed by using an optical sensing polymeric membrane to detect the fluoride ions produced upon OFP hydrolysis. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a structural analogue of Type G Chemical Warfare Agents such as Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD), is used as the surrogate target analyte. An optical sensing fluoride-ion-selective polymeric film was formulated from plasticized PVC containing aluminum(III) octaethylporphyrin and ETH 7075 chromoionophore (Al[OEP]-ETH 7075). Selected formulations were used to detect the fluoride ions produced by the catalytic hydrolysis of DFP by the enzyme organophosphate hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1). The changes in absorbance that corresponded to the deprotonated state of chromoionophore within the film results from simultaneous co-extraction of fluoride and protons as DFP hydrolysis takes place in the solution phase in contact with the film. The developed sensing system demonstrates excellent sensitivity for concentrations as low as 0.1 µM DFP. PMID:20441875

  10. Thin-film TiPbO3 varistors obtained by two-source magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the method of obtaining thin films of TiPbO3 by two-source magnetron sputtering DC-M. The films were obtained in a reactive process of sputtering metallic targets of titanium (Ti) and lead (Pb). The research involved the impact of the time of sputtering of the respective targets on voltage-dependent resistance of the obtained films for different power conditions, pressures of process gases and the powers provided on the targets. The obtained nonlinearity coefficients and the current-voltage I(U) characteristics were within the following range.

  11. Surface morphology of ultrathin graphene oxide films obtained by the SAW atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachova, Olga V.; Balashov, Sergey M.; Costa, Carlos A. R.; Pavani Filho, A.

    2015-08-01

    Lately, graphene oxide (GO) thin films have attracted much attention: they can be used as humidity-sensitive coatings in the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors; being functionalized, they can be used in optoelectronic or biodevices, etc. In this research we study surface morphology of small-area thin GO films obtained on Si and quartz substrates by deposition of very small amounts of H2O-GO aerosols produced by the SAW atomizer. An important feature of this method is the ability to work with submicrovolumes of liquids during deposition that provides relatively good control over the film thickness and quality, in particular, minimization of the coffee ring effect. The obtained films were examined using AFM and electron microscopy. Image analysis showed that the films consist of GO sheets of different geometry and sizes and may form discrete or continuous coatings at the surface of the substrates with the minimum thickness of 1.0-1.8 nm which corresponds to one or two monolayers of GO. The thickness and quality of the deposited films depend on the parameters of the SAW atomization (number of atomized droplets, a volume of the initial droplet, etc.) and on sample surface preparation (activation in oxygen plasma). We discuss the structure of the obtained films, uniformity and the surface coverage as a function of parameters of the film deposition process and sample preparation. Qualitative analysis of adhesion of GO films is made by rinsing the samples in DI water and subsequent evaluation of morphology of the remained films.

  12. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and mechanical properties of graphite-based polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenanakis, G.; Vasilopoulos, K. C.; Viskadourakis, Z.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    Modern electronics have nowadays evolved to offer highly sophisticated devices. It is not rare; however, their operation can be affected or even hindered by the surrounding electromagnetic radiation. In order to provide protection from undesired external electromagnetic sources and to ensure their unaffected performance, electromagnetic shielding is thus necessary. In this work, both the electromagnetic and mechanical properties of graphite-based polymeric films are studied. The investigated films show efficient electromagnetic shielding performance along with good mechanical stiffness for a certain graphite concentration. To the best of our knowledge, the present study illustrates for the first time both the electromagnetic shielding and mechanical properties of the polymer composite samples containing graphite filler at such high concentrations (namely 60-70 %). Our findings indicate that these materials can serve as potential candidates for several electronics applications.

  13. Photoinduced nonlinear refraction in a polymeric film encapsulating a bacteriorhodopsin mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xue-lei; Lu, Ming; Zhao, You-yuan; Ma, De-wang; Zhao, Ying-chun; Ding, Jian-dong; Huang, Wei-da

    2010-08-01

    The absorption change versus time after switching off the illumination on a polymeric film that contained a bacteriorhodopsin (BR) mutant has been measured. The M-lifetime of this BR mutant is ˜320 s. A pertinent Z-scan was performed to study the BR optical nonlinearity. A physical model with multi-level transitions in the Z-scan was suggested. The minimum saturated light intensity measured at 633 nm is ˜0.9 mW/cm2. A low intensity of 70 μW/cm2 has been used for recording in this film. The change in refraction index Δn633 is -3.0×10-3 and Δn476 is 8.5×10-3 with the intensity all at ˜100 mW/cm2.

  14. Molecularly thin fluoro-polymeric nanolubricant films: tribology, rheology, morphology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-03-01

    Molecularly thin perfluoropolyether (PFPE) has been used extensively as a high-performance lubricant in various applications and, more importantly, on carbon overcoats to enhance the reliability and lubrication of micro-/nanoelectro-mechanical systems, where the tribological performance caused by its molecular architecture is a critical issue, as are its physical properties and rheological characteristics. This Highlight addresses recent trends in the development of fluoro-polymeric lubricant films with regard to their tribology, rheology, and physio-chemical properties as they relate to heat-assisted magnetic recording. Nanorheology has been employed to examine the dynamic response of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, while the viscoelastic properties of nanoscale PFPE films and the relaxation processes as a function of molecular structure and end-group functionality were analyzed experimentally; furthermore, the characteristics of binary blends were reported. PMID:26907953

  15. Characterization and protein-adsorption behavior of deposited organic thin film onto titanium by plasma polymerization with hexamethyldisiloxane.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Yoshinari, Masao; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2004-01-01

    Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin film was deposited onto titanium using a radio-frequency apparatus for the surface modification of titanium. A titanium disk was first polished using colloidal silica at pH=9.8. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO films were firmly attached to the titanium by heating the titanium to a temperature of approximately 250 degrees C. The thickness of the deposited film was 0.07-0.35mum after 10-60min of plasma polymerization. The contact angle with respect to double distilled water significantly increased after HMDSO coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the deposited thin film consisted of Si, C, and O atoms. No Ti peaks were observed on the deposited surface. The deposited HMDSO film was stable during 2-weeks immersion in phosphate buffer saline solution. Fourier transform reflection-absorption spectroscopy showed the formation of Si-H, Si-C, C-H, and Cz.dbnd6;O bonds in addition to Si-O-Si bonds. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation measurement demonstrated that the deposition of HMDSO thin films on titanium has a benefit for fibronectin adsorption at the early stage. In conclusion, plasma polymerization is a promising technique for the surface modification of titanium. HMDSO-coated titanium has potential application as a dental implant material. PMID:14580915

  16. Chain polymerization of diacetylene compound multilayer films on the topmost surface initiated by a scanning tunneling microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Takajo, Daisuke; Okawa, Yuji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Aono, Masakazu

    2007-05-01

    Chain polymerizations of diacetylene compound multilayer films on graphite substrates were examined with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at the liquid/solid interface of the phenyloctane solution. The first layer grew very quickly into many small domains. This was followed by the slow formation of the piled up layers into much larger domains. Chain polymerization on the topmost surface layer could be initiated by applying a pulsed voltage between the STM tip and the substrate, usually producing a long polymer of submicrometer length. In contrast, polymerizations on the underlying layer were never observed. This can be explained by a conformation model in which the polymer backbone is lifted up. PMID:17432888

  17. Preparation and characterization of a novel pH-sensitive hydrogel obtained from UV light-induced polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, R. Q.; Zhao, Y. G.; Cui, Y. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Liang, X. Y.; Shang, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a novel pH-sensitive hydrogel prepared via an UV light-induced polymerization. Single-factor experiments were performed to acquire the optimum formula of final poly(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were employed to confirm the successful preparation of the designed copolymers. Inner morphologies of the polymeric hydrogels were observed via an S-4800 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Swelling and reversible swelling-shrinking studies were carried out in different phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with various pH values. Drug-loading tests were performed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug. The in vitro release profile was also investigated in PBS with the pH values of 1.2 and 7.4. FTIR spectra confirmed the preparation of the poly(MAA-co-PEGMA) copolymers without any residual monomers. The typical space grid structures were observed from the SEM photographs of hydrogels. The obtained hydrogel showed an excellent pH-sensibility and reversible swelling-shrinking property. The maximum drug-loading (40.9 %) was gained from the BSA concentration of 50.0 mg/mL. During the releasing process, only 5.8 ± 0.9 % of BSA was released at pH 1.2, but 82.1 ± 6.2 % was diffused at pH 7.4. These data suggested that such medicated hydrogel could deliver BSA to alkaline conditions (e.g., intestinal environments) site-specifically, which protected BSA from destroying by gastric acid or pepsase. Therefore, such hydrogel had a significant meaning in theoretical research and practical application.

  18. Enzyme biosensor based on plasma-polymerized film-covered carbon nanotube layer grown directly on a flat substrate.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Matsui, Yasunori

    2011-07-01

    We report a novel approach to fabrication of an amperometric biosensor with an enzyme, a plasma-polymerized film (PPF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown directly on an island-patterned Co/Ti/Cr layer on a glass substrate by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The as-grown CNTs were subsequently treated by nitrogen plasma, which changed the surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic in order to obtain an electrochemical contact between the CNTs and enzymes. A glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was then adsorbed onto the CNT surface and directly treated with acetonitrile plasma to overcoat the GOx layer with a PPF. This fabrication process provides a robust design of CNT-based enzyme biosensor, because of all processes are dry except the procedure for enzyme immobilization. The main novelty of the present methodology lies in the PPF and/or plasma processes. The optimized glucose biosensor revealed a high sensitivity of 38 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a broad linear dynamic range of 0.25-19 mM (correlation coefficient of 0.994), selectivity toward an interferent (ascorbic acid), and a fast response time of 7 s. The background current was much smaller in magnitude than the current due to 10 mM glucose response. The low limit of detection was 34 μM (S/N = 3). All results strongly suggest that a plasma-polymerized process can provide a new platform for CNT-based biosensor design. PMID:21678995

  19. Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayer Modification on Indium-Tin Oxide Surface for Surface-Initiated Vapor Deposition Polymerization of Carbazole Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuya Umemoto,; Seong-Ho Kim,; Rigoberto C. Advincula,; Kuniaki Tanaka,; Hiroaki Usui,

    2010-04-01

    With the aim of controlling the interface between an inorganic electrode and an organic layer, a surface-initiated vapor deposition polymerization method was employed to prepare carbazole polymer thin films that are chemically bound to an indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) that has an azo initiator as a terminal group was prepared on an ITO surface, on which carbazole acrylate monomers were evaporated under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The surface morphological characteristics of the films prepared with/without UV irradiation and with/without the SAM were compared. It was found that the UV irradiation leads to the polymerization of carbazole monomers irrespective of the type of substrate used. On the other hand, the surface morphological characteristics were largely dependent on the existence of the SAM. Uniform and smooth polymer thin films were obtained only when the monomers were evaporated on the SAM-modified surface under UV irradiation. A comparison of film growth characteristics on a UV-ozone-treated ITO surface suggested that the formation of uniform films was made possible not by the modification of surface energy but by the growth of the polymers chemically bound to the substrate surface.

  20. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Carbon Nanotube Functionalized by Redox Plasma-Polymerized Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    A novel fabrication approach for the amperometric biosensor based on multilayer films containing carbon nanotubes (CNT), a plasma-polymerized film (PPF), and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) is reported. The configuration of the electrochemical electrode is sequentially composed of sputtered gold, lower acetonitrile PPF, CNT, redox PPF, GOD, and upper acetonitrile PPF (denoted as PPF/GOD/Redox-PPF/CNT/PPF/Au). The lower acetonitrile PPF deposited on Au acts as a permselective membrane, and as a scaffold for CNT layer formation. The upper acetonirile PPF directly deposited on GOD acts as a matrix for enzyme immobilization. The redox PPF polymerized by a monomer of dimethlyaminomethlyferrocene (DAF) is directly deposited onto CNTs. The surface of the functionalized CNT has redox sites of ferrocene groups that shuttle electrons from CNTs to the sensing surface of the Au electrode. The synergy between the redox PPF and CNT provides benefits in terms of lowering the operational potential and enhancing the sensitivity (current). The optimized glucose biosensor revealed a sensitivity of 2.0 µA mM-1 cm-2 at +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a linear dynamic range of 4.9-27 mM, and a response time of 5 s.

  1. Non-deterministic analysis of a liquid polymeric-film drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.S.; Cairncross, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    In this study the authors employed the Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling technique to generate input parameters for a liquid polymeric-film drying model with prescribed uncertainty distributions. The one-dimensional drying model employed in this study was that developed by Cairncross et al. They found that the non-deterministic analysis with Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling provides a useful tool for characterizing the two responses (residual solvent volume and the maximum solvent partial vapor pressure) of a liquid polymeric-film drying process. More precisely, they found that the non-deterministic analysis via Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling not only provides estimates of statistical variations of the response variables but also yields more realistic estimates of mean values, which can differ significantly from those calculated using deterministic simulation. For input-parameter uncertainties in the range from 2 to 10% of their respective means, variations of response variables were found to be comparable to the mean values.

  2. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  3. Microstructure comparison between KNbO 3 thin films grown by polymeric precursors and PLD methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, I. T.; Rousseau, A.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Bouquet, V.; Perrin, A.

    2005-11-01

    KNbO 3 (KN) thin films were prepared by both Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and Polymeric Precursor Route (PPR) onto polycrystalline alumina (Al 2O 3) and single-crystalline (100) SrTiO 3 substrates. Structural and microstructural characteristics of the thin films were determined by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electronic microscopy and electron channeling patterns in order to establish a correlation between the preparation method and the samples characteristics. It was evidenced that both methods are able to produce well crystallized single phase films presenting an epitaxial growth along 110 direction onto (100) SrTiO 3 substrates. PLD led to a highest crystalline quality ( Δω˜0.25° for PLD and Δω˜1° for PPR), while PPR provides crystallization at lower temperatures, without the appearance of secondary phases. The most remarkable difference between the methods concerns the film morphology (grain size and shape). In fact, deposition by these two routes gives access to various microstructures which open the way to specific study of physical behavior which currently depends on it.

  4. Photoelectrochemical and physical properties of tungsten trioxide films obtained by aerosol pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sadale, S.B.; Chaqour, S.M.; Gorochov, O.; Neumann-Spallart, M.

    2008-06-03

    Aerosol pyrolysis (AP) was used for preparing semiconducting films of tungsten trioxide using peroxotungstic acid as a precursor. The films were characterized by SEM, XRD, and by their photoelectrochemical response. Porous, polycrystalline (monoclinic) films of thickness up to 3 {mu}m were prepared. An incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) of 0.55 at 365 nm was obtained for films of 1 {mu}m thickness on conducting F:SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates under depletion conditions, in junctions with aqueous electrolytes. The spectral (photocurrent) response extended into the visible region (up to 470 nm) which is of importance for solar applications like photocatalysis.

  5. Probing polymeric thin films using beam-based positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huagen

    Positrounium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) utilizing a focused low energy beam of positrons to control implantation depth enables the analysis of very thin films. Beam-PALS was used to study confinement and interfacial effects on polymer mobility in ultra-thin polycarbonate films and to characterize nanoporous structures of polymeric low dielectric constant (low-k ) thin films. Three complementary techniques were used to address the apparent discrepancies in recent polymer film results. Beam-PALS (probing positronium nanovoid lifetime, tau), specular X-ray reflectivity (SXR, monitoring film thickness, h) and incoherent neutron scattering (INS, characterizing mean-square atomic displacements, ) were combined to study the thermophysical properties of Bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) ultra-thin films (60 A to ˜1000 A) supported on an oxidized silicon wafer surface. As h decreased the concomitant reduction in thermal expansion coefficients of h, tau and < u2>, as well as the decreased amplitudes of < u2>, indicated that thin film confinement produces suppressed molecular mobility in PC. These films were modeled with an immobile interface layer ranging from 38 A to 130 A, depending on the measurement technique and the temperature range. No clear trends in the apparent glass transition temperature (Tg) emerged from these techniques, thus rendering Tg shifts inconclusive and of less fundamental importance. Beam-PALS was also applied to characterize several generations of porous SiLK (Trade Mark of Dow Chemical) low-k films to reveal the size, size distribution, interconnectivity and possible morphology of the engineered nanopores. The dependence of these properties on porogen loading/porosity was carefully analyzed and compared, when possible, with results from other techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering and AFM. Unique to the PALS technique is the ability to quantify the pore interconnection length. Porous SiLK (V9), U.2 and Y were found to have

  6. Metal-containing fluoropolymer films produced by simultaneous plasma etching and polymerization: Effects of hydrogen or oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, E.; Dilks, A.; Seybold, D.

    1980-11-01

    The formation of metal-containing fluoropolymer films by simultaneous plasma etching and polymerization in a radiofrequency diode reactor configuration is investigated as a function of additive scavenger gases. The addition of oxygen to plasmas excited in tetrafluoroethylene or perfluoropropane is found to enhance the etching rate at the excitation metal electrode and diminish the polymer film deposition rate at the grounded electrode. The overall effect is to increase the metal content of the films. The addition of hydrogen to plasmas excited in tetrafluoromethane or perfluoropropane has the opposite effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to determine the composition and structure of the films, and this coupled with mass spectrometric analysis of the plasma gas phase chemistry has allowed the identification of the likely precursors to plasma polymerization for the systems studied.

  7. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Quick-Dissolving Polymeric Vaginal Films Delivering the Antiretroviral IQP-0528 for Preexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Priya; Zhang, Jining; Martin, Amy; Kelley, Kristin; McNicholl, Janet M; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, James M; Ham, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, microbicides or drugs delivered as quick-dissolving films may be more acceptable to women than gels because of their compact size, minimal waste, lack of an applicator, and easier storage and transport. This has the potential to improve adherence to promising products for preexposure prophylaxis. Vaginal films containing IQP-0528, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, were evaluated for their pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Polymeric films (22 by 44 by 0.1 mm; providing 75% of a human dose) containing IQP-0528 (1.5%, wt/wt) with and without poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle encapsulation were inserted vaginally into pigtailed macaques in a crossover study design (n = 6). With unencapsulated drug, the median (range) vaginal fluid concentrations of IQP-0528 were 160.97 (2.73 to 2,104), 181.79 (1.86 to 15,800), and 484.50 (8.26 to 4,045) μg/ml at 1, 4, and 24 h after film application, respectively. Median vaginal tissue IQP-0528 concentrations at 24 h were 3.10 (0.03 to 222.58) μg/g. The values were similar at locations proximal, medial, and distal to the cervix. The IQP-0528 nanoparticle-formulated films delivered IQP-0528 in vaginal tissue and secretions at levels similar to those obtained with the unencapsulated formulation. A single application of either formulation did not disturb the vaginal microflora or the pH (7.24 ± 0.84 [mean ± standard deviation]). The high mucosal IQP-0528 levels delivered by both vaginal film formulations were between 1 and 5 log higher than the in vitro 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) of 0.146 μg/ml. The excellent coverage and high mucosal levels of IQP-0528, well above the IC90, suggest that the films may be protective and warrant further evaluation in a vaginal repeated low dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) transmission study in macaques and clinically in women. PMID:27139475

  8. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Yeh, Chou-Ming; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ωp) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (fp). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ωp or high fp, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ωp and fp. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  9. Micropatterned Surfaces for Atmospheric Water Condensation via Controlled Radical Polymerization and Thin Film Dewetting.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian; Teo, Guo Hui; Neto, Chiara; Thickett, Stuart C

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by an example found in nature, the design of patterned surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for the collection of water from the atmosphere has been of intense interest in recent years. Herein we report the synthesis of such materials via a combination of macromolecular design and polymer thin film dewetting to yield surfaces consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) of targeted molecular weight and low dispersity; spin-coating of PHPMA onto polystyrene films produced stable polymer bilayers under appropriate conditions. Thermal annealing of these bilayers above the glass transition temperature of the PHPMA layer led to complete dewetting of the top layer and the formation of isolated PHPMA domains atop the PS film. Due to the vastly different rates of water nucleation on the two phases, preferential dropwise nucleation of water occurred on the PHPMA domains, as demonstrated by optical microscopy. The simplicity of the preparation method and ability to target polymers of specific molecular weight demonstrate the value of these materials with respect to large-scale water collection devices or other materials science applications where patterning is required. PMID:26372163

  10. Photooxidation of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane film by 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation in dilute oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, S.

    2006-08-01

    Plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane films irradiated under different partial pressures of oxygen with a 172nm vacuum ultraviolet light were investigated in order to clarify the roles of molecular oxygen and photons in photooxidation. The thickness, densities, surface roughness, elemental compositions, and molecular structures of the irradiated and unirradiated films were examined by using glazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering, infrared, and x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Photooxidation is hardly promoted by irradiation in a high vacuum of 1×10-4Pa, though photodesorption of the methyl group and formation of Si-H bonds were observed. Silica films thicker than 140nm were formed at room temperature by irradiating them in low pressure oxygen gases. The degree of oxidation was smaller for the oxygen pressure of 10kPa than for 83Pa. Si K-edge XAS was performed to clarify the change of coordination environment of silicon by photooxidation in dilute oxygen flow containing less than 5ppm of molecular oxygen.

  11. Fabrication of robust micro-patterned polymeric films via static breath-figure process and vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhong, Yawen; Gong, Jianliang; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Ma, Zhi

    2011-02-15

    Here, we present the preparation of thermally stable and solvent resistant micro-patterned polymeric films via static breath-figure process and sequent vulcanization, with a commercially available triblock polymer, polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (SIS). The vulcanized honeycomb structured SIS films became self-supported and resistant to a wide range of organic solvents and thermally stable up to 350°C for 2h, an increase of more than 300K as compared to the uncross-linked films. This superior robustness could be attributed to the high degree of polyisoprene cross-linking. The versatility of the methodology was demonstrated by applying to another commercially available triblock polymer, polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene (SBS). Particularly, hydroxy groups were introduced into SBS by hydroboration. The functionalized two-dimensional micro-patterns feasible for site-directed grafting were created by the hydroxyl-containing polymers. In addition, the fixed microporous structures could be replicated to fabricate textured positive PDMS stamps. This simple technique offers new prospects in the field of micro-patterns, soft lithography and templates. PMID:21168143

  12. Surface morphology, optical and electrochemical properties of undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films prepared by polymeric precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosousi Sani, Zara; Esmaeli Ghodsi, Farhad; Mazloom, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    In this study, undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films were deposited onto glass and ITO substrates by polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ceria thin film has a cerianite structure with the average crystallite size of 14 nm while the doped samples are amorphous. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of predominant Ce4+ oxidation state of ceria and Ni2+ in the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the surface texture is crack free and the CeO2 grains regularly distributed on the surface. Optical constant (refractive index and extinction coefficient) and thickness of films were calculated using pointwise unconstraint minimization approach. The optical transmittance increases and the absorption edge has a blue shift by Ni incorporation. The highest band gap value (i.e., 3.43 eV) was obtained for 2.5 mol.% Ni doping sample. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of ceria films were decreased by Ni doping. The evaluated thicknesses are in the range of 150-170 nm. The strength of interband transition was appraised as a function of nickel content by using dielectric function. Luminescent emission intensity of the ceria film was enhanced by Ni doping. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed that the total charge density and ion storage capacitance of ceria thin film were increased by Ni doping.

  13. Deposition of polymeric perfluored thin films in proton ionic membranes by plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Peter Lubomir; Mousinho, Ana Paula; Ordonez, Nelson; da Silva Zambom, Luis; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues

    2007-10-01

    In this work the surfaces of polymeric membranes based on Nafion (proton conducting material), used in proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFC) had been modified by plasma deposition of perfluored polymers, in order to improve its functioning in systems of energy generation (fuel cells). The deposition increases the chemical resistance of the proton ionic polymers without losing the electrical properties. The processing of the membranes also reduces the permeability of the membranes to the alcohols (methanol and ethanol), thus preventing poisoning of the fuel cell. The processing of the membranes of Nafion was carried through in a system of plasma deposition using a mixture of CF 4 and H 2 gases. The plasma processing was made mainly to increase the chemical resistance and result in hydrophobic surfaces. The Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) technique supplies a spectrum with information about the CF n bond formation. Through the Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique it was possible to verify the deposition rate of the polymeric layer. The plasma process with composition of 60% of CF 4 and 40% of H 2 presented the best deposition rate. By the spectrum analysis for the optimized configuration, it was possible to verify that the film deposition occurred with a thickness of 90 nm, and fluorine concentration was nearly 30%. Voltammetry made possible to verify that the fluorination increases the membranes chemical resistance, improving the stability of Nafion, becoming an attractive process for construction of fuel cells.

  14. Irreversible thermochromic behavior in gold and silver nanorod/polymeric ionic liquid nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Tollan, Christopher M; Marcilla, Rebeca; Pomposo, Jose A; Rodriguez, Javier; Aizpurua, Javier; Molina, Jon; Mecerreyes, David

    2009-02-01

    The novel application of gold and silver nanorods as irreversible thermochromic dyes in polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) nanocomposites is proposed here. These materials have been synthesized by anion exchange of an imidazolium-based PIL in a solution that also contained gold nanorods. This resulted in the entrapment of the nanoobjects within a solid polymer precipitate. In this article, the effect of the temperature was studied in relation to the change of shape and, consequently, color of the gold or silver nanorods within the films. For the nanocomposites studied here, a maximum of two visual thermochromic transitions was observed for gold nanorods and up to three transitions were observed for silver nanorods. PMID:20353222

  15. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, P. N. Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V.

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  16. Utilization of iron oxide film obtained by CVD process as catalyst to carbon nanotubes growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, Mariane C.; Zarbin, Aldo J.G.

    2009-10-15

    Thin films of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were obtained on silica glass substrates through the thermal decomposition of ferrocene in air. These films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and subsequently used as catalyst on the growth of carbon nanotubes, using benzene or a benzene solution of [Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] as precursor. A great amount of a black powder was obtained as product, identified as multi-walled carbon nanotubes by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The carbon nanotubes formed through the pyrolysis of the [Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] solution were identified as structurally better than the one obtained by the pyrolysis of pristine benzene. - Graphical abstract: Thin films of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were obtained on silica glass substrates through the thermal decomposition of ferrocene in air, and subsequently used as catalyst on the growth of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Helium permeation through a-C:H films deposited on polymeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, L.; Bellachioma, M. C.; Lozzi, L.; Santucci, S.; Kenny, J. M.

    2002-09-01

    The influence of amorphous hydrogenated carbon a-C:H coatings on gas permeation through polymer films was investigated. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited, at room temperature, from a CH4/Ar plasma produced by a radio frequency glow discharge system at 13.56 MHz. Polyether-etherketone (PEEK) and polyetherimide foils with different thicknesses were used as substrates. The permeation of He was measured and the reduction of the permeability coefficient is correlated here to the composition and density of the a-C:H films. The density and film structure of the layers were analyzed using x-ray reflectivity and Raman spectroscopy of films deposited onto silicon reference samples. A less pronounced reduction of the permeability coefficients for hard, dense diamond-like layers is reported with respect to those obtained for soft, polymer-like layers on PEEK substrates. Surprisingly, the barrier efficacy of the coating decreases with an increase in a-C:H film density. This unexpected result is attributed to intrinsic stress and the corresponding formation of microcracks. The effect of nitrogen incorporation, which reduces film permeability, is investigated in terms of the stress relaxation mechanism promoted. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  18. Nanocharacterization of Titanium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merie, Violeta Valentina; Pustan, Marius Sorin; Bîrleanu, Corina; Negrea, Gavril

    2015-05-01

    Titanium nitride thin films are used in applications such as tribological layers for cutting tools, coating of some medical devices (scalpel blades, prosthesis, implants, etc.), sensors, electrodes for bioelectronics, microelectronics, diffusion barrier, bio-micro-electromechanical systems, and so on. This work is a comparative study concerning the influence of substrate temperature on some mechanical and tribological characteristics of titanium nitride thin films. The researched thin films were obtained by the reactive magnetron sputtering method. The experiments employed two kinds of substrates: a steel substrate and a silicon one. The elaboration of titanium nitride thin films was done at two temperatures. First, when the substrates were at room temperature, and second, when the substrates were previously heated at 250°C. The temperature of 250°C was kept constant during the deposition of the films. The samples were then investigated by atomic force microscopy in order to establish their mechanical and tribological properties. The nanohardness, Young's modulus, roughness, and friction force were some of the determined characteristics. The results demonstrated that the substrate which was previously heated at 250°C led to the obtaining of more adherent titanium nitride thin films than the substrate used at room temperature. The preheating of both substrates determined the decrease of thin films roughness. The friction force, nanohardness and Young's modulus of the tested samples increased when the substrates were preheated at 250°C.

  19. Detailed investigation of optoelectronic and microstructural properties of plasma polymerized cyclohexane thin films: Dependence on the radiofrequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, C.; Bouaziz, L.; Lejeune, M.; Zellama, K. Benlahsen, M.; Kouki, F.; Mejatty, M.; Bouchriha, H.

    2015-06-07

    Optical properties of polymerized cyclohexane films deposited by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique at different radiofrequency powers onto glass and silicon substrates, are studied and correlated with the microstructure of the films, using a combination of atomic force microscopy, Raman and Fourier Transformer Infrared spectroscopy and optical measurements. The optical constants such as refractive index n, dielectric permittivity ε and extinction k and absorption α coefficients, are extracted from transmission and reflection spectra through the commercial software CODE. These constants lead, by using common theoretical models as Cauchy, Lorentz, Tauc and single effective oscillator, to the determination of the static refractive index n{sub s} and permittivity ε{sub s}, the plasma frequency ω{sub p}, the carrier density to effective mass ratio N/m{sub e}{sup *}, the optical conductivity σ{sub oc}, the optical band gap E{sub g} and the oscillation and dispersion energies E{sub 0} and E{sub d}, respectively. We find that n, ε{sub s}, ω{sub p}, N/m{sub e}{sup *}, E{sub d}, increase with radiofrequency power, while E{sub g} and E{sub 0} decrease in the same range of power. These results are well correlated with those obtained from atomic force microscopy, Raman and infrared measurements. They also indicate that the increase of the radiofrequency power promotes the fragmentation of the precursor and increases the carbon C-sp{sup 2} hybridization proportion, which results in an improvement of the optoelectronic properties of the films.

  20. Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick silver-impregnated polymeric films that kill bacteria but support growth of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ankit; Weis, Tahlia L; Schurr, Michael J; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christopher J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2010-02-01

    Silver is widely used as a biocidal agent in ointments and wound dressings. However, it has also been associated with tissue toxicity and impaired healing. In vitro characterization has also revealed that typical loadings of silver employed in ointments and dressings (approximately 100 microg/cm(2)) lead to cytotoxicity. In this paper, we report the results of an initial study that sought to determine if localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin films immobilized on surfaces can lead to antimicrobial activity without inducing cytotoxicity. Polymeric thin films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by layer-by-layer deposition and loaded with approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) to approximately 23.6 microg/cm(2) of silver nanoparticles. Bacterial killing efficiencies of the silver-loaded films were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, a gram-positive bacterium, and it was determined that as little as approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) of silver in the polymeric films caused a reduction of 6log(10)CFU/mL (99.9999%) bacteria in suspensions incubated in contact with the films (water-borne assays). Significantly, whereas the antibacterial films containing high loadings of silver were found to be toxic to a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3), the polymeric films containing approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) of silver were not toxic and allowed attachment, and growth of the mammalian cells. Thus, the results of this study go beyond prior reports by identifying silver-impregnated, polymeric thin films that are compatible with in vitro mammalian cell culture yet exhibit antibacterial activity. These results support the hypothesis that localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin polymeric films can lead to antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity. More broadly, this strategy of modifying surfaces with minimal loadings of

  1. Laser bonding characteristics of sputtered titanium on glass with polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubna, Nusrat J.

    with experimental result shows that above glass transition temperature, finite element generate same bond widths as observed experimentally for 200nm and 400nm Ti coated glass/imidex system. However, it failed to generate the same bond width as experimentally obtained for 50 nm thick Ti coated glass/imidex system. This is due to the lower thermal conductivity and elevation of surface temperature of the thinner film compared to other two thicknesses of the film. For the case of Ti coated glass/TeflonRTM FEP, higher bond strength with thicker film are obtained. No detectable degradation of polymer is observed in terms of free volume of voids for this system of TeflonRTM FEP.

  2. Nanocharacterization of titanium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merie, V. V.; Pustan, M. S.; Bîrleanu, C.; Negrea, G.

    2014-08-01

    Titanium nitride thin films are used in applications such as tribological layers for cutting tools, coating of some medical devices (scalpel blades, prosthesis, implants etc.), sensors, electrodes for bioelectronics, microelectronics, diffusion barrier, bio-microelectromechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) and so on. This work is a comparative study concerning the influence of substrate temperature on some mechanical and tribological characteristics of titanium nitride thin films. The researched thin films were obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering method. The experiments employed two kinds of substrates: a steel substrate and a silicon one. The elaboration of titanium nitride thin films was done at two temperatures. First, the obtaining was realized when the substrates were at room temperature, and second, the obtaining was realized when the substrates were previously heated at 250 °C. The elaborated samples were then investigated by atomic force microscopy in order to establish their mechanical and tribological properties. The nanohardness, roughness, friction force are some of the determined characteristics. The results marked out that the substrate which was previously heated at 250 °C led to the obtaining of more adherent titanium nitride thin films than the substrate used at room temperature.

  3. Properties of starch-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose based films obtained by compression molding.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Toro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2014-08-30

    Corn starch-glycerol (1:0.3) films, containing or not citric acid (1g/100g starch) and HPMC (10 and 20g/100g starch), are obtained by compression molding. The microstructure of the films, the thermal behavior, the X-ray diffraction spectra and the physical properties (mechanical, barrier and optical) were analyzed after 1 and 5 storage weeks at 25°C and 53% relative humidity. The bonded citric acid and film solubility were also determined. Starch-HPMC blend films showed a dispersed phase of HPMC in a continuous, starch-rich phase with lower glass transition than HPMC-free films. The addition of citric acid also provoked a decrease in glass transition in line with the partial hydrolysis of starch chains. Both components implied a decrease in the water vapour permeability while the oxygen permeability slightly increased. Although citric acid only provoked a small hardening effect in the films, it greatly decreased their extensibility (weak cross-linking effect), which seems to increase during film storage. Starch crystallization during storage was inhibited by both citric acid and HPMC. PMID:24815412

  4. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO-PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO-PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO-PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0-110.0mg dL(-1) with the limit of detection as 5.0mg dL(-1). PMID:26354280

  5. Addition of Hetero-Atoms to the Polymer Film by Plasma Enhanced Polymerization and its Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriki, Kazunori; Yumoto, Motoshige

    Plasma enhanced polymerization is an attractive technology to fabricate an optical polymer waveguide, because it has capability to provide an uniform thickness film on a substrate with various surface geometry, and to provide change of refractive index by controlling a proportion of source monomer mixing. In the present paper we discuss optical constants and molecule structures of the films added hetero-atoms, O, N and F in the CHx network of polymer. Refractive index of those films changes from 1.52 to 1.63 at 1.0 μm wavelength, depending on the variety of hetero-atoms. Fluorine atoms added into a film decreases refractive index of the film. Oxygen atoms added into a film, which form ester structure (- COO-), decrease refractive index of the film, and some O atoms token into a film as OH base will increase optical absorption in inferred region for optical communication. Nitrogen atoms added increase optical absorption due to forming NH2 base. Finally, sp3/sp2 fraction controlling in the film will be a suitable to control refractive index of the film for an optical waveguide, for example by using mixed monomer of C6H6 and C6H10.

  6. Elemental and topographic characterization of LDPE based copolymeric films obtained by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. M.; Falcão, A. N.; Gil, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    The preparation of PE-g-HEMA (polyethylene-grafted-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) films by 60Co gamma irradiation has been optimized to produce a new material suitable for bioapplications. This paper reports the elemental and topographic analysis of PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting degrees, obtained under optimized experimental conditions, with the purpose to appraise their possible toxicological risk and their surface roughness properties. In this way a Nuclear Microprobe using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique was used to assess the elemental analysis of the film samples prepared. Trace contaminations of elements heavier than Si (Ca, Cl, Fe, K, P, S, Si and Zn) were found, but their concentrations do not pose toxicological risk. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to assess the morphological characterization of the films, revealing the roughness and 3D porous structure of their surface, which are ones of essential characteristics for bio-interaction or cell adhesion.

  7. Degradable polymeric nano-films and particles as delivery platforms for vaccines and immunotherapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xingfang

    Degradable polymeric materials provide opportunities for the development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies by acting as platforms that facilitate the delivery of molecules to appropriate tissue and cellular locations to achieve therapeutic outcomes. To this end, we have designed and characterized nano-films and particles employing a hydrolytically degradable polymer for the delivery of vaccine antigens and immunotherapeutics. We first describe protein- and oligonucleotide-loaded layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled multilayer thin films constructed based on electrostatic interactions between a cationic poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE, denoted Poly-1) with a model protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and/or immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides for transcutaneous delivery. Linear growth of nanoscale Poly-I/OVA bilayers was observed. Dried OVA protein-loaded films rapidly deconstructed when rehydrated in saline solutions, releasing OVA as non-aggregated/non-degraded protein, suggesting that the structure of biomolecules integrated into these multilayer films are preserved during release. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy and an in vivo murine ear skin model, we demonstrated delivery of OVA from LbL films into barrier-disrupted skin, uptake of the protein by skin-resident antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cells), and transport of the antigen to the skin-draining lymph nodes. Dual incorporation of OVA and CpG oligonucleotides into the nanolayers of LbL films enabled dual release of the antigen and adjuvant with distinct kinetics for each component; OVA was rapidly released while CpG was released in a relatively sustained manner. Applied as skin patches, these films delivered OVA and CpG to Langerhans Cells in the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of LbL films applied for the delivery of biomolecules into skin. This approach provides a new route for storage of vaccines and other immunotherapeutics in a solid-state thin film for subsequent

  8. Surface-initiated polymerizations on initiator anchored substrates: Synthesis and characterization of nanometer thick functional polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhiyi

    We describe the surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide from poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes anchored to Au substrates. The resulting comb polymers have a "bottle brush" architecture. During hydrolytic degradation of PLA in pH 7.4 buffer at 55°C, large, highly symmetric domains (˜50-100 mum) unexpectedly formed. The purpose of the research described in this chapter was to devise a model that describes their formation. Control experiments during degradation study link high lactide polymerization temperature to the formation of the defects. A likely mechanism is the scission of Au-S bonds at high temperatures, causing defects that swell when placed in the buffer solution. We demonstrated enhanced control over polymer brushes through variation of the areal density of the immobilized initiators used for their growth. Reaction of mercaptoundecanol monolayers on Au with both an acyl bromide initiator and a structurally similar acyl bromide diluent yields monolayers whose composition reflects the ratio of the acyl bromides in solution. Similarly, derivatization of SiO2 with an initiator and a diluent monochlorosilane also affords control over initiator density. The thickness of polymer films grown from these modified substrates drop dramatically when the fractional coverage of the surface by initiator decreases below 10% of a monolayer because the area per polymer chain increases. However, reduced termination at low initiator coverage results in substantial increases in initiator efficiency as measured by film growth rates normalized by the fractional coverage of the surface by initiator. Variation of chain density also affords control over film swelling. PHEMA films prepared with 0.1% initiator densities swell 20-fold more in water than films grown from monolayers containing only initiators. Such control should prove valuable in the use of brushes for immobilization of active, accessible biomacromolecules such as single

  9. Calorimetric evidence for a mobile surface layer in ultrathin polymeric films: poly(2-vinyl pyridine).

    PubMed

    Madkour, Sherif; Yin, Huajie; Füllbrandt, Marieke; Schönhals, Andreas

    2015-10-28

    Specific heat spectroscopy was used to study the dynamic glass transition of ultrathin poly(2-vinyl pyridine) films (thicknesses: 405-10 nm). The amplitude and the phase angle of the differential voltage were obtained as a measure of the complex heat capacity. In a traditional data analysis, the dynamic glass transition temperature Tg is estimated from the phase angle. These data showed no thickness dependency on Tg down to 22 nm (error of the measurement of ±3 K). A derivative-based method was established, evidencing a decrease in Tg with decreasing thickness up to 7 K, which can be explained by a surface layer. For ultrathin films, data showed broadening at the lower temperature side of the spectra, supporting the existence of a surface layer. Finally, temperature dependence of the heat capacity in the glassy and liquid states changes with film thickness, which can be considered as a confinement effect. PMID:26324951

  10. Photoconductivity on nanocrystalline ZnO/TiO2 thin films obtained by sol-gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; García-Macedo, J. A.; Juárez-Arenas, R.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we report results on the synthesis, characterization and photoconductivity behaviour of amorphous and nanocrystalline ZnO/TiO2 thin films. They were produced by the sol-gel process at room temperature by using the spin-coating method and deposited on glass substrates. The ZnO/TiO2 films were synthesized by using tetrabutyl orthotitanate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as the inorganic precursors. The samples were sintered at 520°C for 1 hour. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption (OA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies. Photoconductivity studies were performed on amorphous and nanocrystalline (anatase phase) films to determine the charge transport parameters. The experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 310 nm, 439 nm and 633 nm. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The Φμτ and Φl0 parameters were fitted by least-squares with straight lines (nanocrystalline films) and polynomial fits (amorphous films).

  11. Adhesion of Poly(phenylene sulfide) Resin with Polymeric Film of Triazine Thiol on Aluminum Surface Modified by Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Hyuk; Jang, Eun Kyung; Hong, Tae Eun; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Jin, Jong Sung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Shin, Dong Su; Bae, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Euh Duck

    2015-01-01

    Various surface modifications have been applied to improve the adhesion properties of aluminum for the cap plate and sealing quality of electrolyte on Li ion batteries. In this study, we have tried to find the effective condition for the polymerization of triazine thiols (TT) on modified aluminum surfaces by anodic aluminum oxide. Characterization of polymerized films on aluminum was explored by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that meaningful roughness was formed on aluminum surfaces by anodic oxidation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis results represent that the peel strength was found to depend on film thickness and the composition of the adhesion layer. As a result, Al/PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) resin assemblies developed in this study have superior adhesive property. Therefore, these assemblies might be a viable candidate for a sealing technique for Li ion batteries. PMID:26301310

  12. A comparison of defect size and film quality obtained from Film digitized image and digital image radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamlangkeng, Poramate; Asa, Prateepasen; Mai, Noipitak

    2014-06-01

    Digital radiographic testing is an acceptable premature nondestructive examination technique. Its performance and limitation comparing to the old technique are still not widely well known. In this paper conducted the study on the comparison of the accuracy of the defect size measurement and film quality obtained from film and digital radiograph techniques by testing in specimens and known size sample defect. Initially, one specimen was built with three types of internal defect; which are longitudinal cracking, lack of fusion, and porosity. For the known size sample defect, it was machined various geometrical size for comparing the accuracy of the measuring defect size to the real size in both film and digital images. To compare the image quality by considering at smallest detectable wire and the three defect images. In this research used Image Quality Indicator (IQI) of wire type 10/16 FE EN BS EN-462-1-1994. The radiographic films were produced by X-ray and gamma ray using Kodak AA400 size 3.5x8 inches, while the digital images were produced by Fuji image plate type ST-VI with 100 micrometers resolution. During the tests, a radiator GE model MF3 was implemented. The applied energy is varied from 120 to 220 kV and the current from 1.2 to 3.0 mA. The intensity of Iridium 192 gamma ray is in the range of 24-25 Curie. Under the mentioned conditions, the results showed that the deviation of the defect size measurement comparing to the real size obtained from the digital image radiographs is below than that of the film digitized, whereas the quality of film digitizer radiographs is higher in comparison.

  13. Preparation of Chiral Polydiacetylene Films by Using Three-Photon Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric polymerization of polydiacetylene (PDA) from commercially available achiral derivative of diacetylene monomer using circularly polarized pulse laser is demonstrated. Chiral source was only circularly polarized laser, and irradiation of left- and right-circularly polarized light effectively promoted the polymerization of chiral PDAs with opposite handedness. Difference between the laser wavelength and the absorption peak of monomer suggested the contribution of the multiphoton excitation to the photo-polymerization. Laser power dependence of the polymerization rate indicated the possibility of three-photon polymerization. PMID:27451639

  14. "Insensitive" to touch: fabric-supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films for omniphobic personal protective gear.

    PubMed

    Damle, Viraj G; Tummala, Abhishiktha; Chandrashekar, Sriram; Kido, Cassidee; Roopesh, Ajay; Sun, Xiaoda; Doudrick, Kyle; Chinn, Jeff; Lee, James R; Burgin, Timothy P; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-02-25

    The use of personal protective gear made from omniphobic materials that easily shed drops of all sizes could provide enhanced protection from direct exposure to most liquid-phase biological and chemical hazards and facilitate the postexposure decontamination of the gear. In recent literature, lubricated nanostructured fabrics are seen as attractive candidates for personal protective gear due to their omniphobic and self-healing characteristics. However, the ability of these lubricated fabrics to shed low surface tension liquids after physical contact with other objects in the surrounding, which is critical in demanding healthcare and military field operations, has not been investigated. In this work, we investigate the depletion of oil from lubricated fabrics in contact with highly absorbing porous media and the resulting changes in the wetting characteristics of the fabrics by representative low and high surface tension liquids. In particular, we quantify the loss of the lubricant and the dynamic contact angles of water and ethanol on lubricated fabrics upon repeated pressurized contact with highly absorbent cellulose-fiber wipes at different time intervals. We demonstrate that, in contrast to hydrophobic nanoparticle coated microfibers, fabrics encapsulated within a polymer that swells with the lubricant retain the majority of the oil and are capable of repelling high as well as low surface tension liquids even upon multiple contacts with the highly absorbing wipes. The fabric supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films introduced here, therefore, could provide durable and easy to decontaminate protection against hazardous biological and chemical liquids. PMID:25633081

  15. Amperometric biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase and plasma-polymerized thin films.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Fujisawa, Kohta; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2008-04-01

    A novel design is described for an amperometric biosensor based on NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) combined with a plasma-polymerized thin film (PPF). The GDH is sandwiched between several nanometer thick acetonitrile PPFs on a sputtered gold electrode (PPF/GDH/PPF/Au). The lower PPF layer plays the role as an interface between enzyme and electrode because it is extremely thin, adheres well to the substrate (electrode), has a flat surface and a highly-crosslinked network structure, and is hydrophilic in nature. The upper PPF layer (overcoating) was directly deposited on immobilized GDH. The optimized amperometric biosensor characteristics covered 2.5-26 mM glucose concentration at +0.6 V of applied potential; the least-squares slope was 320 nA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the correlation coefficient was 0.990. Unlike conventional wet-chemical processes that are incompatible with mass production techniques, this dry-chemistry procedure has great potential for enabling high-throughput production of bioelectronic devices. PMID:18403839

  16. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  17. Properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes with a polymer layer obtained by plasma polymerization of pyrrole vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, L.; Dmitriev, S.; Lizunov, N.; Satulu, V.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The structure and the charge transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membrane modified by pyrrole plasma were studied. It was found that polymer deposition on the surface of a track membrane via plasma polymerization of pyrrole results in the creation of composite nanomembranes that, in the case of the formation of a semipermeable layer, possess asymmetric conductivity in electrolyte solutions - a rectification effect similar to that of a p-n junction in semiconductors. It is caused by presence in the membranes of two layers with different functional groups and also by the pore geometry. Such membranes can be used to create chemical and biochemical sensors.

  18. Formulation considerations in the design of topical, polymeric film-forming systems for sustained drug delivery to the skin.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kit; Guy, Richard H; Petersson, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Polymeric film-forming systems (FFSs) are potential drug delivery systems for topical application to the skin. The FFSs form thin and transparent polymeric films in situ upon solvent evaporation. Their application convenience and cosmetic attributes, superior to conventional semi-solids, may offer improved patient compliance. This study represents the first phase of an investigation into the use of FFSs for prolonged dermal drug delivery. FFS formulations were distinguished based on their ability to sustain the release of betamethasone 17-valerate (BMV) in vitro over 72 h. The effect of film-forming polymer (hydrophilic: hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel™ LF); hydrophobic: polymethacrylate copolymers (Eudragit® NE and Eudragit® RS), and polyacrylate copolymer (Dermacryl® 79) was first determined, and then the impact of incorporation of plasticisers (triethyl citrate, tributyl citrate, and dibutyl sebacate) was examined. The Klucel film released a significantly higher amount of BMV than the hydrophobic FFS, 42 versus 4 μg/cm(2), respectively. The release was increased when a plasticiser was incorporated, and with higher enhancement ratios achieved with the more lipophilic plasticisers. In conclusion, the results show that FFSs can sustain drug release (hence representing useful systems for prolonged dermal therapy) and emphasise the importance of the formulation on drug delivery, with the type of polymer being of greatest significance. PMID:25595740

  19. Obtaining Au thin films in atmosphere of reactive nitrogen through magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, J. H.; Ospina, R.; Mello, A.

    2016-02-01

    4d and 5d series of the transition metals are used to the obtaining nitrides metallic, due to the synthesis of PtN, AgN and AuN in the last years. Different nitrides are obtained in the Plasma Assisted Physics Vapour Deposition system, due to its ionization energy which is necessary for their formation. In this paper a Magnetron Sputtering system was used to obtain Au thin films on Si wafers in Nitrogen atmosphere. The substrate temperature was varied between 500 to 950°C. The samples obtained at high temperatures (>500°C) show Au, Si and N elements, as it is corroborated in the narrow spectrum obtained for X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy; besides the competition of orientation crystallographic texture between (111) and (311) directions was present in the X-Ray Diffraction analysis to the sample heated at 950°C.

  20. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  1. Preparation of graphene sheets/polyimide nanocomposite films by in-situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bo; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu; Shang, Jiwu

    2012-04-01

    Graphene sheets were carbon materials with high surface area, and excellent electrical properties. One of the most promising applications of those materials is in polymer nanocomposites. Their multifunctional properties may create new applications of polymer nanocomposites. In this paper, graphene sheets were prepared by oxidation-reduction method. The graphite was oxidized by potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid. The graphene oxide nanosheets, which were exfoliated from graphite oxide by ultrasound in water, were reduced by hydrazine hydrate, and the graphene nanosheets were obtained. Thereafter, the graphene sheets were dispersed in N,N-dimethylacetamide by simple sonication treatment. The graphene sheets/polyimide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization using N,N'-dimethylformamide, graphene sheets and pyromellitic dianhydride. It was observed from transmission electron microscopy of graphene oxide sheets and graphene sheets that the very thin sheets were obtained by exfoliation of graphite. The result of FT-IR spectral analysis for graphene sheets shows the functional groups on the graphene sheets surface were almost the same as graphite, and that means the graphene sheets were complete reduced by hydrazine hydrate. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene sheets was achieved in polyimide as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Preparation of graphene sheets/polyimide nanocomposite films by in-situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bo; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu; Shang, Jiwu

    2011-11-01

    Graphene sheets were carbon materials with high surface area, and excellent electrical properties. One of the most promising applications of those materials is in polymer nanocomposites. Their multifunctional properties may create new applications of polymer nanocomposites. In this paper, graphene sheets were prepared by oxidation-reduction method. The graphite was oxidized by potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid. The graphene oxide nanosheets, which were exfoliated from graphite oxide by ultrasound in water, were reduced by hydrazine hydrate, and the graphene nanosheets were obtained. Thereafter, the graphene sheets were dispersed in N,N-dimethylacetamide by simple sonication treatment. The graphene sheets/polyimide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization using N,N'-dimethylformamide, graphene sheets and pyromellitic dianhydride. It was observed from transmission electron microscopy of graphene oxide sheets and graphene sheets that the very thin sheets were obtained by exfoliation of graphite. The result of FT-IR spectral analysis for graphene sheets shows the functional groups on the graphene sheets surface were almost the same as graphite, and that means the graphene sheets were complete reduced by hydrazine hydrate. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene sheets was achieved in polyimide as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. p-n Heterojunction of doped graphene films obtained by pyrolysis of biomass precursors.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Primo, Ana; Atienzar, Pedro; Forneli, Amparo; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-02-25

    Nitrogen-doped graphene [(N)G] obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C of nanometric chitosan films exhibits a Hall effect characteristic of n-type semiconductors. In contrast, boron-doped graphene [(B)G] obtained by pyrolysis of borate ester of alginate behaves as a p-type semiconductor based also on the Hall effect. A p-n heterojunction of (B)G-(N)G films is built by stepwise coating of a quartz plate using a mask. The heterojunction is created by the partial overlapping of the (B)G-(N)G films. Upon irradiation with a xenon lamp of aqueous solutions of H(2) PtCl(6) and MnCl(2) in contact with the heterojunction, preferential electron migration from (B)G to (N)G with preferential location of positive holes on (B)G is established by observation in scanning electron microscopy of the formation of Pt nanoparticles (NP) on (N)G and MnO(2) NP on (B)G. The benefits of the heterojunction with respect to the devices having one individual component as a consequence of the electron migration through the p-n heterojunction are illustrated by measuring the photocurrent in the (B)G-(N)G heterojunction (180% current enhancement with respect to the dark current) and compared it to the photocurrent of the individual (B)G (15% enhancement) and (N)G (55% enhancement) components. PMID:25302489

  4. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

  5. Compositional study of vacuum annealed Al doped ZnO thin films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shantheyanda, B. P.; Todi, V. O.; Sundaram, K. B.; Vijayakumar, A.; Oladeji, I.

    2011-09-15

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were obtained by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of deposition parameters such as power, gas flow conditions, and substrate heating have been studied. Deposited and annealed films were characterized for composition as well as microstructure using x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x ray diffraction. Films produced were polycrystalline in nature. Surface imaging and roughness studies were carried out using SEM and AFM, respectively. Columnar grain growth was predominantly observed. Optical and electrical properties were evaluated for transparent conducting oxide applications. Processing conditions were optimized to obtain highly transparent AZO films with a low resistivity value of 6.67 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm.

  6. Structural characterization and thermal properties of polyamide 6.6/Mg, Al/adipate-LDH nanocomposites obtained by solid state polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Benito, P.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.; Zhu, Y.D.; Allen, G.C.; Adams, J.M.

    2010-07-15

    A new nanocomposite was obtained by dispersing an adipate-modified layered double hydroxide (Ad-LDH) with adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. These samples were polymerized in the solid phase under a nitrogen flow for 200 min at 190 {sup o}C. The structural and compositional details of the nanocomposite were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, focused ion beam (FIB), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The PXRD patterns and FIB images show a partially intercalated and partially exfoliated dispersion of layered crystalline materials in the polyamide 6.6 matrix. The best dispersion level is achieved in polyamide 6.6/LDH nanocomposites with low LDH loading. Some residual tactoids and particle agglomerates are also evident at high concentration. The best thermal stability of the nanocomposites is shown by the sample with 0.1% LDH content, for which it is higher than that of pure polyamide. - Graphical abstract: A new nanocomposite was obtained by compounding an adipate-modified layered double hydroxides (LDH) with adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. These samples were polymerized in the solid phase under a nitrogen flow for 200 min at 190 {sup o}C. The nanodispersion of LDH in polyamide 6.6 may be qualitatively estimated from the analysis and PXRD patterns and FIB images. The decomposition temperature in the nanocomposite with 0.1 % LDH increases significantly compared to that for pristine PA6.6. .

  7. Characterization of the pentacene thin-film transistors with an epoxy resin-based polymeric gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. H.; Tondelier, D.; Geffroy, B.; Bonnassieux, Y.; Horowitz, G.

    2012-02-01

    The organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) incorporating pentacene/SU-8 interface were fabricated and characterized. SU-8, a reliable epoxy-based photoresist, is tested as a potential highly-stable polymeric gate dielectric for OTFTs. The fabricated devices showed promising electrical performance with on-off ratio up to 107 and field-effect mobility up to 0.56 cm2/V s. Several device characteristics are further analyzed. There existed a leakage current path due to the uncontrolled pentacene coverage and we revealed that precise alignment of the evaporation mask of pentacene is critical for eliminating this problem. Pentacene grain formation largely depended on the growth condition on the SU-8 surface and small-grain films offered outstanding performance possibly owing to enhanced inter-domain connections. Natural degradation of the OTFTs is also discussed in terms of environmental stability and the pentacene/SU-8 transistor operated with noticeable air stability under ambient conditions.

  8. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  9. Molecular relaxations, molecular orientation, and the friction characteristics of polyimide films. [wear characteristics of polymeric lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The friction characteristics of polyimide films bonded to metallic substrates were studied from 25 to 500 C. These results were interpreted in terms of molecular orientation and thermomechanical data obtained by torsional braid analysis (TBA). A large friction transition was found to occur at 40 + or - 10 C in a dry argon atmosphere (10 ppm H2O). It was postulated that the mechanical stresses of sliding transform or reorder the molecules on the surface into a configuration conducive to easy shear, such as an extended chain. The molecular relaxation which occurs in this temperature region appears to give the molecules the necessary freedom for this reordering process to occur. The effects of velocity, reversibility, and thermal prehistory on the friction properties of polyimide were also studied.

  10. Formation and organization of planar polymeric and nanocomposite nanostructures on liquid and solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutov, G. B.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Gubin, S. P.; Kislov, V. V.; Rakhnyanskaya, A. A.; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A. N.; Tolstikhina, A. L.

    2004-09-01

    We describe a new approach to fabrication of organized planar polymeric and composite nanostructures based on synthetic reactions in organized polymeric Langmuir monolayer at the gas-liquid interface. Novel polymeric quasi-crystalline planar monomolecular structures were formed at the gas-aqueous phase interface using new water-insoluble amphiphilic polyelectrolyte molecules. Corresponding ultrathin polymeric nanoscale-ordered films and stable planar polymeric nanocomposite structures with organized inorganic nanoparticles (palladium, gold and iron oxide) grown in the polymeric monolayer were formed successfully on the solid substrate surfaces. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  11. Ionically conductive thin polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization; Preparation and characterization of ultrathin films having fixed sulfonic acid groups with only one mobile species

    SciTech Connect

    Ogumi, Z.; Uchimoto, Y.; Takehara, Z. ); Foulkes, F.R. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Ultrathin solid polymer electrolyte membranes containing sulfonic ester groups were prepared by polymerization of methyl benzenesulfonate and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in a glow discharge plasma. The sulfonic ester groups of the plasma polymer were transformed to lithium sulfonate groups by treatment with lithium iodide. Hybridization of this plasma polymer containing the lithium sulfonate groups with poly(ethylene oxide) (average Mw 300) resulted in the formation of a single lithium ion conductive film. The hybrid polymer electrolyte films were about 1 {mu}m thick, pinhole-free, adherent to various substrates, and showed ionic conductivities at 60{degrees}C of the order of 10{sup {minus} 6} S cm{sup {minus} 1} (10{sup 2} {Omega} cm{sup 2} resistance per unit area of as-prepared solid polymer electrolyte). This material shows promise for electrochemical applications such as all solid-state lithium batteries, sensors, and electrochemical display devices.

  12. Undulate microarray fabrication on polymer film using standing surface acoustic waves and ultraviolet polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Deqing; Xue, Dai; Wang, Yancheng; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-06-01

    By exciting standing surface acoustic waves (SAWs), a monomer solution can be shaped into a wavy structure. By applying ultraviolet (UV) polymerization, a linear undulate microarray can be fabricated on the polymer material using one-dimensional standing SAWs. When two-dimensional standing SAWs are applied, a latticed microarray, which presents periodically distributed bumps and wells, can be fabricated. The periodicity of the undulate microarray is dependent on the SAW wavelength. Also, the undulating amplitude of the microarray is tunable when applying different input voltages to generate SAWs. The integrated standing SAWs and UV polymerization process provide a rapid method for creating periodic surface patterns.

  13. Biophysical elucidation of the mechanism of enhanced drug release and topical delivery from polymeric film-forming systems.

    PubMed

    Garvie-Cook, Hazel; Frederiksen, Kit; Petersson, Karsten; Guy, Richard H; Gordeev, Sergey N

    2015-08-28

    The effect of incorporating the lipidic medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) into polymeric film-forming systems (FFS) for topical drug delivery has been evaluated. First, the in vitro release of betamethasone-17-valerate (BMV), a representative dermatological drug, was determined from FFS comprising either hydrophobic polyacrylate co-polymers, or hydrophilic hydroxypropyl cellulose, with and without MCT. Release was enhanced from both polymers in the presence of MCT. Atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation of FFS with MCT revealed two-phase structured films with softer inclusions (0.5 to 4μm in diameter) surrounded by a more rigid structure. Chemical mapping with Raman micro-spectroscopy showed that MCT was primarily confined to the inclusions within the polymer, which predominated in the surrounding film. BMV was distributed throughout the film but was more concentrated outside the inclusions. Furthermore, while BMV dissolved better into the hydrophobic films, it was more soluble in the MCT inclusions in hydrophilic films, suggesting its increased availability for diffusion from these softer regions of the polymer and explaining the release enhancement observed. Second, ex vivo skin penetration studies clearly revealed that uptake of BMV was higher from hydrophobic FFS than that from the more hydrophilic polymer due, at least in part, to the superior anti-nucleation efficiency of the former. Drug was quickly taken up into the SC from which it then diffused continuously over a sustained period into the lower, viable skin layers. In the presence of MCT, the overall uptake of BMV was increased and provides the basis for further optimisation of FFS as simple, convenient and sustained formulations for topical therapy. PMID:26087467

  14. NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T(1) of thin films obtained by magnetic resonance force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Saun, Seung-Bo; Won, Soonho; Kwon, Sungmin; Lee, Soonchil

    2015-05-01

    We obtained the NMR spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for thin film samples by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The samples were CaF2 thin films which were 50 nm and 150 nm thick. T1 was measured at 18 K using a cyclic adiabatic inversion method at a fixed frequency. A comparison of the bulk and two thin films showed that T1 becomes shorter as the film thickness decreases. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, all three samples were loaded onto different beams of a multi-cantilever array and measured in the same experimental environment. PMID:25828244

  15. NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of thin films obtained by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saun, Seung-Bo; Won, Soonho; Kwon, Sungmin; Lee, Soonchil

    2015-05-01

    We obtained the NMR spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for thin film samples by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The samples were CaF2 thin films which were 50 nm and 150 nm thick. T1 was measured at 18 K using a cyclic adiabatic inversion method at a fixed frequency. A comparison of the bulk and two thin films showed that T1 becomes shorter as the film thickness decreases. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, all three samples were loaded onto different beams of a multi-cantilever array and measured in the same experimental environment.

  16. Admicellar polymerization and characterization of thin poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) film on aluminum alloys for in-crevice corrosion control.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc V; Kendrick, Melissa M; O'Rear, Edgar A

    2004-08-31

    Corrosion control of aluminum alloys in the aerospace industry has been of great interest in recent years, especially the aging of certain fleets in the United States Air Force. A thin film of poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PTFEA) has been deposited on aluminum alloy coupons by admicellar polymerization for the purpose of in situ control of corrosion in narrow gaps. Polymerization conditions were chosen based on contact angle measurements, and the final product film was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface characterization studies have shown that the polymeric film is approximately 10 nm thick with nonuniform deposition at this scale. The modified surface is highly hydrophobic and able to delay salt solution uptake (3.5 wt % NaCl) for a period of up to 6 h in crevice corrosion tests. PTFEA films reduced the corroded area to 20% compared to 65% for a bare aluminum control and to 33% for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film in a 24 h crevice test. PTFEA film exhibits better corrosion protection than PMMA film because it has higher hydrophobicity than a PMMA-modified surface and comparable properties as a corrosion barrier. PMID:15323534

  17. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

  18. Electrical and structural characterization of plasma polymerized polyaniline/TiO2 heterostructure diode: a comparative study of single and bilayer TiO2 thin film electrode.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kimi, Young Soon; Yang, O-Bong; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2011-04-01

    A heterostructure was fabricated using p-type plasma polymerized polyaniline (PANI) and n-type (single and bilayer) titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film on FTO glass. The deposition of single and bilayer TiO2 thin film on FTO substrate was achieved through doctor blade followed by dip coating technique before subjected to plasma enhanced polymerization. To fabricate p-n heterostructure, a plasma polymerization of aniline was conducted using RF plasma at 13.5 MHz and at the power of 120 W on the single and bilayer TiO2 thin film electrodes. The morphological, optical and the structural characterizations revealed the formation of p-n heterostructures between PANI and TiO2 thin film. The PANI/bilayer TiO2 heterostructure showed the improved current-voltage (I-V) characteristics due to the substantial deposition of PANI molecules into the bilayer TiO2 thin film which provided good conducting pathway and reduced the degree of excitons recombination. The change of linear I-V behavior of PANI/TiO2 heterostructure to non linear behavior with top Pt contact layer confirmed the formation of Schottky contact at the interfaces of Pt layer and PANI/TiO2 thin film layers. PMID:21776701

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films as an efficient photocatalyst by polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Hwang, Soo Min; Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-05-12

    Thermally stable mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with pore size of 50 nm have been synthesized by adopting the polymeric micelle-assembly method. A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide), which serves as a template for the mesopores, was utilized to form polymeric micelles. The effective interaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the polymeric micelles enabled us to fabricate stable mesoporous films. By changing the molar ratio of TEOS and TTIP, several mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with different compositions can be synthesized. The presence of amorphous SiO2 phase effectively retards the growth of anatase TiO2 crystal in the pore walls and retains the original mesoporous structure, even at higher temperature (650 °C). These TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films are of very high quality, without any cracks or voids. The addition of SiO2 phase to mesoporous TiO2 films not only adsorbs more organic dyes, but also significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity compared to mesoporous pure TiO2 film without SiO2 phase. PMID:24710980

  20. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  1. Ferrocene-quinoxaline Y-shaped chromophores as fascinating second-order NLO building blocks for long lasting highly active SHG polymeric films.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Dragonetti, Claudia; Marinotto, Daniele; Righetto, Stefania; Colombo, Alessia; Haukka, Matti; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2016-07-26

    The first example of a Y-shaped ferrocene quinoxaline derivative with a surprisingly high and stable second harmonic generation (SHG) response in composite polymeric films is reported. The interesting quadratic hyperpolarizability values of different substituted Y-shaped chromophores are also investigated in solution by the EFISH technique. PMID:27402322

  2. Electroless plating of copper on polyimide films modified by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Yan, Guoping; Wu, Jiangyu; Yu, Xianghua; Guo, Qingzhong; Kang, Entang

    2008-09-01

    Surface modification of polyimide (PI) films were first carried out by chloromethylation under mild conditions, followed by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) from the chloromethylated PI surfaces. The composition and topography of the PI surfaces modified by poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The P4VP brushes with well-preserved pyridine groups on the PI surface was used not only as the chemisorption sites for the palladium complexes without prior sensitization by SnCl 2 solution during the electroless plating of copper, but also as an adhesion promotion layer to enhance the adhesion of the electrolessly deposited copper to the PI surfaces. The T-peel adhesion strength of the electrolessly deposited copper on the modified PI surface could reach about 6.6 N/cm. Effects of the polymerization time and the activation time in the PdCl 2 solution on the T-peel adhesion strength of the electrolessly deposited copper in the Sn-free process to the modified PI surface were also studied.

  3. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Manríquez Zepeda, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films were obtained by the sol-gel process. A precursor solution of ZnO was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as inorganic precursor at room temperature. The films were spin-coated on silicon and glass wafers and gelled in humid air. The films were calcined at 450 °C for 15 min to produce ZnO nanocrystals with a wurtzite structure. Crystalline ZnO film exhibits an absorption band located at 359 nm (3.4 eV). Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on both kinds of films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 355 and 633 nm wavelengths. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density versus the applied electrical field results.

  4. Synthesis of novel precursors for PMN powders and the thin films obtained from them

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Dimos, D.B.; Moore, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    Sol-gel processing has been widely used in the preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films. The authors have applied this methodology to the formation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) spin-cast deposited thin films. Since there is a limited number of soluble, commercially available compounds, the authors have recently synthesized a series of novel metal alkoxides for use as precursors for generation of PMN thin films and powders. The process for generation of the perovskite phase of these PMN powders and films are reported.

  5. Growth and Characterization of Co-Doped Fluorine and Antimony in Tin Oxide Thin Films Obtained by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaewdang, Thitinai; Wongcharoen, Ngamnit

    Fluorine (F)-doped, antimony (Sb)-doped, fluorine and antimony co-doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique using SnCl2, NH4F and SbCl3 as precursors of Sn, F and Sb elements respectively. F and Sb doping concentrations carried out from 1 to 20 wt% and 1 to 4 wt% in F-doped and Sb-doped SnO2 films respectively. In F and Sb co-doped SnO2 films, the proportions of F and Sb to Sn in starting solution were 15 and 2 wt% respectively. XRD patterns showed that the preferred orientation of SnO2:F, SnO2:Sb and SnO2:F, Sb is dependent on the doping concentration. The variation of doping concentration and preferred orientation of the films was reflected in their morphology as investigated by SEM. The electrical properties of the films were performed by Hall effect measurements in van der Pauw configuration. The minimum resistivity values of SnO2:F and SnO2:Sb were found in the films doped with 15 wt% of F and 2 wt% of Sb. However, The minimum of resistivity value of F and Sb co-doped SnO2 films is not better than neither the one of F-doped nor the one of Sb-doped SnO2 films. The optical transmission of SnO2:F films was found to increase with increasing in F doping concentration. Whereas the optical transmission of SnO2:Sb was found to decrease with increasing in Sb concentration. The F and Sb co-doped SnO2 films annealed in three different conditions at 500°C show the lower transmission values than the value obtained in the as-prepared SnO2:F, Sb films.

  6. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level. PMID:26314244

  7. Sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of thin films by polymeric microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Paolo; Bergese, Paolo; Bontempi, Elza; Borgese, Laura; Federici, Stefania; Sylvest Keller, Stephan; Boisen, Anja; Eleonora Depero, Laura

    2013-12-01

    A method for the highly sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of TiO2 thin films exploiting the resonant frequency shift of a SU-8 polymer microcantilever (MC) is presented. Amorphous TiO2 films with different thickness ranging from 10 to 125 nm were grown at low temperature (90 °C) with subnanometer thickness resolution on SU-8 MC arrays by means of atomic layer deposition. The resonant frequencies of the MCs were measured before and after coating and the elastic moduli of the films were determined by a theoretical model developed for this purpose. The Young's modulus of thicker TiO2 films (>75 nm) was estimated to be about 110 GPa, this value being consistent with the value of amorphous TiO2. On the other hand we observed a marked decrease of the Young's modulus for TiO2 films with a thickness below 50 nm. This behavior was found not to be related to a decrease of the film mass density, but to surface effects according to theoretical predictions on size-dependent mechanical properties of nano- and microstructures.

  8. Reversible potentiometric oxygen sensors based on polymeric and metallic film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yim, H S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1992-09-01

    Various materials and sensor configurations that exhibit reversible potentiometric responses to the partial pressure of oxygen at room temperature in neutral pH solution are examined. In one arrangement, platinum electrodes are coated with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films doped with a cobalt(II) tetraethylene pentamine complex. For such sensors, potentiometric oxygen response is attributed to a mixed potential originating from the underlying platinum electrode surface as well as a change in redox potential of the Co(II)-tetren-doped film as the complex binds oxygen reversibly. The response due to the platinum surface is prolonged by the presence of the Co(II)-tetren/PVC film. Alternately, thin films of metallic copper, electrochemically deposited on platinum and/or sputtered or vapor deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, may be used for reversible oxygen sensing. The long-term reversibility and potentiometric stability of such copper film-based sensors is enhanced (up to 1 month) by preventing the formation of cuprous oxide on the surfaces via the application of an external nonpolarizing cathodic current through the working electrode or by specifically using sputtered copper films that have [100] preferred crystal structures as determined by X-ray diffraction. The implications of these findings in relation to fabricating analytically useful potentiometric oxygen sensors are discussed. PMID:1416035

  9. Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with a Low-Temperature Polymeric Gate Dielectric on a Flexible Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Park, Jaehoon; Wang, Jian-Xun; Lee, Ho Won; Li, Zhao-Hui; Koo, Ja-Ryong; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-07-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a solution-processed polymeric gate dielectric of cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (c-PVP) film were fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate on which an a-IGZO film, as the active channel layer, was deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The entire TFT fabrication process was carried out at a temperature below 110 °C. The device exhibited an on/off ratio of 1.5×106 and a high field-effect mobility of 10.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is, to our knowledge, the best result ever achieved among a-IGZO TFTs with polymeric gate dielectrics on a plastic substrate.

  10. Fundamental investigation of ultraviolet radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Llewellen, P.; Gilligan, J.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search from 1958 to present was conducted on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on polymeric materials, with particular emphasis on vacuum photolysis, mechanisms of degradation, and energy transfer phenomena. The literature from 1958 to 1968 was searched manually, while the literature from 1968 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The primary objective was to provide the necessary background information for the design of new or modified materials with improved stability to the vacuum-radiation environment of space.

  11. Morphogen Electrochemically Triggered Self-Construction of Polymeric Films Based on Mussel-Inspired Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Maerten, Clément; Garnier, Tony; Lupattelli, Paolo; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2015-12-15

    Inspired by the strong chemical adhesion mechanism of mussels, we designed a catechol-based electrochemically triggered self-assembly of films based on ethylene glycol molecules bearing catechol groups on both sides and denoted as bis-catechol molecules. These molecules play the role of morphogens and, in contrast to previously investigated systems, they are also one of the constituents, after reaction, of the film. Unable to interact together, commercially available poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) chains and bis-catechol molecules are mixed in an aqueous solution and brought in contact with an electrode. By application of defined potential cycles, bis-catechol molecules undergo oxidation leading to molecules bearing "reactive" quinone groups which diffuse toward the solution. In this active state, the quinones react with amino groups of PAH through Michael addition and Schiff's base condensation reaction. The application of cyclic voltammetry (CV) between 0 and 500 mV (vs Ag/AgCl, scan rate of 50 mV/s) of a PAH/bis-catechol solution results in a fast self-construction of a film that reaches a thickness of 40 nm after 60 min. The films present a spiky structure which is attributed to the use of bis-functionalized molecules as one component of the films. XPS measurements show the presence of both PAH and bis-catechol cross-linked together in a covalent way. We show that the amine/catechol ratio is an important parameter which governs the film buildup. For a given amine/catechol ratio, it does exist an optimum CV scan rate leading to a maximum of the film thickness as a function of the scan rate. PMID:26575431

  12. Effects of Electrons, Protons, and Ultraviolet Radiation on Thermophysical Properties of Polymeric Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Dennis A.; Connell, John W.; Fogdall, Lawrence B.; Winkler, Werner W.

    2001-01-01

    The response of coated thin polymer films to ultraviolet (UV), electron and proton radiation simultaneously has been evaluated, with selected measurements in situ. Exposure was intended to simulate the electron and proton radiation environment near the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points (LI and L2) for five years and approximately 1000 equivalent solar hours (ESH) UV. These orbital environments are relevant to several potential missions such as the Next Generation Space Telescope and Geomagnetic Storm Warning, both of which may use thin film based structures for a sunshade and solar sail, respectively. The thin film candidates (12.5 micrometers thick) consisted of commercially available materials (Kapton(R) E, HN, Upilex(R) S, CP-1, CP-2, TOR-RC, and TOR-LMBP) that were metalized on one side with vapor deposited aluminum. All of the films are aromatic polyimides, with the exception of TORLMBP, which is a copoly(arylene ether benzimidazole). The films were exposed as second surface mirrors and the effects of the exposure on solar absorptance, thermal emittance, and tensile properties were determined. The in situ changes in solar absorptance from Kapton(R) and Upilex(R) were less than 0. 1, whereas the solar absorptance of TOR and CP films increased by more than 0.3 without saturating. The thermal emittance measurements also showed that the Kapton(R) and Upilex(R) materials increased only 1-2%, but the remaining materials increased 5-8%. Based on tensile property measurements made in air following the test, the failure stress of every type of polymer film decreased as a result of irradiation. The polymers most stable in reflectance, namely Upilex(R) and Kapton(R), were also the strongest in tension before irradiation, and they retained the greatest percentage of tensile strength. The films less stable in reflectance were also weaker in tension, and lost more tensile strength as a result of irradiation. The apparent failure strain (as a percent of original gage length) of

  13. Consequence of oxidant to monomer ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole thin film deposited by oxidation polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatratkar, Aviraj A.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash B.; Kamat, Sandip V.; Patil, Vaishali S.; Mahadik, D. B.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Puri, Vijaya; Puri, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of oxidant to monomer (O/M) ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film deposited by chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Noticeable changes have observed in the properties of PPy thin films with O/M ratio. Cauliflower structure have been observed in FE-SEM images, wherein grain size is observed to decrease with increase in O/M ratio. AFM results are in good agreement with FE-SEM results. From FTIR spectra it is found that, PPy is in highly oxidized form at low O/M ratio but oxidation decreased with increase in O/M ratio. Also C-C stretching vibrations of PPy ring is decreased whereas C=C stretching is increased with ratio. Absorption peak around 450 nm corresponds to π-π* transition and around 800 nm for polarons and bipolarons. The intensity of such peaks confirms the conductivity of PPy, which is observed maximum at low O/M ratio and found to decrease with increase in ratio. Optical band gap (BG) is found to increase from 2.07 eV to 2.11 eV with increase in the O/M ratio.

  14. Polarized fluorescence microscopy analysis of patterned, polymerized perfluorotetradecanoic acid-pentacosadiynoic acid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; Giri, Neeraj K.; Paige, Matthew F.

    2014-08-01

    Photoillumination of mixed films comprised of the photopolymerizable fatty acid 10,12 pentacosadiynoic acid and perfluorotetradecanoic acid deposited onto glass substrates gives rise to the formation of oriented polydiacetylene photopolymer fibers. The degree of polymer fiber orientation was investigated using dual-view, polarized fluorescence microscopy of the polydiacetylene, which allowed for characterization of individual fluorescent polymer fibers after photopolymerization, as well as comparison of the orientation of different fibers within the same sample. Measurements indicated that individual fibers consisted of multiple photopolymer strands with various orientations, and that there was a preferred orientation for fibers in the film as a whole. The fibers were preferentially oriented at an angle of approximately 60° to the direction of film compression during deposition from a Langmuir trough, with orientation being the result of mechanical stress exerted by the compression barriers coupled with rotation of the polymer fibers during film draining. These measurements were complemented with conventional “bulk” fluorescence polarization experiments, and compared with mixed film structures described previously for these systems at the air-water interface using Brewster angle microscopy.

  15. Polarized fluorescence microscopy analysis of patterned, polymerized perfluorotetradecanoic acid-pentacosadiynoic acid thin films.

    PubMed

    Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; Giri, Neeraj K; Paige, Matthew F

    2014-08-14

    Photoillumination of mixed films comprised of the photopolymerizable fatty acid 10,12 pentacosadiynoic acid and perfluorotetradecanoic acid deposited onto glass substrates gives rise to the formation of oriented polydiacetylene photopolymer fibers. The degree of polymer fiber orientation was investigated using dual-view, polarized fluorescence microscopy of the polydiacetylene, which allowed for characterization of individual fluorescent polymer fibers after photopolymerization, as well as comparison of the orientation of different fibers within the same sample. Measurements indicated that individual fibers consisted of multiple photopolymer strands with various orientations, and that there was a preferred orientation for fibers in the film as a whole. The fibers were preferentially oriented at an angle of approximately 60° to the direction of film compression during deposition from a Langmuir trough, with orientation being the result of mechanical stress exerted by the compression barriers coupled with rotation of the polymer fibers during film draining. These measurements were complemented with conventional "bulk" fluorescence polarization experiments, and compared with mixed film structures described previously for these systems at the air-water interface using Brewster angle microscopy. PMID:24747858

  16. The Effect of Plasticizers on the Erosion and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Films

    PubMed Central

    Rabek, Cheryl L.; Stelle, Rachel Van; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and Pluronic F-127 combined together (70:30 wt:wt) create a rigid, surface eroding association polymer. To impart flexibility into the polymer system and allow for a drug delivery film that can contour to varying wound shapes, plasticizers were added. Triethyl citrate (TEC) or tributyl citrate (TBC) was combined with CAP and Pluronic F-127 at 0, 10, or 20 wt%. Mechanical analysis was performed on the films as they were prepared and following a 2 hour incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Tensile tests showed that higher plasticizer content increased the % elongation but decreased the elastic modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The effect TEC had on the % elongation was twice as much than that of TBC. After incubation, % elongation, E, and UTS all increased because plasticizer leached out of the films. MicroCT and SEM were performed on the samples both before and after incubation to determine how erosion and leaching of plasticizer affected the interior and exterior structure of the films. Porosity increased as plasticizer content increased, however, plasticizer content did not have a significant effect on the rate of erosion. The mechanical properties of CAP-Pluronic films can be adjusted by the type and amount of plasticizer added to the system and therefore can be tailored for different drug delivery applications. PMID:23520360

  17. Photoconducting nanocrystalline lead sulphide thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotadiya, Naresh B.; Kothari, Anjana J.; Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2012-09-01

    A chemical bath deposition method of preparing photoconducting nanocrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films at room temperature (RT) is described. The aqueous bath of lead acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide produce films of about 100 nm thicknesses in 45 minutes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that these films are nanocrystalline cubic PbS with 10 nm crystallite size. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) revealed that the films consist of spherical grains of sizes 100 to 200 nm. The transmission spectra of the films show onset of absorption edge around 850 nm and the bandgap is around 1.65 eV. The films are p-type with dark conductivity of 2.5×10-3 S/cm and mobility of 0.07 cm2/Vṡs. The photosensitivity is 6-7 for an illumination of 80 mW/cm2 from a halogen lamp (50 W, 12 V). Transient photoconductivity measurements reveal short and long life times of minority carriers. Thermoelectric and photothermoelectric studies show that photoconductivity in these films is mainly due to photogenerated majority carriers.

  18. An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for the Detection of Salmonella Using Polymeric Films and Electrochemical Labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Serrano, Madeline

    Waterborne and foodborne diseases are one of the principal public health problems worldwide. Microorganisms are the major agents of foodborne illness: pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli, and parasites such as cryptosporidium. The most popular methods to detect Salmonella are based on culture and colony counting methods, ELISA, Gel electrophoresis and the polymerase chain reaction. Conventional detection methods are laborious and time-consuming, allowing for portions of the food to be distributed, marketed, sold and eaten before the analysis is done and the problem even detected. By these reasons, the rapid, easy and portable detection of foodborne organisms will facilitate the disease treatment. Our particular interest is to develop a nucleic acid biosensor (NAB) for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food and water samples. In this research, we report on the development of a NAB prototype using a polymer modified electrode surface together with sequences of different lengths for the OmpC gene from Salmonella as probes and Ferrocene-labeled target (Fc-ssDNA), Ferrocene-labeled tri(ethylene glycol) (Fc-PEG) and Ruthenium-Ferrocene (Ru-Fe) bimetallic complex as an electrochemical labels. We have optimized several PS films and anchored nucleic acid sequences with different lengths at gold and carbon surfaces. Non contact mode AFM and XPS were used to monitor each step of the NAB preparation, from polymer modification to oligos hybridization (conventional design). The hybridization reaction was followed electrochemically using a Fc-ssDNA and Fc-PEG in solution taking advantage of the morphological changes generated upon hybridization. We observed a small current at the potential for the Fe oxidation without signal amplification at +296 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for the Fc-ssDNA strategy and a small current at +524 mV for the Fc-PEG strategy. The immobilization, hybridization and signal amplification of Biotin- OmpC Salmonella genes

  19. Nanostructured MgTiO3 thick films obtained by electrophoretic deposition from nanopowders prepared by solar PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Irina; Mahajan, Amit; Monty, Claude J. A.; Venkata Saravanan, K.

    2015-12-01

    A novel combination of solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) that was developed to grow MgTiO3 nanostructured thick films is presented. Obtaining nanostructured MgTiO3 thick films, which can replace bulk ceramic components, a major trend in electronic industry, is the main objective of this work. The advantage of SPVD is direct synthesis of nanopowders, while EPD is simple, fast and inexpensive technique for preparing thick films. SPVD technique was developed at CNRS-PROMES Laboratory, Odeillo-Font Romeu, France, while the EPD was performed at University of Aveiro - DeMAC/CICECO, Portugal. The nanopowders with an average crystallite size of about 30 nm prepared by SPVD were dispersed in 50 ml of acetone in basic media with addition of triethanolamine. The obtained well-dispersed and stable suspensions were used for carrying out EPD on 25 μm thick platinum foils. After deposition, films with thickness of about 22-25 μm were sintered in air for 15 min at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered thick films was carried out using XRD and SEM, respectively. The thickness of the sintered samples were about 18-20 μm, which was determined by cross-sectional SEM. Films sintered at 900 °C exhibit a dielectric constant, ɛr ∼18.3 and dielectric loss, tan δ ∼0.0012 at 1 MHz. The effects of processing techniques (SPVD and EPD) on the structure, microstructure and dielectric properties are reported in detail. The obtained results indicate that the thick films obtained in the present study can be promising for low loss materials for microwave and millimeter wave applications.

  20. A New Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Obtained from Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization as a siRNA Vector for CD44 Receptor Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Bavuso Volpe, Antonella; Bongiovì, Flavia; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2015-11-01

    Two derivatives of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), starting from an ethylenediamino HA derivative (HA-EDA) and by using diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) as a monomer for polymerization. Both samples, indicated as HA-EDA-pDEAEMA a and b, are able to condense siRNA, as determined by gel retardation assay and resulting complexes show a size and a zeta potential value dependent on polymerization number, as determined by dynamic light scattering measurements. In vitro studies performed on HCT 116 cell line, that over express CD44 receptor, demonstrate a receptor mediated uptake of complexes, regardless of their surface charge. PMID:26136372

  1. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  2. Reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) for anti-clotting PU-LaCl3-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Zhou, Ninglin; Xiao, Yinghong; Tang, Yida; Jin, Suxing; Wu, Yue; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Low grafting density is a disadvantage both in reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and ATRP. In this work, the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) were treated by LaCl3·6H2O to obtain modified surfaces with hydrated layers. The reaction of surface-initiated RATRP was carried out easily, which may be attributed to the enriched hydroxyl groups on the hydrated layers. An innovation found in this work is that some free lanthanum ions (La3+) reacted with the silane coupling agent (CPTM) and the product served as mixed ligand complex. The mixed ligand complex instead of conventional 2,2‧-bipyridine was adopted to serve as a ligand in the process of RATRP. As a result, PU surfaces grafted with well-defined polymer brushes (MPC) were obtained. PU substrates before and after modification were characterized by FTIR, XPS, AFM, SEM, SCA, respectively. The results showed that zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on the PU surfaces (P(MPC)), and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with polymerization time with the grafting density as high as 97.9%. The blood compatibility of the PU substrates was evaluated by plasma recalcification profiles test and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. It was found that all PU functionalized with zwitterionic brush showed improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  3. Flame Aerosol Deposition of TiO2 Nanoparticle Films on Polymers and Polymeric Microfluidic Devices for On-Chip Phosphopeptide Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Thomas; Tsougeni, Katerina; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Direct and fast (10s of seconds) deposition of flame-made, high surface-area aerosol films on polymers and polymeric microfluidic devices is demonstrated. Uniform TiO2 nanoparticle films were deposited on cooled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates by combustion of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) – xylene solution sprays. Films were mechanically stabilized by in-situ annealing with a xylene spray flame. Plasma-etched microfluidic chromatography columns, comprising parallel microchannels were also coated with such nanoparticle films without any microchannel deformation. These microcolumns were successfully used in metal-oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) to selectively trap phosphopeptides on these high surface-area nanostructured films. The chips had a high capacity retaining 1.2 μg of standard phosphopeptide. A new extremely fast method is developed for MOAC microchip stationary phase fabrication with applications in proteomics. PMID:23729946

  4. Flame Aerosol Deposition of TiO2 Nanoparticle Films on Polymers and Polymeric Microfluidic Devices for On-Chip Phosphopeptide Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Thomas; Tsougeni, Katerina; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-09-01

    Direct and fast (10s of seconds) deposition of flame-made, high surface-area aerosol films on polymers and polymeric microfluidic devices is demonstrated. Uniform TiO2 nanoparticle films were deposited on cooled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates by combustion of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) - xylene solution sprays. Films were mechanically stabilized by in-situ annealing with a xylene spray flame. Plasma-etched microfluidic chromatography columns, comprising parallel microchannels were also coated with such nanoparticle films without any microchannel deformation. These microcolumns were successfully used in metal-oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) to selectively trap phosphopeptides on these high surface-area nanostructured films. The chips had a high capacity retaining 1.2 μg of standard phosphopeptide. A new extremely fast method is developed for MOAC microchip stationary phase fabrication with applications in proteomics. PMID:23729946

  5. Aging effects of plasma polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) thin films on cell-adhesive implant coatings.

    PubMed

    Testrich, H; Rebl, H; Finke, B; Hempel, F; Nebe, B; Meichsner, J

    2013-10-01

    Thin plasma polymer films from ethylenediamine were deposited on planar substrates placed on the powered electrode of a low pressure capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz discharge. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after derivatization of the primary amino groups. The PPEDA films undergo an alteration during the storage in ambient air, particularly, due to reactions with oxygen. The molecular changes in PPEDA films were studied over a long-time period of 360 days. Simultaneously, the adhesion of human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 (ATCC) was investigated on PPEDA coated corundum blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), which is applied as implant material in orthopedic surgery. The cell adhesion was determined by flow cytometry and the cell shape was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to uncoated reference samples a significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation were measured for PPEDA coated samples, which have been maintained after long-time storage in ambient air and additional sterilization by γ-irradiation. PMID:23910290

  6. Second-Harmonic Generation and Relaxation in Polyurea Thin Films Prepared by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikita, Masayuki; Yamada, Sinichi; Mizutani, Teruyosi

    1993-06-01

    Aromatic polyurea thin (PU) films were fabricated by means of coevaporation of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and either 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane (DDM) or 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (DDE). For the two PU films, second-harmonic generation (SHG) caused by corona poling and the subsequent isothermal decay were investigated. The second-order nonlinear coefficient d33 was estimated to be 5.3 and 6.3 pm/V for PU(DDM) and PU(DDE), respectively, and proved to exhibit almost no decay with time up to 2000 h. It was also found that annealing prior to the poling process caused no additional increase of SHG. This result was interpreted in terms of increase in the packing density of molecules, leading to suppression of the molecular orientation. PU films containing excess residual isocyanate groups showed a large SHG decay to about 60% of the initial value within 10 min. It was concluded that the residual isocyanate groups in as-deposited PU films greatly affects the behavior of SHG relaxation.

  7. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Ram Kumar, M. C.; Arun Kumar, A.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Deshmukh, R. R.; Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as Osbnd Cdbnd O, Cdbnd O, Csbnd N and Ssbnd S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was found that the anti-thrombogenic properties of the PP films are effectively controlled by the CAPP grafting of AAc and PEG followed by immobilization of biomolecules of heparin, chitosan and insulin. The grafting and immobilization was confirmed by FTIR and XPS through the recognition of specific functional groups such as COOH, Csbnd O, Ssbnd S and Csbnd N. on the surface of PP film. Furthermore, the surface morphology and hydrophilic nature of the PP films also tailored

  8. Structural, chemical and nanomechanical investigations of SiC/polymeric a-C:H films deposited by reactive RF unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomastik, C.; Lackner, J. M.; Pauschitz, A.; Roy, M.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (or diamond-like carbon, DLC) films have shown a number of important properties usable for a wide range of applications for very thin coatings with low friction and good wear resistance. DLC films alloyed with (semi-)metals show some improved properties and can be deposited by various methods. Among those, the widely used magnetron sputtering of carbon targets is known to increase the number of defects in the films. Therefore, in this paper an alternative approach of depositing silicon-carbide-containing polymeric hydrogenated DLC films using unbalanced magnetron sputtering was investigated. The influence of the C2H2 precursor concentration in the deposition chamber on the chemical and structural properties of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis. Roughness, mechanical properties and scratch response of the films were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation. The Raman spectra revealed a strong correlation of the film structure with the C2H2 concentration during deposition. A higher C2H2 flow rate results in an increase in SiC content and decrease in hydrogen content in the film. This in turn increases hardness and elastic modulus and decreases the ratio H/E and H3/E2. The highest scratch resistance is exhibited by the film with the highest hardness, and the film having the highest overall sp3 bond content shows the highest elastic recovery during scratching.

  9. Surface-initiated Polymerization of Azidopropyl Methacrylate and its Film Elaboration via Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sampa; Bruening, Merlin L.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Azidopropyl methacrylate (AzPMA), a functional monomer with a pendent azido group, polymerizes from surfaces and provides polymer brushes amenable to subsequent elaboration via click chemistry. In DMF at 50 °C, click reactions between poly(AzPMA) brushes and an alkynylated dye proceed with >90% conversion in a few minutes. However, in aqueous solutions, reaction with an alkyne-containing poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG, Mn=5000) gives <10% conversion after a 12-h reaction at room temperature. Formation of copolymers with AzPMA and polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (mPEGMA) enables control over the hydrophilicity and functional group density in the copolymer to increase the yield of aqueous click reactions. The copolymers show reaction efficiencies as high as 60%. These studies suggest that for aqueous applications such as bioconjugation via click chemistry, control over brush hydrophilicity is vital. PMID:24293702

  10. Comparative studies on single-layer reduced graphene oxide films obtained by electrochemical reduction and hydrazine vapor reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The comparison between two kinds of single-layer reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, obtained by reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with the electrochemical method and hydrazine vapor reduction, referred to as E-rGO and C-rGO, respectively, is systematically studied. Although there is no morphology difference between the E-rGO and C-rGO films adsorbed on solid substrates observed by AFM, the reduction process to obtain the E-rGO and C-rGO films is quite different. In the hydrazine vapor reduction, the nitrogen element is incorporated into the obtained C-rGO film, while no additional element is introduced to the E-rGO film during the electrochemical reduction. Moreover, Raman spectra show that the electrochemical method is more effective than the hydrazine vapor reduction method to reduce the GO films. In addition, E-rGO shows better electrocatalysis towards dopamine than does C-rGO. This study is helpful for researchers to understand these two different reduction methods and choose a suitable one to reduce GO based on their experimental requirements. PMID:22373422

  11. Studies on the formation of polymeric nano-emulsions obtained via low-energy emulsification and their use as templates for drug delivery nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Calderó, G; Montes, R; Llinàs, M; García-Celma, M J; Porras, M; Solans, C

    2016-09-01

    Ethylcellulose nanoparticles have been obtained from O/W nano-emulsions of the water/polyoxyethylene 10 oleyl ether/[ethyl acetate+4wt% ethylcellulose] system by low energy-energy emulsification at 25°C. Nano-emulsions with droplet sizes below 200nm and high kinetic stability were chosen for solubilising dexamethasone (DXM). Phase behaviour, conductivity and optical analysis studies of the system have evidenced for the first time that both, the polymer and the drug play a role on the structure of the aggregates formed along the emulsification path. Nano-emulsion formation may take place by both, phase inversion and self-emulsification. Spherical polymeric nanoparticles containing surfactant, showing sizes below 160nm have been obtained from the nano-emulsions by organic solvent evaporation. DXM loading in the nanoparticles was high (>90%). The release kinetics of nanoparticle dispersions with similar particle size and encapsulated DXM but different polymer to surfactant ratio were studied and compared to an aqueous DXM solution. Drug release from the nanoparticle dispersions was slower than from the aqueous solution. While the DXM solution showed a Fickian release pattern, the release behaviour from the nanoparticle dispersions was faster than that expected from a pure Fickian release. A coupled diffusion/relaxation model fitted the results very well, suggesting that polymer chains undergo conformational changes enhancing drug release. The contribution of diffusion and relaxation to drug transport in the nanoparticle dispersions depended on their composition and release time. Surfactant micelles present in the nanoparticle dispersion may exert a mild reservoir effect. The small particle size and the prolonged DXM release provided by the ethylcellulose nanoparticle dispersions make them suitable vehicles for controlled drug delivery applications. PMID:27341306

  12. Plasma polymerized coating for polycarbonate - Single layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Posttreatment of the vinyltrimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved the abrasion resistance. ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and IR transmission spectra of some films were recorded, and an elemental analysis of the films was obtained.

  13. Mechanical and physicochemical properties of AlN thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibert, C.; Tétard, F.; Djemia, P.; Champeaux, C.; Catherinot, A.; Tétard, D.

    2004-10-01

    AlN thin films have been deposited on Si(100) substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. The deposition parameters (pressure, temperature, purity of target) play an important role in the mechanical and physicochemical properties. The films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Brillouin light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wettability testing. With a high purity target of AlN and a temperature deposition of 750 ∘C, the measured Rayleigh wave velocity is close to the one previously determined for AlN films grown at high temperature by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Growth of nanocrystalline AlN at low temperature and of AlN film with good crystallinity for samples deposited at higher temperature is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, as it was by atomic force microscopy, in agreement with X-ray diffraction results. A high hydrophobicity has been measured with zero polar contribution for the surface energy. These results confirm that films made by pulsed laser deposition of pure AlN at relatively low temperature have good prospects for microelectromechanical systems applications.

  14. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won; Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Cho, Dong-Lyun; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH2 of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  15. Electrochemical properties of thin films of polythiophene polymerized on Basal plane platinum electrodes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Herrera, Marco F; Feliu, Juan M

    2009-02-19

    In this paper the electrochemical properties of polythiophene thin films synthesized on single-crystal platinum electrodes are studied. It was found that the electrochemical properties, ion transport kinetics, and morphology of the polythiophene films depend on the surface orientation of the single-crystal platinum electrode used for their electropolymerization. Different oxidation levels, regarded as neutral, polaron, bipolaron, and metallic states, are usually found in conjugated heterocyclic polymers. However, the transitions between the different oxidation levels were never clearly observed in cyclic voltammetry. Instead the voltammograms usually show broad oxidation and reduction peaks with some shoulders. With the use of single-crystal platinum electrodes, it was found that polythiophene has a well-defined redox process at low potential, not observed before, possibly related to the conversion from the neutral state to polarons. On the other hand, two well-defined consecutive steps were found during the ion exchange reaction of thin films of polymer, both characterized by nucleation kinetics. This is the first report of two consecutive nucleation processes during the ion exchange process of a conducting polymer. The results presented here could further illuminate the mechanism in which the electron is transported in organic semiconductor materials. PMID:19199703

  16. Technological development of cylindrical and flat shaped high energy density capacitors. [using polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelik, J. A.; Parker, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Cylindrical wound metallized film capacitors rated 2 micron F 500 VDC that had an energy density greater than 0.3 J/g, and flat flexible metallized film capacitors rated at 2 micron F 500 VDC that had an energy density greater than 0.1 J/g were developed. Polysulfone, polycarbonate, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) were investigated as dielectrics for the cylindrical units. PVF2 in 6.0 micron m thickness was employed in the final components of both types. Capacitance and dissipation factor measurements were made over the range 25 C to 100 C, and 10 Hz to 10 kHz. No pre-life-test burning was performed, and six of ten cylindrical units survived a 2500 hour AC plus DC lift test. Three of the four failures were infant mortality. All but two of the flat components survived 400 hours. Finished energy densities were 0.104 J/g at 500 V and 0.200 J/g at 700 V, the energy density being limited by the availability of thin PVF2 films.

  17. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  18. Some physical effects of reaction rate on PbS thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıokka, Barış; Baykul, Mevlana Celalettin; Altıokka, Mehmet Rıza

    2013-12-01

    Thin films of polycrystalline lead sulfide (PbS) have been deposited on glass substrates at 303±1 K using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precipitation of PbS on solid surfaces under four different reaction conditions was performed using a sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) compound as an inhibitor. The kinetics model for the reaction between Pb2+ and S2- was developed according to the amounts of Pb2+ concentrations measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) during the precipitation of PbS. The surface morphologies of PbS thin films were studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was found that the precipitation rate effects the formation of pinhole. To obtain a good quality of thin films the optimum concentration of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), thiourea (CS(NH2)2) and Na2SO3 in the final solution was determined to be 0.0089, 0.1460, 0.510 and 0.00023 M, respectively. The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The XRD results showed that the films formed galena cubic structures which represent the natural mineral of PbS. The crystallite sizes of the films were found to be between 23 and 37 nm.

  19. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    DOEpatents

    Norwood, David P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta.sub.2 N (100 ohms/square) resirs is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta.sub.2 N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standeard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta.sub.2 N+Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta.sub.2 N+Ti+Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure.

  20. Mechanical Testing of Common-Use Polymeric Materials with an In-House-Built Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Cristiana; Mendes, Joaquim; Magalhaes, Fernao D.

    2006-01-01

    A low-cost tensile testing machine was built for testing polymeric films. This apparatus also allows for tear-strength and flexural tests. The experimental results, obtained from common-use materials, selected by the students, such as plastic bags, illustrate important aspects of the mechanical behavior of polymeric materials. Some of the tests…

  1. Cracking the chocolate egg problem: polymeric films coated on curved substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Lee, Anna; Marthelot, Joel; Balestra, Gioele; Gallaire, François; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by the traditional chocolate egg recipe, we show that pouring a polymeric solution onto spherical molds yields a simple and robust path of fabrication of thin elastic curved shells. The drainage dynamics naturally leads to uniform coatings frozen in time as the polymer cures, which are subsequently peeled off their mold. We show how the polymer curing affects the drainage dynamics and eventually selects the shell thickness and sets its uniformity. To this end, we perform coating experiments using silicon based elastomers, Vinylpolysiloxane (VPS) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These results are rationalized combining numerical simulations of the lubrication flow field to a theoretical model of the dynamics yielding an analytical prediction of the formed shell characteristics. In particular, the robustness of the coating technique and its flexibility, two critical features for providing a generic framework for future studies, are shown to be an inherent consequence of the flow field (memory loss). The shell structure is both independent of initial conditions and tailorable by changing a single experimental parameter.

  2. Characterizations of Plasticized Polymeric Film Coatings for Preparing Multiple-Unit Floating Drug Delivery Systems (muFDDSs) with Controlled-Release Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Wang, Yu-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-01-01

    Effervescent multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems (muFDDSs) consisting of drug (lorsartan)- and effervescent (sodium bicarbonate)-containing pellets were characterized in this study. The mechanical properties (stress and strain at rupture, Young’s modulus, and toughness) of these plasticized polymeric films of acrylic (Eudragit RS, RL, and NE) and cellulosic materials (ethyl cellulose (EC), and Surelease) were examined by a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Results demonstrated that polymeric films prepared from Surelease and EC were brittle with less elongation compared to acrylic films. Eudragit NE films were very flexible in both the dry and wet states. Because plasticizer leached from polymeric films during exposure to the aqueous medium, plasticization of wet Eudragit RS and RL films with 15% triethyl citrate (TEC) or diethyl phthalate (DEP) resulted in less elongation. DEP might be the plasticizer of choice among the plasticizers examined in this study for Eudragit RL to provide muFDDSs with a short time for all pellets to float (TPF) and a longer period of floating. Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio plasticized with 15% DEP were optimally selected as the coating membrane for the floating system. Although the release of losartan from the pellets was still too fast as a result of losartan being freely soluble in water, muFDDSs coated with Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio might have potential use for the sustained release of water-insoluble or the un-ionized form of drugs from gastroretentive drug delivery systems. PMID:24967594

  3. Characterizations of plasticized polymeric film coatings for preparing multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems (muFDDSs) with controlled-release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sheng-Feng; Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Chen, Ying-Chen; Wang, Yu-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-01-01

    Effervescent multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems (muFDDSs) consisting of drug (lorsartan)- and effervescent (sodium bicarbonate)-containing pellets were characterized in this study. The mechanical properties (stress and strain at rupture, Young's modulus, and toughness) of these plasticized polymeric films of acrylic (Eudragit RS, RL, and NE) and cellulosic materials (ethyl cellulose (EC), and Surelease) were examined by a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Results demonstrated that polymeric films prepared from Surelease and EC were brittle with less elongation compared to acrylic films. Eudragit NE films were very flexible in both the dry and wet states. Because plasticizer leached from polymeric films during exposure to the aqueous medium, plasticization of wet Eudragit RS and RL films with 15% triethyl citrate (TEC) or diethyl phthalate (DEP) resulted in less elongation. DEP might be the plasticizer of choice among the plasticizers examined in this study for Eudragit RL to provide muFDDSs with a short time for all pellets to float (TPF) and a longer period of floating. Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio plasticized with 15% DEP were optimally selected as the coating membrane for the floating system. Although the release of losartan from the pellets was still too fast as a result of losartan being freely soluble in water, muFDDSs coated with Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio might have potential use for the sustained release of water-insoluble or the un-ionized form of drugs from gastroretentive drug delivery systems. PMID:24967594

  4. Indium-tin oxide films obtained by DC magnetron sputtering for improved Si heterojunction solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jin-Hua; Si, Jia-Le; Wang, Jiu-Xiu; Feng, Ya-Yang; Gao, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Jing-Xiao

    2015-11-01

    The indium-tin oxide (ITO) film as the antireflection layer and front electrodes is of key importance to obtaining high efficiency Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. To obtain high transmittance and low resistivity ITO films by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, we studied the impacts of the ITO film deposition conditions, such as the oxygen flow rate, pressure, and sputter power, on the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films. ITO films of resistivity of 4×10-4 Ω·m and average transmittance of 89% in the wavelength range of 380-780 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions: oxygen flow rate of 0.1 sccm, pressure of 0.8 Pa, and sputtering power of 110 W. These ITO films were used to fabricate the single-side HJ solar cell without an intrinsic a-Si:H layer. However, the best HJ solar cell was fabricated with a lower sputtering power of 95 W, which had an efficiency of 11.47%, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.626 V, a filling factor (FF) of 0.50, and a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.4 mA/cm2. The decrease in the performance of the solar cell fabricated with high sputtering power of 110 W is attributed to the ion bombardment to the emitter. The Voc was improved to 0.673 V when a 5 nm thick intrinsic a-Si:H layer was inserted between the (p) a-Si:H and (n) c-Si layer. The higher Voc of 0.673 V for the single-side HJ solar cell implies the excellent c-Si surface passivation by a-Si:H. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050501).

  5. Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films with Very Low Damping Obtained by Recrystallization of Amorphous Material

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Christoph; Richter, Tim; Homonnay, Nico; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Qaid, Mohammad; Deniz, Hakan; Hesse, Dietrich; Sawicki, Maciej; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated recrystallization of amorphous Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) by annealing in oxygen atmosphere. Our findings show that well below the melting temperature the material transforms into a fully epitaxial layer with exceptional quality, both structural and magnetic. In ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) ultra low damping and extremely narrow linewidth can be observed. For a 56 nm thick layer a damping constant of α = (6.15 ± 1.50) · 10−5 is found and the linewidth at 9.6 GHz is as small as 1.30 ± 0.05 Oe which are the lowest values for PLD grown thin films reported so far. Even for a 20 nm thick layer a damping constant of α = (7.35 ± 1.40) · 10−5 is found which is the lowest value for ultrathin films published so far. The FMR linewidth in this case is 3.49 ± 0.10 Oe at 9.6 GHz. Our results not only present a method of depositing thin film YIG of unprecedented quality but also open up new options for the fabrication of thin film complex oxides or even other crystalline materials. PMID:26860816

  6. Electronic and optical properties of superhard nanocomposite films obtained from C60 ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukha, V. E.; Karbovskii, V. L.; Rudchenko, S. O.; Drozdov, A. N.; Maleyev, M. V.; Starikov, V. V.; Pugachov, A. T.

    2014-09-01

    The study of electronic and transport properties of amorphous and nanocomposite superhard carbon films deposited from the mass-separated beam of accelerated C60 ions with an energy of 5 keV onto a substrate with temperatures (Ts) ranging from 373 K to 773 K is present. The films demonstrate a transition from the amorphous state with sp2 2D clusters to nanocomposite one with 3D graphite nanocrystals at Ts ˜ 573 K. That is accompanied by the registration of two phases with optical gaps of 3.6 eV and <1 eV. The narrow optical gap (<1 eV) is shown to attribute to the graphite nanocrystals, and a wide one (3.6 eV) to the amorphous diamond-like matrix. Measurement of the electrical conductivity of films at low temperatures showed a gradual transition at Ts increasing from hopping conductivity with variable length of jump in amorphous films to the tunnel one with power-law dependence from temperature for the nanocomposite and further to the percolation conductivity at direct contact of graphite nanocrystals. The role of intergranular insulator at tunneling conductivity of nanocomposite is played by amorphous carbon matrix which has an electronic structure close to amorphous diamond.

  7. Use of amorphous tin-oxide films obtained by spray pyrolysis as electrodes in lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Martin, F.; Ramos Barrado, J. R.; Martos, M.; Morales, J.; Sánchez, L.

    Amorphous tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of SnCl 2·2H 2O mixed with CH 3-COOH and deposited onto a stainless steel substrate at mild temperatures (350°C). The films grown were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Also, they were tested as electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries. The XPS results suggest that the substrate is thoroughly coated and that the films are composed mainly of SnO and SnO 2. These films exhibit good charge-discharge properties over more than 100 cycles. Heating at 600°C causes significant changes in their surface composition, in the virtual disappearance of the tin component and in the presence of oxygen-bound Fe. Under these conditions, the reversible capacity dramatically fades and the cell behaves similarly to that made from uncoated substrate.

  8. Modelling and experimental investigations of thin films of Mg phosphorus-doped tungsten bronzes obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jokanović, V; Nedić, Z; Colović, B

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of thin films of Mg phosphorus doped tungsten bronzes (MgPTB; MgHPW(12)O(40).29H(2)O) by the self-assembly of nano-structured particles of MgPTB obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method was investigated. As the precursor, MgPTB, prepared by the ionic exchange method, was used. Nano-structured particles of MgPTB were obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The nano-structure of the particles used as the building blocks in the MgPTB thin film were investigated experimentally and theoretically, applying the model given in this article. The obtained data for the mean particle size and their size distribution show a high degree of agreement. These previously tailored particles used for the preparation of thin films during the next synthesis step, by their self-assembly over slow deposition on a silica glass substrate, show how it is possible to create thin MgPTB films under advance projected conditions of the applied physical fields with a fully determined nanostructure of their building block particles, with a relatively small roughness and unique physical properties. PMID:19094050

  9. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Juan; Xie, Fen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Weng, Jing

    2008-10-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  10. Blazed vector grating liquid crystal cells with photocrosslinkable polymeric alignment films fabricated by one-step polarizer rotation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Blazed vector grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the directors of low-molar-mass LCs are antisymmetrically distributed, were fabricated by one-step exposure of an empty glass cell inner-coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC) to UV light. By adopting a LC cell structure, twisted nematic (TN) and homogeneous (HOMO) alignments were obtained in the blazed vector grating LC cells. Moreover, the diffraction efficiency of the blazed vector grating LC cells was greatly improved by increasing the thickness of the device in comparison with that of a blazed vector grating with a thin film structure obtained in our previous study. In addition, the diffraction efficiency and polarization states of ±1st-order diffracted beams from the resultant blazed vector grating LC cells were controlled by designing a blazed pattern in the alignment films, and these diffraction properties were well explained on the basis of Jones calculus and the elastic continuum theory of nematic LCs.

  11. Polymorphous silicon thin films obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor.

    PubMed

    Remolina, A; Monroy, B M; García-Sánchez, M F; Ponce, A; Bizarro, M; Alonso, J C; Ortiz, A; Santana, G

    2009-06-17

    Polymorphous silicon thin films (pm-Si) have been deposited from mixtures of dichlorosilane and hydrogen, using argon as the diluting gas by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The deposition conditions were chosen to simultaneously obtain both Si nanocrystallites and an amorphous silicon matrix in the as-grown samples. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the crystallinity of Si domains whose dimensions are in the interval of 2-14 nm. The surface passivation state of the silicon nanocrystals was inferred from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Two optical absorption edges, corresponding to the amorphous matrix and the Si nanocrystals, were observed for all the pm-Si thin films. Intense visible photoluminescence was observed for the as-grown samples. The possibility of using these thin films for the down-conversion effect in silicon solar cells is discussed. PMID:19471076

  12. A stably enhanced transparent conductive graphene film obtained using an air-annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuefen; Wei, Dapeng; Sun, Tai; Yu, Leyong; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yongna; Fang, Liang; Wei, Dacheng; Shi, Haofei; Du, Chunlei

    2016-08-01

    A simple and effective air-annealing technique was developed to stably improve both the electrical conductivity and light transmission of pristine graphene. After the graphene film was annealed in air at 250 °C for 80 min, the mobility and carrier concentration were both significantly enhanced, and the sheet resistance was greatly reduced with a decrease rate of ∼33%. Meanwhile, the transparency was also improved by more than 3%. The mechanism is carefully discussed. The reason might be that air-annealing conditions provide a suitable atmosphere to etch and remove amorphous carbons. More importantly, the enhanced transparent conductive properties of the air-annealed graphene films were extraordinarily stable, and remained almost unchanged for 100 days.

  13. Nanocharacterization of TiN films obtained by Ion Vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, O. L.; Jerez, A. M.; Morantes, M. L.; Plata, A.; Torres, Y.; Lasprilla, M.; Zhabon, V.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate and characterize the surface at the nanoscale level and take into account the temperature variation effect in the process of plasma ion deposition for H13 steel samples coated by Titanium Nitride (TiN). The interferometric microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to measure the film to analyze the variation of structural and morphological properties of nanofilms that depend on the temperature of sustrate.

  14. Angiogenic tube formation of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on patterns formed by H2/He plasma treatment of the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane film.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisoo; Ha, Myunghoon; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Heonyong; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Jung, Donggeun

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process to generate new vessels, is necessary for normal development in children as well as the wound healing and the tumor growth in adults. Therefore, it is physiologically and/or pathophysiologically significant to monitor angiogenesis. However, classical in vitro methods to evaluate angiogenesis take a long time and are expensive. Here, the authors developed a novel method to analyze the angiogenesis in a simple and economical way, using patterned films. In this study, the authors fabricated a plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) thin film deposited by capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system with various plasma powers. The patterned PPHMDSO film was plasma treated by 10:90 H2/He mixture gas through a metal shadow mask. The films were characterized by water contact angle, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Our results show that the PPHMDSO film suppresses the cell adhesion, whereas surface modified PPHMDSO film enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation. From cell culture experiments, the authors found that the patterned film with 300 μm line interval was most efficient to evaluate the tube formation, a sapient angiogenic indicator. This patterned film will provide an effective and promising method for evaluating angiogenesis. PMID:25724221

  15. Obtaining phase-pure CZTS thin films by annealing vacuum evaporated CuS/SnS/ZnS stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, T. G.; Mathew, X.; Mathews, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were obtained by the sequential thermal evaporation of metal binary sulfides in the order CuS/SnS/ZnS, followed by annealing in Ar/S atmosphere. The as-grown films were annealed at different temperatures ranging between 350 and 600 °C, for 10 min. Based on the preliminary results, the temperatures 550 °C and 600 °C were selected for further optimization and a second batch of films were annealed for different time durations (10 min, 30 min and 60 min) at these temperatures in order to identify the conditions to obtain phase-pure CZTS films. The structural properties and chemical compositions at each temperature were investigated in order to optimize the phase purity and film stoichiometry. We have identified adequate and reproducible conditions to obtain the elemental ratio Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn close to 0.78 and 1.19 respectively, which is in the range of material composition required for promising solar cells. In addition the optimized material showed excellent optical and electrical properties to be used as a photovoltaic absorber layer. The optical band gap was found to be about 1.52 eV, and the carrier concentration, hall mobility, and resistivity were in the range of 8.372×1015 cm-3, 3.103 cm2/Vs and 340.3 Ω-cm respectively. Three traps with activation energies 4.39, 8.1, and 34 meV were detected.

  16. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  17. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  18. Development of fast dissolving oral films containing lercanidipine HCl nanoparticles in semicrystalline polymeric matrix for enhanced dissolution and ex vivo permeation.

    PubMed

    Chonkar, Ankita D; Rao, J Venkat; Managuli, Renuka S; Mutalik, Srinivas; Dengale, Swapnil; Jain, Prateek; Udupa, N

    2016-06-01

    Lercanidipine is a vasoselective dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, mainly used for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. However, it suffers from food dependent absorption, poor solubility, low permeability and considerable first pass metabolism, resulting in highly variable and low bioavailability of 10%. Nanoparticles of lercanidipine were incorporated in fast dissolving oral films (FDO) via preparation of nanosuspension by evaporative antisolvent precipitation method. Prepared nanosuspensions were incorporated in FDO without lyophilizing or spray drying. Two nanosuspensions containing PEG 400 and TPGS 1000 as stabilizers, were selected further for incorporation in FDO. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of the optimized films were observed to be within acceptance criteria. SEM images as well as FTIR chemical images of oral films show uniform distribution of nanoparticles in polymeric matrix. The DSC and XRD results proved the poorly crystalline nature of lercanidipine. However thermal processing of film induces crystallinity in hypromellose which results in embedding of amorphous drug nanoparticles in semicrystalline polymeric matrix. Superior dissolution and permeability properties of nanoparticles were confirmed by in vitro dissolution studies and about 4.5-folds higher ex vivo drug permeation was observed from formulation through porcine buccal mucosa. This may give the clue for enhancement of bioavailability in vivo via improving orotransmucosal absorption. PMID:27063592

  19. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ≤5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial

  20. Organic-Modified SiO2 Thin Film Coatings Obtained by the Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareba-Grodź, I.; Szeluga, U.; Bukowska, E.; Hermanowicz, K.; Miśta, W.; Maruszewski, K.

    2006-02-01

    Transparent thin films of silica-containing organic copolymers have been obtained by combining organic photopolymerisation and the sol-gel method. The samples have been characterized via IR spectroscopy, N2-adsorption (77 K), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The viscoelastic nature of the materials have been investigated via the DMTA technique by applying stress to the samples and monitoring their responses. Textural properties such as: specific surface areas (SBET), pore volume (Vp), average pore sizes (Rp) and micropore volumes (VDR) have been obtained. The complete adsorption-desorption isotherms and pore size distributions have been analyzed following the Dollimore-Heal method.

  1. Synthesis of novel hybrid films of a layered silicate and alkylammonium cations on rough polymeric surfaces by Langmuir-Blodgett method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Kean; Loo, Leslie S

    2009-12-15

    Hybrid films of a layered silicate and an amphiphilic alkylammonium (hexadecyltrimethylammonium) cation have been prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method and transferred onto a polyamide surface by dip coating. This is the first time that stable LB hybrid monolayer and multilayer films have been formed on rough polymeric surfaces. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements. XRD and FTIR showed that the hybrid multilayer was well-organized and the thickness of one layer was calculated to be 1.6nm. Furthermore, the layered silicate was determined to be on the substrate side and the amphiphilic molecule layer was exposed to the air side. This provides a novel methodology for the surface modification of polymers. PMID:19781713

  2. Hollow Casein-Based Polymeric Nanospheres for Opaque Coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Ma, Jianzhong; Xu, Qunna; Zhou, Jianhua; Simion, Demetra; Carmen, Gaidău; Wang, John; Li, Yunqi

    2016-05-11

    Casein-based hollow polymeric sphere were fabricated through emulsifier-free polymerization coupled with alkali swelling approach. Hollow structure and nanoscale size of casein-based polymeric spheres were verified by TEM, AFM, SEM, and UV-vis spectra. The as-obtained hollow spheres were proved exhibiting superior opaque characteristic. Through adjusting the structural parameters, for example, MAA usages and MAA content in seed to core, sphere film showed tunable visible-light transmittance and antiultraviolet property. The formation mechanism of casein-based hollow sphere has been discussed in depth. Worth mentioning, the resultant hollow polymeric sphere can easily form films itself at room temperature, which would open a new possibility of designing opaque coatings in several fields, such as leather, packaging, paper making, biomedical, and special indoor coating applications. PMID:27090208

  3. Nanometric Pb{sub 1-x}La{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.13 and 0.27) powders obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, J.H.G. Goncalves, P.R.G.; Oliveira, M.M.; Bernardi, M.I.B.; Longo, E.; Soledade, L.E.B.; Santos, I.M.G.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-04-01

    PLT (Pb{sub 1-x}La{sub x}TiO{sub 3}, in which x = 0, 0.13 and 0.27) powders were successfully synthesized using the polymeric precursor method, based on the Pechini method. The polymeric precursors were calcined at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 deg. C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the evolution of the crystalline phase starting from the amorphous precursor. Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the powder precursors showed the influence of the pH on the elimination of organic material. PLT powders have a tendency to form agglomerates, what can be verified by comparing the values of the average particle sizes obtained by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, BET (D{sub BET}) with the values of the average crystallite sizes obtained by XRD (D{sub XRD})

  4. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-06-01

    Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current-voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  5. A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance.

    PubMed

    Xia, X H; Tu, J P; Zhang, J; Wang, X L; Zhang, W K; Huang, H

    2008-11-19

    A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO(4)+1 mM HClO(4)/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively. PMID:21836256

  6. A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. H.; Tu, J. P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, W. K.; Huang, H.

    2008-11-01

    A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO4+1 mM HClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively.

  7. Characterisation of films and nanopaper obtained from cellulose synthesised by acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rozenberga, Linda; Skute, Marite; Belkova, Lubova; Sable, Inese; Vikele, Laura; Semjonovs, Pavels; Saka, Madara; Ruklisha, Maija; Paegle, Longina

    2016-06-25

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) samples were obtained using two culture media (glucose and glucose+fructose) and two bacteria (Komagataeibacter rhaeticus and Komagataeibacter hansenii). Nanopaper was obtained from the BC through oxidation and both were studied to determine the impact of culture media and bacteria strain on nanofiber structure and mechanical properties. AFM and SEM were used to investigate fibre dimensions and network morphology; FTIR and XRD to determine cellulose purity and crystallinity; carboxyl content, degree of polymerisation and zeta potential were used to characterise nanofibers. Tensile testing showed that nanopaper has up to 24 times higher Young's modulus (7.39GPa) than BC (0.3GPa). BC displayed high water retention values (86-95%) and a degree of polymerisation up to 2540. Nanofibers obtained were 80-120nm wide and 600-1200nm long with up to 15% higher crystallinity than the original BC. It was concluded that BC is an excellent source for easily obtainable, highly crystalline and strong nanofibers. PMID:27083790

  8. Charge transport studies of polymeric photovoltaic thin films with an electron blocking and trapping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Chan, Kevin K. H.; So, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    The transport properties of two photovoltaic polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT), and their polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) are studied by space-charge-limited current (SCLC), dark-injection space-charge-limited current (DI-SCLC), and admittance spectroscopy(AS). For a nominally hole-only device, electrons leakage occurs. This results in a current larger than the theoretical SCLC and ill-defined DI-SCLC and AS signals. In order to prevent electron leakage, a hole-transporting but electron blocking/trapping thin layer is added between active layer and Au. The layer composed of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) doped into an amine-based small molecule. Using this interlayer, well-defined carrier transit time can be obtained for mobility extraction. With a suitable interlayer to suppress undesirable carrier injection and transport, these techniques should find broad applications in the transport characterization of narrow gap photovoltaic polymers and BHJ blends.

  9. Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2005-10-15

    More detailed analytical studies of a new fluoride-selective optical sensor based on the use of aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin and a lipophilic pH indicator (4',5'-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester; ETH-7075) within a thin plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) film are reported. The sensor exhibits extraordinary optical selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of other anions, including anions with far more positive free energies of hydration (e.g., perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, etc.). UV-visible spectrophotometric studies of the sensing films indicate that fluoride interacts with the Al(III) center of the porphyrin structure, yielding both a change in the Soret band lambda(max) of the porphyrin and a change in the protonation state of the pH indicator within the film. The same change in spectral properties of the metalloporphyrin occurs in the absence of added pH indicator or with added tetraphenylborate derivative anionic sites, but optical responses to fluoride in these cases are shown to be irreversible. The presence of the pH indicator and the simultaneous fluoride/proton coextraction equilibrium chemistry is shown to greatly enhance the reversibility of fluoride binding to the Al(III) porphyrin. Optical response toward fluoride can be observed in the range of 0.1 microM-1.6 mM. Optical selectivity coefficients of <10(-6) for common anions (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, etc.) and <10(-4) for perchlorate and thiocyanate are obtained. Measurements of fluoride in drinking water via the new optical sensor are shown to correlate well with values obtained for the same samples using a classical LaF3-based fluoride ion-selective electrode method. PMID:16223262

  10. Fluoride Selective Optical Sensor Based on Aluminum(III)-Octaethylporphyrin in Thin Polymeric Film: Further Characterization and Practical Application

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Ibrahim H. A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    More detailed analytical studies of a new fluoride selective optical sensor based on the use of aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin and a lipophilic pH indicator (4′,5′-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester; ETH-7075) within a thin plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) film are reported. The sensor exhibits extraordinary optical selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of other anions, including anions with far more positive free energies of hydration (e.g., perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, etc.). UV-VIS spectrophotometric studies of the sensing films indicate that fluoride interacts with the Al(III) center of the porphyrin structure, yielding both a change in the Soret band λmax of the porphyrin as well as a change in the protonation state of the pH indicator within the film. The same change in spectral properties of the metalloporphyrin occurs in the absence of added pH indicator or with added tetraphenylborate derivative anionic sites, but optical responses to fluoride in these cases are shown to be irreversible. The presence of the pH indicator and the simultaneous fluoride/proton coextraction equilibrium chemistry is shown to greatly enhance the reversibility of fluoride binding to the Al(III) porphyrin. Optical response toward fluoride can be observed in the range of 0.1 μM to 1.6 mM. Optical selectivity coefficients of < 10−6 for common anions (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate etc.) and < 10−4 for perchlorate and thiocyanate are obtained. Measurements of fluoride in drinking water via the new optical sensor are shown to correlate well with values obtained for the same samples using a classical LaF3 based fluoride ion-selective electrode method. PMID:16223262

  11. Nanoencapsulation of Rose-Hip Oil Prevents Oil Oxidation and Allows Obtainment of Gel and Film Topical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Contri, Renata V; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene C; da Silva, Sheila Janine; Frank, Luiza A; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2016-08-01

    The rose-hip oil holds skin regenerating properties with applications in the dermatological and cosmetic area. Its nanoencapsulation might favor the oil stability and its incorporation into hydrophilic formulations, besides increasing the contact with the skin and prolonging its effect. The aim of the present investigation was to develop suitable rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules, to verify the nanocapsule effect on the UV-induced oxidation of the oil and to obtain topical formulations by the incorporation of the nanocapsules into chitosan gel and film. The rose-hip oil (500 or 600 μL), polymer (Eudragit RS100®, 100 or 200 mg), and acetone (50 or 100 mL) contents were separately varied aiming to obtain an adequate size distribution. The results led to a combination of the factors acetone and oil. The developed formulation showed average diameter of 158 ± 6 nm with low polydispersity, pH of 5.8 ± 0.9, zeta potential of +9.8 ± 1.5 mV, rose-hip oil content of 54 ± 1 μL/mL and tendency to reversible creaming. No differences were observed in the nanocapsules properties after storage. The nanoencapsulation of rose-hip oil decreased the UVA and UVC oxidation of the oil. The chitosan gel and film containing rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable properties for cutaneous use. In conclusion, it was possible to successfully obtain rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules and to confirm the nanocapsules effect in protecting the oil from the UV rays. The chitosan gel and film were considered interesting alternatives for incorporating the nanoencapsulated rose-hip oil, combining the advantages of the nanoparticles to the advantages of chitosan. PMID:26381915

  12. The structure and dielectric properties of thin barium zirconate titanate films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Razumov, S. V.; Gagarin, A. G.; Altynnikov, A. G.; Stozharov, V. M.; Kaptelov, E. Yu.; Senkevich, S. V.; Pronin, I. P.

    2016-02-01

    Submicron thin layers of BaZr x Ti1- x O3 are grown in-situ by RF magnetron sputtering of a ceramic target ( x = 0.50) on a substrate of Pt/ r-cut leucosapphire Al2O3. It is shown that the composition of the ferroelectric layer is not identical to the composition of the sputtered target and is shifted toward barium zirconate. The reasons for such behavior are discussed. The obtained samples are characterized by high breakdown voltages (1 MV/cm and higher). The structural and high-frequency dielectric properties are studied, and high tunability of the capacitance of thin layers is revealed.

  13. Microporous polymer films and methods of their production

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A process is described for producing thin microporous polymeric films for a variety of uses. The process utilizes a dense gas (liquefied gas or supercritical fluid) selected to combine with a solvent-containing polymeric film so that the solvent is dissolved in the dense gas, the polymer is substantially insoluble in the dense gas, and two phases are formed. A microporous film is obtained by removal of a dense gas-solvent phase. 9 figs.

  14. Fabrication of polymerized crystalline colloidal array thin film modified β-cyclodextrin polymer for paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl detection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Seo, Seong S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical chemical sensor for the detection of organophosphate (OP) compounds using a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) thin film composed of a close-packed colloidal array of polystyrene particles. The PCCA thin film was modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer as a capping cavity for the selective detection of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl chemical agents. The fabrication of the modified PCCA thin film was optimized and the structure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arrangement of polystyrene particles in the PCCA follows a pattern of the fcc (111) planes with strong diffraction peak in the visible spectral region and pH dependence. The diffraction peak of the β-CD modified PCCA thin film showed a red shift according to the change of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl concentrations at a fast response time (10 s) and high sensitivity with detection limits of 2.0 and 3.4 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed interaction mechanism of β-CD with paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl in the β-CD modified PCCA thin film were discussed. PMID:24813957

  15. An Easily Accessible Self-Healing Transparent Film Based on a 2D Supramolecular Network of Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions between Polymeric Chains.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nabarun; Tomović, Željko; Buhler, Eric; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-09-12

    Self-healing polymers hold great promise for the future, enhancing in particular the longevity of polymeric materials. We describe a self-healing covalent polymer, presenting an extensive array of hydrogen-bonding sites based on the combination of urea, urethane, and bis-acyl-hydrazine units. Solvent-cast thin-films prepared by polycondensation of a commercially available dihydrazide and a diisocyanate prepolymer exhibited excellent room temperature autonomous healing with almost full recovery of mechanical properties when two parts of a cut film were overlapped and gently pressed together. This autonomous healing upon damage may be attributed to the supramolecular dynamics of multiple lateral inter-chain hydrogen-bonding interactions between the polymer chains. The solid-state structure of a model compound incorporating the same structural backbone corroborates the existence of an extensive two-dimensional supramolecular hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:27226034

  16. Antimicrobial polymer films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concilio, S.; Piotto, S.; Sessa, L.; Iannelli, P.; Porta, A.; Calabrese, E. C.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2012-07-01

    New antimicrobial polymeric systems were realized introducing new antimicrobial azo compounds in PP and LDPE matrices. The polymeric materials containing different percentage of azo compounds were mold-casted and the obtained film were tested in vitro against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and fungi. These results hold promise for the fabrication of bacteria-resistant polymer films by means of simple melt processing with antimicrobial azo-dyes.

  17. Improved selenization procedure to obtain CuInSe{sub 2} thin films from sequentially electrodeposited precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    1996-02-01

    A new approach for CuInSe{sub 2} formation by sequential electrodeposition of Cu and In-Se layers and subsequent heat-treatment with elemental selenium in Ar and Ar + H{sub 2} flows is presented. The nature of the precursors and their evolution as a function of the selenization parameters have been studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Sample temperature, Se-source temperature, and H{sub 2}/Ar volume ratio in the flow were the subject for optimization. A sample temperature above 400 C is needed to obtain single-phase CuInSe{sub 2} films. An increase in the film crystallinity has been reached by maintaining the Se-source temperature above 400 C. The introduction of H{sub 2} in the selenizing atmosphere has proven to be unsuitable, H{sub 2}Se formation must be avoided because it is more poisonous and less reactive than the elemental selenium vapor.

  18. White-light-exciting, layer-by-layer-assembled ZnCdHgSe quantum dots/polymerized ionic liquid hybrid film for highly sensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensing of neuron specific enolase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiangyang; Wang, Yanying; Chen, Xuemin; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming; Huang, Zhenjia; Wu, Wangze; Li, Chunya

    2015-04-21

    ZnCdHgSe quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with N-acetyl-l-cysteine were synthesized and characterized. Through layer-by-layer assembling, the ZnCdHgSe QDs was integrated with a polymerized 1-decyl-3-[3-pyrrole-1-yl-propyl]imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (PDPIT) ionic liquid film modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to fabricated a photoelectrochemical interface for the immobilization of rabbit antihuman neuron specific enolase (anti-NSE). After being treated with glutaraldehyde vapor and bovine serum albumin successively, an anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO sensing platform was established. Simplely using a white-light LED as an excitation source, the immunoassay of neuron specific enolase (NSE) was achieved through monitoring the photocurrent variation. The polymerized ionic liquid film was demonstrated to be an important element to enhance the photocurrent response of ZnCdHgSe QDs. The anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO based immunosensor presents excellent performances in neuron specific enolase determination. The photocurrent variation before and after being interacted with NSE exhibits a good linear relationship with the logarithm of its concentration (log cNSE) in the range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection of this immunosensor is able to reach 0.2 pg mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The determination of NSE in clinical human sera was also demonstrated using anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO electrode. The results were found comparable with those obtained by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. PMID:25790014

  19. Properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films obtained by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Virt, I. S.; Rudyj, I. O.; Kurilo, I. V.; Lopatynskyi, I. Ye.; Linnik, L. F.; Tetyorkin, V. V.; Potera, P.; Luka, G.

    2013-07-15

    The properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films of variable thickness deposited onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si, and KCl substrates are investigated by the method of pulsed laser ablation. The samples are obtained at a substrate temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C in a vacuum chamber with a residual pressure of 10{sup -5} Torr. The thickness of the films amounted to 40-1500 nm. The structure of the bulk material of the targets and films is investigated by the methods of X-ray diffraction and transmission high-energy electron diffraction, respectively. The electrical properties of the films are investigated in the temperature range of 253-310 K. It is shown that the films have semiconductor properties. The structural features of the films determine their optical parameters.

  20. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    PubMed

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. PMID:27550869

  1. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  2. The effects of porosity on optical properties of semiconductor chalcogenide films obtained by the chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to study the thin polycrystalline films of semiconductor chalcogenide materials (CdS, CdSe, and PbS) obtained by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition. The obtained material is of polycrystalline nature with crystallite of a size that, from a general point of view, should not result in any noticeable quantum confinement. Nevertheless, we were able to observe blueshift of the fundamental absorption edge and reduced refractive index in comparison with the corresponding bulk materials. Both effects are attributed to the material porosity which is a typical feature of chemical bath deposition technique. The blueshift is caused by quantum confinement in pores, whereas the refractive index variation is the evident result of the density reduction. Quantum mechanical description of the nanopores in semiconductor is given based on the application of even mirror boundary conditions for the solution of the Schrödinger equation; the results of calculations give a reasonable explanation of the experimental data. PMID:22931255

  3. Electrical parameters of ZnO films and ZnO-based junctions obtained by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, T. A.; Luka, G.; Wachnicki, L.; Zakrzewski, A. J.; Witkowski, B. S.; Lukasiewicz, M. I.; Kruszewski, P.; Lusakowska, E.; Jakiela, R.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2011-08-01

    This work reports on the zinc oxide layers grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from dimethylzinc (Zn(CH3)2, DMZn) or diethylzinc (Zn(C2H5)2, DEZn) and deionized water precursors. These films are suitable for nanoelectronic applications, e.g. selecting elements in the new generation of non-volatile 3D memories constructed in the cross-bar architecture. This architecture imposes strict requirements on the parameters of obtained ZnO layers. Growth temperature must be below 200 °C, electron concentration not higher than 1017 cm-3 and mobility above 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. This is possible when the ALD growth method is used. We demonstrate the correlations between the structural, optical and electrical properties of ALD-ZnO layers. Their control allows us to obtain Schottky junctions with silver, whose parameters are suitable for the applications mentioned above. The ideality factor of about η ≈ 2.65 was calculated for the Schottky diodes based on the pure thermionic emission theory.

  4. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  5. Influence of the surface properties of polymeric insulators on the electrical stability of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baang, Sungkeun; Lee, Hyeonju; Ham, Youngjin; Zhang, Xue; Park, Jaehoon; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Piao, Shang Hao; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the electrical stabilities of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated with cross-linked polymeric insulators, i.e., poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and poly(4-vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVP- co-PMMA). Compared to the cross-linked PVP insulator, the TIPS-pentacene TFTs containing a cross-linked PVP- co-PMMA insulator exhibit less hysteresis upon reversal of the gate-voltage sweep direction and a lower shift in the threshold voltage during consecutive operations, which is ascribed to the relatively hydrophobic surface of the cross-linked PVP- co-PMMA insulator. When these polymer solutions are mixed with yttrium-oxide nanoparticles, the rough surfaces of both nanocomposite insulators lead to larger shifts in the threshold voltage during consecutive operations, but its effect on the hysteretic behavior in the transfer characteristics of the TIPS-pentacene TFTs is negligible. Thus, the influence of the surface properties of the polymeric insulators on the electrical stability of TIPS-pentacene TFTs can be explained through hole-trapping and the delayed-depletion of the holes at the insulator/semiconductor interface.

  6. Fabricating chiral polydiacetylene film by monolayer compression and circularly polarized ultra-violet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Gang; Kohn, Hideki; Ohshima, Yuki; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2007-07-01

    We study polydiacetylene films that are pertinent to the problems of mirror symmetry breaking induced by the effects of compression and circularly polarized ultra-violet (UV) light. The subphase is only pure water. After polymerization, polymerized 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (PTDA) LB films that deposited at the surface pressure of 20 mN m -1 showed obviously chiral properties, however, no obvious Cotton effect was obtained for PTDA LB films that deposited at the surface pressure of 10 mN m -1. In addition, TDA LB films could be polymerized to a designed chirality by using chiral circular polarized ultra-violet light (CPUL).

  7. Obtaining strong ferromagnetism in diluted Gd-doped ZnO thin films through controlled Gd-defect complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Roqan, I. S. Venkatesh, S.; Zhang, Z.; Hussain, S.; Bantounas, I.; Flemban, T. H.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Franklin, J. B.; Zou, B.; Petrov, P. K.; Ryan, M. P.; Alford, N. M.; Lee, J.-S.

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of reproducible long-range ferromagnetism (FM) in highly crystalline Gd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O thin films by controlling the defects. Films are grown on lattice-matched substrates by pulsed laser deposition at low oxygen pressures (≤25 mTorr) and low Gd concentrations (x ≤ 0.009). These films feature strong FM (10 μ{sub B} per Gd atom) at room temperature. While films deposited at higher oxygen pressure do not exhibit FM, FM is recovered by post-annealing these films under vacuum. These findings reveal the contribution of oxygen deficiency defects to the long-range FM. We demonstrate the possible FM mechanisms, which are confirmed by density functional theory study, and show that Gd dopants are essential for establishing FM that is induced by intrinsic defects in these films.

  8. Cellulose triacetate films obtained from sugarcane bagasse: Evaluation as coating and mucoadhesive material for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sabrina Dias; Guimes, Rodrigues Filho; Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) films were produced from cellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse. The films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties (MP), enzymatic digestion (ED), and mucoadhesive properties evaluation (MPE). WVP showed that more concentrated films have higher values; asymmetric films had higher values than symmetric films. MP showed that symmetric membranes are more resistant than asymmetric ones. All films presented high mucoadhesiveness. From the WVP and MP results, a symmetric membrane with 6.5% CTA was selected for the coating of gellan gum (GG) particles incorporating ketoprofen (KET). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the CTA coating does not influence the thermal stability of the particles. Coated particles released 100% of the KET in 24h, while uncoated particles released the same amount in 4h. The results highlight the CTA potential in the development of new controlled oral delivery systems. PMID:27516328

  9. Modification of surface properties of bell metal by radiofrequency plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutia, Joyanti; Choudhury, Arup Jyoti; Pal, Arup Ratan; Gogoi, Dolly

    2012-11-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) plasma polymerization is a convenient thin film deposition process as it facilitates the synthesis of polymer films with stable physico-chemical properties suitable for various applications in microelectronic, optical, and biomedical fields. The unique properties of these plasma polymerized films as compared to the conventional ones are strongly related to the proper adjustment of the external plasma discharge parameters and selection of suitable monomer. It is also important to study the fundamental chemistry of RF plasma polymerization process, so that one can successfully correlate the internal features of the discharge with the film properties and explore their possible technological applications. The possibility of using styrene-based plasma polymer (SPP) films on bell metal as protective coatings is explored in this work. Depositions of the films are carried out in RF Ar/styrene discharge at working pressure of 1.2 × 10-1 mbar and at the RF power range of 20 to 110 W. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is used to study the active species generated during plasma polymerization, while Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to analyze the internal chemical structures of the films. The protective performances of the SPP films are attempted to correlate with the results obtained from OES, FT-IR, and XPS analyses.

  10. Thin film Z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon-ethynylene polymers and metal-containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, William E.; Klapshina, Larisa G.; Rubinov, Anatoly N.; Domrachev, George A.; Bushuk, Boris A.; Antipov, Oleg L.; Semenov, Vladimir V.; Kuzhelev, Alexander S.; Bushuk, Sergey B.; Kalvinkovskaya, Julia A.

    2000-11-01

    The third-order optical nonlinearities of new conjugated poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene]s, and a variety of chromium, neodymium or cobalt complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices as thin sol-gel or polyacrylonitrile films have been determined by using a single beam Z-scan technique. The samples were pumped by a single ultrashort pulse of a mode-locked Nd-phosphate glass laser (wavelength 1054 nm) with a 5ps pulse duration (full width at half- maximum), the repetition rate of the Gaussian beam being low (0.3Hz) ro avoid thermal effects. The spot radius of the focused pulse was ca. 60micrometers , its beam waist being in the sample (intensity up to 4x1013 Wm-2). Calibration was done with chloroform and benzene, the value of N2 for the latter (2x10-12esu) being similar to that previously reported. A small-aperture Z-scan (S=0.03) was used to measure the magnitude and the sign of the nonlinear refractive index, n2. Very high nonlinear refractive indices were found for a film containing (a) a poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene]s with pentacoordinated silicon (c 5 gl-1) in a sol-gel matrix (N2 = 6 x 10-13 cm2W-1), (b) a film containing a poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene] with tetracoordinated silicon (c 0.5 gl-1) and a very small proportion of fullerene-C70 incorporated into an NH2-containing sol-gel matrix (n2 = 5x10-13 cm2W-1, and (c) a thin polyacrylonitrile film of polycyanoethylate bis-arenechromium(I) hydroxide (n2 = -5 x 10-12 cm(superscript 2W-1.

  11. Effect of oxidant on the performance of conductive polymer films prepared by vacuum vapor phase polymerization for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Robert; Fabretto, Manrico; Vucaj, Nastasja; Zuber, Kamil; Switalska, Eliza; Reeks, Lachlan; Murphy, Peter; Evans, Drew

    2015-03-01

    Conductive polymers synthesized by vacuum vapour phase polymerization (VPP) were investigated and optimized by changing the oxidant solution and VPP chamber parameters for their incorporation into ‘smart window’ electrochromic devices. Additionally, the interaction of two oxidant solutions with typical electrode materials (aluminium and indium tin oxide) were examined with respect to material etching, device cosmetics and long term device degradation (over 10 000 switch cycles). Devices made with conducting polymers synthesized with the oxidant Fe(Tos)3 rather than FeCl3 produced superior device performance with respect to optical switching range (%T), switch speed and optical relaxation.

  12. Optical sensor for amine vapors based on dimer-monomer equilibrium of indium(III) octaethylporphyrin in a polymeric film.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Parzuchowski, Pawel; Zhang, Wei; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2003-01-15

    A novel transduction chemistry for the development of a polymer film-based optical sensor that responds reversibly to gas-phase amine species at sub-ppm levels is described. The sensor is based on the equilibrium of a indium(III) octaethylporphyrin hydroxide ion-bridged dimer species with corresponding monomeric porphyrins within a thin poly(vinyl chloride) film as a function of the level of volatile amine in the surrounding gas phase. The presence of amines causes the dimeric species to be converted to monomer via the ligation of the amine with the In(III) center of the porphyrin structure. This yields a significant change in the visible absorption spectrum of the film, with a decrease in the intensity of the Soret band corresponding to the dimer (lambdamax = 390 nm) and a concomitant increase in the Soret band for the monomer lambdamax = 406-408 nm). Response to different amines is based on their relative partition coefficient into the polymer film and their strength of axial ligation reactions, with a selectivity pattern of 1-butylamine > 1-propylamine > pyridine > triethylamine > ethylamine > methylamine > diethylamine > tert-butylamine > ammonia. It is further shown that a significant concentration of dimeric species within the polymer film can only be achieved if appropriate amounts of lipophilic anionic sites are also incorporated into the polymer in the form of a tetraphenylborate derivative and the resulting film is equilibrated briefly with water prior to gas-phase measurements. With optimized film compositions, 1-butylamine can be detected in the gas phase to levels approaching 0.1 ppm, while less lipophilic ammonia can be monitored down to 10 ppm, with fully reversible responses to each species. A simple mathematical model for the response of the amine sensor is presented and shown to predict the optical behavior observed. PMID:12553770

  13. Luminescence of W(CO){sub 4}(4-Me-phen) in photosensitive thin films: A molecular probe of acrylate polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, K.A.; Lees, A.J.; Fuerniss, S.J.; Papathomas, K.I.

    1996-07-01

    The complex W(CO){sub 4}(4-Me-phen) (4-Me-phen = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline) has been determined to be luminescent and act as a spectroscopic probe in UV-curable trimethylolpropane triacrylate/poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Electronic absorption and luminescence characteristics have been measured for this complex in room-temperature solutions and low-temperature (80 K) glasses and in 10 mil thin films of the unexposed and exposed acrylate resins. In each environment dual luminescence bands were observed which are attributed to triplet-centered metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ({sup 3}MLCT) excited states. For the unexposed photoresist these transitions were recorded at 520 and 750 nm and in the exposed material these are moved to 525 and 715 nm, respectively. The lowest energy emission band undergoes a substantial blue-shift and intensified greatly on polymerization; this phenomenon provides a useful molecular probe of the acrylate cross-linking process. These changes in emission characteristics are associated with a rigidochromic effect imparted on the lowest lying and solvent sensitive b{sub 2} {yields} b{sub 2}({pi}*) {sup 3}MLCT electronically excited state in this complex. The complex W(CO){sub 5}(4-CN-py) (4-CN-py = 4-cyanopyridine) was also investigated as a spectroscopic probe in the acrylate system but appears unsuitable for this purpose as it was found to degrade significantly in the resin. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Polymeric coatings for a multiple-unit pulsatile delivery system: preliminary study on free and applied films.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Alessandra; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-01-20

    In order to adapt a previously described swellable/erodible pulsatile delivery system to a multiple-unit configuration, insoluble films with adequate permeability and flexibility were proposed for application to its functional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) layer. By slowing down the penetration of water into the system, such films would be expected to improve the relevant effectiveness in delaying the onset of release without possibly impacting on the mechanism involved. Free films of Eudragit(®)NE containing differing amounts (10-20%) of a superdisintegrant, i.e. Explotab(®)V17, Ac-Di-Sol(®), Kollidon(®)CL or Kollidon(®)CL-M, were prepared by spraying technique and evaluated for hydration, permeability and tensile properties. The hydration and permeability characteristics were enhanced by the addition of the superdisintegrants, generally as a function of their concentration. Explotab(®)V17 was shown particularly useful to increase the film permeability. Moreover, it exerted a minor impact on the advantageous tensile properties of the acrylic polymer, especially in the wet state. Based on these results and on a preliminary release study performed with two-layer devices, the Eudragit(®)NE film with Explotab(®)V17 at the highest investigated percentage was identified as a potential formulation candidate for being applied to HPMC-coated cores thus allowing the onset of release to effectively be delayed by coatings of reduced thickness. PMID:22688248

  15. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wojcik, J.; Wilson, P. R. J.; Mascher, P.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature.

  16. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Podhorodecki, A; Zatryb, G; Misiewicz, J; Wojcik, J; Wilson, P R J; Mascher, P

    2012-11-30

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature. PMID:23110801

  17. Prediction of the Thickness of a Thin Paint Film by Applying a Modified Partial-Least-Squares-1 Method to Data Obtained in Terahertz Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Yoshioka, Shuji; Nakamura, Shota; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    We applied a multivariate analysis method to time-domain (TD) data obtained in terahertz (THz) reflectometry for predicting the thickness of a single-layered paint film deposited on a metal substrate. For prediction purposes, we built a calibration model from TD-THz waveforms obtained from films of different thicknesses but the same kind. Because each TD-THz wave is approximate by the superposition of two echo pulses (one is reflected from the air-film boundary and the other from the film-substrate boundary), a difference in thickness gives a relative peak shift in time in the two echo pulses. Then, we predicted unknown thicknesses of the paint films by using the calibration model. Although any multivariate analysis method can be used, we proposed employing a modified partial-least-squares-1 (PLS1) method because it gives a superior calibration model in principle. The prediction procedure worked well for a moderately thin film (typically, several to several tens of micrometers) rather than a thicker one.

  18. Characterization of bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) thin films obtained by evaporating the hydrothermally synthesised nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indirajith, R.; Rajalakshmi, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2016-03-01

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 200 °C and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized material was utilized to deposit bismuth selenide thin films at various substrate temperatures (Room Temperature-RT, 150 °C, 250 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C) by electron beam evaporation technique. XRD study confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the deposited Bi2Se3films. Optical transmittance spectra showed that the deposited (at RT) films acquire relatively high average transmittance of 60%in near infrared region (1500-2500 nm). An indirect allowed optical band gap calculated from the absorption edge for the deposited films is ranging from 0.62 to 0.8 eV. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy analyses reveal the formation of nano-scale sized particles on the surface and that the nature of surface microstructures is influenced by the substrate temperature. Hall measurements showed improved electrical properties, for the films deposited at 350 °C which possess 2.8 times the mobility and 0.9 times the resistivity of the films deposited at RT.

  19. Preparation and bioactive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by conversion of atomic layer deposited calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jani; Kauppinen, Kyösti; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Santala, Eero; Mikkola, Esa; Heikkilä, Mikko; Kokkonen, Hanna; Leskelä, Markku; Lehenkari, Petri; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films were fabricated on silicon and titanium by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of CaCO3 and its subsequent conversion to hydroxyapatite by diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) solution. The effects of conversion process parameters to crystallinity and morphology of the films were examined. DAP concentration was found to be critical in controlling the crystal size and homogeneity of the films. The hydroxyapatite phase was identified by XRD. ToF-elastic recoil detection analysis studies revealed that the films are calcium deficient in relation to hydroxyapatite with a Ca/P ratio of 1.39 for films converted with 0.2 M DAP at 95 °C. The coatings prepared on titanium conformally follow the rough surface topography of the substrate, verifying that the good step coverage of the ALD method was maintained in the conversion process. The dissolution tests revealed that the coating was nondissolvable in the cell culture medium. Annealing the coated sample at 700 °C for 1 h seemed to enhance its bonding properties to the substrate. Also, the biocompatibility of the coatings was confirmed by human bone marrow derived cells in vitro. The developed method provides a new possibility to produce thin film coatings on titanium implants with bone-type hydroxyapatite that is biocompatible with human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25280849

  20. Enhanced mechanical properties of low-surface energy thin films by simultaneous plasma polymerization of fluorine and epoxy containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Mustafa; Uçar, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of poly(2,2,3,4,4,4 hexafluorobutyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HFBA-GMA) were deposited on different surfaces using an inductively coupled RF plasma reactor. Fluorinated polymer was used to impart hydrophobicity, whereas epoxy polymer was used for improved durability. The deposition at a low plasma power and temperature was suitable for the functionalization of fragile surfaces such as textile fabrics. The coated rough textile surfaces were found to be superhydrophobic with water contact angles greater than 150° due to the high retention of long fluorinated side chains. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces was observed to be stable after many exposures to ultrasonification tests, which is attributed to the mechanical durability of the films due to their epoxide functionality. FTIR and XPS analyses of the deposited films confirmed that the epoxide functionality of the polymers increased with increasing glycidyl methacrylate fraction in the reactor inlet. The modulus and hardness values of the films also increase with increasing epoxide functionality.

  1. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  2. Optical Fluoride Sensor Based on Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium of Scandium(III)-Octaethylporphyrin in a Plasticized Polymeric Film

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjea; Kampf, Jeff W.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    A fluoride-selective optical sensor based on scandium(III) octaethylporphyrin (Sc(III)OEP) as an ionophore within a plasticized PVC film is described. The presence of fluoride ion in the aqueous sample phase increases the formation of a difluoro-bridged Sc(III)OEP dimer species in the polymer film. The ability of the Sc(III) porphyrin to form the dimeric structure in the presence of fluoride is confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. For more practical sensing applications, a pH chromoionophore (ETH 7075) is added to the plasticized PVC film along with Sc(III)OEP and the observed optical response is based on co-extraction of protons with sample phase fluoride to create the dimeric porphyrin and a protonated chromoionophore species. The selectivity pattern observed is F-≫ClO4-, SCN-, NO3->Br-, Cl-. Only organic salicylate is a significant interferent. Fast and reversible fluoride response is observed over the range of 10-4 ~10-2 M fluoride, allowing use of the sensing film in a waveguide configuration for flow-injection measurements. PMID:17719905

  3. Some physical investigations on ZnS 1- xSe x films obtained by selenization of ZnS sprayed films using the Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridjine, S.; Touihri, S.; Boubaker, K.; Amlouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    ZnS 1- xSe x thin films have been grown by selenization process, applied to ZnS sprayed thin films deposited on Pyrex glass substrates at 550 °C. The crystal structure and surface morphology were investigated by the XRD technique and by the atomic force microscopy. This structural study shows that selenium-free ( x=0) ZnS thin films, prepared at substrate temperature TS=450 °C, were well crystallized in cubic structure and oriented preferentially along (1 1 1) direction. The thermal and mechanical properties were also investigated using a photothermal protocol along with Vickers hardness measurements. On the other hand, the analyze of the transmittance T( λ) and the reflectance R( λ), optical measurements of these films depicts a decrease in the band gap energy value Eg with an increase in Se content ( x). Indeed, Eg values vary from 3.6 to 3.1 eV.

  4. Optical and structural characterization of TiO2 films doped with silver nanoparticles obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T.; Vertruyen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Nanostructured titanium oxide films with incorporated Ag nanoparticles were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method. The films were annealed at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C in oxygen and nitrogen ambient. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-VIS spectroscopy had been applied for studying the influence of the thermal treatments and the gas ambient on the structural and optical properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Ag films. The XRD analysis revealed the presence of metallic Ag phase without traces of silver oxides and these results were confirmed by FTIR spectra. It has been revealed that the annealing temperatures and the ambient, where the annealing is carried out is crucial for TiO2 crystallization, when there is Ag incorporation and especially for appearance of anatase and rutile phase. The nitrogen and oxygen ambient influences quite different the crystallization of TiO2:Ag films. Transmission and absorption spectra have been analyzed. Optical band gap values were evaluated for pure titania and Ag incorporated TiO2 films.

  5. Synthesis of a large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin film through evaporation-induced polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Jiang, Xiangfen; Ohki, Shinobu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Suzuki, Madoka; Arai, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) was used as a soft template to synthesize large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin films. The kinetically frozen PS core stabilizes the micelles. The strong interaction of the inorganic precursors with the P2VP shell enables the fabrication of highly robust walls of phosphosilicate and the PEO helps orderly packing of the micelles during solvent evaporation. The molar ratio of phosphoric acid and tetraethyl orthosilicate is crucial to achieve the final mesostructure. The insertion of phosphorus species into the siloxane network is studied by (29) Si and (31) P MAS NMR spectra. The mesoporous phosphosilicate films exhibit steady cell adhesion properties and show great promise as excellent materials in bone-growth engineering applications. PMID:25208487

  6. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PVA + ionic liquid [BDMIM][BF4]-based polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, A. L.; Chaurasia, S. K.; Kataria, Shalu; Singh, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM][BF4], on crystallization behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been studied by isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The PVA + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared using solution casting technique. To describe the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, several kinetic equations have been employed on PVA + IL based films. There is strong dependence of the peak crystallization temperature (Tc), relative degree of crystallity (Xt), half-time of crystallization (t1/2), crystallization rate constants (Avrami Kt and Tobin AT), and Avrami (n) and Tobin (nT) exponents on the cooling rate and IL loading.

  7. Temporal characteristics of polarization holographic gratings formed in a photosensitive polymeric film containing N-benzylideneaniline derivative side groups

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki Shoho, Takashi; Noda, Kohei; Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-21

    A polarization holographic grating was recorded in a transparent thin film formed from polymethacrylate with N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) derivative side groups. We measured the real time diffraction properties. The data were analyzed based on a theoretical model that accounted for the distribution of optical anisotropy caused by molecular reorientation as well as for surface relief (SR) deformation caused by molecular motion. Optical anisotropy rapidly increased and then slowly decreased, with increasing recording time. This phenomenon was described based on photoisomerization and photocleavage reactions of the NBA side groups. SR deformation was also induced in the film by polarization holographic recording, without any subsequent processes. The photoinduced optical anisotropy and SR deformation were retained after the recording was turned off.

  8. Synthesis and charge transport properties of CVD graphene films obtained by precipitation and catalytic formation on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Badmaev, Alexander; Wang, Chuan; Li, Zhen; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-03-01

    Chemical vapor deposition is considered a reliable approach to large-scale graphene, however the influence of aspects such as the graphene formation mechanism, carbon precursor and synthesis conditions, over the ultimate transport properties of the films remain to be explored. In this work we synthesized CVD graphene by catalytic formation and surface precipitation using methane and alcohol as carbon feedstock. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopy, as well as electron diffraction, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the films, showing a strong influence of the carbon source and formation mechanism on the uniformity and defect density of the synthesized CVD graphene, and hence, on their charge transport properties.

  9. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) - polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi; Basu, Saibal

    2016-09-01

    Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30-60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV-vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  10. Thin-film heterostructures based on oxides of copper and zinc obtained by RF magnetron sputtering in one vacuum cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, V.; Bazhan, M.; Klimenkov, B.; Mukhin, N.; Chigirev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of formation conditions of oxide heterostructures ZnO/CuO in the same vacuum cycle using RF magnetron sputtering of powder targets of zinc and copper oxides were carried out. The optical and electrical properties of the thin film structures were studied.

  11. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycely O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers. acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors, in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors. weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 1000 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  12. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1987-05-12

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst system which comprises: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and recovering solid catalyst.

  13. Polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-10-21

    A process is described for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization wherein the polymerization is conducted in the presence of a catalyst comprising: a supported catalyst prepared under anhydrous conditions by the steps of: (1) sequentially; (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of zirconium compound; and (2) thereafter; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium compound; (f) recovering solid catalyst; and an organoaluminum compound.

  14. Ge-on-Si films obtained by epitaxial growing: edge dislocations and their participation in plastic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkhovityanov, Yu B.; Sokolov, L. V.

    2012-04-01

    Pure edge 90° misfit dislocations (MDs) are the most effective linear defects that combine the substrate and the film with different lattice parameters. A system consisting of a nonstressed film and a substrate approaches the perfect case in terms of the structural transition from one lattice parameter to the other if imperfections in the form of an ordered network of edge MDs are located exclusively at the interface, while threading dislocations are practically absent. The path to this perfect case goes through studying the possibilities of creating such an ordered network of edge MDs. The mechanism of formation of edge MDs proposed previously by Kvam et al (1990 J. Mater. Res. 5 1900) is discussed. This mechanism involves induced formation of a complementary pair of 60° MDs whose coalescence at the interface creates an edge MD. Some publications are presented, which demonstrate on the basis of experimental data that this mechanism under certain conditions can be the basic mechanism responsible for plastic relaxation of Ge-on-Si films. A cardinal method for decreasing the number of defects at the initial stages of growth of Ge/Si heterosystems is a set of procedures that allow a specified number of MDs to be inserted into the stressed film earlier than conditions of spontaneous nucleation of MDs from the film surface in the 2D-3D transition occur. When the low-temperature/high-temperature strategy of growth is used, the low-temperature GeSi seed layer tuned with respect to the growth temperature, composition and thickness can serve as a source of 60° dislocations, which facilitate earlier formation of edge MDs at the initial stage of plastic relaxation of the GeSi or Ge main layer. Results of some recent publications that report reaching high structural perfection of thin (˜1 µm and less) Ge-on-Si films are discussed. The proposed explanation of these results is based on postulates of controlled insertion of MDs and formation of edge MDs by the model of

  15. Preparation of nitrogen doped silicon oxides thin films by plasma polymerization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane using atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification techniques have been applied in various applications including self-cleaning surface, antibacterial filter, and biomaterials. In this study we employed the atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) deposition, a dry process for surface modification, to deposit 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES) on stainless steel (SS) on the purposes of simultaneously incorporating SiOx and nitrogen containing functionalities for the modulation of biofunctionality. The APPJ deposition allowed to form a thin layer of APTES with linear growth rate by controlling the deposition time. In addition, the surface chemical and physical properties, such as surface chemical composition, wettability, film thickness, and interactions with mammalian cells were evaluated by using different analytical methods. The results showed that the surface wettability was improved significantly due to the APTES deposition along with the increase of the incorporated nitrogen content. Moreover, the viability of L-929 fibroblasts was clearly promoted on the APTES deposited SS, which is most probably due to the thicker deposited films and higher density of nitrogen-containing functional groups. The outcomes of this research showed great potential to apply on metallic substrates in real time for biomedical related applications.

  16. All-acrylic film-forming colloidal polymer/silica nanocomposite particles prepared by aqueous emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Tonnar, Jeff; Armes, Steven P

    2011-09-01

    The efficient synthesis of all-acrylic, film-forming, core-shell colloidal nanocomposite particles via in situ aqueous emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with n-butyl acrylate in the presence of a glycerol-functionalized ultrafine silica sol using a cationic azo initiator at 60 °C is reported. It is shown that relatively monodisperse nanocomposite particles can be produced with typical mean weight-average diameters of 140-330 nm and silica contents of up to 39 wt %. The importance of surface functionalization of the silica sol is highlighted, and it is demonstrated that systematic variation of parameters such as the initial silica sol concentration and initiator concentration affect both the mean particle diameter and the silica aggregation efficiency. The nanocomposite morphology comprises a copolymer core and a particulate silica shell, as determined by aqueous electrophoresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Moreover, it is shown that films cast from n-butyl acrylate-rich copolymer/silica nanocomposite dispersions are significantly more transparent than those prepared from the poly(styrene-co-n-butyl acrylate)/silica nanocomposite particles reported previously. In the case of the aqueous emulsion homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of ultrafine silica, a particle formation mechanism is proposed to account for the various experimental observations made when periodically sampling such nanocomposite syntheses at intermediate comonomer conversions. PMID:21776995

  17. Relative humidity effects on the surface electrical properties of resistive plate chamber melaminic laminates uncoated and coated with polymerized linseed oil film

    SciTech Connect

    Bearzotti, Andrea; Palummo, Lucrezia

    2007-09-15

    Relative humidity is an important quantity to control in many manufacturing environments such as semiconductor industry. Humidity and moisture can affect many electronic devices, generally rendering their operation worse. In this study we present results showing that in some specific applications, humidity can improve the performance of an electronic device. Resistive plate chambers are used as trigger detectors of the muon system in LHC (large hadron collider) experiments ATLAS (a toroidal LHC apparatus), CMS (compact muon solenoid) and ALICE (a large ion collider experiment) and as detector in cosmic rays experiment ARGO (astrophysical radiation with ground-based observatory). These detectors are made of phenolic-melaminic laminate electrodes, coated with a polymerized linseed oil film delimiting the gaseous sensitive volume. The loss of some of the detector capability can be progressive in time and due to the intrinsic limits of the detector materials. One of these effects is due to an increase of the total plate resistance, that is correlated to ion migration and relativity humidity phenomena. Our purpose is to understand the relative humidity (RH) influence on the conduction mechanisms on the electrodes surface. Results of amperometric measurements on laminate samples kept at a fixed temperature of 22 deg. C, cycling RH between 10% and 90% are here presented.

  18. Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Polymerized Film of an Alkynyl-Substituted Rhenium(I) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Oppelt, Kerstin; Schlager, Stefanie; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Neugebauer, Helmut; Knör, Günther; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-01-01

    The alkynyl-substituted ReI complex [Re(5,5′-bisphenylethynyl-2,2′-bipyridyl)(CO)3Cl] was immobilized by electropolymerization onto a Pt-plate electrode. The polymerized film exhibited electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 to CO. Cyclic voltammetry studies and bulk controlled-potential electrolysis experiments were performed by using a CO2-saturated acetonitrile solution. The CO2 reduction, determined by cyclic voltammetry, occurs at approximately −1150 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE). Quantitative analysis by GC and IR spectroscopy was used to determine a Faradaic efficiency of approximately 33 % for the formation of CO. Both values of the modified electrode were compared to the performance of the homogenous monomer [Re(5,5′-bisphenylethynyl-2,2′-bipyridyl)(CO)3Cl] in acetonitrile. The polymer formation and its properties were studied by using SEM, AFM, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:23956800

  19. Determination of glucose using a coupled-enzymatic reaction with new fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film coated in microtiter plate wells

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S. M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of glucose in beverages is demonstrated using newly developed fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film that contains aluminum (III) octaethylporphyrin (Al[OEP]) ionophore and the chromoionophore ETH7075 cast at the bottom of wells of a 96-well polypropylene microtiter plate. The method uses a dual enzymatic reaction involving glucose oxidase enzyme (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), along with an organofluoro-substrate (4-fluorophenol) as the source of fluoride ions. The concentration of fluoride ions after enzymatic reaction is directly proportional to the glucose level in the sample. The method has a detection limit of 0.8 mmol L−1, a linear range of 0.9– 40 mmol L−1 and a sensitivity of 0.125 absorbance unit/decade of glucose concentration. Glucose levels in several beverage samples determined using the proposed method correlate well with a reference spectrophotometric enzyme method based on detection of hydrogen peroxide using bromopyrogallol red dye (BPR). The new method can also be used to determine H2O2 concentrations in the 0.1 - 50 mmol L−1 range using a single enzymatic reaction involving H2O2 oxidation of 4-fluorophenol catalyzed by HRP. The methodology could potentially be used to detect a wide range of substrates for which selective oxidase enzymes exist (to generate H2O2), with the high throughput of simple microtiter plate detection scheme. PMID:18480896

  20. Immobilization of DNA aptamers via plasma polymerized allylamine film to construct an endothelial progenitor cell-capture surface.

    PubMed

    Qi, Pengkai; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ying; Li, Yalong; Fan, Yi; Chen, Junying; Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-01

    The endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) capture stent has drawn increasing attentions and become one of the most promising concepts for the next generation vascular stent. In this regard, it is of great significance to immobilize a molecule with the ability to bind EPC for rapid in vivo endothelialization with high specificity. In this work, a facile two-step method aimed at constructing a coating with specific EPC capturing aptamers is reported. The processes involves as the first-step deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) on a substrate to introduce amine groups, followed by the electrostatic adsorption of a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence to the PPAam surface as a second step (PPAam-DNA). Grazing incidence attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful immobilization of the aptamers. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) real time monitoring result shows that about 175 ng/cm(2) aptamers were conjugated onto the PPAam surface. The interactions between the modified surfaces and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and murine induced EPCs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were also investigated. It was demonstrated that PPAam-DNA samples could capture more EPCs, and present a cellular friendly surface for the proliferation of both EPCs and ECs but no effect on the hyperplasia of SMCs. Also, the co-culture results of 3 types of cells confirmed that the aptamer could specifically bond EPCs rather than ECs and SMCs, suggesting the competitive adhesion advantage of EPCs to ECs and SMCs. These data demonstrate that the EPC aptamer has large potential for designing an EPC captured stent and other vascular grafts with targeted in situ endothelialization. PMID:25575347

  1. Multilayered metal oxide thin film gas sensors obtained by conventional and RF plasma-assisted laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitu, B.; Marotta, V.; Orlando, S.

    2006-04-01

    Multilayered thin films of In 2O 3 and SnO 2 have been deposited by conventional and RF plasma-assisted reactive pulsed laser ablation, with the aim to evaluate their behaviour as toxic gas sensors. The depositions have been carried out by a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser ( λ = 532 nm, τ = 7 ns) on Si(1 0 0) substrates, in O 2 atmosphere. The thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical resistance measurements. A comparison of the electrical response of the simple (indium oxide, tin oxide) and multilayered oxides to toxic gas (nitric oxide, NO) has been performed. The influence on the structural and electrical properties of the deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature and RF power is reported.

  2. Structure and morphology of c-SiC films obtained by acetylene reaction with Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Crescenzi, M.; Bernardini, R.; Gunnella, R.; Castrucci, P.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we investigated the structure and morphology of silicon carbide films grown under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions by acetylene (C 2H 2) carbonization of Si(111) surfaces kept at 650 °C. We used several UHV electron techniques to probe the local structural properties of the film and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study its morphology. Our results indicated that C atoms occupy tetrahedral substitutional sites in the Si with a C-Si bond of 1.90±0.03 Å as in a bulk cubic SiC (c-SiC) crystal. X-ray diffraction data confirmed the formation of highly (111) oriented epitaxial crystallites characterized by the c-SiC lattice. STM images showed the formation of ordered, interconnected structures, rather flat at the atomic scale, triangular in shape, characterized by the same orientation and with an average area of 5000 nm 2 and an average height of 10-15 Å. Only a few holes can be detected which may be interpreted as empty spaces left by the patchwork growth of the silicon carbide triangular islands. Therefore, our growth procedure resulted to produce crystalline c-SiC films by using one of the most lowest temperature reported in literature.

  3. Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)₂ thin film solar cell with 10.7% conversion efficiency obtained by selenization of the Na-doped spray-pyrolyzed sulfide precursor film.

    PubMed

    Septina, Wilman; Kurihara, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shigeru; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshihito; Harada, Takashi; Matsumura, Michio

    2015-04-01

    Selenium-rich Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films on an Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution containing Cu(NO3)2, In(NO3)3, Ga(NO3)3, and thiourea followed by selenization at 560 °C for 10 min. We studied the effects of intentional sodium addition on the structural and morphological properties of the fabricated CIGSSe films by dissolving NaNO3 in the aqueous precursor solution. The addition of sodium was found to affect the morphology of the final CIGSSe film: the film had denser morphology than that of the CIGSSe film obtained without addition of NaNO3. Photoelectrochemical measurements also revealed that the acceptor density of the nondoped CIGSSe film was relatively high (N(a) = 7.2 × 10(17) cm(-3)) and the addition of sodium led to a more favorable value for solar cell application (N(a) = 1.8 × 10(17) cm(-3)). As a result, a solar cell based on the sodium-modified CIGSSe film exhibited maximum conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the cell based on nondoped CIGSSe (4.4%). In addition, by applying MgF2 antireflection coating to the device, the maximum efficiency was further improved to 10.7%. PMID:25774908

  4. Optimized polymeric film-based nitric oxide delivery inhibits bacterial growth in a mouse burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Bayliss, Jill; Wu, Jianfeng; Major, Terry C; Xi, Chuanwu; Wang, Stewart C; Bartlett, Robert H; Handa, Hitesh; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has many biological roles (e.g. antimicrobial agent, promoter of angiogenesis, prevention of platelet activation) that make NO releasing materials desirable for a variety of biomedical applications. Localized NO release can be achieved from biomedical grade polymers doped with diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In this study, the optimization of this chemistry to create film/patches that can be used to decrease microbial infection at wound sites is examined. Two polyurethanes with different water uptakes (Tecoflex SG-80A (6.2±0.7wt.%) and Tecophilic SP-60D-20 (22.5±1.1wt.%)) were doped with 25wt.% DBHD/N2O2 and 10wt.% of PLGA with various hydrolysis rates. Films prepared with the polymer that has the higher water uptake (SP-60D-20) were found to have higher NO release and for a longer duration than the polyurethane with the lower water uptake (SG-80A). The more hydrophilic polymer enhances the hydrolysis rate of the PLGA additive, thereby providing a more acidic environment that increases the rate of NO release from the NO donor. The optimal NO releasing and control SG-80A patches were then applied to scald burn wounds that were infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. The NO released from these patches applied to the wounds is shown to significantly reduce the A. baumannii infection after 24h (∼4 log reduction). The NO release patches are also able to reduce the level of transforming growth factor-β in comparison to controls, which can enhance re-epithelialization, decrease scarring and reduce migration of bacteria. The combined DBHD/N2O2 and PLGA-doped polymer patches, which could be replaced periodically throughout the wound healing process, demonstrate the potential to reduce risk of bacterial infection and promote the overall wound healing process. PMID:24980058

  5. Polymerization of adamantane vapors during electrical discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, D.V.; Lavrent'ev, A.V.; Barshavskaya, I.G.

    1987-06-01

    The authors describe the polymerization and deposition of adamantane films on quartz and molybdenum substrates under arc spraying conditions and use infrared spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy to determine the crystal and molecular structure of the resulting film. Film microhardness and electrical conductivity were also determined as was the temperature dependence of these properties.

  6. Thin and transparent films of graphene/silver nanoparticles obtained at liquid-liquid interfaces: preparation, characterization and application as SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Hiany; Oliveira, Marcela Mohallem; Zarbin, Aldo José Gorgatti

    2015-01-15

    We report here the synthesis and characterization of transparent and homogeneous thin films of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) nanocomposites, starting from graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), directly obtained at a water/toluene liquid-liquid interface. Different films (obtained by varying the Ag/rGO or Ag/GO ratio) were prepared, deposited over glass or plastic substrates, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Samples were evaluated as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), using dilute solutions (1×10(-7) mol L(-1)) of a common probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). These materials exhibit significant high-quality SERS activity, and enhanced modes could be observed for 4-ATP, which suggested that charge transfer occurred between the Ag nanoparticles and 4-ATP molecules. PMID:25454422

  7. Photodetectors of slit and sandwich types based on CdS and CdS1-xSex films obtained using MOCVD method from dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Ludmila V.; Svechnikov, Sergey V.; Tchoni, Vladimir G.

    1997-04-01

    Here we report the results of working out an original, simple in control and not requiring expensive equipment MOCVD-method for depositing films of semiconductor compounds A2B6. Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are used as starting materials. The compounds are stable, easily synthesized, cheap and low toxic. Atoms of metal and sulfur in the DTC are strongly bonded. The DTC could be easily dissolved in various organic solvents. The experimental unit for film deposition comprises a spraying apparatus, a substrate heater, and a quartz cylinder for separation of a reaction zone from ambience. The process of film deposition is carried out in air conditions. Films of CdS, bright-yellow, transparent, having mirror smooth surface at thickness less than 2 mkm and rough surface at thickness 8-12 mkm, were deposited by spraying cadmium dithiocarbamate, that is DTC with radical C2H5, solution in pyridine on substrates heated to 240-280 degrees C. Deposition rate was 60-90 nm/min. Films obtained were of hexagonal modification, polycrystalline, textured, with low, at the level of centipercents content of oxygen and carbon. Slit type photodetectors based on CdS and CdS1-xSex of 1.0 mkm thickness have dark conductivity (sigma) d equals 10-9 divided by 10-8 Ohm-1cm-1 and photoconductivity (sigma) ph equals 10-2 divided by 10-1 Ohm-1cm-1 at 200 lux. Industrially suitable technology for production of photopotentiometer on the base of these films was developed. Sandwich-type photodetectors In2S3 - CdS: Cu, Cl - In with 8-12 mkm thickness have the same value of photoconductivity and the light-to-dark ratio is 106 divided by 107. Based on sandwich-type photodetectors, a hybrid structure of pyroelectric-photodetector as a resonant-type coordinate-sensitive detector was developed.

  8. Photoresist-Free Fully Self-Patterned Transparent Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Obtained by Sol-Gel Process

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated self-patterned solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) using photosensitive sol-gels. The photosensitive sol-gels were synthesized by adding β-diketone compounds, i.e., benzoylacetone and acetylacetone, to sol-gels. The chemically modified photosensitive sol-gels showed a high optical absorption at specific wavelengths due to the formation of metal chelate bonds. Photoreactions of the modified solutions enabled a photoresist-free process. Moreover, Zn–Sn–O with a high Sn ratio, which is hard to wet-etch using conventional photolithography due to its chemical durability, was easily patterned via the self-patterning process. Finally, we fabricated a solution-processed oxide TFT that included fully self-patterned electrodes and an active layer. PMID:24686314

  9. Programmable Supramolecular Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Daan; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2015-07-13

    Living large: Rational design of self-assembly pathways has been demonstrated in supramolecular polymers. By controlling the concentration of an aggregation-competent monomer through intramolecular interactions, living supramolecular polymerization conditions were achieved. This universal approach can be used to obtain aggregates of well-defined length and narrow dispersity, and allows access to new supramolecular polymer architectures. PMID:26095705

  10. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  11. Peculiarities in electrical and optical properties of Cu2Zn1- x Mn x SnS4 films obtained by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orletskii, I. G.; Mar'yanchuk, P. D.; Solovan, M. N.; Maistruk, E. V.; Kozyarskii, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of Cu2Zn1- x Mn x SnS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions have been obtained for the first time by the spray pyrolysis of aqueous salt solutions (copper, zinc, manganese, and tin chlorides and thiourea) at a temperature of T S = 563 K. The films possess specific electric conductivities within σ ≈ 35-422 Ω-1 cm-1 and optical bandgap width E g op that increases with the manganese content from 1.54 eV ( x = 0) to 2.25 eV ( x = 1). Electrical and optical properties of the obtained films have been studied and analyzed based on a model of polycrystalline materials with grain boundaries. The energy barriers Eb between grains have been determined. The dependence of the bandgap of Cu2Zn1- x Mn x SnS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions on the composition has been established using the results of measurements of the optical transmission and absorption coefficients.

  12. Use of a self-assembling organogel as a reverse template in the preparation of imprinted porous polymer films.

    PubMed

    Tan, Grace; Singh, Mohit; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; McPherson, Gary L

    2005-09-27

    The concept of reverse templating of an organogel to form imprinted porous divinylbenzene polymer films with submicrometer channels is demonstrated. The organogel comprising a 1:1 molar ratio of two organogelators, that is, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate and 4-chlorophenol, was formed in divinylbenzene. The gel was cast as a thin film before UV polymerization of the solvent, and the organogelators were later removed by simple washing with water and isooctane. The integrity of the fiber bundles of the organogel was preserved during polymerization, and an exact hollow replica was obtained after the organogelators were leached away. It is easily possible to imprint gel fiber bundle structures into polymeric films through this technique. The gel can also be formed on macroporous substrates to yield supported thin porous polymeric films. With the incorporation of functional nanoparticles in AOT inverse micelles and hence the organogel, nanoparticle-containing porous polymer films exhibiting luminescence or magnetic properties are envisioned. PMID:16171368

  13. Analysis of beer volatiles by polymeric imidazolium-solid phase microextraction coatings: Synthesis and characterization of polymeric imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, Jaime; Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Arias-Abrodo, Pilar; Pello-Palma, Jairo; Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Busto, Eduardo; Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, María Dolores

    2013-08-30

    Two polymeric ionic liquids, 3-(but-3″-en-1″-yl)-1-[2'-hydroxycyclohexyl]-1H-imidazol-3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (IL-1) and 1-(2'-hydroxycyclohexyl)-3-(4″-vinylbenzyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (IL-2), have been synthesized by a free radical polymerization reaction and used as coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). These new fibers exhibit good film stability, high thermal stability (270-290°C) and long lifetimes, and are used for the extraction of volatile compounds in lemon beer using gas chromatography separation and flame ionization detection. The scanning electron micrographs of the fiber surface revealed a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) film, which is distributed homogeneously on the fiber. The developed PIL fiber showed good linearity between 50 and 2000μg/L with regression coefficients in the range of 0.996-0.999. The relative standard deviations (RSD) obtained in the peak area were found to vary between 1% and 12%, which assured that adequate repeatability was achieved. The spiked recoveries for three beer samples ranged from 78.4% to 123.6%. Experimental design has been employed in the optimization of extraction factors and robustness assessment. The polymeric IL-1 butenyl fiber showed a greater efficiency compared to the PDMS-DVB (65μm) and CAR-PDMS (75μm) for the extraction of all of the analytes studied. PMID:23891206

  14. Novel polymeric sulfonium photoacid generator and its application for chemically amplified photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Qiao, Yu; Wang, Liyuan

    2014-03-01

    Chemically amplified resists (CARs) which involved the photoacid generator (PAG) have been widely used because of the high sensitivity. The inherent incompatibility between the polymer matrix and small molecular PAGs leads to problems including PAG phase separation, non-uniform initial PAG and photoacid distribution, as well as acid migration during the post-exposure baking (PEB) processes. The polymeric PAGs based resist systems which incorporated the PAG units into the main chain showed improved lithographic performance, such as faster photospeed and higher stability, lower outgassing, and lower LER than corresponding blend resists. In this paper, a novel type of polymeric PAGs based on poly (4-hydroxylstyrene) (PHS) was discussed. Chemically amplified photorssists were formed by the polymeric PAG and other film forming material containing acid labile groups. The polymeric PAGs showed advantage over the common small molecular PAG and patterns with 180 nm resolution was obtained in the 248-nm lithography.

  15. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  16. Localized corrosion of 316L stainless steel with SiO2-CaO films obtained by means of sol-gel treatment.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Regí, M; Izquierdo-Barba, I; Gil, F J

    2003-11-01

    Sol-gel films on austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) polished wafer were prepared from sono-sols obtained from tetraethylorthosilane and hydrated calcium nitrate. However, pitting was observed in different places on the stainless steel surfaces. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by the polarization resistance in simulated body fluid environment at 37 degrees C. The critical current density, the passive current density, the corrosion potential, and the critical pitting potential were studied. The austenitic stainless steel 316L treated presents important electrochemical corrosion and consequently its application as endosseous implants is not possible. PMID:14566812

  17. Gaseous benzene degradation by photocatalysis using ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films obtained by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, F A; Torres-Delgado, G; Castanedo-Pérez, R; Zelaya-Ángel, O

    2016-07-01

    The benzene pollutant in gaseous phase was successfully degraded by using ZnO + Zn2TiO4 multicomponent oxide thin films as photocatalysts. The films were obtained with different Ti/Zn ratios (0, 0.20, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.67, 0.84, and 1) by the sol-gel route. The initial level of benzene concentration was 110 ± 10 ppm. The process was carried out under different conditions of relative humidity (RH): 25, 50, and 80 % in a batch-type reactor, at room temperature. The results show benzene degradation near to 95 % at t = 240 min, where the multicomponent oxide semiconductor has a Ti/Zn ratio of 0.67. Meanwhile, with the TiO2 thin films, only a degradation of 70 % was reached at the same measurement conditions. This synergistic effect on the photocatalytic activity is a result of the coupling of both semiconductor oxides. An adverse effect on the photocatalytic activity was observed as the relative humidity increases. PMID:27023805

  18. Custom-made morphologies of ZnO nanostructured films templated by a poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer obtained by a sol-gel technique.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kuhu; Rawolle, Monika; Herzig, Eva M; Wang, Weijia; Buffet, Adeline; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured films are synthesized on silicon substrates to form different morphologies that consist of foamlike structures, wormlike aggregates, circular vesicles, and spherical granules. The synthesis involves a sol-gel mechanism coupled with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide), P(S-b-EO), which acts as a structure-directing template. The ZnO precursor zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) is incorporated into the poly(ethylene oxide) block. Different morphologies are obtained by adjusting the weight fractions of the solvents and ZAD. The sizes of the structure in solution for different sol-gels are probed by means of dynamic light scattering. Thin-film samples with ZnO nanostructures are prepared by spin coating and solution casting followed by a calcination step. On the basis of various selected combinations of weight fractions of the ingredients used, a ternary phase diagram is constructed to show the compositional boundaries of the investigated morphologies. The evolution and formation mechanisms of the morphologies are addressed in brief. The surface morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures are studied with SEM. The inner structures of the samples are probed by means of grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to complement the SEM investigations. XRD measurements confirm the crystallization of the ZnO in the wurtzite phase upon calcination of the nanocomposite film in air. The optical properties of ZnO are analyzed by FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:23881752

  19. Thermally induced modifications of the optic properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films obtained on different substrates by sol-gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    D'Elia, Stefano; Castriota, Marco; Scaramuzza, Nicola; Versace, Carlo; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Vena, Carlo; Strangi, Giuseppe; Bartolino, Roberto; Policicchio, Alfonso; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2008-12-15

    Lead zirconium titanate PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis, deposited on different substrates [float glass, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated float glass, and intrinsic silicon wafer], and later subjected to different thermal treatments. The morphologic and the structural properties of both PZT thin films and substrates have been investigated by scanning electron microscope and their composition was determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Moreover, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry provides relevant information on the electronic and optical properties of the samples. In particular, the optical constant dispersion of PZT deposited on ITO-coated float glasses shows a small absorption resonance in the near IR region, not observed in PZT films deposited on the other substrates, so that such absorption resonance can be explained by interfacial effects between ITO and PZT layers. This hypothesis is also supported by EDX measurements, showing an interdiffusion of lead and indium ions, across the PZT-ITO interface, that can generate a peculiar charge distribution in this region.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a magneto-polymeric nanocomposite: Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles in a grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Oliverio S.; Rodríguez-Calzadíaz, C. A.; Yáñez-Flores, Isaura G.; Montemayor, Sagrario M.

    In this work two kind of materials: (1) grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) "plastic films" and (2) magnetic plastic films "magneto-polymeric nanocomposites" were prepared. Precursor solutions or "plastisols" used to obtain the plastic films were obtained by mixing PVC (emulsion grade) as polymeric matrix, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer, a thermal stabilizer based in Ca/Zn salts, and a cross-linking agent, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATES), at several concentrations. Flexible films were obtained from the plastisols using static casting. The stress-strain behavior and the gel content (determined by Soxhlet extraction with boiling THF) of the flexible films were measured in order to evaluate the effect of the cross-linking agent and their content on the degree of cross-linking. The magneto-polymeric nanocomposites were obtained by mixing the optimum composition of the plastisols (analyzed previously) with magnetite (Fe 3O 4)-based ferrofluid and DOP. Later, flexible films were obtained by static casting of the plastisol/ferrofluid systems. The magnetic films were characterized by the above-mentioned techniques and X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and thermogravimetrical analysis.

  1. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  2. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  3. Preparation of a Proton-Exchange Me mbrane with -SO3H Group Based on Polyethylene and Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization for Proton-Exchange Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Kyum; Lee, Yong-Sang; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Kim, Sang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the preparation of a proton-exchange membrane (PEM) with sulfonic acid (-SO3H) groups based on polyethylene (PE) films and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) films by the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of sodium styrene sulfonate (NaSS) in the presence of the polymerizable access agents, such as acrylic acid and pyrollidone in a methanol solution. A PEM with -SO3H based on PE and PVdF films were confirmed by ATR, XPS and contact angle measurements. The water uptake (%), graft yield (%), ion-exchange content (mmol/g), and proton conductivity (S/cm), as well as the current density (mA/cm2), and power density (mW/cm) for PEM with -SO3H groups prepared by RIGP were evaluated. The PEM prepared with the -SO3H groups based on PE and PVdF films can be used as a proton-exchange fuel cell membrane. PMID:26716266

  4. Photochromic properties of 1,3,3-trimethyl-6'-nitrospiro (indolino-2,2'-(2h-1)benzothiopyran) in polymeric films

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, A.V.; Cherkashin, M.I.; Ermakova, V.D.; Marevstev, V.S.

    1986-01-10

    An indolinobenzothiopyran with an electron-acceptor substituent, the NO/sub 2/ group, in position 6 has been synthesized, and its photochromic behavior in various polymeric matrices has been investigated. The authors found that the photochromic behavior of an indolinobenzothiopyran in polymeric matrices is similar in many respects to the behavior of its oxygen-containing analog. However, the substantial bathochromic shift of the absorption maximum of the photoinduced form suggest that the spirothiopyrans can be used in multicolor imaging of optical information.

  5. Deposition of photocatalytically active TiO2 films by inkjet printing of TiO2 nanoparticle suspensions obtained from microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arin, Melis; Lommens, Petra; Hopkins, Simon C; Pollefeyt, Glenn; Van der Eycken, Johan; Ricart, Susagna; Granados, Xavier; Glowacki, Bartek A; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2012-04-27

    In this paper, we present an inkjet printing approach suited for the deposition of photocatalytically active, transparent titanium oxide coatings from an aqueous, colloidal suspension. We used a bottom-up approach in which a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of titanium propoxide aqueous solutions in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and triethanolamine was used to create suspensions containing titania nanoparticles. Different inkjet printing set-ups, electromagnetic and piezoelectric driven, were tested to deposit the inks on glass substrates. The presence of preformed titania nanoparticles was expected to make it possible to reduce the heating temperature necessary to obtain the functionality of photocatalysis which can widen the application range of the approach to heat-sensitive substrates. We investigated the crystallinity and size of the obtained nanoparticles by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The rheological properties of the suspensions were evaluated against the relevant criteria for inkjet printing and the jettability was analyzed. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained layers was analyzed by following the decomposition of a methylene blue solution under UV illumination. The influence of the heat treatment temperature on the film roughness, thickness and photocatalytic activity was studied. Good photocatalytic performance was achieved for heat treatments at temperatures as low as 150 °C, introducing the possibility of using this approach for heat-sensitive substrates. PMID:22460736

  6. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles. PMID:16430253

  7. A review of melt and vapor growth techniques for polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for the growth of polydiacetylene thin films by melt and vapor growth and their subsequent polymerization are summarized. Films with random orientations were obtained when glass or quartz were used as substrates in the vapor growth process. Oriented polydiacetylene films were fabricated by the vapor deposition of diacetylene monomer onto oriented polydiacetylene on a glass substrate and its subsequent polymerization by UV light. A method for the growth of oriented thin films by a melt-shear growth process as well as a method of film growth by seeded recrstallization from the melt between glass plates, that may be applied to the growth of polydiacetylene films, are described. Moreover, a method is presented for the fabrication of single crystal thin films of polyacetylenes by irradiation of the surface of diacetylene single crystals to a depth between 100 and 2000 angstroms.

  8. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  9. Method of Making Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Proelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers, acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors. in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors, weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 100 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium: applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  10. SU-E-T-160: Evaluation of Accuracy for Target Margin Size Obtained From CBCT On Lung SBRT Based On Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Lee, M; Kim, M; Suh, T; Park, J; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analysis delivered dose on target using gafchromic films for evaluating accuracy of target margin size obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) Methods: The phantom consists of measurement part and driving part. The motor of Quasar motion phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc, London, ON, Canada) was used for driving part and we developed measurement part which consist of cork cylindrical body and acrylic target with radiochromic film inserted into central and both ends of acrylic target. In this study lung SBRT cases through both four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and CBCT were selected. Target contouring including margin based on 4DCT is defined with a 1 cm margin around gross tumor volume (GTV) in all directions except for inferior direction. The moving range in inferior direction was larger than other directions thus, including 2 cm margin. In case of CBCT, the margin means blurring of target on CBCT images. This study was compared margin size determined through 4DCT and that of based on CBCT and we also evaluated dose profile and the length of margin in superior-inferior direction on CBCT compared with 4DCT. Results: The length of target including margin was 2.48 cm (based on CBCT) and 2.66 cm (based on 4DCT), respectively in superior-inferior direction. The difference of delivered dose on target between two margins was only within 1%. Conclusions: This study has shown the feasibility of determining target margin using CBCT for delivering more accurate prescription dose to lung cancer.

  11. Procedure for the formation of a coating on an object by polymerization by luminescent discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The object to be coated was placed in a reaction area located in a luminescent discharge chamber. By introducing the polymerizable material in this reaction area and applying an electrical field to this reaction, a polymerized film was obtained on the coating object under controlled conditions. By the use of thermomechanical treatment on the object, the undesirable effects of discoloration, brittleness, and viscosity can be controlled.

  12. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  13. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Novel approach to produce polymerized hydrocarbon coatings using dielectric barrier controlled atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. K.; Khardekar, R. K.; Singh, Rashmi; Pant, H. C.

    2002-09-01

    Conventionally, low-pressure (<1 Torr) electrical discharges are used for material processing and thin-film deposition. These schemes suffer mainly due to the high cost of equipment and the complexity of operations. The atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma is developed using a threaded styled electrode in different configurations, and these reactors are used to produce plasma polymerized coatings, required on plane substrates as self-supporting films to obtain membranes for blocking holes in cavities, and on microballoon targets, which are used as fuel containers for inertial confinement fusion, to avoid DT gas permeation. Helium gas is used as the supporting gas for formation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma reactors. Ethylene and acetylene gases are used as monomers to produce plasma polymerized hydrocarbon films. These films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Plasma polymerized coatings of thickness 100 nm-10 μm with a smooth surface finish (rms<100 nm) are deposited successfully. The surface finish is further improved using a postdischarge configuration. Preliminary results are very encouraging but further progress is to be made in this area. We are also planning to extend this technique for C:H coating of microballoons, which are used as fuel containers in inertial confinement fusion.

  15. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  16. Effect of SiN x diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol-gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ghazzal, Mohamed Nawfal; Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiN x ) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol-gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiN x diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiN x diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol-gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiN x barrier diffusion. The SiN x barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  17. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  18. Preparation of ordered and crosslinked films from liquid crystalline vinyl ether monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, H.; Sahlen, F.; Gedde, U.W.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    Highly ordered densely crosslinked liquid crystalline poly(vinyl ether) films have been prepared by in-situ photopolymerization of oriented bifunctional mesogenic vinyl ether monomers. Orientation was achieved either by a simple surface treatment, using an unidirectionally rubbed polyimide film or by a magnetic field. Polymerization from various monomer phases resulted in LC polymer network films with different molecular organizations. The films were analyzed with small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized light microscopy and infrared-dichroism measurements. It was shown that films with nematic, smectic A and smectic B structures were obtained, the latter having a very high degree of orientation.

  19. Growth, structure and optoelectronic characterizations of high quality Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films obtained by close spaced vapor transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagna, A.; Djessas, K.; Sene, C.; Belaqziz, M.; Chehouani, H.; Briot, O.; Moret, M.

    2015-09-01

    High quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, as an absorber layer for thin films solar cell, were synthesized successfully using a simple and low cost technique, Close-Space Vapor Transport (CSVT). The films were grown on soda-lime glass substrates using a polycrystalline CZTS ingot as source of evaporation material. Influence of substrate temperature on chemical composition, morphological, structural, electrical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, Hall effect and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results from XRD and Raman characterization confirmed the formation of kesterite CZTS thin films with a (1 1 2) plane preferred orientation and Raman shift of 338 cm-1, respectively. When the substrate temperature was increased from 460 to 540 °C, the composition of the thin films becomes Cu-, Sn-poor and Zn-rich, wherein the optical band gap values increased from 1.34 to 1.52 eV. PL spectra show the presence of broad emission band at 1.28 eV. All CZTS thin films exhibit p-type conductivity. With substrate temperature of 500 °C, the CZTS thin films show the best properties as an absorber layer in thin film solar cell (Eg = 1.48 eV, p = 3.4 × 1017 cm-3, ρ = 2.6 Ω/cm, μ = 6.4 cm/V s).

  20. Effect of electric field in the course of obtaining a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O) films by dc magnetron sputtering on their composition and photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2008-11-15

    The effect of electric field on the elemental composition and photoluminescence of films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon doped with erbium and oxygen (a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O)) in the course of obtaining these films by dc magnetron sputtering is studied. Two series of films were studied in relation to the electric-field strength in the magnetron, the area of the metallic erbium target, and oxygen content in the working chamber. The first series of films was obtained using an electrically insulated substrate holder, and the second series was obtained with a positive potential at the substrate holder with respect to the cathode. It is shown that, although the character of variation in the elemental composition and photoluminescence intensity for erbium Er{sup 3+} ions differ appreciably in the films of the two series, both of these factors are determined, as a result, by the processes of sputtering oxidation of the Si and Er targets that represent the cathode.

  1. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  2. Electrodeposited thin FeCo films with highly thermal stable properties in high frequency range obtained by annealing in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, B. Y.; Phuoc, N. N.; Wu, Y. P.; Ho, P.; Yang, Y.; Li, Z. W.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of thin ferromagnetic films with thermally stable properties in the high frequency gigahertz range is crucial for applications in different advanced devices. However, it is a challenge to attain such films as the mechanism and correlation between the crystallographic structure and dynamic magnetic properties remain unclear. Herein, through an appropriate annealing process involving a temperature of 510-580 K and an applied strong magnetic field of 10 kOe along the easy-axis of electrodeposited FeCo films, magnetic properties of the films (300-450 nm) in the gigahertz range are significantly improved. Typically, the magnetic soft nanofilms display highly stable dynamic microwave properties from room temperature to 420 K, even in the presence of a high frequency of ˜1.5 GHz and a large magnetic permeability of ˜460 (the maximum value in real part). The origin of the high thermal stability is attributed to the recrystallized uniformity in crystalline orientations and larger particle sizes after the annealing, which leads to slightly increased anisotropy, stress, Curie temperature, and difference in the magnetic coercivity between the easy and hard axes for the crystalline films, thus giving rise to the steady static magnetic properties (e.g., magnetic moment of 2.02-2.05 T) against environmental temperature fluctuation. This is in contrast to conventional as-prepared thin films without annealing or annealed in a transverse applied field. This method can be applied to other ferromagnetic films to improve their thermal stability for the utilization in various high frequency devices.

  3. Cost-efficient entrapment of β-glucosidase in nanoscale latex and silicone polymeric thin films for use as stable biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Buthe, Andreas; Rashid, Muhammad Hamid; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucosidase is an ubiquitous enzyme which has enormous biotechnological applications. Its deficiency in natural enzyme preparations is often overcome by exogenous supplementation, which further increases the enzyme utilization cost. Enzyme immobilization offers a potential solution through enzyme recycling and easy recovery. In the present work Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase is immobilized within nanoscale polymeric materials (polyurethane, latex and silicone), through entrapment, and subsequently coated onto a fibrous support. Highest apparent activity (90 U g(-1) polymer) was observed with latex, while highest entrapment efficiency (93%) was observed for the silicone matrix. Immobilization resulted in the thermo-stabilization of the β-glucosidase with an increase in optimum temperature and activation energy for cellobiose hydrolysis. Supplementation to cellulases also resulted in an increased cellulose hydrolysis, while retaining more than 70% functional stability. Hence, the current study describes novel preparations of immobilized β-glucosidase as highly stable and active catalysts for industrial food- and bio-processing applications. PMID:26213079

  4. 'One-component' ultrathin multilayer films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing coating for phenytoin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Katarzyna; Łukasiewicz-Atanasov, Magdalena; Kłysik, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Puciul-Malinowska, Agnieszka; Karewicz, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Ultrathin "one-component" multilayer polymeric films for potential biomedical applications were designed based on polyvinyl alcohol,-a non-toxic, fully degradable synthetic polymer. Good uniformity of the obtained film and adequate adsorption properties of the polymeric layers were achieved by functional modification of the polymer, which involved synthesis of cationic and anionic derivatives. Synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements and elemental analysis. The layer by layer assembly technique was used to build up a multilayer film and this process was followed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The morphology and thickness of the obtained multilayered film material was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Preliminary studies on the application of the obtained multilayer film for coating of liposomal nanocarriers containing phenytoin, an antiarrhythmic drug, were performed. The coating effectively stabilizes liposomes and the effect increases with an increasing number of deposited layers until the polymeric film reaches the optimal thickness. The obtained release profiles suggest that bilayer-coated liposomes release phenytoin less rapidly than uncoated ones. The cytotoxicity studies performed for all obtained nanocarriers confirmed that none of them has negative effect on cell viability. All of the performed experiments suggest that liposomes coated with ultrathin film obtained from PVA derivatives can be attractive drug nanocarriers. PMID:26253533

  5. Growth, structure, and properties of BiFeO3/-BiCrO3 films obtained by dual cross beam PLD.

    PubMed

    Nechache, Riad; Harnagea, Catalin; Gunawan, Lina; Carignan, Louis-Philipe; Maunders, Christian; Ménard, David; Botton, Gianluigi A; Pignolet, Alain

    2007-12-01

    The properties of epitaxial Bi(2)FeCrO(6) thin films, recently synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, have partially confirmed the theoretical predictions (i.e., a magnetic moment of 2 micro(B) per formula unit and a polarization of approximately 80 microC/cm(2) at 0 K). The existence of magnetic ordering at room temperature for this material is an unexpected, but very promising, result that needs to be further investigated. Because magnetism is assumed to arise from the exchange interaction between the Fe and Cr cations, the magnetic behavior is strongly dependent on both their ordering and the distance between them. We present here the successful synthesis of epitaxial Bi(2)Fe(x)CryO(6) (BFCO x/y) films grown on SrTiO3 substrates using dual crossed-beam, pulsed-laser deposition. The crystal structure of the films has different types of (111)-oriented superstructures, depending on the deposition conditions. The multiferroic character of BFCO (x/y) films is proven by the presence of both ferroelectric and magnetic hysteresis at room temperature. The oxidation state of Fe and Cr ions in the films is shown to be 3+ only, and the difference in macroscopic magnetization with Fe/Cr ratio composition could only be due to ordering of the Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) cations to the modification of the exchange interaction between them. PMID:18276571

  6. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  7. Growth and characterization of thin oriented Co3O4 (111) films obtained by decomposition of layered cobaltates NaxCoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Kužel, Radomír; Mika, Filip

    2015-07-01

    The formation and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented Co3O4 films prepared by a novel procedure from weakly (001)-oriented NaxCoO2 is reported. The NaxCoO2 films were deposited on both single crystal and amorphous substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) method and crystallized at 700 °C. Subsequently they were transformed into (111)-oriented Co3O4 phase during post-growth annealing at 900 °C. The degree of preferred orientation in Co3O4, which was determined by phi-scan and pole figure measurements, depends on the content of Na in the starting NaxCoO2 phase. Surface morphology of the films was investigated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  8. Polymerization in the liquid crystalline state of vinyl ether monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, H.; Jonsson, H.; Gedde, U.W.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    Liquid crystalline phenylbenzoate vinyl ether was polymerized cationically in both anisotropic and isotropic monomeric melts, using photochemical initiation by onium salts. High molecular mass polymers with a narrow molecular mass distribution (around 2) were produced by cationic polymerization at high temperatures ({<=}{degrees}C). The initial state of the monomer, nematic or isotropic, did not affect neither molecular mass, molecular mass distribution, nor polymerization rate. {sup 13}C-NMR studies show that the polymer formed is atactic. Ordered 30-50 {mu}m films were produced by polymerization of mesogenic vinyl ether monomers oriented in the nematic and smectic phase.

  9. In vitro comparative survey of cell adhesion and proliferation of human induced pluripotent stem cells on surfaces of polymeric electrospun nanofibrous and solution-cast film scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hoveizi, Elham; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Tavakol, Shima; Nabiuni, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components play a critical role in regulating cell behaviors. Interactions between ECM components and cells are important in various biological processes, including cell attachment, survival, morphogenesis, spreading, proliferation, and gene expression. In this study the in vitro responses of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) on polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffold were reported in comparison with those of the cells on corresponding solution-cast film scaffold. Our results demonstrated that the nanofibrous scaffold showed better support for the attachment and proliferation of hiPSCs than their corresponding film scaffold. Consequently, we emphasize that hiPSCs can sense the physical properties and chemical composition of the materials and regulate their behaviors accordingly. PMID:25691375

  10. UV-cured polymeric films containing ZnO and silver nanoparticles with UV-vis light-assisted photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podasca, Viorica E.; Buruiana, Tinca; Buruiana, Emil C.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid polymer composites incorporating preformed ZnO alone or its mixture with Ag nanoparticles created during UV irradiation of some urethane acrylic monomers including trietoxysilylpropyl carbamoyloxyethyl methacrylate were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (1H (13C) NMR, FTIR, UV-vis, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction) and microscopic (AFM, ESEM/EDX, TEM) techniques. The results confirmed that the double bond conversion measured through FTIR spectroscopy varied in the range of 57-90% (after 60 s of irradiation), exhibiting formulation composition dependence. In the crosslinked polymer networks the existence of individual nanoparticles with primarily spherical shape and sizes between 5 and 15 nm for ZnO, and around 3 nm for in situ photogenerated silver nanoparticles was evidenced. Additionally, the photocatalytic effect of the photopolymerized hybrid films was investigated by determining the decomposition rate of the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol (over 90%) under UV (2.7 × 10-2 s-1) and visible irradiation (2.9 × 10-2 min-1). It was found that the composite films containing a higher amount of ZnO-Ag nanoparticles placed in water induced the photodecomposition of MB (∼87% after 100 min of visible irradiation; k = 2.1 × 10-2 min-1). The good efficiency of the NPs from these polymer films make them attractive for applications in photocatalysis of organic dye molecules.

  11. Polymerization in the gas phase, in clusters, and on nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    El-Shall, M Samy

    2008-07-01

    on the oligomers formed by gas-phase polymerization can be obtained using the mass-selected ion mobility technique where the measured collision cross-sections of the selected oligomer ions and collision-induced dissociation can provide fairly accurate structural identifications. The identification of the structures of the dimers and trimers formed in the gas-phase thermal polymerization of styrene confirms that the polymerization proceeds according to the Mayo mechanism. Similarly, the ion mobility technique has been utilized to confirm the formation of benzene cations by intracluster polymerization following the ionization of acetylene clusters. Finally, it has been shown that polymerization of styrene vapor on the surface of activated nanoparticles can lead to the incorporation of a variety of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles within polystyrene films. The ability to probe the reactivity and structure of the small growing oligomers in the gas phase can provide fundamental insight into mechanisms of polymerization that are difficult to obtain from condensed-phase studies. These experiments are also important for understanding the growth mechanisms of complex organics in flames, combustion processes, interstellar clouds, and solar nebula where gas-phase reactions, cluster polymerization, and surface catalysis on dust nanoparticles represent the major synthetic pathways. This research can lead to the discovery of novel initiation mechanisms and reaction pathways with applications in the synthesis of oligomers and nanocomposites with unique and improved properties. PMID:18557636

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of intriguing Ru σ-acetylide complexes and the use of a photocrosslinked polymer as a springboard to obtain SHG active thin films.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Alessia; Dragonetti, Claudia; Marinotto, Daniele; Righetto, Stefania; Griffini, Gianmarco; Turri, Stefano; Akdas-Kilig, Huriye; Fillaut, Jean-Luc; Amar, Anissa; Boucekkine, Abdou; Katan, Claudine

    2016-07-01

    This work reports on the design, synthesis and photo-physical properties of two ruthenium σ-alkynyl complexes. It is shown that, despite similar optical absorption features recorded in solution, the introduction of a benzaldehyde moiety leads to an improved non-linear optical (NLO) response as measured by Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic (EFISH) generation and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) at 1.907 μm, both related to the second order hyperpolarizability. These structure-property relationships are rationalized based on few state modelling. Complex is subsequently processed to afford composite films that demonstrate a χ(2) of 1.4 pm V(-1), quite remarkable given the ease of film processing implemented in this work. PMID:27315336

  13. Biocompatible Bacterial Cellulose-Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Andrea G. P. R.; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Fernandes, Susana C. M.; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S. R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films was prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), using variable amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker. Thin films were obtained, and their physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated. The films showed improved translucency compared to BC and enhanced thermal stability and mechanical performance when compared to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Finally, BC/PHEMA nanocomposites proved to be nontoxic to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and thus are pointed as potential dry dressings for biomedical applications. PMID:24093101

  14. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.M.; Torres, J.; Lopez Carreno, L.D.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  15. On the synthesis of a compound with positive enthalpy of formation: Zinc-blende-like RuN thin films obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaruzza, E.; Battaglin, G.; Riello, P.; Cristofori, D.; Tamisari, M.

    2014-11-01

    4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrides are of interest both because of their importance for the understanding of mechanisms of phase formation in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation and because of their appealing structural and electronic properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of thin films of ruthenium mononitride (RuN) in the zinc-blende structure by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering. Films present a characteristic structure of packed columns ending with tetrahedral tips. The effect of changing the synthesis parameters was investigated in detail. It was found that RuN can be formed if the nitrogen partial pressure exceeds a minimum value and that the addition of argon has the major effect of increasing the deposition rate because of its higher sputter ability. Temperature plays an important role: if it is too high, decomposition/desorption effects overcome those leading to the formation of the compound. Phenomena resulting in the formation of RuN occur at the surface of the growing films and are related to the interactions of ruthenium with energetic nitrogen ions, or atoms, which can penetrate the first atomic layers by low energy implantation. Because of its properties and structure, this material is a promising candidate for applications like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices.

  16. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Xiang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2011-05-01

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and 1H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature ( Tg) and cold-crystallization temperature ( Tcc) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  17. Self-stratified films obtained from poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) colloidal dispersions containing poly(vinyl alcohol): a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Kevin L; Su, Shengpei; Howell, Hunter R; Urban, Marek W

    2008-03-01

    These studies focus on the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (pVOH) during colloidal synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (pMMA/nBA) and its effect on particle coalescence. Using 2D photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy and internal reflection IR imaging, we showed that the presence of pVOH creates competing environments between the copolymer particle surfaces, aqueous phases, and dispersing agents which results in migration and self-induced stratification occurring during coalescence. pMMA/nBA/pVOH films stratify to form sodium dodecyl sulfate rich film-air interfaces, and the -SO3- moieties exhibit preferential parallel orientation with respect to the surface. At the same time, the bulk of the film is dominated by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the pVOH phase and the copolymer matrix. This behavior is attributed to significant interactions between pVOH and pMMA/nBA, resulting in limited mobility of pVOH. PMID:18193907

  18. Growth promoting hormonal implant pellets coated with a polymeric, porous film promote weight gain by grazing beef heifers and steers for up to 200 days.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Smith, L L; Yazwinski, T A

    2015-04-01

    Two studies evaluated growth promoting effects of implant pellets (IP), each containing 3.5 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and 25 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), to which a polymeric, porous coating was applied. Trial 1 evaluated performance of heifers (n = 70/treatment, initial BW = 188 ± 2.2 kg) and steers (n = 70/treatment, initial BW = 194 ± 2.2 kg) implanted subcutaneously in the ear with 0 (SC), 2 (2IP), 4 (4IP), or 6 (6IP) pellets that delivered EB/TBA (mg/mg) doses of 0/0, 7/50, 14/100, and 21/150, respectively, over grazing periods of 202 d (heifers) or 203 d (steers). Animals received experimental treatments on d 0 and over the grazing period were managed as single groups by sex in a rotational grazing system. When pasture forage availability became limited, cattle were supplemented with preserved forage but not concentrate supplements. Weight gains by heifers treated with 2IP, 4IP, and 6IP were greater (P < 0.05) than SC heifers but not different from each other. Weight gains by steers treated with 2IP, 4IP, and 6IP were greater than SC steers (P < 0.05), and ADG by steers treated with 6IP was greater (P < 0.05) than steers given 2IP or 4IP. Trial 2 was a multisite grazing study performed with heifers and steers to compare ADG after treatment with one 6-pellet, coated implant delivering 21 mg EB and 150 mg TBA (6IP) to sham treated negative controls (SC) over a grazing period of at least 200 d. A completely random design was used at each site, with the goal to treat 70 cattle per site, treatment, and sex; data were pooled across sites. Heifers (n = 558, initial BW = 229 ± 16 kg) and steers (n = 555, initial BW = 235 ± 20 kg) grazed in rotational programs consistent with regional practices for an average of 202 d. When necessary, cattle were supplemented with preserved forage, but no concentrate supplements were fed. Over 202 d, ADG by heifers treated with 6IP was 11.3% greater (P = 0.0035) than SC heifers (0.64 ± 0.06 kg/d), and ADG by steers treated with

  19. Autoacceleration and kinetics of electrochemical polymerization of aniline

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yen; Sun, Yan; Tang, Xun )

    1989-06-15

    A convenient method is presented for determining the rate of polyaniline formation in the electrochemical polymerization of aniline in aqueous HCl solution utilizing cyclic potential sweep techniques. In this method, the mass of polyaniline deposited on a platinum electrode is correlated with the polymer anodic peak current that is recorded during the polymerization. The rates of polymer deposition were therefore monitored by the increases in the anodic peak current at various concentrations of aniline. A kinetic expression obtained for the polymerization accounts well for the autoacceleration process in the electrochemical polymerization of aniline and supports the mechanism of polymerization in which monomeric aniline is incorporated in the growing polymer.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect and temperature coefficient of resistance of La0.85Ag0.15MnO3 epitaxial thin films obtained by polymer-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobas Acosta, R.; Muñoz-Pérez, S.; Cadogan, J. M.; Hutchison, W. D.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    We report the magnetocaloric effects and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of La0.85Ag0.15MnO3 epitaxial thin films grown on single-crystal substrates of LaAlO3 (001) and SrTiO3 (001) using the chemical solution approach of polymer-assisted deposition (PAD). The film thicknesses are in the range 30-35 nm. Magnetocaloric effects, with entropy changes of -2.14 J/kg.K, in the case of the LaAlO3 substrate and -2.72 J/kg.K for the SrTiO3 substrate, (corresponding to a magnetic field variation of 2T) were obtained at room temperature. The refrigeration capacity at this field variation reached large values of 125 J/kg and 216 J/kg, indicating that these films prepared by PAD have the potential for microcooling applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance has been calculated from the resistivity measurements. A maximum TCR value of 3.01 % K-1 was obtained at 309 K, which shows that these films also have potential as uncooled thermometers for bolometric applications.

  1. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2012-09-01

    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  2. Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric films: theoretical study of steady-state and transient properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekkat, Zouheir; Knoll, Wolfgang

    1995-10-01

    It was shown recently that the application of a dc field across a polymer film containing polar azo dye chromophores at a temperature far below that of its glass transition leads to an appreciable polar order when the azo dyes undergo cis \\left-right-double-arrow trans isomerization. We present a detailed theoretical study of this phenomenon based on the enhanced mobility of the azo chromophores during the isomerization process. The equations representing this phenomenological theory are solved by recurrence relations of Legendre polynomials, and both the steady state and the dynamics are investigated. Analytical expressions are derived for the photoinduced polar order and its related anisotropy for both cis and trans molecular distributions.

  3. Self-assembly of block copolymers on topographically patterned polymeric substrates

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Xu, Ting

    2016-05-10

    Highly-ordered block copolymer films are prepared by a method that includes forming a polymeric replica of a topographically patterned crystalline surface, forming a block copolymer film on the topographically patterned surface of the polymeric replica, and annealing the block copolymer film. The resulting structures can be used in a variety of different applications, including the fabrication of high density data storage media. The ability to use flexible polymers to form the polymeric replica facilitates industrial-scale processes utilizing the highly-ordered block copolymer films.

  4. Research on interfacial polymerization of pyrrole assist with Span80 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. H.; Tu, Z. Y.; Zhao, N. Y.

    2016-07-01

    With assistance of surfactants, self-assembled Polypyrrole (PPy) film was prepared via oil / water interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure and morphologies of the obtained samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical performance recorded on an electrochemical workstation, mainly includes cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The prepared PPy film has its own extremely vesicular structures from results and indicates by using different concentration surfactant Span80. The PPy film prepared 25 °C with 3.32 g/L Span80 (surpass its critical micelle concentration) as a surfactant possess a supernal specific capacitance of 368.18 F/g at a scan rate 50 mV/s in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous solution at.

  5. Photovoltaic p-n structure of MoSb2‑xCuxSe4/CdS absorber films obtained via chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijila, J. J. J.; Mohanraj, K.; Sivakumar, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a novel mixed metal chalcogenide MoSb2‑xCuxSe4 nanocrystalline thin film was deposited for different copper concentrations (x = 0.0 M, 0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.3 M) on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method at room temperature. XRD patterns revealed the incorporation of copper content by the conversion of orthorhombic Sb2Se3 into Cu3SbSe3 with a shift to lower angles. Average crystallite was found to be 69 nm, 17 nm, 10 nm and 9 nm for the deposited films. FTIR spectra confirm the presence of functional groups of Trisodium citrate (TSC) and the metal oxide vibrations. FESEM analysis depicted the morphological changes with the addition of Cu content. UV–vis analysis shows higher absorption in the visible region and the band gap values are found to be 2.16–1.76 eV. Hall effect analysis confirms the p-type nature of the material. The photo-current analysis shows higher photo-conversion efficiency of 1.86% for 0.3 M copper content.

  6. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  7. Data reduction of digitized images processed from calibrated photographic and spectroscopic films obtained from terrestial, rocket and space shuttle telescopic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Microvax 2 computer, the basic software in VMS, and the Mitsubishi High Speed Disk were received and installed. The digital scanning tunneling microscope is fully installed and operational. A new technique was developed for pseudocolor analysis of the line plot images of a scanning tunneling microscope. Computer studies and mathematical modeling of the empirical data associated with many of the film calibration studies were presented. A gas can follow-up experiment which will be launched in September, on the Space Shuttle STS-50, was prepared and loaded. Papers were presented on the structure of the human hair strand using scanning electron microscopy and x ray analysis and updated research on the annual rings produced by the surf clam of the ocean estuaries of Maryland. Scanning electron microscopic work was conducted by the research team for the study of the Mossbauer and Magnetic Susceptibility Studies on NmNi(4.25)Fe(.85) and its Hydride.

  8. A simple constrained uniaxial tensile apparatus for in situ investigation of film stretching processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingpu; Li, Jing; Cui, Kunpeng; Chen, Xiaowei; Lin, Yuanfei; Xu, Jiali; Li, Liangbin

    2013-11-01

    A simple constrained uniaxial tensile apparatus was designed and constructed to obtain stress-strain curve during stretching and subsequent structural evolution of polymeric films. Stretch is carried out through two motor driven clamps in the machine direction and scissor-like clamps in the transverse direction keeping the sample width constant. The force information during film stretching process is recorded by a tension sensor and structural evolution can be obtained by in situ X-ray scattering technique. All parameters related to film stretching manufacturing, such as temperature, draw ratio, and stretching speed can be set independently, making the apparatus an effective method to explore the relationship between processing parameters and structure.

  9. Polymeric Materials Resistant to Erosion by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites are ideally suited for space vehicles because of high strength to weight ratios. The principal component of the low earth orbit (LEO) is atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen causes surface erosion to polymeric materials. Polymer films with an organometallic additive showed greater resistance to atomic oxygen than the pure polymer in laboratory experiments and in the OPM/MIR experiment. In MISSE, the film with the organometallic additive was still intact after the pure film had completely eroded.

  10. Flip-chip integration of Si bare dies on polymeric substrates at low temperature using ICA vias made in dry film photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez Quintero, Andrés; Briand, Danick; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a low temperature flip-chip integration technique for Si bare dies is demonstrated on flexible PET substrates with screen-printed circuits. The proposed technique is based on patterned blind vias in dry film photoresist (DP) filled with isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA). The DP material serves to define the vias, to confine the ICA paste (80 µm-wide and potentially 25 µm-wide vias), as an adhesion layer to improve the mechanical robustness of the assembly, and to protect additional circuitry on the substrate. The technique is demonstrated using gold-bumped daisy chain chips (DCCs), with electrical vias resistances in the order to hundreds of milliohms, and peel/shear adhesion strengths of 0.7 N mm-1 and 3.2 MPa, respectively, (i.e. at 1.2 MPa of bonding pressure). Finally, the mechanical robustness to bending forces was optimized through flexural mechanics models by placing the neutral plane at the DCC/DP adhesive interface. The optimization was performed by reducing the Si thickness from 400 to 37 µm, and resulted in highly robust integrated assemblies withstanding 10 000 cycles of dynamic bending at 40 mm of radius, with relative changes in vias resistance lower than 20%. In addition, the electrical vias resistance and adhesion strengths were compared to samples integrated with anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs). Besides the low temperature and high integration resolution, the proposed method is compatible with large area fabrication and multilayer architectures on foil.

  11. Surface modification of textile fibers and cords by plasma polymerization for improvement of adhesion to polymeric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shijian

    In this work, aramid and polyester fibers and cords were treated in a continuous or pulsed DC plasma containing organic monomer vapor in custom-built reactors. Characterization indicated that, with one monomer under different deposition conditions, plasma-polymerized films were formed on the surface of fibers and cords with a variety of properties. The films significantly improve the adhesion performance of fibers and cords to polymeric matrices. The pull-out forces of treated samples were increased up to 90% compared to untreated ones. The lower power/high pressure (LW/HP) condition consistently gave better pull-out results than high power/low pressure (HW/LP) condition, no matter what monomer was used. Pulsing the input power also affected the adhesion performance positively. The effect of plasma polymerization on fiber strength is minimal. Plasma-polymerized films were thoroughly characterized by a range of analytical techniques. All the plasma polymer films were found highly unsaturated. The films prepared in LW/HP conditions were more unsaturated and less crosslinked than those deposited in HW/LP conditions. Some pyrrole ring structures were maintained in the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPy) films, while more rings remained intact in the mild LW/HP conditions. During atmospheric exposure, oxidation was found in both PPy and PAc (plasma-polymerized acetylene) films. It finished quickly in PPy films but occurred gradually in PAc films. Thin film interferometry and nano-indentation test showed that films deposited in LW/HP conditions had lower hardness, modulus and density. Partial rupture of the plasma film on the fiber surface was found in SFM after the fiber was pulled out from epoxy matrix. Based on the extensive data and failure interface analysis, a mechanical penetrating network mechanism for adhesion improvement was proposed. Besides the effect of oxygen-containing functional groups on the plasma-polymerized films, their hardness, modulus and crosslinking

  12. Linear interfacial polymerization: theory and simulations with dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2014-11-21

    Step-growth alternating interfacial polymerization between two miscible or immiscible monomer melts is investigated theoretically and by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. In both cases the kinetics for an initially bilayer system passes from the reaction to diffusion control. The polymer composed of immiscible monomers precipitates at the interface forming a film of nearly uniform density. It is demonstrated that the reaction proceeds in a narrow zone, which expands much slower than the whole film, so that newly formed polymer is extruded from the reaction zone. This concept of "reactive extrusion" is used to analytically predict the degree of polymerization and distribution of all components (monomers, polymer, and end groups) within the film in close agreement with the simulations. Increasing the comonomer incompatibility leads to thinner and more uniform films with the higher average degree of polymerization. The final product is considerably more polydisperse than expected for the homogeneous step-growth polymerization. The results extend the previous theoretical reports on interfacial polymerization and provide new insights into the internal film structure and polymer characteristics, which are important for membrane preparation, microencapsulation, and 3D printing technologies. A systematic way of mapping the simulation data onto laboratory scales is discussed. PMID:25416911

  13. Two Photon Polymerization of Ormosils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3D structures of hybrid polymers—ORMOSILS (organically modified silicates) were produced via Two Photon Polymerization (2PP) of hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates. Synthetic routes have been used to obtain series of hybrid monomers, their structure and purity being checked by NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Two photon polymerization method (a relatively new technology which allows fast micro and nano processing of three-dimensional structures with application in medical devices, tissue scaffolds, photonic crystals etc) was used for monomers processing. As laser a Ti: Sapphire laser was used, with 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, emitting at 775 nm. A parametric study on the influence of the processing parameters (laser fluence, laser scanning velocity, photo initiator) on the written structures was carried out. The as prepared polymeric scaffolds were tested in mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts cell cultures, with the aim of further obtaining bone and dermal grafts. Cells morphology, proliferation, adhesion and alignment were analyzed for different experimental conditions.

  14. Silver nanoparticles coated with thioxanthone derivative as hybrid photoinitiating systems for free radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, Emilie; Schneider, Raphaël; Vidal, Loic; Clavier, Gilles; Balan, Lavinia

    2012-12-21

    A new type of photoinitiator for free radical polymerization was synthesized and characterized. 2-(11-Mercaptoundecyloxy)thioxanthone (1) was anchored at the surface of silver nanoparticles (NPs), and the interaction of plasmon field generated in the immediate vicinity of Ag NPs carrying the chromophores was evaluated. The optical features and structure of the silver-initiator nanoassemblies (Ag@1) were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM and XRD studies revealed the presence of ca. 5-6 nm diameter Ag NPs, and XPS also confirmed the successful anchorage of 1 at their periphery. The nanoassemblies Ag@1 were successfully used as macroinitiator for radical polymerization of acrylate monomers, triggered photochemically, to obtain Ag(0)-polyacrylate nanocomposite materials. The nanocomposite materials synthesized with the use of Ag@1 exhibit attractive possibilities for patterning the surface of thin films. PMID:23231028

  15. Ordered polymeric microhole array made by selective wetting and applications for electrochemical microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report the microelectrode array fabrication using selective wetting/dewetting of polymers on a chemical pattern which is a simple and convenient method capable of creating negative polymeric replicas using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a clean and nontoxic sacrificial layer. The fabricated hole-patterned polypropylene film on gold demonstrated enhanced electrochemical properties. The chemical pattern is fabricated by microcontact printing using octadecanethiol (ODT) as an ink on gold substrate. When PEG is spin-cast on the chemical pattern, PEG solution selectively dewets the ODT patterned areas and wets the remaining bare gold areas, leading to the formation of arrayed PEG dots. A negative replicas of the PEG dot array is obtained by spin-coating of polypropylene (PP) solution in hexane which preferentially interacts with the hydrophobic ODT region on the patterned gold surface. The arrayed PEG dots are not affected the during PP spin-coating step because of their intrinsic immiscibility. Consequently, the hole-patterned PP film is obtained after PEG removal. The electrochemical signal of the PP film demonstrates the negligible leakage current by high dielectric and self-healing of defects on the chemical pattern by the polymer. This method is applicable to fabrication of microelectrode arrays and possibly can be employed to fabricate a variety of functional polymeric structures, such as photomasks, arrays of biomolecules, cell arrays, and arrays of nanomaterials. PMID:21634409

  16. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization using double grounded electrodes with He/Ar mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Choon-Sang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Shin, Bhum Jae; Seo, Jeong Hyun

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we have proposed the double grounded atmospheric pressure plasma jet (2G-APPJ) device to individually control the plasmas in both fragmentation (or active) and recombination (or passive) regions with a mixture of He and Ar gases to deposit organic thin films on glass or Si substrates. Plasma polymerization of acetone has been successfully deposited using a highly energetic and high-density 2G-APPJ and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Plasma composition was measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). In addition to a large number of Ar and He spectra lines, we observed some spectra of C{sub 2} and CH species for fragmentation and N{sub 2} (second positive band) species for recombination. The experimental results confirm that the Ar gas is identified as a key factor for facilitating fragmentation of acetone, whereas the He gas helps the plume of plasma reach the substrate on the 2{sup nd} grounded electrode during the plasma polymerization process. The high quality plasma polymerized thin films and nanoparticles can be obtained by the proposed 2G-APPJ device using dual gases.

  18. Chemical characterization of selected LDEF polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical characterization of selected polymeric materials which received exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is reported. The specimens examined include silvered fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon thermal blanket material, polysulfone, epoxy, polyimide matrix resin/graphite fiber reinforced composites, and several high performance polymer films. These specimens came from numerous LDEF locations, and thus received different environmental exposures. The results to date show no significant change at the molecular level in the polymer that survived exposure. Scanning electron and scanning tunneling microscopes show resin loss and a texturing of some specimens which resulted in a change in optical properties. The potential effect of a silicon-containing molecular contamination on these materials is addressed. The possibility of continued post-exposure degradation of some polymeric films is also proposed.

  19. Nickel coated flyash (Ni-FAC) cenosphere doped polyaniline composite film for electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Kishore; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    A solid waste material fly ash cenosphere (FAC) was nickel coated and polyaniline in situ polymerized at -30 ± 2 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A thin film of this composite material was prepared by solution processing and surface morphology/topography was studied. High electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) was obtained for this film; 59 ± 4 μm and 133 ± 4 μm films show an average of 38 and 60 dB SE, respectively, in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). Unlike PANI film, the SE of these composite films is high at high frequency. The presence of magneto dielectric microsphere (Ni-FAC) increases the heterogeneity of the composite film in an efficient way for EMI shielding by changing film topography and increasing ac conductivity and permeability.

  20. Preparation of a Functionally Graded Fluoropolymer Thin Film and Its Application to Antireflective Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Kazuo; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawanishi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Fluoropolymer thin films were prepared by the ion-assisted vapor deposition polymerization (IAD) of 2-(perfluorohexyl) ethylacrylate (Rf-6) under Ar ion irradiation. The ion acceleration voltage Va largely affected the film characteristics. With increasing Va, the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate improved, while the surface energy and the refractive index increased. To attain a high adhesion strength, a low surface energy, and a low optical reflectivity simultaneously, a functionally graded film was prepared by varying Va from 300 to 0 V continually in the course of film growth. As a consequence, an antireflective coating with good adhesion and low surface energy was obtained. The optical reflectivity of a glass substrate was reduced from 4.9 to 0.55% at a wavelength of 400 nm by depositing a 100-nm-thick single-layer functionally graded fluoropolymer film. The surface energy of this film was 8.5 mJ/m2.

  1. Impressive electromagnetic shielding effects exhibited by highly ordered, micrometer thick polyaniline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranjini R.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Sankaran, Jayalekshmi

    2016-04-01

    The present work highlights the remarkably high shielding effectiveness of about 68 dB, exhibited by highly ordered and doped polyaniline films, in the microwave frequency range 4-12 GHz, obtained by self-stabilized dispersion polymerization as the synthesis route. The observed shielding effectiveness is found to depend quite sensitively on the electrical conducting properties, which are predominantly controlled by the nature and concentration of the dopants. The structural and morphological characterization of the films using XRD and TEM techniques reveals surprisingly high extent of crystallinity, which contributes significantly towards enhancing the electrical conductivity of the films. Most of the available reports on the microwave response of conducting polymer film samples deal with much thicker films, compared to the micrometer thick films of the present studies. The shielding effectiveness of acid doped, micrometer thick polyaniline films reported in the present work far exceeds most of the previously reported values and meets the commercial requirements.

  2. Conducting molecular composites of polypyrrole with electroactive polymeric dopantions

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.A.; Reynolds, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Polypyrrole is one of the most widely used and studied electroactive polymers due to its good conductivity and stability in air. A variety of low molecular weight and polymeric ions have been used as charge compensating dopants in conductive polypyrrole in its oxidized state. In this work we report the electro-polymerization of polypyrrole films incorporating electroactive N-substituted polyaniline polyelectrolytes as dopant ions.

  3. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates and Method Relating Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor); St.Claire, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared, This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers, acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors. in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches. adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors, weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 100 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrates; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  4. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  5. Photocatalytic thin films containing TiO2:N nanopowders obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Blanco, L.; Urzúa, M. D.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza Beltrán, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, TiO2-N powders were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, using commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the anatase phase and urea to introduce nitrogen into TiO2 in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties in the visible spectral region. Several samples were prepared by milling a mixture of TiO2-urea during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the coexistence of anatase and high-pressure srilankite TiO2 crystalline phases in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size of the powder samples decreases to 200 nm at 24 h milling time. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data showed a clear red-shift in the onset of light absorption from 387 to 469 nm as consequence of nitrogen doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-N samples was evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that TiO2-N samples had higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO2 samples, which could be assigned to the effect of introducing N atoms and XPS results confirm it. Using polyethylenimine (PEI), transparent thin films of TiO2-N nanoparticles were prepared by layer-by-layer self assembly method. UV-visible spectrophotometry was employed in a quantitative manner to monitor the adsorbed mass of TiO2 and PEI after each dip cycle. The adsorption of both TiO2 and PEI showed a saturation dip time of 15 min.

  6. Immobilization of Polymeric Luminophor on Nanoparticles Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolbukh, Yuliia; Podkoscielna, Beata; Lipke, Agnieszka; Bartnicki, Andrzej; Gawdzik, Barbara; Tertykh, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Polymeric luminophors with reduced toxicity are of the priorities in the production of lighting devices, sensors, detectors, bioassays or diagnostic systems. The aim of this study was to develop a method of immobilization of the new luminophor on a surface of nanoparticles and investigation of the structure of the grafted layer. Monomer 2,7-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)naphthalene (2,7-NAF.DM) with luminophoric properties was immobilized on silica and carbon nanotubes in two ways: mechanical mixing with previously obtained polymer and by in situ oligomerization with chemisorption after carrier's modification with vinyl groups. The attached polymeric (or oligomeric) surface layer was studied using thermal and spectral techniques. Obtained results confirm the chemisorption of luminophor on the nanotubes and silica nanoparticles at the elaborated synthesis techniques. The microstructure of 2,7-NAF.DM molecules after chemisorption was found to be not changed. The elaborated modification approach allows one to obtain nanoparticles uniformly covered with polymeric luminophor.

  7. Visualization and characterization of interfacial polymerization layer formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Benes, Nieck E; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-21

    We present a microfluidic platform to visualize the formation of free-standing films by interfacial polymerization. A microfluidic device is fabricated, with an array of micropillars to stabilize an aqueous-organic interface that allows a direct observation of the films formation process via optical microscopy. Three different amines are selected to react with trimesoyl chloride: piperazine, JEFFAMINE(®)D-230, and an ammonium functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Tracking the formation of the free-standing films in time reveals strong effects of the characteristics of the amine precursor on the morphological evolution of the films. Piperazine exhibits a rapid reaction with trimesoyl chloride, forming a film up to 20 μm thick within half a minute. JEFFAMINE(®)D-230 displays much slower film formation kinetics. The location of the polymerization reaction was initially in the aqueous phase and then shifted into the organic phase. Our in situ real-time observations provide information on the kinetics and the changing location of the polymerization. This provides insights with important implications for fine-tuning of interfacial polymerizations for various applications. PMID:25421971

  8. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  9. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  10. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  11. Polymerization catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a catalyst system for polymerizing at least one alpha-olefin under conditions characteristic of Ziegler polymerization. This system consists of: 1. a supported polymerization catalyst or mixture of polymerization catalysts prepared under anhydrous conditions by the sequential steps of: (a) preparing a slurry of inert particulate porous support material; (b) adding to the slurry a solution of an organomagnesium compound; (c) adding to the slurry and reacting a solution of a zirconium halide compound, hafnium compound or mixtures thereof; (d) adding to the slurry and reacting a halogenator; (e) adding to the slurry and reacting a tetravalent titanium halide compound; and (f) recovering solid catalyst component; 2. an organoaluminum compound; and 3. a promotor of chlorinated hydrocarbons having one to 20 carbon atoms.

  12. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  13. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Zavada, Scott R; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes--catalytic proteins--owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol-ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  14. Radiation grafting of N,N‧-dimethylacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate onto polypropylene films by one step method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Wiemer, E. A.; Macossay, J.; Bucio, E.

    2013-03-01

    The work presented herein reports on polypropylene films grafted with N,N'-dimethylacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. The grafted films were obtained by an oxidative pre-irradiation method in one step using a gamma source of 60Co. The optimal conditions such as reaction time, monomer concentrations and radiation doses were investigated. Characterization of the grafted polymers was carried out through FTIR-ATR, TGA, DSC, and swelling. Grafts onto polymeric films between 10 and 850% were obtained at doses from 20 to 150 kGy and a dose rate of 8.3 kGy/h.

  15. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-11-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite.

  16. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1994-06-14

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film. 11 figs.

  17. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1994-01-01

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film.

  18. Interfacially polymerized layers for oxygen enrichment: a method to overcome Robeson's upper-bound limit.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Wei; Tsai, Chieh; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2013-06-26

    Interfacial polymerization of four aqueous phase monomers, diethylenetriamine (DETA), m-phenylenediamine (mPD), melamine (Mela), and piperazine (PIP), and two organic phase monomers, trimethyl chloride (TMC) and cyanuric chloride (CC), produce a thin-film composite membrane of polymerized polyamide layer capable of O2/N2 separation. To achieve maximum efficiency in gas permeance and O2/N2 permselectivity, the concentrations of monomers, time of interfacial polymerization, number of reactive groups in monomers, and the structure of monomers need to be optimized. By controlling the aqueous/organic monomer ratio between 1.9 and 2.7, we were able to obtain a uniformly interfacial polymerized layer. To achieve a highly cross-linked layer, three reactive groups in both the aqueous and organic phase monomers are required; however, if the monomers were arranged in a planar structure, the likelihood of structural defects also increased. On the contrary, linear polymers are less likely to result in structural defects, and can also produce polymer layers with moderate O2/N2 selectivity. To minimize structural defects while maximizing O2/N2 selectivity, the planar monomer, TMC, containing 3 reactive groups, was reacted with the semirigid monomer, PIP, containing 2 reactive groups to produce a membrane with an adequate gas permeance of 7.72 × 10(-6) cm(3) (STP) s(-1) cm(-2) cm Hg(-1) and a high O2/N2 selectivity of 10.43, allowing us to exceed the upper-bound limit of conventional thin-film composite membranes. PMID:23731366

  19. Fabrication of triazinedithiol functional polymeric nanofilm by potentiostatic polymerization on aluminum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Yabin; Li, Yanni; Wang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The functional polymeric nanofilm of 6-(N-allyl-1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (AF17N) was prepared on pure aluminum surface by potentiostatic polymerization at different potentials. The thickness and weight of polymeric nanofilm increased proportionally to electro-polymerization potential following linear equation. The chemical structure of nanofilm was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption peaks in FT-IR and C1s, N1s, S2p, F1s and Al2p peaks in XPS spectra indicated that the polymeric nanofilm was poly(6-(N-allyl-1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-disulfide) (PAF17). The morphologies of polymeric nanofilm were also observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All the results showed that the optimal electro-polymerization potential and time were 8 V and 20 s, respectively. Uniform and compact nanofilm of PAF17 could be obtained under these conditions. It is expected that this technique will be applied in the preparation of lubricating, dielectric and hydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate.

  20. Surface properties of an indirect composite polymerized with five laboratory light polymerization systems.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Mahoko

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of laboratory light polymerization systems on the post-curing properties of a composite. An indirect composite (Sinfony) was polymerized with five polymerization systems (Visio system, Hyper LII, Pearlcure Light, Twinkle MIII, and UniXS II) using nine polymerization modes. After light exposure, Knoop hardness number, wear depth, and changes in gloss were determined. The highest hardness number was recorded with the use of the Hyper LII (120 s) and Pearlcure Light (120 s) units, whereas the lowest value was obtained with the Visio system and UniXS II (60 s). Six groups demonstrated comparable as well as higher wear resistance to toothbrush abrasion (Hyper LII 60 and 120 s, UniXS II 120 s, Pearlcure Light 60 and 120 s, and Twinkle MIII 120 s), and two groups exhibited lower wear resistance (Visio system and UniXS II 60 s). Gloss of the composite was not dependent on the polymerization mode used before wear testing. However, surface gloss was significantly reduced by toothbrush dentifrice abrasion. Within the limitations of the present experiment, it can be concluded that the Sinfony composite can be polymerized sufficiently with high-intensity light polymerization units. PMID:19550089

  1. Requirements for food packaged in polymeric films.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S S

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of barrier properties of packaging materials against environmental factors vary with food products. The chemical, physical, and biological mechanisms of food deterioration due to environmental factors, vital properties required in packaging materials, and developments in progress and future trends to maintain the required standard of food quality have been critically reviewed. Theoretical and experimental results for a variety of food products in relation to the properties of the packaging materials are discussed. Methods of prediction of food stability and their industrial applications are also emphasized by specific examples. PMID:7011684

  2. Polymeric assay film for direct colorimetric detection

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Nagy, Jon; Spevak, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A lipid bilayer with affinity to an analyte, which directly signals binding by a changes in the light absorption spectra. This novel assay means and method has special applications in the drug development and medical testing fields. Using a spectrometer, the system is easily automated, and a multiple well embodiment allows inexpensive screening and sequential testing. This invention also has applications in industry for feedstock and effluent monitoring.

  3. Polymeric assay film for direct colorimetric detection

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Nagy, Jon; Spevak, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A lipid bilayer with affinity to an analyte, which directly signals binding by a changes in the light absorption spectra. This novel assay means and method has special applications in the drug development and medical testing fields. Using a spectrometer, the system is easily automated, and a multiple well embodiment allows inexpensive screening and sequential testing. This invention also has applications in industry for feedstock and effluent monitoring.

  4. Next-generation polymeric photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Shacklette, Lawrence W.; Norwood, Robert A.; Yardley, James T.

    1997-07-01

    A versatile polymeric waveguide technology is proposed for low-cost high-performance photonic devices that address the needs of both the telecom and the datacom industries. We have developed advanced organic polymeric materials that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that determine properties such as flexibility, toughness, loss, and stability with temperature and humidity. These monomers are intermiscible, providing for precise adjustment of the refractive index from 1.3 to 1.6. Waveguides are formed photolithographically, with the liquid monomer mixture polymerizing upon illumination in the UV via either mask exposure or laser direct-writing. A wide range of rigid and flexible substrates can be used, including glass, quartz, oxidized silicon, glass-filled epoxy printed circuit board substrate, and flexible polyimide film. We discuss the use of these materials on chips, on multi-chip modules, on boards, and on backplanes. Light coupling from and to chips is achieved by cutting 45 degree(s) mirrors using excimer laser ablation. Fabrication of the planar polymeric structures directly on the modules provides for stability, ruggedness, and hermeticity in packaging.

  5. Performance of selected polymeric materials on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stein, Bland A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided a unique environmental exposure of a wide variety of materials for potential advanced spacecraft application. This paper examines the molecular level response of selected polymeric materials which flew onboard this vehicle. Polymers include epolyimide, polysulfone, and polystyrene film and polyimide, polysulfone, and epoxy matrix resin/graphite fiber reinforced composites. Several promising experimental films were also studied. Most specimens received 5.8 years of low Earth orbital (LEO) exposure on LDEF. Several samples received on 10 months of exposure. Chemical characterization techniques included ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and selected solution property measurements. Results suggest that many molecular level effects present during the first 10 months of exposure were not present after 5.8 years of exposure for specimens on or near Row 9. Increased AO fluence near the end of the mission likely eroded away much environmentally induced surface phenomena. The objective of this work is to provide fundamental information for use in improving the performance of polymeric materials for LEO application. A secondary objective is to gain an appreciation for the constraints and limitations of results from LDEF polymeric materials experiments.

  6. Properties of films deposited by different discharges in Sb(C2H5)3 vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazirin, Nikolay; Gritsenko, Konstantin P.

    1999-09-01

    Thin metal-filled polymer films produced by low temperature plasma are used as resistors, protective coatings, catalyzers. Among the others they are used for optical recording media. The possibility to use MOC PECVD for optical recording media production using the Te-based precursors was shown. Sb-based metal-polymer films also attract attention before because Sb is less toxic and more stable, than Te. In this work authors used plasma polymerization with simultaneous Sb evaporation forma boat. In the researches known before the precursor dissociation during PECVD is carried out mainly by low frequency, radio frequency and microwave discharges. Each of these discharges have peculiarities which result on film properties. But all these discharges effect on both dissociation and polymerization processes, which leads to difficulties to obtain films with predetermined properties. It was known before, that the pulsed discharge use for polymerization of organic monomers allows to rule of the ratio between dissociation and polymerization processes, what effects strongly films properties.

  7. Inorganic-polymer-derived dielectric films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Keefer, K.D.; Lenahan, P.M.

    1985-02-25

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a thin film of a predetermined porosity. The method comprises: depositing the thin film on the substrate from a non-gelled solution comprising at least one metal alkoxide of a polymeric network forming cation, water, an alcohol compatible with the hydrolysis and the polymerization of the metal alkoxide, and an acid or a base; prior to said depositing step, controlling the porosity and structure of said coating for a given composition of said solution exclusive of the acid or base component and the water component, by adjusting each of the water content, the pH, the temperature and the time of standing of said solution, increasing/descreasing the water content or the pH to increase/decrease the pore size of said coating, and increasing/decreasing the temperature or time of standing of said solution to increase/decrease the pore size of said coating; and curing said deposited film at a temperature effective for curing whereby there is obtained a thin film coating of a predetermined porosity on the substrate.

  8. Optical fiber pH sensor based on gold nanoparticles into polymeric coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, A. B.; Rivero, Pedro J.; Hernaez, M.; Goicoechea, J.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.

    2015-05-01

    A pH optical fiber sensor based on electromagnetic resonances generated in a waveguide-nanocoating interface is presented here. The incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into polymeric thin films has been deeply studied and the deposition of these thin-films onto an optical fiber core has been performed in order to obtain a resonance-based optical fiber device. The presence of both the metal nanoparticles and the polymers in the coating allows the generation of two different electromagnetic resonances: localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and lossy mode resonance (LMR). These phenomena can be simultaneously observed in the transmitted spectrum. The resultant device has shown a high sensitivity to pH changes from pH 4.0 to pH 6.0, with a large dynamical range and a very fast response.

  9. Investigation of Film Curing by Dielectric Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guma, Noemi Candelaria

    1995-01-01

    Dielectric analysis (DEA) relies on the response of molecules to a changing electric field. Permittivity (epsilon^') is a parameter obtained from DEA, which is proportional to the amount of molecular alignment (or motion). A DEA methodology was developed to evaluate and classify the degree of cure of films, and to demonstrate the mechanism of the curing phenomenon at a molecular level. The model material employed in the study was Eudragit^circler RS30D, an aqueous-based film forming polymeric material, containing 20% acetyl tributyl citrate as plasticizer. The data showed changes in the dielectric behavior of the polymer molecules in films that were subjected to accelerated stability or improper curing conditions. These dielectric changes were also manifested as changes in the permeability characteristics of the film, which ultimately influenced the final performance of the dosage form. By monitoring the dielectric behavior of the coating material during a curing cycle, a classification of three stages of curing was developed, namely undercured, optimally cured, and overcured. The changes in dielectric properties of the film reflected the changes in molecular structure, which correlated with changes in permeability and surface morphology. Based on the data, a mechanism of improper cure was proposed, which contends that the curing phenomenon is driven by two major forces, namely: the heterogenous loss and/or redistribution of plasticizer molecules during the curing process and the development of strain in the film structure during the coating process. A mathematical equation was derived to predict the epsilon^' of film-coated beads based on the epsilon^ ' data of free films cured under the same conditions. The model is based on the premise that "equal epsilon^' denotes equal mobility" for the same material, whether as free film or applied onto a substrate. The DEA technique developed and the proposed rationale of the curing phenomenon may be useful in optimizing the

  10. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membanes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanime derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  11. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-04-17

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  12. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  13. Focal Adhesion of Osteoblastic Cells on Titanium Surface with Amine Functionalities Formed by Plasma Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Heesang; Jung, Sang Chul; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2012-08-01

    To enhance the focal adhesion of osteoblastic cells on a titanium surface, plasma polymerized allyl amine (AAm) thin films were deposited by plasma polymerization. This plasma polymer functionalization of titanium is advantageous for osteoblastic focal adhesion formation. Such Ti surfaces are useful for the fabrication of titanium-based dental implants for enhancement of osseointegration.

  14. Organocatalyzed Group Transfer Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougen; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the conventional group transfer polymerization (GTP) using a catalyst of either an anionic nucleophile or a transition-metal compound, the organocatalyzed GTP has to a great extent improved the living characteristics of the polymerization from the viewpoints of synthesizing structurally well-defined acrylic polymers and constructing defect-free polymer architectures. In this article, we describe the organocatalyzed GTP from a relatively personal perspective to provide our colleagues with a perspicuous and systematic overview on its recent progress as well as a reply to the curiosity of how excellently the organocatalysts have performed in this field. The stated perspectives of this review mainly cover five aspects, in terms of the assessment of the livingness of the polymerization, limit and scope of applicable monomers, mechanistic studies, control of the polymer structure, and a new GTP methodology involving the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and hydrosilane. PMID:27427399

  15. Fiber optical beam shaping using polymeric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Queirós, R. B.; Guerreiro, A.; Ecoffet, C.; Soppera, O.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2014-05-01

    A method to control the output intensity profile of optical fibers is presented. Using guided wave photopolymerization in multimode structures the fabrication with modal assisted shaping of polymeric micro lenses is demonstrated. Results showing that a given linear polarized mode can be selectively excited controlling the intensity distribution at the fiber tip are presented. This pattern is then reproduced in the polymeric micro structure fabricated at the fiber tip thus modulating its output intensity distribution. Such structures can therefore be used to obtain at the fiber tip predetermined intensity patterns for attaining optical trapping or patterned illumination.

  16. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzuarregui, Ana Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Rodríguez, Jorge; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-10

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  17. Nanoscale thermomechanics of wear-resilient polymeric bilayer systems.

    PubMed

    Kaule, Tassilo; Zhang, Yi; Emmerling, Sebastian; Pihan, Sascha; Foerch, Renate; Gutmann, Jochen; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Berger, Rüdiger; Duerig, Urs; Knoll, Armin W

    2013-01-22

    We explore the effect of an ultrathin elastic coating to optimize the mechanical stability of an underlying polymer film for nanoscale applications. The coating consists of a several nanometer thin plasma-polymerized norbornene layer. Scanning probes are used to characterize the system in terms of shear-force-induced wear and thermally assisted indentation. The layer transforms a weakly performing polystyrene film into a highly wear-resistive system, ideal for high-density and low-power data storage applications. The result can be understood from the indentation characteristics with a hot and sharp indenter tip. The latter gives rise to a deformation mode in the fully plastic regime, enabling a simple interpretation of the results. The softening transition and the yield stress of the system on a microsecond time scale and a nanometer size scale were obtained. We show that the plastic deformation is governed by yielding in the polystyrene sublayer, which renders the overall system soft for plastic deformation. The ultrathin protection layer contributes as an elastic skin, which shields part of the temperature and pressure and enables the high wear resistance against lateral forces. Moreover, the method of probing polymers at microsecond and nanometer size scales opens up new opportunities for studying polymer physics in a largely unexplored regime. Thus, we find softening temperatures of more than 100 °C above the polystyrene glass transition, which implies that for the short interaction time scales the glassy state of the polymer is preserved up to this temperature. PMID:23256440

  18. Evidence of Phase Separation during Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2013-03-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We are developing multicomponent iCVD techniques to induce phase separation during film growth. Small molecule porogens and crosslinkers are introduced into the iCVD process during film growth of poly(glycidyl methacrylate). Analogous to well established polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) processes, porogens, such as dimethyl phthalate, are well mixed at the growing gas-film interface but are immiscible with high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization, crosslinking and PIPS are intended to occur simultaneously on the substrate, resulting in a vitrified microstructure. A series of films were grown by varying deposition rate, porogen type, and reagent flowrates. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Experiments are compared to Cahn-Hilliard theory predictions that relate the length and time scale of the phase separation to the polymer-porogen interaction energy, the rate of polymerization and the species mobility.

  19. Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition of cytocompatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) films.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Brian J; Pfluger, Courtney A; Sun, Bing; Ziemer, Katherine S; Burkey, Daniel D; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is a widely utilized biomaterial due to lack of toxicity and suitable mechanical properties; conformal thin pHEMA films produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) would thus have broad biomedical applications. Thin films of pHEMA were deposited using photoinitiated CVD (piCVD). Incorporation of ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) into the pHEMA polymer film as a crosslinker, confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resulted in varied swelling and degradation behavior. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-only films showed significant thickness loss (up to 40%), possibly due to extraction of low-molecular-weight species or erosion, after 24 h in aqueous solution, whereas films crosslinked with EGDA (9.25-12.4%) were stable for up to 21 days. These results differ significantly from those obtained with plasma-polymerized pHEMA, which degraded steadily over a 21-day period, even with crosslinking. This suggests that the piCVD films differ structurally from those fabricated via plasma polymerization (plasma-enhanced CVD). piCVD pHEMA coatings proved to be good cell culture materials, with Caco-2 cell attachment and viability comparable to results obtained on tissue-culture polystyrene. Thus, thin film CVD pHEMA offers the advantage of enabling conformal coating of a cell culture substrate with tunable properties depending on method of preparation and incorporation of crosslinking agents. PMID:23852714

  20. Microtransfer printing of metal ink patterns onto plastic substrates utilizing an adhesion-controlled polymeric donor layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Min-Kyu; Bae, Jeong Min; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for transfer-printed electrode patterns onto flexible/plastic substrates, specifically intended for metal ink that requires a high sintering temperature. Typically, metal-ink-based electrodes cannot be picked up for microtransfer printing because the adhesion between the electrodes and the donor substrate greatly increases after the sintering process due to the binding materials. We introduced a polymeric donor layer between the printed electrodes and the donor substrate and effectively reduced the adhesion between the Ag pattern and the polymeric donor layer by controlling the interfacial contact area. After completing a wet-etching process for the polymeric donor layer, we obtained Ag patterns supported on the fine polymeric anchor structures; the Ag patterns could be picked up onto the stamp surface even after the sintering process by utilizing the viscoelastic properties of the elastomeric stamp with a pick-up velocity control. The proposed method enables highly conductive metal-ink-based electrode patterns to be applied on thermally weak plastic substrates via an all-solution process. Metal electrodes transferred onto a film showed superior electrical and mechanical stability under the bending stress test required for use in printed flexible electronics.

  1. Preparation of amphiphilic glycopolymers with flexible long side chain and their use as stabilizer for emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Alvárez-Paino, Marta; Juan-Rodríguez, Rafael; Cuervo-Rodríguez, Rocío; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Fernández-García, Marta

    2014-03-01

    A glycomonomer was synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). The terminal hydroxyl moieties were activated with ester groups and subsequently the glucosamine was incorporated forming urethane linkages. The obtained glycomonomer was copolymerized with methyl acrylate by free radical polymerization varying the initial feed composition to produce different amphiphilic glycopolymers. The glycopolymers were then characterized and compared with the homologous glycopolymers based on 2-{[(D-glucosamin-2-N-yl)carbonyl]oxy}ethyl methacrylate. Both series of glycopolymers were used in emulsion polymerization of methyl acrylate as stabilizers without the addition of any cosurfactant. Although high conversions were not achieved with any of the employed surfactant, the glycopolymers provide good colloidal stability, spherical, monodisperse and small latex particles in comparison with the surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The latex particles stabilized with the glycosurfactant based on PEGMA, containing a flexible spacer between the backbone and the glucosamine, lead to smooth films whereas the short side chain surfactant from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), with higher glass transition temperature, restricts the coalescence of particles and, therefore, the film formation. Moreover, the surface bioactivity of these polymer coatings was examined by analyzing their specific interaction with the lectin, Concanavalin A, Canavalia ensiformis. The specific and successful binding to the Concanavalin A was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy for both series being more intense with increasing amount of glycounits in the glycopolymer stabilizers. Interestingly, the incorporation of a flexible spacer in the glycopolymer structures enhances the binding activity. PMID:24407696

  2. Radiofrequency plasma polymerized perfluoroionomer membrane materials

    SciTech Connect

    Danilich, M.J.; Gervasio, D.F.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    Ion exchange membranes have received considerable attention in recent years. Applications of ion exchange membranes have included such electrochemical systems as water and organic electrolyzers, redox-flow batteries, and sensors. This work is a study of radiofrequency plasma polymerization of perfluorinated acid-containing monomers and a perfluorinated {open_quotes}backbone{close_quotes} comonomer as a method for synthesizing novel polyionomer film coatings for use as membranes on electrodes and biomedical sensors. The results indicate that, by altering the deposition conditions, some control can be exercised over the retention of acid functional groups by plasma polymers. Using AC impedance measurements, the ionic conductivity of these films was found to be two to four orders of magnitude higher than their aqueous environments. In addition, several of the acid-containing plasma polymerized films were hydrophilic, having an advancing water contact angle of less than fifteen degrees. The initial results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of using acid-containing plasma polymers as crosslinked membrane materials suitable for use with electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  3. Preparation and optical properties of sol-gel-deposited electrochromic iron oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Nilgun; Tepehan, Fatma; Tepehan, Galip

    1997-10-01

    The preparation and optical properties of sol-gel deposited iron oxide films are investigated in this study. The films are deposited on glass by spin-coating from polymeric sol-gel solutions. The coating solutions were prepared from Fe(OCH3H7)3 and isopropanol. Fe2O3 films were obtained at a firing temperature 180 degrees Celsius. The films were characterized by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the films were studied in 0.5 M LiClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) solution. The CV results showed reversibility of the Li+/e- insertion/extraction process in the Fe2O3 films up to 200 cycles. Reduction and oxidation of the amorphous films in 0.5 M LiClO4-PC solution caused noticeable changes in optical absorption. XRD of the films showed that they had an amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements showed that the composition of the film is Fe2O3. In-situ spectrophotometric measurements indicated that these films show weak electrochromism in the spectral range of 350 - 800 nm. The optical band gap is estimated to be 1.92 eV for the amorphous film. The spectroelectrochemical properties clearly indicated that cyclic stability of the iron oxide films deteriorated above 200 cycles.

  4. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  5. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  6. Effective integrative supramolecular polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwei; Tian, He

    2014-09-26

    Exercise control: By taking advantage of self-sorting processes among host-guest components, a controlled supramolecular polymerization can be realized, as demonstrated recently with the preparation of a cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular polymer. This method may be used for the design of more ordered supramolecular polymers from complex and discrete components. PMID:25080388

  7. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  8. Automatic, continuous online monitoring of polymerization reactions (ACOMP): Progress in characterization of polymers and polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alb, Alina M.

    An original method is presented as an efficient technique for characterizing polymers, and understanding the kinetics of the polymerization reactions. The Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization Reactions (ACOMP) method developed at Tulane University involves following one or more characteristics of a polymerization reaction: monomer conversion, different molecular weight averages, intrinsic viscosity, etc. By performing an automatic withdrawal and dilution of the polymer solution to create a small stream which flows through a detector train, including light scattering, viscometer, refractive index, Ultraviolet/Visible detectors, a continuum of data points can be obtained, allowing powerful analysis methods to be developed. The goal of this work is to expand ACOMP to new polymerization reactions, such as free radical copolymerization, controlled radical polymerization, inverse emulsion polymerization, both to achieve a complete physical characterization of the polymers synthesized and a better understanding of the reaction mechanisms. For each of the reactions ACOMP brings significant innovations in the analysis of the kinetics. Other new methods, such as Automatic Continuous Mixing (ACM) and Simultaneous Multiple Sample Light Scattering (SMSLS) are also used, as well as traditional multi-detector Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC). As an immediate consequence it is hoped that the information on reaction kinetics and mechanisms offer a better fundamental knowledge, control and ability to optimize reactions. At the industrial scale, online monitoring should allow a more efficient use of resources, energy, reactor and personnel time as well as a higher product quality.

  9. Processing-structure-property studies of: (I) submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning and (II) films of linear low density polyethylenes as influenced by the short chain branch length in copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene and ethylene/1-octene synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pankaj

    The overall theme of the research discussed in this dissertation has been to explore processing-structure-property relationships for submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning (Part I) and to ascertain whether or not the length of the short chain branch has any effect on the physical properties of films of linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPEs) (Part II). The research efforts discussed in Part I of this dissertation relate to some fundamental as well as more applied investigations involving electrospinning. These include investigating the effects of solution rheology on fiber formation and developing novel methodologies to fabricate polymeric mats comprising of high specific surface submicron fibers of more than one polymer, high chemical resistant substrates produced by in situ photo crosslinking during electrospinning, superparamagnetic flexible substrates by electrospinning a solution of an elastomeric polymer containing ferrite nanoparticles of Mn-Zn-Ni and substrates for filtration applications. Bicomponent electrospinning of poly(vinyl chloride)-polyurethane and poly(vinylidiene fluoride)-polyurethane was successfully performed. In addition, filtration properties of single and bicomponent electrospun mats of polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene were investigated. Results indicated lower aerosol penetration or higher filtration efficiencies of the filters based on submicron electrospun fibers in comparison to the conventional filter materials. In addition, Part II of this dissertation explores whether or not the length of the short chain branch affects the physical properties of blown and compression molded films of LLDPEs that were synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst. Here, three resins based on copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene, and ethylene/1-octene were utilized that were very similar in terms of their molecular weight and distribution, melt rheology, density, crystallinity and short chain branching content and

  10. Preparing polymeric biomaterials using "click" chemistry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fei

    Significant efforts have been focused on preparing degradable polymeric biomaterials with controllable properties, which have the potential to stimulate specific cellular responses at the molecular level. Click reactions provide a universal tool box to achieve that goal through molecular level design and modification. This dissertation demonstrates multiple methodologies and techniques to develop advanced biomaterials through combining degradable polymers and click chemistry. In my initial work, a novel class of amino acid-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) materials was designed and prepared for potential applications in bone defect treatment. PEUs were synthesized via interfacial polycondensation, and showed degradability in vivo and possessed mechanical strength superior to conventionally used polyesters. Further mechanical enhancement was achieved after covalent crosslinking with a short peptide crosslinker derived from osteogenic growth peptide (OGP). The in vitro and in an in vivo subcutaneous rat model demonstrated that the OGP-based crosslinkers promoted proliferative activity of cells and accelerated degradation properties of PEUs. As a continuous study, extra efforts were focused on the development of PEUs with functional pendant groups, including alkyne, azide, alkene, tyrosine phenol, and ketone groups. PEUs with Mw exceeding to 100K Da were obtained via interfacial polycondensation, and the concentration of pendent groups was varied using a copolymerization strategy. Electrospinning was used to fabricate PEU nanofiber matrices with mechanical strengths suitable for tissue engineering. A series of biomolecules were conjugated to nanofiber surface following electrospinning using click reactions in aqueous media. The ability to derivatize PEUs with biological motifs using high efficient chemical reactions will significantly expand their use in vitro and in vivo. Based on similar principles, a series of mono- and multifunctionalized polycaprolactone (PCL

  11. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  12. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes.

    PubMed

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  13. Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films deposited by PECVD using TEOS and cyclohexene for ULSI interlayer-dielectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyeon Jin; Nam, Sang-Hun; Kim, Sungsoo; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2015-11-01

    Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates at various ratios of TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) to cyclohexene by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The as-grown polymerized thin films were first analyzed by FT-IR and XPS. The results of FT-IR showed that the hybrid polymer thin films were polymerized with each fragmented precursor. The XPS results showed the chemical species and binding energies of each species. The Si 2p core-level spectra from the hybrid polymer thin film showed the status of the Si oxidation number. Impedance analysis was utilized for the measurement of the capacitance values and I-V curves, and an ultra low-k value and leakage current density of 1.75 and 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm were obtained, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability. PMID:26537445

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and heat-insulating antimony doped tin oxide/polyurethane films by cast replica micromolding.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Huang, Baoyuan; Zhong, Mingqiang

    2009-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating superhydrophobic and heat-insulating polymeric nanocomposite films was developed. Briefly, antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles that commonly endow coats heat-insulating and transparent functions were mixed into commercial waterborne polyurethane (WPU) suspensions to obtain ATO/WPU suspensions, which were then cast onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from stamps, ATO/PU films with superhydrophobic surface and heat-insulating property were created, while PU films without ATO only showed high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the surface of ATO/PU superhydrophobic films had unique micro- and nano-structures similar with those on the lotus leaf. On the contrary, no obvious nano-structures were found on the surface of pure PU films, demonstrating mixing functional nanoparticles into polymers is a necessary and feasible step in creating superhydrophobic and functional films by replica molding method. PMID:19394955

  16. Radiation effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    It is important to study changes in properties of polymeres after irradiation with charged particles, with ultraviolet radiation, and with combinations of both. An apparatus for this purpose has been built at the NASA Langley Research Center. It consists of a chamber 9 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with a port for an electron gun, another port for a mass spectrometer, and a quartz window through which an ultraviolet lamp can be focused. The chamber, including the electron gun and the mass spectrometer, can be evacuated to a pressure of 10 to the 8th power torr. A sample placed in the chamber can be irradiated with electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, sequentially, or simultaneously, while volatile products can be monitored during all irradiations with the mass spectrometer. The apparatus described above has been used to study three different polymer films: lexan; a polycarbonate; P1700, a polysulfone; and mylar, a polyethylene terephthalate. All three polymers had been studied extensively with both electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, but not simultaneously. Also, volatile products had not been monitored during irradiation for the materials. A high electron dose rate of 530 Mrads/hr was used so that a sufficient concentration of volatile products would be formed to yield a reasonable mass spectrum.

  17. Site-selective metallization of polymeric substrates by the hyperbranched polymer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peiyuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Xiangcheng; He, Chunling; Su, Wei; Chen, Jinhao; Huo, Lini; Chen, Rui; Lu, Chensheng; Liang, Lifang

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a simple, cost-effective and universal technique for the fabrication of copper circuit pattern on flexible polymeric substrate. This method relies on a ternary polyethylenimine-poly(acrylic acid)-substrate film incorporating palladium catalysts, which are used as adhesive interlayers for the copper metallization of flexible polymeric substrates. We demonstrated the fabrication of patterned copper films on a variety of flexible polymers with minimum feature sizes of 200 μm. And the resulting copper circuit showed strong adhesion with underlying flexible polymeric substrates. The films were characterized by ATR FT-IR, contact angle, XPS, XRD, TEM and SEM. The direct patterning of metallic circuit on flexible polymeric substrate indicates great potential for the use in electronics industry.

  18. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  19. Polymeric Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.; Maurer, Wayne W.; Lipic, Paul M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Mortensen, Kell; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    1997-08-01

    High molecular weight block copolymers can be viewed as macromolecular surfactants when blended with thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers. This Letter describes the formation of polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions in mixtures containing a model diblock copolymer and two homopolymers. Although we attribute development of this equilibrium morphology to the effects of fluctuations, mean-field theory provides a quantitative strategy for preparing the bicontinuous state at blend compositions near an isotropic Lifshitz point.

  20. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  1. Analysis of Mass Loss of a Polymeric Composite under Space Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric materials find ever-widening application in space technique. This is tied with the simplicity of producing the polymeric-based composites with the predetermined set of properties. However, these materials in space become the sources of volatile products that increase density of spacecraft outer atmosphere that undermines on serviceability of the on-board equipment. Therefore, study of mass loss of spacecraft materials in service conditions is a vital task. Polymeric composites are often used as thermal control coatings (TCC), which are subjected to maximum radiation exposure in service. It is known that irradiation of a PC is accompanied by intense gas formation but evolution of volatile products (VP) through the material-vacuum surface is limited by diffusion. Well-developed surface together with little thickness of a TCC film facilitate migration of radiolysis products to free coating surface. In this case outgassing and destruction of material augment permeability of the film, accelerate migration processes and make them easier. This work is devoted to studying action of separate (electron, proton, and electromagnetic), paired, and the whole set of radiations on mass loss of a pattern material in vacuum. The primary focus was on studying and interpretation of synergistic effects appearing in the course of mass loss of the pattern materials EKOM-1 and EKOM-2 polymeric composites, the widely used spacecraft TCC. Irradiation was made by 20-50-keV electrons and 20-keV protons and electromagnetic radiation in vacuum chamber of the UV-1/2 test facility. It was found that parameters characterizing the synergistic effects of mass loss of the material for fixed conditions of electron-proton and combined radiations are the functions of irradiation time. To interpret the experimental data, a physical-mathematical model of mass loss of polymeric materials in vacuum was proposed. The obtained data can be explained by diffusion fluxes associated with the gradient of

  2. Surface wrinkling on polydopamine film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jieyun; Xie, Jixun; Han, Xue; Lu, Conghua

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a non-lithographic strategy to realize surface patterns on polydopamine films. It is based on surface wrinkling, which is induced on polydopamine (PDA) films that are grown on uniaxially pre-strained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates through self-polymerization of dopamine, followed by the pre-strain release. We investigate the influences of the experimental conditions including polymerization time, prestrain and the dopamine solution concentration on the wrinkling patterns. Furthermore, we take advantage of the reducibility of PDA to fabricate silver nanoparticle-deposited PDA films with surface-wrinkled patterns, which may have potential applications in the related fields.

  3. Optical and mechanical properties of vacuum evaporated vapour chopped polyaniline thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, J. B.; Puri, R. K.; Puri, V.

    2007-08-01

    The paper reports the effect of chopping the vapour flow on properties of vacuum evaporated polyaniline thin films synthesized by aqueous polymerization pathway. The chopper was a metallic vane of V-shaped cut out placed between the substrate and boat in the path of evaporated vapour. It interrupted the flow of vapour at a constant rate. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) studies indicated that the vacuum evaporated films are more in reduced form and contain short chain oligomers. Improved adhesion and reduced intrinsic stress of polyaniline thin film due to chopping are obtained. Higher transmittance and lower refractive index films resulted due to the process of chopping as compared to the deposited films. Chopping also produces smoother surface morphology.

  4. Modeling the chemistry of plasma polymerization using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ihrig, D F; Stockhaus, J; Scheide, F; Winkelhake, Oliver; Streuber, Oliver

    2003-04-01

    The goal of the project is a solvent free painting shop. The environmental technologies laboratory is developing processes of plasma etching and polymerization. Polymerized thin films are first-order corrosion protection and primer for painting. Using pure acetylene we get very nice thin films which were not bonded very well. By using air as bulk gas it is possible to polymerize, in an acetylene plasma, well bonded thin films which are stable first-order corrosion protections and good primers. UV/Vis spectroscopy shows nitrogen oxide radicals in the emission spectra of pure nitrogen and air. But nitrogen oxide is fully suppressed in the presence of acetylene. IR spectroscopy shows only C=O, CH(2) and CH(3) groups but no nitrogen species. With the aid of UV/Vis spectra and the chemistry of ozone formation it is possible to define reactive traps and steps, molecule depletion and processes of proton scavenging and proton loss. Using a numerical model it is possible to evaluate these processes and to calculate theoretical mass spectra. Adjustment of theoretical mass spectra to real measurements leads to specific channels of polymerization which are driven by radicals especially the acetyl radical. The estimated theoretical mass spectra show the specific channels of these chemical processes. It is possible to quantify these channels. This quantification represents the mass flow through this chemical system. With respect to these chemical processes it is possible to have an idea of pollutant production processes. PMID:12707764

  5. Frictional Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Polymer Films Subject to Constant Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of the frictional response of nanoscale viscous films are typically obtained using the surface force apparatus in which a fluid layer is confined between smooth solid substrates approaching at constant speed or force. The squeezing pressure causes lateral flow from which the shear viscosity can be deduced. Under these conditions however, molecularly thin films tend to solidify wholly or partially and estimates of the shear viscosity can exceed those in macroscale films by many orders of magnitude. This problem can be avoided altogether by examining the response of an initially flat, supported, free surface film subject to comparable values of surface shear stress by application of an external inert gas stream. This method was first conceived by Derjaguin in 1944; more recent studies by Mate et al. at IBM Almaden on complex polymeric systems have uncovered fluid layering and other interesting behaviors. The only drawback is that this alternative technique requires an accurate model for interface distortion. We report on ellipsometric measurements of ultrathin polymeric films in efforts to determine whether the usual interface equations for free surface films based purely on continuum models can be properly extended to nanoscale films. Supported by a Fred and Jean Felberg Fellowship and G. W. Housner Student Discovery Fund.

  6. Prediction of Optimum Combination of Eudragit RS/Eudragit RL/Ethyl Cellulose Polymeric Free Films Based on Experimental Design for Using as a Coating System for Sustained Release Theophylline Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Akhgari, Abbas; Tavakol, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The physicochemical properties of free films made from different mixtures of sustained release polymers were investigated, and an optimum formulation coating on drug containing pellets, based on the study of free film was evaluated. Methods: In order to determine the effect of different variables on the permeability and swelling of films and procedure optimization, the experimental design was fulfilled based on the statistical method of a 33 full factorial design, and according to this method 27 formulations were prepared. The films were prepared using casting-solvent evaporation method. Water vapor permeability, the swelling and permeability of free films in both acidic and buffer media, were carried out. Then, the pellets containing theophylline were coated with the optimum formulation. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that an increase in the free film thickness and Eurdragit RS ratio in films lowered the water vapor transmission (WVT), the swelling and the permeability of all formulations, while an increase in the quantity of ethylcellulose, up to a specific ratio (approximately 40%), decreased the permeability and swelling. The most optimum free film formulation was made up of 60% Eudragit RS and 40% ethylcellulose. Conclusion: Pellets coated with a 10% coating level of ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS (4:6) showed suitable release properties and could serve as a favorable sustained release system for theophylline. PMID:27478784

  7. [Preparation and infrared spectral analysis of nanoporous silica thin film].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Chang-rui; Feng, Jian; Yang, Da-xiang

    2005-07-01

    Crack-free homogeneous nanoporous silica films on silicon wafer have been synthesized via supercritical drying of wet gel films obtained by spin-coating the polymeric silica sol, which was prepared using sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor. The film is amorphous and nanoporous, and three-dimensional network, cross-linked by the primary particles whose sizes distribute between 10-20 nm showed respectively by XRD and SEM micrograph. The structure of the nanoporous SiO2 thin film was studied by FTIR spectra. The SiO2 thin film was composed of Si-O-Si and Si-OR, and was hydrophobic. The film contained Si-OH and became hydrophilic after being heat-treated at 250 degrees C or above in air. The heat-treated SiO2 thin film becomes hydrophobic by reacting with trimethylchlorosilane(TMCS). The TMCS-modified SiO2 thin film remains hydrophobic and can keep its nanoporous structure at a temperature lower than 450 degrees C in nitrogen. PMID:16241051

  8. Silver nanowires/polycarbonate composites for conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, I.; Navascues, N.; Irusta, S.; Santamaría, J.

    2012-09-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNW) with an aspect ratio of 85 were synthesized by a solvothermal process. The AgNW were characterized by SEM and XRD techniques. Nanocomposites of these silver nanowires in a polycarbonate matrix were prepared by simple solution mixing procedure in a concentration filler range 0-4.35 wt%. The obtained films were around 18 μm thick, optical microscopy and SEM characterization showed good dispersion of the nanowires in the polymeric matrix. The obtained composites presented low percolation threshold (0.04 wt%) and the maximum conductivity at 4.35 wt% filler loading was 2.3×10-2 S/cm.

  9. Imaging nanowire plasmon modes with two-photon polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Christian; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hohenau, Andreas; Krenn, Joachim R.; Hirzer, Andreas; Schmidt, Volker

    2015-02-23

    Metal nanowires sustain propagating surface plasmons that are strongly confined to the wire surface. Plasmon reflection at the wire end faces and interference lead to standing plasmon modes. We demonstrate that these modes can be imaged via two-photon (plasmon) polymerization of a thin film resist covering the wires and subsequent electron microscopy. Thereby, the plasmon wavelength and the phase shift of the nanowire mode picked up upon reflection can be directly retrieved. In general terms, polymerization imaging is a promising tool for the imaging of propagating plasmon modes from the nano- to micro-scale.

  10. Assembly of conductive colloidal gold electrodes on flexible polymeric substrates using solution-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Lakshmi

    This work describes the techniques of assembling colloidal gold on flexible polymeric substrates from solution. The process takes advantage of the strong affinity of gold to thiol and amino groups. Polymeric substrates were modified with silanes having these functional groups prior to Au attachment or in the case of poly(urethane urea) (PUU), no surface functionalization was required. This polymer has terminal amine and N-H groups on the polymer chain, which can act as coordination points for gold. Immersion in the colloidal gold solution led to the formation of a monolayer. Increased coverage was obtained by two methods. The first was a reduction or "seeding" process, where Au was reduced onto the attached particles on the surface. The second was using different linker molecules and creating a multilayered film by a layer-by-layer assembly. Three linker molecules of different lengths were used. Films fabricated using the smallest molecule had the least resistance whereas films fabricated with the longest molecule were not conductive. The resistance of these films may be varied easily by heating. Heating the films at temperatures as low as 120°C caused a dramatic decrease in the resistance of over six orders in magnitude. Successful attachment of gold to PUU with very good adhesion properties was also demonstrated. The attachment of gold was stable in different solvents. Upon stretching the PUU-Au films, it was observed that there is a reversible resistance increase with strain and at a certain strain, the film becomes non-conductive. This sharp transition from conductive to insulating has potential applications in flexible switches and sensors. A hysteresis in the strain-resistance curves, analogous to the hysteresis in the stress-strain curves of the polymer was also observed. Using PUU as an adhesive agent, gold electrodes were successfully assembled on Nafion-based polymer transducers. These materials showed comparable actuation behavior to the electrodes made

  11. Real-Time UV-Visible Spectroscopy Analysis of Purple Membrane-Polyacrylamide Film Formation Taking into Account Fano Line Shapes and Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Gomariz, María; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM) polyacrylamide (PA) films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided. PMID:25329473

  12. Dynamics of polymeric drop breakup in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Paulo; Gollub, Jerry; Durian, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    The dynamics of drop formation of sheared polymeric and Newtonian fluids are investigated in a 50 μm microchannel. Inverse emulsions are obtained in a cross-like geometry by impinging a continuous oil phase (with surfactant) onto either a polymeric or a Newtonian aqueous solution. The viscosity ratio between the continuous and dispersed phases is kept close to unity, and both flow rates are varied. Solutions containing small amounts (100 ppm) of flexible polymers strongly affect the filament and drop breakup processes when compared to a Newtonian solution of similar viscosity. We find that the thinning of the filament for the Newtonian case is characterized by linear decline followed by a rapid approach to breakup. The polymeric case shows an initial Newtonian-like thinning followed by a slower, elasticity- dominated thinning. Consequently, the filament breakup time and length are considerably increased for the polymeric solutions. Also, larger primary drops and beads-on-string phenomena are found for the polymer solutions.

  13. Nanofibers And Related Structures Formed By Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, S. V.

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers of cyanoacrylate were obtained by polymerization from the monomer vapor at a temperature near room temperature. The nanofibers had diameters ranging from 20 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to several millimeters. Water molecules present on the substrate initiated the living anionic polymerization. As growth continued, the living ends were carried on the tip of each growing nanofiber. These nanofibers formed on glass, metal, plastic, electrospun nanofibers of other polymers, and other surfaces. Some fibers were tapered, some were branched, and some were bent. The number of fibers was varied by controlling the exposure of the substrate to water vapor. Under different conditions the monomer vapor was collected as droplets along electrospun nanofibers, or as droplets at the points where two electrospun nanofibers crossed. The addition of the initiator caused the droplets to polymerize, forming permanent beads on the fibers, and strong mechanical connections at the cross points. This phenomenon provides new ways to construct nanofiber structures engineered on nanometer scales. For example, filters constructed from an open structure of fibers can be coated with nanofibers polymerized from a vapor of nanometer scale droplets flowing through the structure, to improve the capture of molecules or particles.

  14. Photothermal determination of thermal diffusivity and polymerization depth profiles of polymerized dental resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Torres, P.; Mandelis, A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The degree and depth of curing due to photopolymerization in a commercial dental resin have been studied using photothermal radiometry. The sample consisted of a thick layer of resin on which a thin metallic gold layer was deposited, thus guaranteeing full opacity. Purely thermal-wave inverse problem techniques without the interference of optical profiles were used. Thermal depth profiles were obtained by heating the gold coating with a modulated laser beam and by performing a frequency scan. Prior to each frequency scan, photopolymerization was induced using a high power blue light emitted diode (LED). Due to the highly light dispersive nature of dental resins, the polymerization process depends strongly on optical absorption of the blue light, thereby inducing a depth dependent thermal diffusivity profile in the sample. A robust depth profilometric method for reconstructing the thermal diffusivity depth dependence on degree and depth of polymerization has been developed. The thermal diffusivity depth profile was linked to the polymerization kinetics.

  15. Plasma polymerization of an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby nitrogen can be incorporated into an organic film from an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture using an internal electrode capacitively coupled radio frequency reactor. The presence of nitrogen has been shown directly by infrared transmittance spectra and electron spectroscopic chemical analysis data, and further indirect evidence was provided by dielectric measurements and by the reverse osmosis properties of the film. Preparation of a nitrogen containing film did not require vapor from an organic nitrogen containing liquid monomer. Some control over the bonding and stoichiometry of the polymer film was provided by the added degree of freedom of the nitrogen partial pressure in the gas mixture. This new parameter strongly affected the dielectric properties of the plasma polymerized film and could affect the reverse osmosis behavior.

  16. Acrylic esters in radiation polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, N.V.; Khoromskaya, V.A.; Shiryaeva, G.V.

    1988-03-01

    The radiation behavior of (meth)acrylic esters of varying structure was studied. It was shown that in radiation polymerization, in contrast to thermal polymerization, the structure of the ester part can significantly affect the reaction rate and capacity for polymerization in the presence of oxygen. The experimental data are explained from the point of view of consideration of nonvalence effects of the substitutent on the reactivity of the double bond.

  17. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  18. Sustainable polymerizations in recoverable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Yan, Feng; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei; Zhou, Yinxia; Chen, Jiaxin; Tang, Yishan; Texter, John

    2010-03-16

    Free radical and atom-transfer radical polymerizations were conducted in monomer/ionic liquid microemulsions. After the polymerization and isolation of the resultant polymers, the mixture of the catalyst and ionic liquids (surfactant and continuous phase) can be recovered and reused, thereby dramatically improving the environmental sustainability of such chemical processing. The addition of monomer to recovered ionic liquid mixtures regenerates transparent, stable microemulsions that are ready for the next polymerization cycle upon addition of initiator. The method combines the advantages of IL recycling and microemulsion polymerization and minimizes environmental disposable effects from surfactants and heavy metal ions. PMID:20170175

  19. Continuous polymerization reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.S.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for contacting olefinic monomer and initiator in a continuous polymerization process comprising of the steps of: creating three turbulent zones in a vessel; introducing the olefinic monomer into a first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones; introducing the initiator into a second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones, wherein the first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones is substantially diametrically opposed to the second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones respectively.

  20. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  3. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  4. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  5. Immobilization of Polymeric Luminophor on Nanoparticles Surface.

    PubMed

    Bolbukh, Yuliia; Podkoscielna, Beata; Lipke, Agnieszka; Bartnicki, Andrzej; Gawdzik, Barbara; Tertykh, Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Polymeric luminophors with reduced toxicity are of the priorities in the production of lighting devices, sensors, detectors, bioassays or diagnostic systems. The aim of this study was to develop a method of immobilization of the new luminophor on a surface of nanoparticles and investigation of the structure of the grafted layer. Monomer 2,7-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)naphthalene (2,7-NAF.DM) with luminophoric properties was immobilized on silica and carbon nanotubes in two ways: mechanical mixing with previously obtained polymer and by in situ oligomerization with chemisorption after carrier's modification with vinyl groups. The attached polymeric (or oligomeric) surface layer was studied using thermal and spectral techniques. Obtained results confirm the chemisorption of luminophor on the nanotubes and silica nanoparticles at the elaborated synthesis techniques. The microstructure of 2,7-NAF.DM molecules after chemisorption was found to be not changed. The elaborated modification approach allows one to obtain nanoparticles uniformly covered with polymeric luminophor. PMID:27090657

  6. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  7. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  8. Deformation propagation in responsive polymer network films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    We study the elastic deformations in a cross-linked polymer network film triggered by the binding of submicron particles with a sticky surface, mimicking the interactions of viral pathogens with thin films of stimulus-responsive polymeric materials such as hydrogels. From extensive Langevin Dynamics simulations we quantify how far the network deformations propagate depending on the elasticity parameters of the network and the adhesion strength of the particles. We examine the dynamics of the collective area shrinkage of the network and obtain some simple relations for the associated characteristic decay lengths. A detailed analysis elucidates how the elastic energy of the network is distributed between stretching and compression modes in response to the particle binding. We also examine the force-distance curves of the repulsion or attraction interactions for a pair of sticky particles in the polymer network film as a function of the particle-particle separation. The results of this computational study provide new insight into collective phenomena in soft polymer network films and may, in particular, be applied to applications for visual detection of pathogens such as viruses via a macroscopic response of thin films of cross-linked hydrogels.

  9. Analysis of the actuation properties of charged multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Löwen, Hartmut; Zhu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Combining elasticity theory with electrostatics, we calculate the actuation response of a charged multilayer film, which is composed of consecutively stacked piezoelectric and polymeric elastomer layers, with respect to an applied voltage. Depending on the individual material properties and polarity of the applied voltage, we show that the composite multilayer can exhibit actuation properties which are considerably better than the response of the individual constituents. It is also shown that there is a window for applied voltages within which the thickness of the composite film expands, a condition that cannot be achieved in single layer films. In particular, we apply and evaluate our theory for various piezoelectric and dielectric elastomers. The results obtained will be helpful to develop tailored composite materials with specific actuation characteristics.

  10. Adhesion between polymers and evaporated gold and nickel films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Y.; Wheeler, D. R.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain information on the adhesion between metal films and polymeric solids, the adhesion force was measured by means of a tensile pull test. It was found that the adhesion strengths between polymeric solids and gold films evaporated on polymer substrates were (1.11 + or - 0.53) multiplied by 10(6) N/M(2) on PTFE, about 5.49 multiplied by 10(6) N/m(2) on UHMWPE, and 6.54x10(6) on 6/6 nylon. The adhesion strengths for nickel films evaporated on PTFE, UHMWPE, and 6/6 nylon were found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than those for the gold coated PTFE, UHMWPE, and 6/6 nylon. To confirm quantitatively the effect of electron irradiation on the adhesion strength between a PTFE solid and metal films, a tensile pull test was performed on the irradiated PTFE specimens, which were prepared by evaporating nickel or gold on PTFE surfaces irradiated by 2-keV electrons for various times. After irradiation, the adhesion strength increased to (4.92 + or - 0.92)x10(6) N/m(2) for nickel coated PTFE and (1.82 + or - 0.48)x10(6) N/m(2) for gold coated PTFE. The improvement in adhesion for nickel is higher than that for gold.

  11. Silver metal colloidal film on a flexible polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rocío Balaguera Gelves, Marcia; El Burai-Félix, Alia; De La Cruz-Montoya, Edwin; Jeréz Rozo, Jaqueline I.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2006-05-01

    A method to prepare metallic nanoparticles films in the presence of a hydrophilic copolymer with the aim of inhibiting the formation of clusters in the nanoparticles has been developed. Thin films prepared could be used in applications such as sensors development and substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The synthesis of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles was achieved by the reduction AgNO 3 using sodium citrate with thermal treatment which results in a robust fabrication of gold and silver films. The polymeric films were prepared by polymerization 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with methacrylic acid (method 1). The other procedure employed (method 2) incorporated the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol as copolymers. A scanning electron microscope was used to provide microstructural information of coverage achieved. The ability to tune the nanocoating structure and spectral and electronic properties can be used for applications such as sensors used in the detection of explosives. Silver nanoparticles were also characterized by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which integrates high chemical sensitivity with spectroscopic identification and has enormous potential for applications involving ultra-sensitive chemical detection. Spectra were obtained using a Renishaw RM2000 Raman Microspectrometer system operating in the visible region excitation (532 nm).

  12. Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Polymeric Membranes by Inkjet Printing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Hunter, Aaron; Benavides, Sherwood; Summe, Mark J; Gao, Feng; Phillip, William A

    2016-02-10

    The fabrication of functional nanomaterials with complex structures has been serving great scientific and practical interests, but current fabrication and patterning methods are generally costly and laborious. Here, we introduce a versatile, reliable, and rapid method for fabricating nanostructured polymeric materials. The novel method is based on a combination of inkjet printing and template synthesis, and its utility and advantages in the fabrication of polymeric nanomaterials is demonstrated through three examples: the generation of polymeric nanotubes, nanowires, and thin films. Layer-by-layer-assembled nanotubes can be synthesized in a polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membrane by printing poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) sequentially. This sequential deposition of polyelectrolyte ink enables control over the surface charge within the nanotubes. By a simple change of the printing conditions, polymeric nanotubes or nanowires were prepared by printing poly(vinyl alcohol) in a PCTE template. In this case, the high-throughput nature of the method enables functional nanomaterials to be generated in under 3 min. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inkjet printing paired with template synthesis can be used to generate patterns comprised of chemically distinct nanomaterials. Thin polymeric films of layer-by-layer-assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) are printed on a PCTE membrane. Track-etched membranes covered with the deposited thin films reject ions and can potentially be utilized as nanofiltration membranes. When the fabrication of these different classes of nanostructured materials is demonstrated, the advantages of pairing template synthesis with inkjet printing, which include fast and reliable deposition, judicious use of the deposited materials, and the ability to design chemically patterned surfaces, are highlighted. PMID:26785390

  13. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of hypromellose 2910 free films.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Mencarelli, Giovanna; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2011-10-01

    It is common practice to coat oral solid dosage forms with polymeric materials for controlled release purposes or for practical and aesthetic reasons. Good knowledge of thermo-mechanical film properties or their variation as a function of polymer grade, type and amount of additives or preparation method is of prime importance in developing solid dosage forms. This work focused on the dynamic mechanical thermal characteristics of free films of hypromellose 2910 (also known as HPMC), prepared using three grades of this polymer from two different manufacturers, in order to assess whether polymer chain length or origin affects the mechanical or thermo-mechanical properties of the final films. Hypromellose free films were obtained by casting their aqueous solutions prepared at a specific concentrations in order to obtain the same viscosity for each. The films were stored at room temperature until dried and then examined using a dynamic mechanical analyser. The results of the frequency scans showed no significant differences in the mechanical moduli E' and E″ of the different samples when analysed at room temperature; however, the grade of the polymer affected material transitions during the heating process. Glass transition temperature, apparent activation energy and fragility parameters depended on polymer chain length, while the material brand showed little impact on film performance. PMID:21645616

  14. Photoacoustic Characterization of Randomly Oriented Silver Nanowire Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, R.; Leahu, G.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Nefedov, I.; Anoshkin, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the photoacoustic characterization in the UV/Vis range of randomly oriented silver nanowire films deposited onto either a quartz or polymeric substrate is presented. This study was performed for a set of films differing in both metallic nanowire dimensions, as well as metal content. Samples were prepared starting from suspensions of Ag nanowires in isopropanol (IPA) , differing in both the length and diameter of the nanowires. The obtained films were characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM) images; thus, the metal filling factor was retrieved with MATLAB software based on a visual method. Following the morphological characterization, both spectrophotometry and the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique were employed to investigate in detail the absorbance spectra of silver nanowire films, in order to evidence their peculiar properties in the UV/Vis spectral range. Specifically, this photothermal technique is particularly useful to investigate a film that may exhibit relevant scattering phenomena, as for metallic nanowire films. The obtained experimental results show that the choice of the metal filling factor may affect the absorbance spectra of the resulting mesh.

  15. Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Dingyong; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, E. G.

    2001-06-01

    Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films (6 cm in diameter), which are easily processed and show potential for nanomanipulation, have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at a relatively low temperature of 550{degree}C. The characterization, using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, shows that the nanotubes are polymerized by nanobells with nitrogen concentration of 10%. We propose a push-out growth mechanism for the formation of the special polymerized nanobell structure. A turn-on field of electron emission as low as 0.8 V/{mu}m is obtained. Fowler{endash}Nordheim, consisting of two straight lines with a gentle slope at low field and a steep one at relatively high field, are interpreted based on a top side emission mechanism related to the nanobell structures. No current saturation is found in the films. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Processable and robust MoS2 paper chemically cross-linked with polymeric ligands by the coordination of divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Tao; Tan, Zhen; Xie, Xu-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Xiong-Ying

    2013-04-01

    Inorganic graphene analogues (IGAs) are a huge and fascinating family of compounds that have extraordinary electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. However, one of the largest problems that face the industrial application of IGAs is their poor processability, which has led to a "bottlenecking" in the development of freestanding, large-area, IGA-based thin-film devices. Herein, we report a facile and cost-efficient method to chemically modify IGAs by using their abundant coordination atoms (S, O, and N). Taking MoS2 as an example, we have prepared homogeneous "solution" systems, in which MoS2 nanosheets are chemically cross-linked through a carboxylate-containing polymeric ligand, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), by copper-ion coordination. Bonding interactions between C=O bonds and sulfur atoms through copper ions were confirmed by various characterization techniques, such as UV/Vis, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy and XPS. By using our method, freestanding MoS2 paper with significantly improved mechanical properties was obtained, thus laying the basis for the mass production of large-area MoS2-based thin-film devices. Furthermore, copper-ion coordination was also applied to MoS2/PMMA nanocomposites. Direct and strong nanofiller/matrix bonding interactions facilitate efficient load transfer and endow the polymeric nanocomposites with an excellent reinforcement effect. This method may pave a new way to high-strength polymeric nanocomposites with superior frictional properties, flame retardance, and oxidation resistance. PMID:23378295

  17. Microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, Toshiki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization is presented. A system with a re-entrant microwave cavity realizes simple matching, stable plasma, and free space under the orifice of plasma steam. Hexamethyldisiloxane is employed as a monomer, while argon is used as a carrier gas. The effective area of the hydrophobic coating film used corresponds to a circle of 20 mm diameter and the deposition rate considered is 5 nm/min. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy shows that the coating film has a large molecular weight (>200 kDa), suggesting that a high-crosslinking and three-dimensional polymer matrix is formed and microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization is fulfilled.

  18. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Joachim; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren; Larsen, Nanna; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Bomholt, Julie; Ogbonna, Anayo; Almdal, Kristoffer; Schulz, Alexander; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs: aquaporin proteins (AQPs), block copolymers for AQP reconstitution, and polymer-based supporting structures. First, we briefly cover challenges and review recent developments in understanding the interplay between AQP and block copolymers. Second, we review some experimental characterization methods for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes. PMID:26264033

  19. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Habel, Joachim; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren; Larsen, Nanna; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Bomholt, Julie; Ogbonna, Anayo; Almdal, Kristoffer; Schulz, Alexander; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs: aquaporin proteins (AQPs), block copolymers for AQP reconstitution, and polymer-based supporting structures. First, we briefly cover challenges and review recent developments in understanding the interplay between AQP and block copolymers. Second, we review some experimental characterization methods for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes. PMID:26264033

  20. Hemoglobin loaded polymeric nanoparticles: preparation and characterizations.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alberto; Piras, Anna M; Schirò, Giorgio; Levantino, Matteo; Cupane, Antonio; Chiellini, Federica

    2011-05-18

    In the present work polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with m-PEG (2000) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) were loaded with human hemoglobin (Hb) and characterized from a physicochemical point of view. The assessment of structural and functional features of the loaded Hb was performed and the effect of the introduction of different reducing agents as aimed at minimizing Hb oxidation during the nanoparticles formulation process, was also investigated. Nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of 138±10 nm and physicochemical features suitable for this kind of application were successfully obtained. Although the oxidation of the protein was not avoided during its loading into nanoparticles, the presence of acidic moieties in the polymeric structure is proposed to be directly involved in the protein inactivation mechanism. PMID:21443949

  1. Electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluene sulfonate films hybridized with reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluene sulfonate (rGO-PEDOT:PTS) hybrid electrode films were synthesized directly on a substrate by interfacial polymerization between an oxidizing solid layer and liquid droplets of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) produced by electrospraying. The EDOT reduced the graphene oxide by donating electrons during its transformation into PEDOT:PTS, and hybrid films consisting of rGO distributed in a matrix of PEDOT:PTS were obtained. These rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films showed excellent electrical conductivities as high as 1,500 S/cm and a sheet resistance of 70 Ω sq-1. The conductivity values are up to 50% greater than those of films containing conductive PEDOT:PTS alone. These results confirm that highly conductive rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films can potentially be used as organic transparent electrodes. PMID:25520593

  2. Metallized polymeric foam material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, B. A.; Bilow, N.

    1974-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foams can be coated uniformly with thin film of metal by vapor deposition of aluminum or by sensitization of foam followed by electroless deposition of nickel or copper. Foam can be further processed to increase thickness of metal overcoat to impart rigidity or to provide inert surface with only modest increase in weight.

  3. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  4. 'Green' reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsarilar, Mona; Perrier, Sébastien

    2010-10-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization has revolutionized the field of polymer synthesis as a versatile tool for the production of complex polymeric architectures. As for all chemical processes, research and development in RAFT have to focus on the design and application of chemical products and processes that have a minimum environmental impact, and follow the principles of 'green' chemistry. In this Review, we summarize some of the green features of the RAFT process, and review the recent advances in the production of degradable polymers obtained from RAFT polymerization. Its use to modify biodegradable and renewable inorganic and organic materials to yield more functional products with enhanced applications is also covered. RAFT is a promising candidate for answering both the increasing need of modern society to employ highly functional polymeric materials and the global requirements for developing sustainable chemicals and processes.

  5. Rapid preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer by frontal polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xin; Pang, Qian-Qian; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Frontal polymerization was successfully applied, for the first time, to obtain molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The method provides a solvent-free polymerization mode, and the reaction can be completed in 30 min. By this approach, MIPs were synthesized using a mixture of levofloxacin (template), methacrylic acid, and divinylbenzene. The effect of template concentration and the amount of comonomer on the imprinting effect of the resulting MIPs was investigated. The textural and morphological parameters of the MIP particles were also characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy, providing evidence concerning median pore diameter, pore volumes, and pore size distributions. The levofloxacin-imprinted polymer formed in frontal polymerization mode showed high selectivity, with an imprinting factor of 5.78. The results suggest that frontal polymerization provides an alternative means to prepare MIPs that are difficult to synthesize and may open up new perspectives in the field of MIPs. PMID:23392405

  6. Hierarchical Self-Assembled Structures from POSS-Containing Block Copolymers Synthesized by Living Anionic Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Tomoyasu; Leolukman, Melvina; Jin, Sangwoo; Goseki, Raita; Ishida, Yoshihito; Kakimoto, Masa-aki; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Ree, Moonhor; Gopalan, Padma

    2010-03-16

    Two kinds of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-containing block copolymers (BCPs), namely PS-b-PMAPOSS and PMMA-b-PMAPOSS, were synthesized by living anionic polymerization. A wide range of molecular weights were obtained with a very narrow polydispersity index of less than 1.09. The bulk samples prepared by slow evaporation from a polymer solution in chloroform exhibit well-defined microphase-separated structures with long-range order. Thermal annealing induced hierarchical structures consisting of a smaller length scale ordered crystalline POSS domains within the larger microphase-separated structures. We report detailed structural characterization of these hierarchical structures in bulk and thin films by transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). On the basis of this structural analysis, we propose a model for the formation of an orthorhombic lattice structure through the aggregation of POSS segments which formed a helix-like structure.

  7. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

  8. Growth and characterization of thin oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) films obtained by decomposition of layered cobaltates Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Kužel, Radomír; Mika, Filip

    2015-07-15

    The formation and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films prepared by a novel procedure from weakly (001)-oriented Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} is reported. The Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} films were deposited on both single crystal and amorphous substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) method and crystallized at 700 °C. Subsequently they were transformed into (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase during post-growth annealing at 900 °C. The degree of preferred orientation in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which was determined by phi-scan and pole figure measurements, depends on the content of Na in the starting Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} phase. Surface morphology of the films was investigated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. - Graphical abstract: Structure of growth twins and possible O{sup 2−} stacking sequences in (111)-oriented Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) prepared by chemical solution deposition through the transformation of (001)-oriented Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} thin film. - Highlights: • Single phase Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films was prepared by means of chemical solution deposition. • Conditions for γ-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} transformation were optimized. • Growth twinning of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films due to two possible O{sup 2−} stacking sequences. • Growth with (pseudo)epitaxial relation Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111)[−121]//α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001)[10−10].

  9. A Route Towards Sustainability Through Engineered Polymeric Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reeja-Jayan, B; Kovacik, P; Yang, R; Sojoudi, H; Ugur, A; Kim, DH; Petruczok, CD; Wang, XX; Liu, AD; Gleason, KK

    2014-05-30

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polymer films represent the marriage of two of the most important technological innovations of the modern age. CVD as a mature technology for growing inorganic thin films is already a workhorse technology of the microfabrication industry and easily scalable from bench to plant. The low cost, mechanical flexibility, and varied functionality offered by polymer thin films make them attractive for both macro and micro scale applications. This review article focuses on two energy and resource efficient CVD polymerization methods, initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) and oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition (oCVD). These solvent-free, substrate independent techniques engineer multi-scale, multi-functional and conformal polymer thin film surfaces and interfaces for applications that can address the main sustainability challenges faced by the world today.

  10. Multicolor Layer-by-Layer films using weak polyelectrolyte assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Pedro Jose; Goicoechea, Javier; Urrutia, Aitor; Matias, Ignacio Raul; Arregui, Francisco Javier

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we show that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different shape, aggregation state and color (violet, green, orange) have been successfully incorporated into polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. In order to obtain colored thin films based on AgNPs is necessary to maintain the aggregation state of the nanoparticles, a non-trivial aspect in which this work is focused on. The use of Poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) (PAA) as a protective agent of the AgNPs is the key element to preserve the aggregation state and makes possible the presence of similar aggregates (shape and size) within the LbLcolored films. This approach based on electrostatic interactions of the polymeric chains and the immobilization of AgNPs with different shape and size into the thin films opens up a new interesting perspective to fabricate multicolornanocomposites based on AgNPs.

  11. Elaboration of m-cresol polyamide12/ polyaniline composite films for antistatic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdour, D.; Tabellout, M.; Bardeau, J.-F; Sahli, S.

    2013-12-16

    The present work deals with the preparation of transparent antistatic films from an extreme dilution of an intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) with not coloured polymers. Our approach is based on the chemical polymerization of a very thin layer of Polyaniline (PANI) around particles of an insulating polymer (PA12). Films were obtained by dissolving the synthesized core-shell particles in m-Cresol. The electric property and structure relationships were investigated by using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Composite films exhibited a well established dc conductivity over all the frequency range for 10 wt. % of PANI concentration related to the conductive properties of the PANI clusters. X-ray diffraction data show broader and lower intensity of PA12 peaks when increasing PANI content, probably due to the additional doping effect of m- cresol. The doping of PA12/PANI films with Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was unequivocally verified by Raman spectroscopy.

  12. A phenomenological and thermodynamic study of the water permeation process in corn starch/MMT films.

    PubMed

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2012-09-01

    Water transport in edible films of starch based products is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure of starch. Moisture sorption isotherms of starch and starch/MMT films were obtained. The results indicated that nanoclay incorporation produces a decrease of water uptake at all temperatures analysed. Thermodynamic parameters showed that sorption process is less favourable when MMT is incorporated into the starch matrix. Effect of driving force and water activity (aw) values at each side of the film on permeability and diffusivity coefficients were analysed. The effect of the tortuous pathway generated by MMT incorporation was significant only in the middle and lower range of aw. At high aw range the plasticizing effect of water dominated and MMT incorporation had little effect on the water barrier properties of these films. PMID:24751076

  13. Multicolor Layer-by-Layer films using weak polyelectrolyte assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we show that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different shape, aggregation state and color (violet, green, orange) have been successfully incorporated into polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. In order to obtain colored thin films based on AgNPs is necessary to maintain the aggregation state of the nanoparticles, a non-trivial aspect in which this work is focused on. The use of Poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) (PAA) as a protective agent of the AgNPs is the key element to preserve the aggregation state and makes possible the presence of similar aggregates (shape and size) within the LbLcolored films. This approach based on electrostatic interactions of the polymeric chains and the immobilization of AgNPs with different shape and size into the thin films opens up a new interesting perspective to fabricate multicolornanocomposites based on AgNPs. PMID:24148227

  14. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic and Luminescent Rare Earth/Polymer complex Films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zefeng; Ye, Weiwei; Luo, Xinran; Wang, Zhonggang

    2016-01-01

    The motivation of this work is to create luminescent rare earth/polymer films with outstanding water-resistance and superhydrophobicity. Specifically, the emulsion polymerization of styrene leads to core particles. Then core-shell-structured polymer nanoparticles are synthesized by copolymerization of styrene and acrylic acid on the core surface. The coordination reaction between carboxylic groups and rare earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) generates uniform spherical rare earth/polymer nanoparticles, which are subsequently complexed with PTFE microparticles to obtain micro-/nano-scaled PTFE/rare earth films with hierarchical rough morphology. The films exhibit large water contact angle up to 161° and sliding angle of about 6°, and can emit strong red and green fluorescence under UV excitation. More surprisingly, it is found that the films maintain high fluorescence intensity after submersed in water and even in aqueous salt solution for two days because of the excellent water repellent ability of surfaces. PMID:27086735

  15. Synthesis and characterization of liquid-crystalline supramolecular architecture by a combination of molecular recognition and polymerization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Cheol-Hee

    for polymers with controlled cylindrical and spherical shapes which assemble into thermotropic liquid crystalline phase. The molecular design, synthesis, characterization and polymerization of these bulky monomers and polymers requires a combination of supramolecular chemistry, liquid crystallinity and polymer science. This thesis will provide an entry into the design of visualizable polymeric materials with dramatically different properties which are determined by their shape. Cylindrical and spherical polymers obtained from flexible backbones jacketed with dendritic coats will access a mechanism to control the conformation and rigidity of their flexible chains. The rigidity of cylindrical polymers can be manipulated via their diameter, internal structure and conformational restrictions. Mechanisms to change in a reversible and controlled way to change the shape of the polymer from rod-like to spherical is elaborated and this work can open a new technological concepts in areas such as fibers, films, membranes, electronic, photonic and controlled release systems.

  16. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  17. Characterization of films based on chitosan lactate and its blends with oxidized starch and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Nowak, Jakub; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chitosan lactate (CHL) was tested against bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Then, the structural, physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of films based on CHL, oxidized potato starch (OPS), and gelatin (GEL) were investigated. With the exception of Rhizopus nigricans, CHL was effective against the target organisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) were more sensitive to CHL than Gram-negative bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Escherichia coli). Cryo-SEM images showed total miscibility between the polymers in the blends and the ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that there was an interaction among the polymeric components. Pure CHL films displayed the highest moisture content (25.51%), water vapor permeability (48.78gmmm(-2)d(-1)kPa(-1)), and the lowest tensile and puncture strength (2.00 and 1.45MPa, respectively) among the studied films. CHL50/GEL50 films had lower permeability, higher mechanical strength, and lower elongation compared to CHL50/OPS50 films. Films obtained from CHL and CHL50/GEL50 were completely water-soluble and did not show sorbitol recrystallization. The incorporation of CHL into OPS and GEL films did not affect their transparency and improved UV-blocking capacity. CHL films were the only ones that exhibited antibacterial efficiency. Antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata and Monilinia fructigena were detected for CHL and CHL50/GEL50 films. PMID:25841370

  18. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyaniline films with rapidly switchable wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-10-01

    A superhydrophobic polyaniline (PANI) film has been fabricated by using a facile one-step spraying method. The PANI was synthesized via in situ doping polymerization in the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the dopant. The water contact angle of this superhydrophobic surface reaches to 156°. Both the surface chemical compositions and morphological structures were analyzed. A granular morphology of PANI with a moderate amount of nanofibers was obtained. Moreover, a rapid surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be observed when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with base. The mechanism for this tunable wettability has been discussed in detail.

  20. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.