Science.gov

Sample records for polynomial based audio

  1. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  2. Hermite base Bernoulli type polynomials on the umbral algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, R.; Simsek, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct new generating functions for Hermite base Bernoulli type polynomials, which generalize not only the Milne-Thomson polynomials but also the two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also modify the Milne-Thomson polynomials, which are related to the Bernoulli polynomials and the Hermite polynomials. Moreover, by applying the umbral algebra to these generating functions, we derive new identities for the Bernoulli polynomials of higher order, the Hermite polynomials and numbers of higher order, and the Stirling numbers of the second kind.

  3. Ruratae: A physics-based audio engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew S.

    In this thesis, I will demonstrate the capabilities of Ruratae, a physics-based audio rendering engine that models and sonifies mechanical vibrations of Newtonian bodies. This new system will allow its users a range of possibilities and subtle controls without requiring expert knowledge of signal theory and acoustics. It will be an environment that allows users to produce dynamic, reconfigurable, and interactive sounds through physically-intuitive construction and playing behaviors. I will discuss at detail known problems and issues that arise when attempting to afford these abilities, and I will offer several solutions and strategies that can be employed to tackle and reduce these upsets.

  4. Affine and deformable registration based on polynomial expansion.

    PubMed

    Farnebäck, Gunnar; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a registration framework based on the polynomial expansion transform. The idea of polynomial expansion is that the image is locally approximated by polynomials at each pixel. Starting with observations of how the coefficients of ideal linear and quadratic polynomials change under translation and affine transformation, algorithms are developed to estimate translation and compute affine and deformable registration between a fixed and a moving image, from the polynomial expansion coefficients. All algorithms can be used for signals of any dimensionality. The algorithms are evaluated on medical data. PMID:17354971

  5. Audio and Text Density in Computer-based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroghlanian, Carol M.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audio and text density on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of 134 undergraduate students. Data concerning pre-existing computer skills/experience and demographic information were also collected. Findings have implications for the use of audio, text and graphics in the design of computer-based instruction.…

  6. Effectiveness of audio-based instruction in medical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Bogner, P; Sajid, A W; Ford, D L

    1975-07-01

    An audio-based method of instruction on the topic of diuretic drugs was compared with the lecture method using a random sample of 66 sophomore medical students. A cognitive test given to measure achievement as a result of the two treatments showed that the average score of 80 percent for the audio group was significantly higher (p smaller than 0.25) than the 75 percent for the lecture group. A comparison of the lowest quartile scores in each group revealed that the audio-based group also scored higher 13 points, p smaller than .05) than the lecture group; however, no difference was noted in the upper three quartile scores of the two groups. The amount of time spent studying did not appear to be a factor. A second test given to meausre attitudes toward the audio method showed strong positive views among students. PMID:48549

  7. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  8. Note-accurate audio segmentation based on MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-12-01

    Segmenting audio data into the smallest musical components is the basis for many further meta data extraction algorithms. For example, an automatic music transcription system needs to know where the exact boundaries of each tone are. In this paper a note accurate audio segmentation algorithm based on MPEG-7 low level descriptors is introduced. For a reliable detection of different notes, both features in the time and the frequency domain are used. Because of this, polyphonic instrument mixes and even melodies characterized by human voices can be examined with this alogrithm. For testing and verification of the note accurate segmentation, a simple music transcription system was implemented. The dominant frequency within each segment is used to build a MIDI file representing the processed audio data.

  9. An error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philsu; Kim, Junghan; Jung, WonKyu; Bu, Sunyoung

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we develop an error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff initial value problems. The solution and the error at each integration step are calculated by generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two consecutive degrees having overlapping zeros, which enables us to minimize overall computational costs. Further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself. In terms of concrete convergence and stability analysis, the constructed algorithm turns out to have the 6th order convergence and an almost L-stability. We assess the proposed method with several numerical results, showing that it uses larger time step sizes and is numerically more efficient.

  10. Audio-Based versus Text-Based Asynchronous Online Discussion: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the use of audio- versus text-based asynchronous online discussions. We report two case studies conducted within the context of semester-long teacher education courses at an Asian Pacific university. Forty-one graduate students participated in Study I. After the online discussions (both audio-based as…

  11. SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlfeld, R.; Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.

    2016-09-01

    A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5 and 10

  12. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  13. Fast complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Sappal, Amandeep; Singh Patterh, Manjeet; Sharma, Sanjay

    2011-07-01

    Today's 3G wireless systems require both high linearity and high power amplifier (PA) efficiency. The high peak-to-average ratios of the digital modulation schemes used in 3G wireless systems require that the RF PA maintain high linearity over a large range while maintaining this high efficiency; these two requirements are often at odds with each other with many of the traditional amplifier architectures. In this article, a fast and easy-to-implement adaptive digital predistorter has been presented for Wideband Code Division Multiplexed signals using complex memory polynomial work function. The proposed algorithm has been implemented to test a Motorola LDMOSFET PA. The proposed technique also takes care of the memory effects of the PA, which have been ignored in many proposed techniques in the literature. The results show that the new complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter has better linearisation performance than conventional predistortion techniques.

  14. Cryptanalysis of Multiplicative Coupled Cryptosystems Based on the Chebyshev Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Ali; Hooshmandasl, Mohammad Reza; Meybodi, Mohsen Alambardar

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we propose a class of public-key cryptosystems called multiplicative coupled cryptosystem, or MCC for short, as well as discuss its security within three different models. Moreover, we discuss a chaotic instance of MCC based on the first and the second types of Chebyshev polynomials over real numbers for these three security models. To avoid round-off errors in floating point arithmetic as well as to enhance the security of the chaotic instance discussed, the Chebyshev polynomials of the first and the second types over a finite field are employed. We also consider the efficiency of the proposed MCCs. The discussions throughout the paper are supported by practical examples.

  15. A content-based digital audio watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking embeds inaudible information into digital audio data for the purposes of copyright protection, ownership verification, covert communication, and/or auxiliary data carrying. In this paper, we present a novel watermarking scheme to embed a meaningful gray image into digital audio by quantizing the wavelet coefficients (using integer lifting wavelet transform) of audio samples. Our audio-dependent watermarking procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking of the human auditory system (HAS) to guarantee that the embedded watermark image is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by utilizing still image compression technique, breaking each audio clip into smaller segments, selecting the perceptually significant audio segments to wavelet transform, and quantizing the perceptually significant wavelet coefficients. The proposed watermarking algorithm can extract the watermark image without the help from the original digital audio signals. We also demonstrate the robustness of that watermarking procedure to audio degradations and distortions, e.g., those that result from noise adding, MPEG compression, low pass filtering, resampling, and requantization.

  16. Paper-Based Textbooks with Audio Support for Print-Disabled Students.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akio; Ohsawa, Akiko; Takaira, Takuya; Tani, Yoshiaki; Fujiyoshi, Mamoru; Ota, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing invisible 2-dimensional codes and digital audio players with a 2-dimensional code scanner, we developed paper-based textbooks with audio support for students with print disabilities, called "multimodal textbooks." Multimodal textbooks can be read with the combination of the two modes: "reading printed text" and "listening to the speech of the text from a digital audio player with a 2-dimensional code scanner." Since multimodal textbooks look the same as regular textbooks and the price of a digital audio player is reasonable (about 30 euro), we think multimodal textbooks are suitable for students with print disabilities in ordinary classrooms. PMID:26294447

  17. Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay

    2003-12-01

    Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

  18. Enhanced Access Polynomial Based Self-healing Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ratna; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Dowling, Tom

    A fundamental concern of any secure group communication system is that of key management. Wireless environments create new key management problems and requirements to solve these problems. One such core requirement in these emerging networks is that of self-healing. In systems where users can be offline and miss updates self healing allows a user to recover lost keys and get back into the secure communication without putting extra burden on the group manager. Clearly self healing must be only available to authorized users and this creates more challenges in that we must ensure unauthorized or revoked users cannot, themselves or by means of collusion, avail of self healing. To this end we enhance the one-way key chain based self-healing key distribution of Dutta et al. by introducing a collusion resistance property between the revoked users and the newly joined users. Our scheme is based on the concept of access polynomials. These can be loosely thought of as white lists of authorized users as opposed to the more widely used revocation polynomials or black lists of revoked users. We also allow each user a pre-arranged life cycle distributed by the group manager. Our scheme provides better efficiency in terms of storage, and the communication and computation costs do not increase as the number of sessions grows as compared to most current schemes. We analyze our scheme in an appropriate security model and prove that the proposed scheme is computationally secure and not only achieving forward and backward secrecy, but also resisting collusion between the new joined users and the revoked users. Unlike most existing schemes the new scheme allows temporary revocation. Also unlike existing schemes, our construction does not collapse if the number of revoked users crosses a threshold value. This feature increases resilience against revocation based denial of service (DOS) attacks and thus improves availability of communication channel.

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1-50 mM), flow rate (2-120 µL min-1) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ~10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems.

  20. Tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using a polynomial-based hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jinqiang; Zhang, Xianmin; Wu, Heng

    2016-06-01

    A polynomial-based hysteresis model that describes hysteresis behavior in piezoelectric actuators is presented. The polynomial-based model is validated by comparing with the classic Prandtl-Ishlinskii model. Taking the advantages of the proposed model into consideration, inverse control using the polynomial-based model is proposed. To achieve better tracking performance, a hybrid control combining the developed inverse control and a proportional-integral-differential feedback loop is then proposed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking controls, several comparative experiments of the polynomial-based model and Prandtl-Ishlinskii model are conducted. The experimental results show that inverse control and hybrid control using the polynomial-based model in trajectory-tracking applications are effective and meaningful.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  2. StirMark Benchmark: audio watermarking attacks based on lossy compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Lang, Andreas; Dittmann, Jana

    2002-04-01

    StirMark Benchmark is a well-known evaluation tool for watermarking robustness. Additional attacks are added to it continuously. To enable application based evaluation, in our paper we address attacks against audio watermarks based on lossy audio compression algorithms to be included in the test environment. We discuss the effect of different lossy compression algorithms like MPEG-2 audio Layer 3, Ogg or VQF on a selection of audio test data. Our focus is on changes regarding the basic characteristics of the audio data like spectrum or average power and on removal of embedded watermarks. Furthermore we compare results of different watermarking algorithms and show that lossy compression is still a challenge for most of them. There are two strategies for adding evaluation of robustness against lossy compression to StirMark Benchmark: (a) use of existing free compression algorithms (b) implementation of a generic lossy compression simulation. We discuss how such a model can be implemented based on the results of our tests. This method is less complex, as no real psycho acoustic model has to be applied. Our model can be used for audio watermarking evaluation of numerous application fields. As an example, we describe its importance for e-commerce applications with watermarking security.

  3. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  4. Hierarchical structure for audio-video based semantic classification of sports video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, M. H.; Sengupta, S.

    2005-07-01

    A hierarchical structure for sports event classification based on audio and video content analysis is proposed in this paper. Compared to the event classifications in other games, those of cricket are very challenging and yet unexplored. We have successfully solved cricket video classification problem using a six level hierarchical structure. The first level performs event detection based on audio energy and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) of short-time audio signal. In the subsequent levels, we classify the events based on video features using a Hidden Markov Model implemented through Dynamic Programming (HMM-DP) using color or motion as a likelihood function. For some of the game-specific decisions, a rule-based classification is also performed. Our proposed hierarchical structure can easily be applied to any other sports. Our results are very promising and we have moved a step forward towards addressing semantic classification problems in general.

  5. Gabor-based kernel PCA with fractional power polynomial models for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengjun

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Gabor-based kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method by integrating the Gabor wavelet representation of face images and the kernel PCA method for face recognition. Gabor wavelets first derive desirable facial features characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality, and orientation selectivity to cope with the variations due to illumination and facial expression changes. The kernel PCA method is then extended to include fractional power polynomial models for enhanced face recognition performance. A fractional power polynomial, however, does not necessarily define a kernel function, as it might not define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix. Note that the sigmoid kernels, one of the three classes of widely used kernel functions (polynomial kernels, Gaussian kernels, and sigmoid kernels), do not actually define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix either. Nevertheless, the sigmoid kernels have been successfully used in practice, such as in building support vector machines. In order to derive real kernel PCA features, we apply only those kernel PCA eigenvectors that are associated with positive eigenvalues. The feasibility of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models has been successfully tested on both frontal and pose-angled face recognition, using two data sets from the FERET database and the CMU PIE database, respectively. The FERET data set contains 600 frontal face images of 200 subjects, while the PIE data set consists of 680 images across five poses (left and right profiles, left and right half profiles, and frontal view) with two different facial expressions (neutral and smiling) of 68 subjects. The effectiveness of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models is shown in terms of both absolute performance indices and comparative performance against the PCA method, the kernel PCA method with polynomial kernels, the kernel PCA method with fractional power

  6. Reduction in time-to-sleep through EEG based brain state detection and audio stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhuo Zhang; Cuntai Guan; Ti Eu Chan; Juanhong Yu; Aung Aung Phyo Wai; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    We developed an EEG- and audio-based sleep sensing and enhancing system, called iSleep (interactive Sleep enhancement apparatus). The system adopts a closed-loop approach which optimizes the audio recording selection based on user's sleep status detected through our online EEG computing algorithm. The iSleep prototype comprises two major parts: 1) a sleeping mask integrated with a single channel EEG electrode and amplifier, a pair of stereo earphones and a microcontroller with wireless circuit for control and data streaming; 2) a mobile app to receive EEG signals for online sleep monitoring and audio playback control. In this study we attempt to validate our hypothesis that appropriate audio stimulation in relation to brain state can induce faster onset of sleep and improve the quality of a nap. We conduct experiments on 28 healthy subjects, each undergoing two nap sessions - one with a quiet background and one with our audio-stimulation. We compare the time-to-sleep in both sessions between two groups of subjects, e.g., fast and slow sleep onset groups. The p-value obtained from Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is 1.22e-04 for slow onset group, which demonstrates that iSleep can significantly reduce the time-to-sleep for people with difficulty in falling sleep. PMID:26738161

  7. A new spectral difference method using hierarchical polynomial bases for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xie; Min, Xu; Bin, Zhang; Zihua, Qiu

    2015-03-01

    To solve hyperbolic conservation laws, a new method is developed based on the spectral difference (SD) algorithm. The new scheme adopts hierarchical polynomials to represent the solution in each cell instead of Lagrange interpolation polynomials used by the original one. The degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the present scheme are the coefficients of these polynomials, which do not represent the states at the solution points like the original method. Therefore, the solution points defined in the original SD scheme are discarded, while the flux points are preserved to construct a Lagrange interpolation polynomial to approximate flux function in each cell. To update the DOFs, differential operators are applied to the governing equation as well as the Lagrange interpolation polynomial of flux function to evaluate first and higher order derivatives of both solution and flux at the centroid of the cell. The stability property of the current scheme is proved to be the same as the original SD method when the same solution space is adopted. One dimensional methods are always stable by the use of zeros of Legendre polynomials as inner flux points. For two dimensional problems, the introduction of Raviart-Thomas spaces for the interpolation of flux function proves stable schemes for triangles. Accuracy studies are performed with one- and two-dimensional problems. p-Multigrid algorithm is implemented with orthogonal hierarchical bases. The results verify the high efficiency and low memory requirements of implementation of p-multigrid algorithm with the proposed scheme.

  8. The research on image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Zhu, Yao-ting; Zhang, Shi-tao

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve image encryption strength, an image encryption method based on parasitic audio watermark was proposed in this paper, which relies on double messages such as image domain and speech domain to do image encryption protection. The method utilizes unique Chinese phonetics synthesis algorithm to complete audio synthesis with embedded text, then separate this sentence information into prosodic phrase, obtains complete element set of initial consonant and compound vowel that reflects audio feature of statement. By sampling and scrambling the initial consonant and compound vowel element, synthesizing them with image watermark, and embedding the compound into the image to be encrypted in frequency domain, the processed image contains image watermark information and parasitizes audio feature information. After watermark extraction, using the same phonetics synthesis algorithm the audio information is synthesized and compared with the original. Experiments show that any decryption method in image domain or speech domain could not break encryption protection and image gains higher encryption strength and security level by double encryption.

  9. Instructors' Experiences of Web Based Synchronous Communication using Two Way Audio and Direct Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Ciszewska-Carr, Justyna

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study designed to gain insight into instructors' experiences with web based synchronous communication using two way audio and direct messaging. We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight instructors who used "Elluminate Live" in their web based, asynchronous courses in Education, Nursing, and…

  10. Digital audio signal filtration based on the dual-tree wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, A. S.; Pavlov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    A new method of digital audio signal filtration based on the dual-tree wavelet transform is described. An adaptive approach is proposed that allows the automatic adjustment of parameters of the wavelet filter to be optimized. A significant improvement of the quality of signal filtration is demonstrated in comparison to the traditionally used filters based on the discrete wavelet transform.

  11. An Exploratory Crossover Study of Learner Perceptions of Use of Audio in Multimedia-Based Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel; Kaprolet, Charles

    2009-01-01

    While multimedia-based training is prevalent in education, previous studies do not reach consensus on its application. This discrepancy might be due to the fact that multimedia programs implemented in various training programs are very diverse. A multimedia program might include graphics, animation, video, audio, and interactive exercises. This…

  12. An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Sun, Changku; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system. PMID:26492247

  13. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F.; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  14. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  15. Online segmentation of time series based on polynomial least-squares approximations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Erich; Gruber, Thiemo; Nitschke, Jiri; Sick, Bernhard

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents SwiftSeg, a novel technique for online time series segmentation and piecewise polynomial representation. The segmentation approach is based on a least-squares approximation of time series in sliding and/or growing time windows utilizing a basis of orthogonal polynomials. This allows the definition of fast update steps for the approximating polynomial, where the computational effort depends only on the degree of the approximating polynomial and not on the length of the time window. The coefficients of the orthogonal expansion of the approximating polynomial-obtained by means of the update steps-can be interpreted as optimal (in the least-squares sense) estimators for average, slope, curvature, change of curvature, etc., of the signal in the time window considered. These coefficients, as well as the approximation error, may be used in a very intuitive way to define segmentation criteria. The properties of SwiftSeg are evaluated by means of some artificial and real benchmark time series. It is compared to three different offline and online techniques to assess its accuracy and runtime. It is shown that SwiftSeg-which is suitable for many data streaming applications-offers high accuracy at very low computational costs. PMID:20975120

  16. Omnidirectional Audio-Visual Talker Localization Based on Dynamic Fusion of Audio-Visual Features Using Validity and Reliability Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denda, Yuki; Nishiura, Takanobu; Yamashita, Yoichi

    This paper proposes a robust omnidirectional audio-visual (AV) talker localizer for AV applications. The proposed localizer consists of two innovations. One of them is robust omnidirectional audio and visual features. The direction of arrival (DOA) estimation using an equilateral triangular microphone array, and human position estimation using an omnidirectional video camera extract the AV features. The other is a dynamic fusion of the AV features. The validity criterion, called the audioor visual-localization counter, validates each audio- or visual-feature. The reliability criterion, called the speech arriving evaluator, acts as a dynamic weight to eliminate any prior statistical properties from its fusion procedure. The proposed localizer can compatibly achieve talker localization in a speech activity and user localization in a non-speech activity under the identical fusion rule. Talker localization experiments were conducted in an actual room to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed localizer. The results confirmed that the talker localization performance of the proposed AV localizer using the validity and reliability criteria is superior to that of conventional localizers.

  17. Aspherical surface profile fitting based on the relationship between polynomial and inner products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Yang, Yikang; Hao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    High-precision aspherical polynomial fitting is essential to image quality evaluation in optical design and optimization. However, conventional fitting methods cannot reach optimal fitting precision and may somehow induce numerical ill-conditioning, such as excessively high coefficients. For this reason, a projection from polynomial equations to vector space was here proposed such that polynomial solutions could be obtained based on matrix and vector operation, so avoiding the problem of excessive coefficients. The Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to search for optimal fitting of the spherical surface. The profile fitting test showed that the proposed approach was able to obtain results with high precision and small value, which solved the numerical ill-conditioning phenomenon effectively.

  18. Ambient temperature normalization for infrared face recognition based on the second-order polynomial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengzi

    2015-08-01

    The influence of ambient temperature is a big challenge to robust infrared face recognition. This paper proposes a new ambient temperature normalization algorithm to improve the performance of infrared face recognition under variable ambient temperatures. Based on statistical regression theory, a second order polynomial model is learned to describe the ambient temperature's impact on infrared face image. Then, infrared image was normalized to reference ambient temperature by the second order polynomial model. Finally, this normalization method is applied to infrared face recognition to verify its efficiency. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed temperature normalization method is feasible and can significantly improve the robustness of infrared face recognition.

  19. The use of ambient audio to increase safety and immersion in location-based games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczak, John Jason

    The purpose of this thesis is to propose an alternative type of interface for mobile software being used while walking or running. Our work addresses the problem of visual user interfaces for mobile software be- ing potentially unsafe for pedestrians, and not being very immersive when used for location-based games. In addition, location-based games and applications can be dif- ficult to develop when directly interfacing with the sensors used to track the user's location. These problems need to be addressed because portable computing devices are be- coming a popular tool for navigation, playing games, and accessing the internet while walking. This poses a safety problem for mobile users, who may be paying too much attention to their device to notice and react to hazards in their environment. The difficulty of developing location-based games and other location-aware applications may significantly hinder the prevalence of applications that explore new interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing. We created the TREC toolkit to address the issues with tracking sensors while developing location-based games and applications. We have developed functional location-based applications with TREC to demonstrate the amount of work that can be saved by using this toolkit. In order to have a safer and more immersive alternative to visual interfaces, we have developed ambient audio interfaces for use with mobile applications. Ambient audio uses continuous streams of sound over headphones to present information to mobile users without distracting them from walking safely. In order to test the effectiveness of ambient audio, we ran a study to compare ambient audio with handheld visual interfaces in a location-based game. We compared players' ability to safely navigate the environment, their sense of immersion in the game, and their performance at the in-game tasks. We found that ambient audio was able to significantly increase players' safety and sense of immersion compared to a

  20. Audio 2008: Audio Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio…

  1. A comparison of high-order polynomial and wave-based methods for Helmholtz problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Alice; Gabard, Gwénaël; Bériot, Hadrien

    2016-09-01

    The application of computational modelling to wave propagation problems is hindered by the dispersion error introduced by the discretisation. Two common strategies to address this issue are to use high-order polynomial shape functions (e.g. hp-FEM), or to use physics-based, or Trefftz, methods where the shape functions are local solutions of the problem (typically plane waves). Both strategies have been actively developed over the past decades and both have demonstrated their benefits compared to conventional finite-element methods, but they have yet to be compared. In this paper a high-order polynomial method (p-FEM with Lobatto polynomials) and the wave-based discontinuous Galerkin method are compared for two-dimensional Helmholtz problems. A number of different benchmark problems are used to perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the relative merits of these two methods in terms of interpolation properties, performance and conditioning. It is generally assumed that a wave-based method naturally provides better accuracy compared to polynomial methods since the plane waves or Bessel functions used in these methods are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Results indicate that this expectation does not necessarily translate into a clear benefit, and that the differences in performance, accuracy and conditioning are more nuanced than generally assumed. The high-order polynomial method can in fact deliver comparable, and in some cases superior, performance compared to the wave-based DGM. In addition to benchmarking the intrinsic computational performance of these methods, a number of practical issues associated with realistic applications are also discussed.

  2. Effect of downsampling and compressive sensing on audio-based continuous cough monitoring.

    PubMed

    Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, Pablo; Lesso, Paul; McKinstry, Brian; Pinnock, Hilary; Rabinovich, Roberto; McCloughan, Lucy; Monge-Álvarez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient cough detection system based on simple decision-tree classification of spectral features from a smartphone audio signal. Preliminary evaluation on voluntary coughs shows that the system can achieve 98% sensitivity and 97.13% specificity when the audio signal is sampled at full rate. With this baseline system, we study possible efficiency optimisations by evaluating the effect of downsampling below the Nyquist rate and how the system performance at low sampling frequencies can be improved by incorporating compressive sensing reconstruction schemes. Our results show that undersampling down to 400 Hz can still keep sensitivity and specificity values above 90% despite of aliasing. Furthermore, the sparsity of cough signals in the time domain allows keeping performance figures close to 90% when sampling at 100 Hz using compressive sensing schemes. PMID:26737716

  3. Video conference quality assessment based on cooperative sensing of video and audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxi; Chen, Jialin; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Cheng; Zhou, Zheng; Ye, Lu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a method to video conference quality assessment, which is based on cooperative sensing of video and audio. In this method, a proposed video quality evaluation method is used to assess the video frame quality. The video frame is divided into noise image and filtered image by the bilateral filters. It is similar to the characteristic of human visual, which could also be seen as a low-pass filtering. The audio frames are evaluated by the PEAQ algorithm. The two results are integrated to evaluate the video conference quality. A video conference database is built to test the performance of the proposed method. It could be found that the objective results correlate well with MOS. Then we can conclude that the proposed method is efficiency in assessing video conference quality.

  4. Robust Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Deterministic Plus Stochastic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar; Kim, Cheol Hong; Kim, Jong-Myon

    Digital watermarking has been widely used for protecting digital contents from unauthorized duplication. This paper proposes a new watermarking scheme based on spectral modeling synthesis (SMS) for copyright protection of digital contents. SMS defines a sound as a combination of deterministic events plus a stochastic component that makes it possible for a synthesized sound to attain all of the perceptual characteristics of the original sound. In our proposed scheme, watermarks are embedded into the highest prominent peak of the magnitude spectrum of each non-overlapping frame in peak trajectories. Simulation results indicate that the proposed watermarking scheme is highly robust against various kinds of attacks such as noise addition, cropping, re-sampling, re-quantization, and MP3 compression and achieves similarity values ranging from 17 to 22. In addition, our proposed scheme achieves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values ranging from 29 dB to 30 dB.

  5. Evaluation of listener-based anuran surveys with automated audio recording devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearin, A. F.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; Loftin, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer-based audio surveys are used to document long-term trends in anuran community composition and abundance. Current sampling protocols, however, are not region- or species-specific and may not detect relatively rare or audibly cryptic species. We used automated audio recording devices to record calling anurans during 2006–2009 at wetlands in Maine, USA. We identified species calling, chorus intensity, time of day, and environmental variables when each species was calling and developed logistic and generalized mixed models to determine the time interval and environmental variables that optimize detection of each species during peak calling periods. We detected eight of nine anurans documented in Maine. Individual recordings selected from the sampling period (0.5 h past sunset to 0100 h) described in the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) detected fewer species than were detected in recordings from 30 min past sunset until sunrise. Time of maximum detection of presence and full chorusing for three species (green frogs, mink frogs, pickerel frogs) occurred after the NAAMP sampling end time (0100 h). The NAAMP protocol’s sampling period may result in omissions and misclassifications of chorus sizes for certain species. These potential errors should be considered when interpreting trends generated from standardized anuran audio surveys.

  6. Coherent orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-08-15

    We discuss a fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials, like the existence of a Lie algebra behind them, which can be added to their other relevant aspects. At the basis of the complete framework for orthogonal polynomials we include thus–in addition to differential equations, recurrence relations, Hilbert spaces and square integrable functions–Lie algebra theory. We start here from the square integrable functions on the open connected subset of the real line whose bases are related to orthogonal polynomials. All these one-dimensional continuous spaces allow, besides the standard uncountable basis (|x〉), for an alternative countable basis (|n〉). The matrix elements that relate these two bases are essentially the orthogonal polynomials: Hermite polynomials for the line and Laguerre and Legendre polynomials for the half-line and the line interval, respectively. Differential recurrence relations of orthogonal polynomials allow us to realize that they determine an infinite-dimensional irreducible representation of a non-compact Lie algebra, whose second order Casimir C gives rise to the second order differential equation that defines the corresponding family of orthogonal polynomials. Thus, the Weyl–Heisenberg algebra h(1) with C=0 for Hermite polynomials and su(1,1) with C=−1/4 for Laguerre and Legendre polynomials are obtained. Starting from the orthogonal polynomials the Lie algebra is extended both to the whole space of the L{sup 2} functions and to the corresponding Universal Enveloping Algebra and transformation group. Generalized coherent states from each vector in the space L{sup 2} and, in particular, generalized coherent polynomials are thus obtained. -- Highlights: •Fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials (OP): existence of a Lie algebra. •Differential recurrence relations of OP determine a unitary representation of a non-compact Lie group. •2nd order Casimir originates a 2nd order differential equation that defines

  7. ISAR Imaging of Maneuvering Targets Based on the Modified Discrete Polynomial-Phase Transform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Abdelkader, Ali Cherif; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a maneuvering target is a challenging task in the field of radar signal processing. The azimuth echo can be characterized as a multi-component polynomial phase signal (PPS) after the translational compensation, and the high quality ISAR images can be obtained by the parameters estimation of it combined with the Range-Instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique. In this paper, a novel parameters estimation algorithm of the multi-component PPS with order three (cubic phase signal-CPS) based on the modified discrete polynomial-phase transform (MDPT) is proposed, and the corresponding new ISAR imaging algorithm is presented consequently. This algorithm is efficient and accurate to generate a focused ISAR image, and the results of real data demonstrate the effectiveness of it. PMID:26404299

  8. ISAR Imaging of Maneuvering Targets Based on the Modified Discrete Polynomial-Phase Transform

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Abdelkader, Ali Cherif; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a maneuvering target is a challenging task in the field of radar signal processing. The azimuth echo can be characterized as a multi-component polynomial phase signal (PPS) after the translational compensation, and the high quality ISAR images can be obtained by the parameters estimation of it combined with the Range-Instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique. In this paper, a novel parameters estimation algorithm of the multi-component PPS with order three (cubic phase signal-CPS) based on the modified discrete polynomial-phase transform (MDPT) is proposed, and the corresponding new ISAR imaging algorithm is presented consequently. This algorithm is efficient and accurate to generate a focused ISAR image, and the results of real data demonstrate the effectiveness of it. PMID:26404299

  9. A weighted polynomial based material decomposition method for spectral x-ray CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dufan; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Sen

    2016-05-21

    Currently in photon counting based spectral x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, pre-reconstruction basis materials decomposition is an effective way to reconstruct densities of various materials. The iterative maximum-likelihood method requires precise spectrum information and is time-costly. In this paper, a novel non-iterative decomposition method based on polynomials is proposed for spectral CT, whose aim was to optimize the noise performance when there is more energy bins than the number of basis materials. Several subsets were taken from all the energy bins and conventional polynomials were established for each of them. The decomposition results from each polynomial were summed with pre-calculated weighting factors, which were designed to minimize the overall noises. Numerical studies showed that the decomposition noise of the proposed method was close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound under Poisson noises. Furthermore, experiments were carried out with an XCounter Filte X1 photon counting detector for two-material decomposition and three-material decomposition for validation. PMID:27082291

  10. A weighted polynomial based material decomposition method for spectral x-ray CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dufan; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Currently in photon counting based spectral x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, pre-reconstruction basis materials decomposition is an effective way to reconstruct densities of various materials. The iterative maximum-likelihood method requires precise spectrum information and is time-costly. In this paper, a novel non-iterative decomposition method based on polynomials is proposed for spectral CT, whose aim was to optimize the noise performance when there is more energy bins than the number of basis materials. Several subsets were taken from all the energy bins and conventional polynomials were established for each of them. The decomposition results from each polynomial were summed with pre-calculated weighting factors, which were designed to minimize the overall noises. Numerical studies showed that the decomposition noise of the proposed method was close to the Cramer–Rao lower bound under Poisson noises. Furthermore, experiments were carried out with an XCounter Filte X1 photon counting detector for two-material decomposition and three-material decomposition for validation.

  11. A microcomputer interface for a digital audio processor-based data recording system.

    PubMed Central

    Croxton, T L; Stump, S J; Armstrong, W M

    1987-01-01

    An inexpensive interface is described that performs direct transfer of digitized data from the digital audio processor and video cassette recorder based data acquisition system designed by Bezanilla (1985, Biophys. J., 47:437-441) to an IBM PC/XT microcomputer. The FORTRAN callable software that drives this interface is capable of controlling the video cassette recorder and starting data collection immediately after recognition of a segment of previously collected data. This permits piecewise analysis of long intervals of data that would otherwise exceed the memory capability of the microcomputer. PMID:3676444

  12. Description of an Audio-Based Paced Respiration Intervention for Vasomotor Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Debra S.; Drews, Michael R.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of women experience menopause-related hot flashes or flushes that may have a negative effect on their quality of life. Hormone therapy is an effective treatment, however, it may be contraindicated or unacceptable for some women based on previous health complications or an undesirable risk–benefit ratio. Side effects and the unacceptability of hormone therapy have created a need for behavioral interventions to reduce hot flashes. A variety of complex, multimodal behavioral, relaxation-based interventions have been studied with women (n = 88) and showed generally favorable results. However, currently extensive resource commitments reduce the translation of these interventions into standard care. Slow, deep breathing is a common component in most interventions and may be the active ingredient leading to reduced hot flashes. This article describes the content of an audio-based program designed to teach paced breathing to reduce hot flashes. Intervention content was based on skills training theory and music entrainment. The audio intervention provides an efficient way to deliver a breathing intervention that may be beneficial to other clinical populations. PMID:23914283

  13. Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomial and Duffing Map

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel image encryption algorithm using Chebyshev polynomial based on permutation and substitution and Duffing map based on substitution. Comprehensive security analysis has been performed on the designed scheme using key space analysis, visual testing, histogram analysis, information entropy calculation, correlation coefficient analysis, differential analysis, key sensitivity test, and speed test. The study demonstrates that the proposed image encryption algorithm shows advantages of more than 10113 key space and desirable level of security based on the good statistical results and theoretical arguments. PMID:25143970

  14. Music scene description: Toward audio-based real-time music understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masataka

    2002-05-01

    Music understanding is an important component of audio-based interactive music systems. A real-time music scene description system for the computational modeling of music understanding is proposed. This research is based on the assumption that a listener understands music without deriving musical scores or even fully segregating signals. In keeping with this assumption, our music scene description system produces intuitive descriptions of music, such as the beat structure and the melody and bass lines. Two real-time subsystems have been developed, a beat-tracking subsystem and a melody-and-bass detection subsystem, which can deal with real-world monaural audio signals sampled from popular-music CDs. The beat-tracking subsystem recognizes a hierarchical beat structure comprising the quarter-note, half-note, and measure levels by using three kinds of musical knowledge: of onset times, of chord changes, and of drum patterns. The melody-and-bass detection subsystem estimates the F0 (fundamental frequency) of melody and bass lines by using a predominant-F0 estimation method called PreFEst, which does not rely on the F0's unreliable frequency component and obtains the most predominant F0 supported by harmonics within an intentionally limited frequency range. Several applications of music understanding are described, including a beat-driven, real-time computer graphics and lighting controller.

  15. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164–168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  16. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164-168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  17. Introduction of an embolus detection system based on analysis of the transcranial Doppler audio-signal.

    PubMed

    Keunen, R W M; Hoogenboezem, R; Wijnands, R; Van den Hengel, A C M; Ackerstaff, R G A

    2008-01-01

    A new embolus detection system (EDS) is presented, built with the intention of detecting ongoing cerebral embolization in patients at risk of transient ischaemic attacks or stroke. It is based on the analysis of the audio-Doppler signal of a transcranial Doppler machine. The algorithm of the EDS estimates the intensity, duration and zero-crossing dynamics of the audio signal. The EDS has a multi-layer neural network which classifies events into micro-emboli signals (MES) or artefacts. The decision-making component of the software has been validated against human experts. Data from patients in the post-operative phase of carotid surgery were used for the validation process. The results showed agreement in MES and artefact classification of > 93%. Apart from a monitoring display, the monitoring system includes a verification unit that allows the user to listen and to look at all data of individual MES and artefacts. Moreover, the system allows the user to record, store and re-calculate all data files. Data are stored using European Data Format, which allows data transportation over the Internet. The EDS may have a potential in stroke risk stratification, evaluating the effect of novel anti-thrombotic therapies, and in peri-operative and remote monitoring of carotid endarterectomy. PMID:18666009

  18. An audio- and speech-based interface for computer-controlled scientific instruments.

    PubMed

    Loyd, D B; Phalangas, A C; Barner, K E

    1999-06-01

    Laboratory instruments are intrinsic to research and work in a wide array of scientific fields. They are used for the control of devices, data storage, and data analysis. The control of instruments is increasingly changing from independent on-instrument controls to multiple instrument integrate software control. Unfortunately, the graphical representation of controls and data makes it difficult for an individual with a visual impairment to independently operate laboratory instruments. Alternative interfaces have been previously developed for these individuals but have often proved limited in scope and accuracy, or otherwise expensive. The resulting inaccessibility to affordable and accurate scientific instrumentation, unfortunately, discourages many individuals with a visual impairment from entering scientific fields of research or work. This paper introduces an alternative interface method developed for LabVIEW, National Instruments' instrumentation software package. The method is specifically designed for individuals with visual impairments, and uses alternative navigation techniques as well as audio feedback. The developed user interface uses simple keyboard inputs to traverse through a hierarchical tree-based menu system. Speech and audio tones are used to alert the user to system settings and errors, as well as a help mechanism and data analysis tool. At this time, alternative interfaces have been developed for the following basic laboratory instruments: an oscilloscope and function/arbitrary waveform generator. The interface methodology, however, can be extended to include any scientific instrument that can be controlled by LabVIEW. PMID:10391595

  19. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    PubMed

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. PMID:21507749

  20. Polynomial Asymptotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This note develops and implements the theory of polynomial asymptotes to (graphs of) rational functions, as a generalization of the classical topics of horizontal asymptotes and oblique/slant asymptotes. Applications are given to hyperbolic asymptotes. Prerequisites include the division algorithm for polynomials with coefficients in the field of…

  1. Age Matters: Student Experiences with Audio Learning Guides in University-Based Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Lorraine; Pianosi, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to explore the experiences of undergraduate distance education students using sample audio versions (provided on compact disc) of the learning guides for their courses. The results of this study indicated that students responded positively to the opportunity to have word-for-word audio versions of their…

  2. iBalance-ABF: a smartphone-based audio-biofeedback balance system.

    PubMed

    Franco, C; Fleury, A; Gumery, P Y; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Vuillerme, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an implementation of a Kalman filter, using inertial sensors of a smartphone, to estimate 3-D angulation of the trunk. The developed system monitors the trunk angular evolution during bipedal stance and helps the user to improve balance through a configurable and integrated auditory-biofeedback (ABF) loop. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this so-called iBalance-ABF--smartphone-based audio-biofeedback system--in improving balance during bipedal standing. Results showed that young healthy individuals were able to efficiently use ABF on sagittal trunk tilt to improve their balance in the medial-lateral direction. These findings suggest that the iBalance-ABF system as a telerehabilitation system could represent a suitable solution for ambient assisted living technologies. PMID:23047859

  3. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  4. Regression-based adaptive sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kunkun; Congedo, Pietro; Abgrall, Remi

    2014-11-01

    Polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of stochastic systems subject to a large number of random input variables. Due to the intimate structure between PDD and Analysis-of-Variance, PDD is able to provide simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to polynomial chaos (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of the standard method unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address this problem of curse of dimensionality, this work proposes a variance-based adaptive strategy aiming to build a cheap meta-model by sparse-PDD with PDD coefficients computed by regression. During this adaptive procedure, the model representation by PDD only contains few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear system of the least-square regression problem is negligible. The size of the final sparse-PDD representation is much smaller than the full PDD, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much less number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  5. Forensic audio watermark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  6. Audio-digital recordings used for independent confirmation of site-based MADRS interview scores.

    PubMed

    Targum, Steven D; Pendergrass, J Cara; Toner, Chelsea; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Burch, Daniel J

    2014-11-01

    Signal detection requires ratings reliability throughout a clinical trial. The confirmation of site-based rater scores by a second, independent and blinded rater is a reasonable metric of ratings reliability. We used audio-digital pens to record site-based interviews of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a novel antidepressant in treatment resistant depressed patients. Blinded, site-independent raters generated "dual" scores that revealed high correlations between site-based and site-independent raters (r=0.940 for all ratings) and high sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and kappa coefficients for treatment response and non-response outcomes using the site-based rater scores as the standard. The blinded raters achieved an 89.4% overall accuracy and 0.786 kappa for matching the treatment response or non-response outcomes of the site-based raters. A limitation of this method is that independent ratings depend on the quality of site-based interviews and patient responses to the site-based interviewers. Nonetheless, this quality assurance strategy may have broad applicability for studies that use subjective measures and wherever ratings reliability is a concern. "Dual" scoring of recorded site-based ratings can be a relatively unobtrusive surveillance strategy to confirm scores and to identify and remediate rater "outliers" during a study. PMID:25239474

  7. Improved Uncertainty Quantification for Physics-Based Atmospheric Models via Generalized Polynomial Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittaldev, V.; Linares, R.; Godinez, H. C.; Koller, J.; Russell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent events in space, including the collision of Russia's Cosmos 2251 satellite with Iridium 33 and China's Feng Yun 1C anti-satellite demonstration, have stressed the capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network and its ability to provide accurate and actionable impact probability estimates. In particular low-Earth orbiting satellites are heavily influenced by upper atmospheric density, due to drag, which is very difficult to model accurately. This work focuses on the generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) technique for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in physics-based atmospheric models. The advantage of the gPC approach is that it can efficiently model non-Gaussian probability distribution functions (pdfs). The gPC approach is used to create a polynomial chaos in F10.7, AP, and solar wind parameters; this chaos is used to perform UQ on future atmospheric conditions. A number of physics-based models are used as test cases, including GITM and TIE-GCM, and the gPC is shown to have good performance in modeling non-Gaussian pdfs. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established a research effort, called IMPACT (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), to improve impact assessment via improved physics-based modeling. A number of atmospheric models exist which can be classified as either empirical or physics-based. Physics-based models can be used to provide a forward prediction which is required for accurate collision assessments. As part of this effort, accurate and consistent UQ is required for the atmospheric models used. One of the primary sources of uncertainty is input parameter uncertainty. These input parameters, which include F10.7, AP, and solar wind parameters, are measured constantly. In turn, these measurements are used to provide a prediction for future parameter values. Therefore, the uncertainty of the atmospheric model forecast, due to potential error in the input parameters, must be correctly characterized to

  8. Solving fuzzy polynomial equation and the dual fuzzy polynomial equation using the ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Fuzzy polynomials with trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers have attracted interest among some researchers. Many studies have been done by researchers to obtain real roots of fuzzy polynomials. As a result, there are many numerical methods involved in obtaining the real roots of fuzzy polynomials. In this study, we will present the solution to the fuzzy polynomial equation and dual fuzzy polynomial equation using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers and subsequently transforming fuzzy polynomials to crisp polynomials. This transformation is performed using the ranking method based on three parameters, namely Value, Ambiguity and Fuzziness. Finally, we illustrate our approach with two numerical examples for fuzzy polynomial equation and dual fuzzy polynomial equation.

  9. Calibration of digital optical phase conjugation setups based on orthonormal rectangular polynomials.

    PubMed

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2016-04-10

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has proven to be a promising technique in deep tissue fluorescence imaging. Nonetheless, DOPC optical setups require precise alignment of all optical components to accurately read the wavefront of scattered light in a turbid medium and playback the conjugated beam toward the sample. Minor misalignments and possible imperfections in the arrangement or the structure of the optical components significantly reduce the performance of the method. In this paper, a calibration procedure based on orthogonal rectangular polynomials is introduced to compensate major imperfections including the optical aberration in the wavefront of the reference beam and the substrate curvature of the spatial light modulator without adding extra optical components to the original setup. The proposed algorithm also provides a systematic calibration procedure for mechanical fine tuning of DOPC systems. It is shown experimentally that the proposed calibration process improves the peak-to-background ratio when focusing light after passing through a highly scattering medium. PMID:27139849

  10. Trade off between variable and fixed size normalization in orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition system.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER. PMID:27066376

  11. Audio-visual imposture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Walid; Mokbel, Chafic; Greige, Hanna; Chollet, Gerard

    2006-05-01

    A GMM based audio visual speaker verification system is described and an Active Appearance Model with a linear speaker transformation system is used to evaluate the robustness of the verification. An Active Appearance Model (AAM) is used to automatically locate and track a speaker's face in a video recording. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based classifier (BECARS) is used for face verification. GMM training and testing is accomplished on DCT based extracted features of the detected faces. On the audio side, speech features are extracted and used for speaker verification with the GMM based classifier. Fusion of both audio and video modalities for audio visual speaker verification is compared with face verification and speaker verification systems. To improve the robustness of the multimodal biometric identity verification system, an audio visual imposture system is envisioned. It consists of an automatic voice transformation technique that an impostor may use to assume the identity of an authorized client. Features of the transformed voice are then combined with the corresponding appearance features and fed into the GMM based system BECARS for training. An attempt is made to increase the acceptance rate of the impostor and to analyzing the robustness of the verification system. Experiments are being conducted on the BANCA database, with a prospect of experimenting on the newly developed PDAtabase developed within the scope of the SecurePhone project.

  12. Phase demodulation method from a single fringe pattern based on correlation with a polynomial form

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, Eric; Valle, Valery; Bremand, Fabrice

    2005-12-01

    The method presented extracts the demodulated phase from only one fringe pattern. Locally, this method approaches the fringe pattern morphology with the help of a mathematical model. The degree of similarity between the mathematical model and the real fringe is estimated by minimizing a correlation function. To use an optimization process, we have chosen a polynomial form such as a mathematical model. However, the use of a polynomial form induces an identification procedure with the purpose of retrieving the demodulated phase. This method, polynomial modulated phase correlation, is tested on several examples. Its performance, in terms of speed and precision, is presented on very noised fringe patterns.

  13. Optimization of LED-based non-imaging optics with orthogonal polynomial shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brick, Peter; Wiesmann, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Starting with a seminal paper by Forbes [1], orthogonal polynomials have received considerable interest as descriptors of lens shapes for imaging optics. However, there is little information on the application of orthogonal polynomials in the field of non-imaging optics. Here, we consider fundamental cases related to LED primary and secondary optics. To make it most realistic, we avoid many of the simplifications of non-imaging theory and consider the full complexity of LED optics. In this framework, the benefits of orthogonal polynomial surface description for LED optics are evaluated in comparison to a surface description by widely used monomials.

  14. Phase demodulation method from a single fringe pattern based on correlation with a polynomial form.

    PubMed

    Robin, Eric; Valle, Valéry; Brémand, Fabrice

    2005-12-01

    The method presented extracts the demodulated phase from only one fringe pattern. Locally, this method approaches the fringe pattern morphology with the help of a mathematical model. The degree of similarity between the mathematical model and the real fringe is estimated by minimizing a correlation function. To use an optimization process, we have chosen a polynomial form such as a mathematical model. However, the use of a polynomial form induces an identification procedure with the purpose of retrieving the demodulated phase. This method, polynomial modulated phase correlation, is tested on several examples. Its performance, in terms of speed and precision, is presented on very noised fringe patterns. PMID:16353793

  15. Neural network and polynomial-based response surface techniques for supersonic turbine design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papila, Nilay Uzgoren

    Turbine performance directly affects engine specific impulse, thrust-to-weight ratio, and cost in a rocket propulsion system. This dissertation focuses on methodology and application of employing optimization techniques, with the neural network (NN) and polynomial-based response surface method (RSM), for supersonic turbine optimization. The research is relevant to NASA's reusable launching vehicle initiatives. It is demonstrated that accuracy of the response surface (RS) approximations can be improved with combined utilization of the NN and polynomial techniques, and higher emphases on data in regions of interests. The design of experiment methodology is critical while performing optimization in efficient and effective manners. In physical applications, both preliminary design and detailed shape design optimization are investigated. For preliminary design level, single-, two-, and three-stage turbines are considered with the number of design variables increasing from six to 11 and then to 15, in accordance with the number of stages. A major goal of the preliminary optimization effort is to balance the desire of maximizing aerodynamic performance and minimizing weight. To ascertain required predictive capability of the RSM, a two-level domain refinement approach (windowing) has been adopted. The accuracy of the predicted optimal design points based on this strategy is shown to be satisfactory. The results indicate that the two-stage turbine is the optimum configuration with the higher efficiency corresponding to smaller weights. It is demonstrated that the criteria for selecting the database exhibit significant impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the construction of the response surface. Based on the optimized preliminary design outcome, shape optimization is performed for vanes and blades of a two-stage supersonic turbine, involving O(10) design variables. It is demonstrated that a major merit of the RS-based optimization approach is that it enables one

  16. Station Based Polynomial Modeling of the local ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) using Particle Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Eren; Onur Karslioglu, Mahmut; Durmaz, Murat; Aghakarimi, Armin

    2014-05-01

    In this study, particle filter (PF) which is mainly based on the Monte Carlo simulation technique has been carried out for polynomial modeling of the local ionospheric conditions above the selected ground based stations. Less sensitivity to the errors caused by linearization of models and the effect of unknown or unmodeled components in the system model is one of the advantages of the particle filter as compared to the Kalman filter which is commonly used as a recursive filtering method in VTEC modeling. Besides, probability distribution of the system models is not necessarily required to be Gaussian. In this work third order polynomial function has been incorporated into the particle filter implementation to represent the local VTEC distribution. Coefficients of the polynomial model presenting the ionospheric parameters and the receiver inter frequency biases are the unknowns forming the state vector which has been estimated epoch-wise for each ground station. To consider the time varying characteristics of the regional VTEC distribution, dynamics of the state vector parameters changing permanently have been modeled using the first order Gauss-Markov process. In the processing of the particle filtering, multi-variety probability distribution of the state vector through the time has been approximated by means of randomly selected samples and their associated weights. A known drawback of the particle filtering is that the increasing number of the state vector parameters results in an inefficient filter performance and requires more samples to represent the probability distribution of the state vector. Considering the total number of unknown parameters for all ground stations, estimation of these parameters which were inserted into a single state vector has caused the particle filter to produce inefficient results. To solve this problem, the PF implementation has been carried out separately for each ground station at current time epochs. After estimation of unknown

  17. Polynomial fitting-based shape matching algorithm for multi-sensors remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yujie; Ren, Kan; Wang, Pengcheng; Gu, Guohua

    2016-05-01

    According to the characteristics of multi-sensors remote sensing images, a new registration algorithm based on shape contour feature is proposed. Firstly, the edge features of remote sensing images are extracted by Canny operator, and the edge of the main contour is retained. According to the characteristics of the contour pixels, a new feature extraction algorithm based on polynomial fitting is proposed and it is used to determine the principal directions of the feature points. On this basis, we improved the shape context descriptor and completed coarse registration by minimizing the matching cost between the feature points. The shape context has been found to be robust in Simple object registration, and in this paper, it is applied to remote sensing image registration after improving the circular template with rotation invariance. Finally, the fine registration is accomplished by the RANSAC algorithm. Experiments show that this algorithm can realize the automatic registration of multi-sensors remote sensing images with high accuracy, robustness and applicability.

  18. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    SciTech Connect

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  19. Blind phone segmentation based on spectral change detection using Legendre polynomial approximation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Dac-Thang; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan

    2015-02-01

    Phone segmentation involves partitioning a continuous speech signal into discrete phone units. In this paper, a method for automatic phone segmentation without prior knowledge of speech content is proposed. The signal spectrum was represented by band-energies. A segment of the band-energy curve was approximated using Legendre polynomial expansion, allowing Legendre polynomial coefficients to describe the properties of the segment. The spectral changes, which imply phone boundaries in the speech signal, were then detected by monitoring the variations of Legendre polynomial coefficients. A two-step algorithm for detecting phone boundaries was derived. The first step was to detect phone boundaries using first-order and second-order coefficients of the Legendre polynomial approximation. The second step was to locate slow spectral changes in the regions of concatenated voiced phones using zero-order coefficients of the Legendre polynomial approximation. This enabled the phone boundaries missed during the first step to be recovered. An evaluation using the TIMIT corpus indicated that the proposed method is comparable to or more accurate than previous methods. PMID:25698014

  20. Hydrodynamics-Based Functional Forms of Activity Metabolism: A Case for the Power-Law Polynomial Function in Animal Swimming Energetics

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined. PMID:19333397

  1. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  2. A Formally-Verified Decision Procedure for Univariate Polynomial Computation Based on Sturm's Theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    Sturm's Theorem is a well-known result in real algebraic geometry that provides a function that computes the number of roots of a univariate polynomial in a semiopen interval. This paper presents a formalization of this theorem in the PVS theorem prover, as well as a decision procedure that checks whether a polynomial is always positive, nonnegative, nonzero, negative, or nonpositive on any input interval. The soundness and completeness of the decision procedure is proven in PVS. The procedure and its correctness properties enable the implementation of a PVS strategy for automatically proving existential and universal univariate polynomial inequalities. Since the decision procedure is formally verified in PVS, the soundness of the strategy depends solely on the internal logic of PVS rather than on an external oracle. The procedure itself uses a combination of Sturm's Theorem, an interval bisection procedure, and the fact that a polynomial with exactly one root in a bounded interval is always nonnegative on that interval if and only if it is nonnegative at both endpoints.

  3. Orthogonal Bases of Hermitean Monogenic Polynomials: An Explicit Construction in Complex Dimension 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, F.; De Schepper, H.; Lávička, R.; Souček, V.

    2010-09-01

    In this contribution we construct an orthogonal basis of Hermitean monogenic polynomials for the specific case of two complex variables. The approach combines group representation theory, see [5], with a Fischer decomposition for the kernels of each of the considered Dirac operators, see [4], and a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extension principle, see [3].

  4. Comparison of polynomial approximations to speed up planewave-based quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, William D.; Umrigar, C. J.; Alfè, Dario; Petruzielo, F. R.; Hennig, Richard G.; Wilkins, John W.

    2015-04-01

    The computational cost of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations of realistic periodic systems depends strongly on the method of storing and evaluating the many-particle wave function. Previous work by Williamson et al. (2001) [35] and Alfè and Gillan, (2004) [36] has demonstrated the reduction of the O (N3) cost of evaluating the Slater determinant with planewaves to O (N2) using localized basis functions. We compare four polynomial approximations as basis functions - interpolating Lagrange polynomials, interpolating piecewise-polynomial-form (pp-) splines, and basis-form (B-) splines (interpolating and smoothing). All these basis functions provide a similar speedup relative to the planewave basis. The pp-splines have eight times the memory requirement of the other methods. To test the accuracy of the basis functions, we apply them to the ground state structures of Si, Al, and MgO. The polynomial approximations differ in accuracy most strongly for MgO, and smoothing B-splines most closely reproduce the planewave value for of the variational Monte Carlo energy. Using separate approximations for the Laplacian of the orbitals increases the accuracy sufficiently to justify the increased memory requirement, making smoothing B-splines, with separate approximation for the Laplacian, the preferred choice for approximating planewave-represented orbitals in QMC calculations.

  5. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Dehesa, J. S.; Manzano, D.; Yáñez, R. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (weighted Lq-norms) of Hermite polynomials and subsequently for the Renyi and Tsallis entropies, as well as for the Renyi spreading lengths. Sharp bounds for the Shannon length of these polynomials are also given by means of an information-theoretic-based optimization procedure. Moreover, the existence of a linear correlation between the Shannon length (as well as the second-order Renyi length) and the standard deviation is computationally proved. Finally, the application to the most popular quantum-mechanical prototype system, the harmonic oscillator, is discussed and some relevant asymptotical open issues related to the entropic moments, mentioned previously, are posed.

  6. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  7. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  8. Vector quantizer based on brightness maps for image compression with the polynomial transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante-Ramirez, Boris; Moreno-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Silvan-Cardenas, Jose L.

    2002-11-01

    We present a vector quantization scheme acting on brightness fields based on distance/distortion criteria correspondent with psycho-visual aspects. These criteria quantify sensorial distortion between vectors that represent either portions of a digital image or alternatively, coefficients of a transform-based coding system. In the latter case, we use an image representation model, namely the Hermite transform, that is based on some of the main perceptual characteristics of the human vision system (HVS) and in their response to light stimulus. Energy coding in the brightness domain, determination of local structure, code-book training and local orientation analysis are all obtained by means of the Hermite transform. This paper, for thematic reasons, is divided in four sections. The first one will shortly highlight the importance of having newer and better compression algorithms. This section will also serve to explain briefly the most relevant characteristics of the HVS, advantages and disadvantages related with the behavior of our vision in front of ocular stimulus. The second section shall go through a quick review of vector quantization techniques, focusing their performance on image treatment, as a preview for the image vector quantizer compressor actually constructed in section 5. Third chapter was chosen to concentrate the most important data gathered on brightness models. The building of this so-called brightness maps (quantification of the human perception on the visible objects reflectance), in a bi-dimensional model, will be addressed here. The Hermite transform, a special case of polynomial transforms, and its usefulness, will be treated, in an applicable discrete form, in the fourth chapter. As we have learned from previous works 1, Hermite transform has showed to be a useful and practical solution to efficiently code the energy within an image block, deciding which kind of quantization is to be used upon them (whether scalar or vector). It will also be

  9. Wavefront reconstruction algorithm based on Legendre polynomials for radial shearing interferometry over a square area and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Kewei, E; Zhang, Chen; Li, Mengyang; Xiong, Zhao; Li, Dahai

    2015-08-10

    Based on the Legendre polynomials expressions and its properties, this article proposes a new approach to reconstruct the distorted wavefront under test of a laser beam over square area from the phase difference data obtained by a RSI system. And the result of simulation and experimental results verifies the reliability of the method proposed in this paper. The formula of the error propagation coefficients is deduced when the phase difference data of overlapping area contain noise randomly. The matrix T which can be used to evaluate the impact of high-orders Legendre polynomial terms on the outcomes of the low-order terms due to mode aliasing is proposed, and the magnitude of impact can be estimated by calculating the F norm of the T. In addition, the relationship between ratio shear, sampling points, terms of polynomials and noise propagation coefficients, and the relationship between ratio shear, sampling points and norms of the T matrix are both analyzed, respectively. Those research results can provide an optimization design way for radial shearing interferometry system with the theoretical reference and instruction. PMID:26367882

  10. Complexity and Performance Results for Non FFT-Based Univariate Polynomial Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad F. I.; Maza, Marc Moreno; Pan, Wei; Schost, Eric

    2011-11-01

    Today's parallel hardware architectures and computer memory hierarchies enforce revisiting fundamental algorithms which were often designed with algebraic complexity as the main complexity measure and with sequential running time as the main performance counter. This study is devoted to two algorithms of univariate polynomial multiplication; that are independent of the coefficient ring: the plain and the Toom-Cook univariate multiplications. We analyze their cache complexity and report on their parallel implementations in Cilk++ [1].

  11. β-reciprocal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2016-07-01

    A new class of polynomials pn(x) known as β-reciprocal polynomials is defined. Given a parameter ? that is not a root of -1, we show that the only β-reciprocal polynomials are pn(x) ≡ xn. When β is a root of -1, other polynomials are possible. For example, the Hermite polynomials are i-reciprocal, ?.

  12. A Context-Aware-Based Audio Guidance System for Blind People Using a Multimodal Profile Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Han, Youngjoon

    2014-01-01

    A wearable guidance system is designed to provide context-dependent guidance messages to blind people while they traverse local pathways. The system is composed of three parts: moving scene analysis, walking context estimation and audio message delivery. The combination of a downward-pointing laser scanner and a camera is used to solve the challenging problem of moving scene analysis. By integrating laser data profiles and image edge profiles, a multimodal profile model is constructed to estimate jointly the ground plane, object locations and object types, by using a Bayesian network. The outputs of the moving scene analysis are further employed to estimate the walking context, which is defined as a fuzzy safety level that is inferred through a fuzzy logic model. Depending on the estimated walking context, the audio messages that best suit the current context are delivered to the user in a flexible manner. The proposed system is tested under various local pathway scenes, and the results confirm its efficiency in assisting blind people to attain autonomous mobility. PMID:25302812

  13. Efficient HRTF-based Spatial Audio for Area and Volumetric Sources.

    PubMed

    Schissler, Carl; Nicholls, Aaron; Mehra, Ravish

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel spatial audio rendering technique to handle sound sources that can be represented by either an area or a volume in VR environments. As opposed to point-sampled sound sources, our approach projects the area-volumetric source to the spherical domain centered at the listener and represents this projection area compactly using the spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions. By representing the head-related transfer function (HRTF) in the same basis, we demonstrate that spatial audio which corresponds to an area-volumetric source can be efficiently computed as a dot product of the SH coefficients of the projection area and the HRTF. This results in an efficient technique whose computational complexity and memory requirements are independent of the complexity of the sound source. Our approach can support dynamic area-volumetric sound sources at interactive rates. We evaluate the performance of our technique in large complex VR environments and demonstrate significant improvement over the naive point-sampling technique. We also present results of a user evaluation, conducted to quantify the subjective preference of the user for our approach over the point-sampling approach in VR environments. PMID:26780803

  14. Development of an audio-based virtual gaming environment to assist with navigation skills in the blind.

    PubMed

    Connors, Erin C; Yazzolino, Lindsay A; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-01-01

    Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind. Using only audio based cues and set within the context of a video game metaphor, users gather relevant spatial information regarding a building's layout. This allows the user to develop an accurate spatial cognitive map of a large-scale three-dimensional space that can be manipulated for the purposes of a real indoor navigation task. After game play, participants are then assessed on their ability to navigate within the target physical building represented in the game. Preliminary results suggest that early blind users were able to acquire relevant information regarding the spatial layout of a previously unfamiliar building as indexed by their performance on a series of navigation tasks. These tasks included path finding through the virtual and physical building, as well as a series of drop off tasks. We find that the immersive and highly interactive nature of the AbES software appears to greatly engage the blind user to actively explore the virtual environment. Applications of this approach may extend to larger populations of visually impaired individuals. PMID:23568182

  15. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping. PMID:25863510

  16. Spatial location priors for Gaussian model based reverberant audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Ngoc QK; Vincent, Emmanuel; Gribonval, Rémi

    2013-12-01

    We consider the Gaussian framework for reverberant audio source separation, where the sources are modeled in the time-frequency domain by their short-term power spectra and their spatial covariance matrices. We propose two alternative probabilistic priors over the spatial covariance matrices which are consistent with the theory of statistical room acoustics and we derive expectation-maximization algorithms for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. We argue that these algorithms provide a statistically principled solution to the permutation problem and to the risk of overfitting resulting from conventional maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. We show experimentally that in a semi-informed scenario where the source positions and certain room characteristics are known, the MAP algorithms outperform their ML counterparts. This opens the way to rigorous statistical treatment of this family of models in other scenarios in the future.

  17. Single-wavelength based Thai jasmine rice identification with polynomial fitting function and neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2013-06-01

    We previously showed that a combination of image thresholding, chain coding, elliptic Fourier descriptors, and artificial neural network analysis provided a low false acceptance rate (FAR) and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 11.0% and 19.0%, respectively, in identify Thai jasmine rice from three unwanted rice varieties. In this work, we highlight that only a polynomial function fitting on the determined chain code and the neural network analysis are highly sufficient in obtaining a very low FAR of < 3.0% and a very low 0.3% FRR for the separation of Thai jasmine rice from Chainat 1 (CNT1), Prathumtani 1 (PTT1), and Hom-Pitsanulok (HPSL) rice varieties. With this proposed approach, the analytical time is tremendously suppressed from 4,250 seconds down to 2 seconds, implying extremely high potential in practical deployment.

  18. A ROM-Less Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer Based on Hybrid Polynomial Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Qahtan Khalaf; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design approach for a phase to sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC) has been investigated. Two segments have been used to approximate the first sine quadrant. A first linear segment is used to fit the region near the zero point, while a second fourth-order parabolic segment is used to approximate the rest of the sine curve. The phase sample, where the polynomial changed, was chosen in such a way as to achieve the maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The invented direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) has been encoded in VHDL and post simulation was carried out. The synthesized architecture exhibits a promising result of 90 dBc SFDR. The targeted structure is expected to show advantages for perceptible reduction of hardware resources and power consumption as well as high clock speeds. PMID:24892092

  19. Accelerated Hazards Model based on Parametric Families Generalized with Bernstein Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhui; Hanson, Timothy; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    Summary A transformed Bernstein polynomial that is centered at standard parametric families, such as Weibull or log-logistic, is proposed for use in the accelerated hazards model. This class provides a convenient way towards creating a Bayesian non-parametric prior for smooth densities, blending the merits of parametric and non-parametric methods, that is amenable to standard estimation approaches. For example optimization methods in SAS or R can yield the posterior mode and asymptotic covariance matrix. This novel nonparametric prior is employed in the accelerated hazards model, which is further generalized to time-dependent covariates. The proposed approach fares considerably better than previous approaches in simulations; data on the effectiveness of biodegradable carmustine polymers on recurrent brain malignant gliomas is investigated. PMID:24261450

  20. A ROM-less direct digital frequency synthesizer based on hybrid polynomial approximation.

    PubMed

    Omran, Qahtan Khalaf; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design approach for a phase to sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC) has been investigated. Two segments have been used to approximate the first sine quadrant. A first linear segment is used to fit the region near the zero point, while a second fourth-order parabolic segment is used to approximate the rest of the sine curve. The phase sample, where the polynomial changed, was chosen in such a way as to achieve the maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The invented direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) has been encoded in VHDL and post simulation was carried out. The synthesized architecture exhibits a promising result of 90 dBc SFDR. The targeted structure is expected to show advantages for perceptible reduction of hardware resources and power consumption as well as high clock speeds. PMID:24892092

  1. Digital audio authentication by robust feature embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Munir, Badar; Steinebach, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We introduce an approach for verifying the integrity of digital audio recording by means of content-based integrity watermarking. Here an audio fingerprint is extracted from the Fourier domain and embedded as a digital watermark in the same domain. The design of the feature extraction allows a fine temporal resolution of the verification of the integrity. Experimental results show a good distinction between authentic and tampered audio content.

  2. A New Navigation Satellite Clock Bias Prediction Method Based on Modified Clock-bias Quadratic Polynomial Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. P.; Lu, Z. P.; Sun, D. S.; Wang, N.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better express the characteristics of satellite clock bias (SCB) and improve SCB prediction precision, this paper proposed a new SCB prediction model which can take physical characteristics of space-borne atomic clock, the cyclic variation, and random part of SCB into consideration. First, the new model employs a quadratic polynomial model with periodic items to fit and extract the trend term and cyclic term of SCB; then based on the characteristics of fitting residuals, a time series ARIMA ~(Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average) model is used to model the residuals; eventually, the results from the two models are combined to obtain final SCB prediction values. At last, this paper uses precise SCB data from IGS (International GNSS Service) to conduct prediction tests, and the results show that the proposed model is effective and has better prediction performance compared with the quadratic polynomial model, grey model, and ARIMA model. In addition, the new method can also overcome the insufficiency of the ARIMA model in model recognition and order determination.

  3. Multimodal fusion of polynomial classifiers for automatic person recgonition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broun, Charles C.; Zhang, Xiaozheng

    2001-03-01

    With the prevalence of the information age, privacy and personalization are forefront in today's society. As such, biometrics are viewed as essential components of current evolving technological systems. Consumers demand unobtrusive and non-invasive approaches. In our previous work, we have demonstrated a speaker verification system that meets these criteria. However, there are additional constraints for fielded systems. The required recognition transactions are often performed in adverse environments and across diverse populations, necessitating robust solutions. There are two significant problem areas in current generation speaker verification systems. The first is the difficulty in acquiring clean audio signals in all environments without encumbering the user with a head- mounted close-talking microphone. Second, unimodal biometric systems do not work with a significant percentage of the population. To combat these issues, multimodal techniques are being investigated to improve system robustness to environmental conditions, as well as improve overall accuracy across the population. We propose a multi modal approach that builds on our current state-of-the-art speaker verification technology. In order to maintain the transparent nature of the speech interface, we focus on optical sensing technology to provide the additional modality-giving us an audio-visual person recognition system. For the audio domain, we use our existing speaker verification system. For the visual domain, we focus on lip motion. This is chosen, rather than static face or iris recognition, because it provides dynamic information about the individual. In addition, the lip dynamics can aid speech recognition to provide liveness testing. The visual processing method makes use of both color and edge information, combined within Markov random field MRF framework, to localize the lips. Geometric features are extracted and input to a polynomial classifier for the person recognition process. A late

  4. Rational extensions of the trigonometric Darboux-Pöschl-Teller potential based on para-Jacobi polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, B.; Grandati, Y.; Quesne, C.

    2015-06-01

    The possibility for the Jacobi equation to admit, in some cases, general solutions that are polynomials has been recently highlighted by Calogero and Yi, who termed them para-Jacobi polynomials. Such polynomials are used here to build seed functions of a Darboux-Bäcklund transformation for the trigonometric Darboux-Pöschl-Teller potential. As a result, one-step regular rational extensions of the latter depending both on an integer index n and on a continuously varying parameter λ are constructed. For each n value, the eigenstates of these extended potentials are associated with a novel family of λ-dependent polynomials, which are orthogonal on [-1,1].

  5. A computer-based ``laboratory`` course in mathematical methods for science and engineering: The Legendre Polynomials module. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.

    1998-09-28

    WhistleSoft, Inc., proposed to convert a successful pedagogical experiment into multimedia software, making it accessible to a much broader audience. A colleague, Richard J. Jacob, has been teaching a workshop course in mathematical methods at Arizona State University (ASU) for lower undergraduate science majors. Students work at their own pace through paper-based tutorials containing many exercises, either with pencil and paper or with computer tools such as spreadsheets. These tutorial modules cry out for conversion into an interactive computer-based tutorial course that is suitable both for the classroom and for self-paced, independent learning. WhistleSoft has made a prototype of one such module, Legendre Polynomials, under Subcontract (No F97440018-35) with the Los Alamos Laboratory`s Technology Commercialization Office for demonstration and marketing purposes.

  6. Ultrafast laser spatial beam shaping based on Zernike polynomials for surface processing.

    PubMed

    Houzet, J; Faure, N; Larochette, M; Brulez, A-C; Benayoun, S; Mauclair, C

    2016-03-21

    In femtosecond laser machining, spatial beam shaping can be achieved with wavefront modulators. The wavefront modulator displays a pre-calculated phase mask that modulates the laser wavefront to generate a target intensity distribution in the processing plane. Due to the non-perfect optical response of wavefront modulators, the experimental distribution may significantly differ from the target, especially for continuous shapes. We propose an alternative phase mask calculation method that can be adapted to the phase modulator optical performance. From an adjustable number of Zernike polynomials according to this performance, a least square fitting algorithm numerically determines their coefficients to obtain the desired wavefront modulation. We illustrate the technique with an optically addressed liquid-crystal light valve to produce continuous intensity distributions matching a desired ablation profile, without the need of a wavefront sensor. The projection of the experimental laser distribution shows a 5% RMS error compared to the calculated one. Ablation of steel is achieved following user-defined micro-dimples and micro-grooves targets on mold surfaces. The profiles of the microgrooves and the injected polycarbonate closely match the target (RMS below 4%). PMID:27136844

  7. Polynomial regression calculation of the Earth's position based on millisecond pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng; Tang, Zheng-Hong; Yan, Qing-Zeng; Yu, Yong

    2012-02-01

    Prior to achieving high precision navigation of a spacecraft using X-ray observations, a pulsar rotation model must be built and analysis of the precise position of the Earth should be performed using ground pulsar timing observations. We can simulate time-of-arrival ground observation data close to actual observed values before using pulsar timing observation data. Considering the correlation between the Earth's position and its short arc section of an orbit, we use polynomial regression to build the correlation. Regression coefficients can be calculated using the least square method, and a coordinate component series can also be obtained; that is, we can calculate Earth's position in the Barycentric Celestial Reference System according to pulse arrival time data and a precise pulsar rotation model. In order to set appropriate parameters before the actual timing observations for Earth positioning, we can calculate the influence of the spatial distribution of pulsars on errors in the positioning result and the influence of error source variation on positioning by simulation. It is significant that the threshold values of the observation and systematic errors can be established before an actual observation occurs; namely, we can determine the observation mode with small errors and reject the observed data with big errors, thus improving the positioning result.

  8. Selection of polynomial chaos bases via Bayesian model uncertainty methods with applications to sparse approximation of PDEs with stochastic inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios Lin, Guang

    2014-02-15

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions allow us to represent the solution of a stochastic system using a series of polynomial chaos basis functions. The number of gPC terms increases dramatically as the dimension of the random input variables increases. When the number of the gPC terms is larger than that of the available samples, a scenario that often occurs when the corresponding deterministic solver is computationally expensive, evaluation of the gPC expansion can be inaccurate due to over-fitting. We propose a fully Bayesian approach that allows for global recovery of the stochastic solutions, in both spatial and random domains, by coupling Bayesian model uncertainty and regularization regression methods. It allows the evaluation of the PC coefficients on a grid of spatial points, via (1) the Bayesian model average (BMA) or (2) the median probability model, and their construction as spatial functions on the spatial domain via spline interpolation. The former accounts for the model uncertainty and provides Bayes-optimal predictions; while the latter provides a sparse representation of the stochastic solutions by evaluating the expansion on a subset of dominating gPC bases. Moreover, the proposed methods quantify the importance of the gPC bases in the probabilistic sense through inclusion probabilities. We design a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler that evaluates all the unknown quantities without the need of ad-hoc techniques. The proposed methods are suitable for, but not restricted to, problems whose stochastic solutions are sparse in the stochastic space with respect to the gPC bases while the deterministic solver involved is expensive. We demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed methods and make comparisons with other approaches on solving elliptic SPDEs with 1-, 14- and 40-random dimensions.

  9. Selection of Polynomial Chaos Bases via Bayesian Model Uncertainty Methods with Applications to Sparse Approximation of PDEs with Stochastic Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Lin, Guang

    2014-02-15

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions allow the representation of the solution of a stochastic system as a series of polynomial terms. The number of gPC terms increases dramatically with the dimension of the random input variables. When the number of the gPC terms is larger than that of the available samples, a scenario that often occurs if the evaluations of the system are expensive, the evaluation of the gPC expansion can be inaccurate due to over-fitting. We propose a fully Bayesian approach that allows for global recovery of the stochastic solution, both in spacial and random domains, by coupling Bayesian model uncertainty and regularization regression methods. It allows the evaluation of the PC coefficients on a grid of spacial points via (1) Bayesian model average or (2) medial probability model, and their construction as functions on the spacial domain via spline interpolation. The former accounts the model uncertainty and provides Bayes-optimal predictions; while the latter, additionally, provides a sparse representation of the solution by evaluating the expansion on a subset of dominating gPC bases when represented as a gPC expansion. Moreover, the method quantifies the importance of the gPC bases through inclusion probabilities. We design an MCMC sampler that evaluates all the unknown quantities without the need of ad-hoc techniques. The proposed method is suitable for, but not restricted to, problems whose stochastic solution is sparse at the stochastic level with respect to the gPC bases while the deterministic solver involved is expensive. We demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method and make comparisons with others on 1D, 14D and 40D in random space elliptic stochastic partial differential equations.

  10. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  11. Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning. PMID:23692295

  12. A generalized polynomial chaos based ensemble Kalman filter with high accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jia; Xiu Dongbin

    2009-08-20

    As one of the most adopted sequential data assimilation methods in many areas, especially those involving complex nonlinear dynamics, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been under extensive investigation regarding its properties and efficiency. Compared to other variants of the Kalman filter (KF), EnKF is straightforward to implement, as it employs random ensembles to represent solution states. This, however, introduces sampling errors that affect the accuracy of EnKF in a negative manner. Though sampling errors can be easily reduced by using a large number of samples, in practice this is undesirable as each ensemble member is a solution of the system of state equations and can be time consuming to compute for large-scale problems. In this paper we present an efficient EnKF implementation via generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion. The key ingredients of the proposed approach involve (1) solving the system of stochastic state equations via the gPC methodology to gain efficiency; and (2) sampling the gPC approximation of the stochastic solution with an arbitrarily large number of samples, at virtually no additional computational cost, to drastically reduce the sampling errors. The resulting algorithm thus achieves a high accuracy at reduced computational cost, compared to the classical implementations of EnKF. Numerical examples are provided to verify the convergence property and accuracy improvement of the new algorithm. We also prove that for linear systems with Gaussian noise, the first-order gPC Kalman filter method is equivalent to the exact Kalman filter.

  13. Internet Audio Products (3/3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Linda; de Schutter, Adrienne; Fahrni, Patricia; Rudolph, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: "iVocalize", a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and "Skype", a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The "iVocalize" review emphasizes the…

  14. Cross-modal retrieval of scripted speech audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Charles B.; Makedon, Fillia

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an approach to the problem of searching speech-based digital audio using cross-modal information retrieval. Audio containing speech (speech-based audio) is difficult to search. Open vocabulary speech recognition is advancing rapidly, but cannot yield high accuracy in either search or transcription modalities. However, text can be searched quickly and efficiently with high accuracy. Script- light digital audio is audio that has an available transcription. This is a surprisingly large class of content including legal testimony, broadcasting, dramatic productions and political meetings and speeches. An automatic mechanism for deriving the synchronization between the transcription and the audio allows for very accurate retrieval of segments of that audio. The mechanism described in this paper is based on building a transcription graph from the text and computing biphone probabilities for the audio. A modified beam search algorithm is presented to compute the alignment.

  15. Factoring Polynomials and Fibonacci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the factoring of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to factor it. (JN)

  16. Chaos, Fractals, and Polynomials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylee, J. Louis; Tylee, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses chaos theory; linear algebraic equations and the numerical solution of polynomials, including the use of the Newton-Raphson technique to find polynomial roots; fractals; search region and coordinate systems; convergence; and generating color fractals on a computer. (LRW)

  17. A Jacobi-Legendre polynomial-based method for the stable solution of a deconvolution problem of the Abel integral equation type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammari, Amara; Karoui, Abderrazek

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we build a stable scheme for the solution of a deconvolution problem of the Abel integral equation type. This scheme is obtained by further developing the orthogonal polynomial-based techniques for solving the Abel integral equation of Ammari and Karoui (2010 Inverse Problems 26 105005). More precisely, this method is based on the simultaneous use of the two families of orthogonal polynomials of the Legendre and Jacobi types. In particular, we provide an explicit formula for the computation of the Legendre expansion coefficients of the solution. This explicit formula is based on some known formulae for the exact computation of the integrals of the product of some Jacobi polynomials with the derivatives of the Legendre polynomials. Besides the explicit and the exact computation of the expansion coefficients of the solution, our proposed method has the advantage of ensuring the stability of the solution under a fairly weak condition on the functional space to which the data function belongs. Finally, we provide the reader with some numerical examples that illustrate the results of this work.

  18. 47 CFR 87.483 - Audio visual warning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audio visual warning systems. 87.483 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Stations in the Radiodetermination Service § 87.483 Audio visual warning systems. An audio visual warning system (AVWS) is a radar-based obstacle avoidance system. AVWS...

  19. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  20. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  1. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp-drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r (2)=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  2. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp–drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r2=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  3. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ambikairajah, Eliathamby; Celler, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions. PMID:23710171

  4. POLYNOMIAL-BASED DISAGGREGATION OF HOURLY RAINFALL FOR CONTINUOUS HYDROLOGIC SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic modeling of urban watersheds for designs and analyses of stormwater conveyance facilities can be performed in either an event-based or continuous fashion. Continuous simulation requires, among other things, the use of a time series of rainfall amounts. However, for urb...

  5. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  6. Entanglement conditions and polynomial identities

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukin, E.

    2011-11-15

    We develop a rather general approach to entanglement characterization based on convexity properties and polynomial identities. This approach is applied to obtain simple and efficient entanglement conditions that work equally well in both discrete as well as continuous-variable environments. Examples of violations of our conditions are presented.

  7. Polynomial Algorithms for Item Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Jones, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial algorithms are presented that are used to solve selected problems in test theory, and computational results from sample problems with several hundred decision variables are provided that demonstrate the benefits of these algorithms. The algorithms are based on optimization theory in networks (graphs). (SLD)

  8. simEye: Computer-based simulation of visual perception under various eye defects using Zernike polynomials.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Micol, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We describe a computer eye model that allows for aspheric surfaces and a three-dimensional computer-based ray-tracing technique to simulate optical properties of the human eye and visual perception under various eye defects. Eye surfaces, such as the cornea, eye lens, and retina, are modeled or approximated by a set of Zernike polynomials that are fitted to input data for the respective surfaces. A ray-tracing procedure propagates light rays using Snell's law of refraction from an input object (e.g., digital image) through the eye under investigation (i.e., eye with defects to be modeled) to form a retinal image that is upside down and left-right inverted. To obtain a first-order realistic visual perception without having to model or simulate the retina and the visual cortex, this retinal image is then back-propagated through an emmetropic eye (e.g., Gullstrand exact schematic eye model with no additional eye defects) to an output screen of the same dimensions and at the same distance from the eye as the input object. Visual perception under instances of emmetropia, regular astigmatism, irregular astigmatism, and (central symmetric) keratoconus is simulated and depicted. In addition to still images, the computer ray-tracing tool presented here (simEye) permits the production of animated movies. These developments may have scientific and educational value. This tool may facilitate the education and training of both the public, for example, patients before undergoing eye surgery, and those in the medical field, such as students and professionals. Moreover, simEye may be used as a scientific research tool to investigate optical lens systems in general and the visual perception under a variety of eye conditions and surgical procedures such as cataract surgery and laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in particular. PMID:17092160

  9. Audio signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System provides automatic volume control for an audio amplifier or a voice communication system without introducing noise surges during pauses in the input, and without losing the initial signal when the input resumes.

  10. Feynman Graph Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    The integrand of any multiloop integral is characterized after Feynman parametrization by two polynomials. In this review we summarize the properties of these polynomials. Topics covered in this paper include among others: spanning trees and spanning forests, the all-minors matrix-tree theorem, recursion relations due to contraction and deletion of edges, Dodgson's identity and matroids.

  11. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  12. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  13. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  14. The power of digital audio in interactive instruction: An unexploited medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.; Trainor, M.

    1989-01-01

    Widespread use of audio in computer-based training (CBT) occurred with the advent of the interactive videodisc technology. This paper discusses the alternative of digital audio, which, unlike videodisc audio, enables one to rapidly revise the audio used in the CBT and which may be used in nonvideo CBT applications as well. We also discuss techniques used in audio script writing, editing, and production. Results from evaluations indicate a high degree of user satisfaction. 4 refs.

  15. Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Forrest F.

    A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

  16. Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Forrest F.

    1993-01-01

    A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

  17. Wave-front aberrations analysis by Zernike polynomials based on the annular sub-aperture stitching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lei; Hui, Mei; Deng, Jiayuan; Gong, Cheng; Zhao, Yuejin

    2012-11-01

    Annular sub-aperture stitching method was developed for testing large-aperture aspheric surfaces without using of any compensating element for measurement. It is necessary to correct measurement of aspheric optical aberrations and create mathematical description to describe wave-front aberrations. Zernike polynomials are suitable to describe wave aberration functions and data fitting of experimental measurements for the annular sub-aperture stitching system. This paper uses Zernike polynomials to describe the wave-front aberrations of full wave-front and reconstructed wave-front by annular sub-aperture stitching algorithm. At the same time, the imaging quality of the aspheric optical element can be contrasted. The stitching result shows good agreement with the full aperture result.

  18. On universal knot polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Morozov, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a universal knot polynomials for 2- and 3-strand torus knots in adjoint representation, by universalization of appropriate Rosso-Jones formula. According to universality, these polynomials coincide with adjoined colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials at SL and SO/Sp lines on Vogel's plane, respectively and give their exceptional group's counterparts on exceptional line. We demonstrate that [m,n]=[n,m] topological invariance, when applicable, take place on the entire Vogel's plane. We also suggest the universal form of invariant of figure eight knot in adjoint representation, and suggest existence of such universalization for any knot in adjoint and its descendant representations. Properties of universal polynomials and applications of these results are discussed.

  19. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  20. Real World Audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crystal River Engineering was originally featured in Spinoff 1992 with the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. The Convolvotron was developed for Ames' research on virtual acoustic displays. Crystal River is a now a subsidiary of Aureal Semiconductor, Inc. and they together develop and market the technology, which is a 3-D (three dimensional) audio technology known commercially today as Aureal 3D (A-3D). The technology has been incorporated into video games, surround sound systems, and sound cards.

  1. Efficient Multiplication of Polynomials on Graphics Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeliyanenko, Pavel

    We present the algorithm to multiply univariate polynomials with integer coefficients efficiently using the Number Theoretic transform (NTT) on Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The same approach can be used to multiply large integers encoded as polynomials. Our algorithm exploits fused multiply-add capabilities of the graphics hardware. NTT multiplications are executed in parallel for a set of distinct primes followed by reconstruction using the Chinese Remainder theorem (CRT) on the GPU. Our benchmarking experiences show the NTT multiplication performance up to 77 GMul/s. We compared our approach with CPU-based implementations of polynomial and large integer multiplication provided by NTL and GMP libraries.

  2. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli. PMID

  3. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  4. Audio-Visual Perception of 3D Cinematography: An fMRI Study Using Condition-Based and Computation-Based Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard “condition-based” designs, as well as “computational” methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli

  5. Application of the Polynomial-Based Least Squares and Total Least Squares Models for the Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Binary Mixtures of Hydroxyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shan, Peng; Peng, Silong; Zhao, Yuhui; Tang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of binary mixtures of hydroxyl compound by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and classical least squares (CLS) yield large model error due to the presence of unmodeled components such as H-bonded components. To accommodate these spectral variations, polynomial-based least squares (LSP) and polynomial-based total least squares (TLSP) are proposed to capture the nonlinear absorbance-concentration relationship. LSP is based on assuming that only absorbance noise exists; while TLSP takes both absorbance noise and concentration noise into consideration. In addition, based on different solving strategy, two optimization algorithms (limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm) are combined with TLSP and then two different TLSP versions (termed as TLSP-LBFGS and TLSP-LM) are formed. The optimum order of each nonlinear model is determined by cross-validation. Comparison and analyses of the four models are made from two aspects: absorbance prediction and concentration prediction. The results for water-ethanol solution and ethanol-ethyl lactate solution show that LSP, TLSP-LBFGS, and TLSP-LM can, for both absorbance prediction and concentration prediction, obtain smaller root mean square error of prediction than CLS. Additionally, they can also greatly enhance the accuracy of estimated pure component spectra. However, from the view of concentration prediction, the Wilcoxon signed rank test shows that there is no statistically significant difference between each nonlinear model and CLS. PMID:26810185

  6. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  7. SU-E-T-614: Derivation of Equations to Define Inflection Points and Its Analysis in Flattening Filter Free Photon Beams Based On the Principle of Polynomial function

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, K Raja; Komanduri, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to present a mechanism for calculating inflection points on profiles at various depths and field sizes and also a significant study on the percentage of doses at the inflection points for various field sizes and depths for 6XFFF and 10XFFF energy profiles. Methods: Graphical representation was done on Percentage of dose versus Inflection points. Also using the polynomial function, the authors formulated equations for calculating spot-on inflection point on the profiles for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies for all field sizes and at various depths. Results: In a flattening filter free radiation beam which is not like in Flattened beams, the dose at inflection point of the profile decreases as field size increases for 10XFFF. Whereas in 6XFFF, the dose at the inflection point initially increases up to 10x10cm2 and then decreases. The polynomial function was fitted for both FFF beams for all field sizes and depths. For small fields less than 5x5 cm2 the inflection point and FWHM are almost same and hence analysis can be done just like in FF beams. A change in 10% of dose can change the field width by 1mm. Conclusion: The present study, Derivative of equations based on the polynomial equation to define inflection point concept is precise and accurate way to derive the inflection point dose on any FFF beam profile at any depth with less than 1% accuracy. Corrections can be done in future studies based on the multiple number of machine data. Also a brief study was done to evaluate the inflection point positions with respect to dose in FFF energies for various field sizes and depths for 6XFFF and 10XFFF energy profiles.

  8. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent; Lotton, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  9. Distortion theorems for polynomials on a circle

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, V N

    2000-12-31

    Inequalities for the derivatives with respect to {phi}=arg z the functions ReP(z), |P(z)|{sup 2} and arg P(z) are established for an algebraic polynomial P(z) at points on the circle |z|=1. These estimates depend, in particular, on the constant term and the leading coefficient of the polynomial P(z) and improve the classical Bernstein and Turan inequalities. The method of proof is based on the techniques of generalized reduced moduli.

  10. Tutte Polynomial of Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanlin; Deng, Hanyuan

    2016-05-01

    The Tutte polynomial of a graph, or equivalently the q-state Potts model partition function, is a two-variable polynomial graph invariant of considerable importance in both statistical physics and combinatorics. The computation of this invariant for a graph is NP-hard in general. In this paper, we focus on two iteratively growing scale-free networks, which are ubiquitous in real-life systems. Based on their self-similar structures, we mainly obtain recursive formulas for the Tutte polynomials of two scale-free networks (lattices), one is fractal and "large world", while the other is non-fractal but possess the small-world property. Furthermore, we give some exact analytical expressions of the Tutte polynomial for several special points at ( x, y)-plane, such as, the number of spanning trees, the number of acyclic orientations, etc.

  11. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  12. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks. PMID:25505796

  13. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    PubMed

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user. PMID:25915965

  14. Developing a Consensus-Driven, Core Competency Model to Shape Future Audio Engineering Technology Curriculum: A Web-Based Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this online study was to create a ranking of essential core competencies and technologies required by AET (audio engineering technology) programs 10 years in the future. The study was designed to facilitate curriculum development and improvement in the rapidly expanding number of small to medium sized audio engineering technology…

  15. Polynomials with small Mahler measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossinghoff, M. J.

    1998-10-01

    We describe several searches for polynomials with integer coefficients and small Mahler measure. We describe the algorithm used to test Mahler measures. We determine all polynomials with degree at most 24 and Mahler measure less than 1.3, test all reciprocal and antireciprocal polynomials with height 1 and degree at most 40, and check certain sparse polynomials with height 1 and degree as large as 181. We find a new limit point of Mahler measures near 1.309, four new Salem numbers less than 1.3, and many new polynomials with small Mahler measure. None has measure smaller than that of Lehmer's degree 10 polynomial.

  16. Analysis of the soundscape in an intensive care unit based on the annotation of an audio recording.

    PubMed

    Park, Munhum; Kohlrausch, Armin; de Bruijn, Werner; de Jager, Peter; Simons, Koen

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic environments in hospitals, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), are characterized by frequent high-level sound events which may negatively affect patient outcome. Many studies performed acoustic surveys, but the measurement protocol was not always reported in detail, and the scope of analysis was limited by the selected mode of sound level meters. Fewer studies systematically investigated the noise sources in ICUs by employing an observer in the patient room, which may potentially bias the measurement. In the current study, the soundscape of an ICU was evaluated where acoustic parameters were extracted from a ∼67-h audio recording, and a selected 24-h recording was annotated off-line for a source-specific analysis. The results showed that the patient-involved noise accounted for 31% of the acoustic energy and 11% of the predicted loudness peaks (PLPs). Excluding the patient-involved noise, the remaining acoustic energy was attributed to staff members (57%), alarms (30%), and the operational noise of life-supporting devices (13%). Furthermore, the contribution of each noise category to the PLPs was found to be more uneven: Staff (92%), alarms (6%), and device noise (2%). The current study suggests that most of the noise sources in ICUs may be associated with modifiable human factors. PMID:25234986

  17. Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. PMID:25529204

  18. Use of Audio Modification in Science Vocabulary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the utilization of audio modification in vocabulary assessment in school subject areas, specifically in elementary science, and to present a web-based key vocabulary assessment tool for the elementary school level. Audio-recorded readings were used to replace independent student readings as the task…

  19. Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Brenda

    This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

  20. Social Security Polynomials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates how the uniqueness and anonymity of a student's Social Security number can be utilized to create individualized polynomial equations that students can investigate using computers or graphing calculators. Students write reports of their efforts to find and classify all real roots of their equation. (MDH)

  1. Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, J. F.

    The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…

  2. On polynomial preconditioning for indefinite Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal residual method is studied combined with polynomial preconditioning for solving large linear systems (Ax = b) with indefinite Hermitian coefficient matrices (A). The standard approach for choosing the polynomial preconditioners leads to preconditioned systems which are positive definite. Here, a different strategy is studied which leaves the preconditioned coefficient matrix indefinite. More precisely, the polynomial preconditioner is designed to cluster the positive, resp. negative eigenvalues of A around 1, resp. around some negative constant. In particular, it is shown that such indefinite polynomial preconditioners can be obtained as the optimal solutions of a certain two parameter family of Chebyshev approximation problems. Some basic results are established for these approximation problems and a Remez type algorithm is sketched for their numerical solution. The problem of selecting the parameters such that the resulting indefinite polynomial preconditioners speeds up the convergence of minimal residual method optimally is also addressed. An approach is proposed based on the concept of asymptotic convergence factors. Finally, some numerical examples of indefinite polynomial preconditioners are given.

  3. Interpolation and Polynomial Curve Fitting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2014-01-01

    Two points determine a line. Three noncollinear points determine a quadratic function. Four points that do not lie on a lower-degree polynomial curve determine a cubic function. In general, n + 1 points uniquely determine a polynomial of degree n, presuming that they do not fall onto a polynomial of lower degree. The process of finding such a…

  4. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  5. Systematic acquisition of audio classes for elevator surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay

    2005-03-01

    We present a systematic framework for arriving at audio classes for detection of crimes in elevators. We use a time series analysis framework to analyze the low-level features extracted from the audio of an elevator surveillance content to perform an inlier/outlier based temporal segmentation. Since suspicious events in elevators are outliers in a background of usual events, such a segmentation help bring out such events without any a priori knowledge. Then, by performing an automatic clustering on the detected outliers, we identify consistent patterns for which we can train supervised detectors. We apply the proposed framework to a collection of elevator surveillance audio data to systematically acquire audio classes such as banging, footsteps, non-neutral speech and normal speech etc. Based on the observation that the banging audio class and non-neutral speech class are indicative of suspicious events in the elevator data set, we are able to detect all of the suspicious activities without any misses.

  6. Interpolation algorithm of Leverrier?Faddev type for polynomial matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Marko; Stanimirovic, Predrag

    2006-07-01

    We investigated an interpolation algorithm for computing outer inverses of a given polynomial matrix, based on the Leverrier?Faddeev method. This algorithm is a continuation of the finite algorithm for computing generalized inverses of a given polynomial matrix, introduced in [11]. Also, a method for estimating the degrees of polynomial matrices arising from the Leverrier?Faddeev algorithm is given as the improvement of the interpolation algorithm. Based on similar idea, we introduced methods for computing rank and index of polynomial matrix. All algorithms are implemented in the symbolic programming language MATHEMATICA , and tested on several different classes of test examples.

  7. Audio distribution and Monitoring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Versatile circuit accepts and distributes TV audio signals. Three-meter audio distribution and monitoring circuit provides flexibility in monitoring, mixing, and distributing audio inputs and outputs at various signal and impedance levels. Program material is simultaneously monitored on three channels, or single-channel version built to monitor transmitted or received signal levels, drive speakers, interface to building communications, and drive long-line circuits.

  8. Hiding Data in Audio Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Dutta, Poulami; Balitanas, Maricel O.; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Das, Purnendu

    This paper describes the LSB technique for secure data transfer. Secret information can be hidden inside all sorts of cover information: text, images, audio, video and more. Embedding secret messages in digital sound is usually a more difficult process. Varieties of techniques for embedding information in digital audio have been established. These are parity coding, phase coding, spread spectrum, echo hiding, LSB. Least significant bits (LSB) insertion is one of the simplest approaches to embedding information in audio file.

  9. A new practical method for the determination of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells using a numerical method based on rational polynomial functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Loya, J. A.; Andaverde, J.; Santoyo, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new practical method based on rational polynomial (RP) functions to estimate the static formation temperatures (SFT) in geothermal and petroleum boreholes is described. Thermal recovery processes involved during borehole drilling and completion operations were represented by mathematical asymptotic trends. Measurements of bottom-hole temperature and shut-in times (at least three or more) have been used both to obtain a mathematical function that describes the thermal recovery process of drilled boreholes, and to estimate the SFT. Using build-up temperature logs, the SFT have been reliably estimated with precision and accuracy. With these results, it was successfully demonstrated that the new RP method provides a practical tool for the reliable prediction of SFT in geothermal and petroleum boreholes.

  10. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  11. The Lowdown on Audio Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

  12. Independence polynomial and matching polynomial of the Koch network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunhua; Xie, Xiaoliang

    2015-11-01

    The lattice gas model and the monomer-dimer model are two classical models in statistical mechanics. It is well known that the partition functions of these two models are associated with the independence polynomial and the matching polynomial in graph theory, respectively. Both polynomials have been shown to belong to the “#P-complete” class, which indicate the problems are computationally “intractable”. We consider these two polynomials of the Koch networks which are scale-free with small-world effects. Explicit recurrences are derived, and explicit formulae are presented for the number of independent sets of a certain type.

  13. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  14. Orthogonal polynomials and tolerancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2011-10-01

    Previous papers have established the inadvisability of applying tolerances directly to power-series aspheric coefficients. The basic reason is that the individual terms are far from orthogonal. Zernike surfaces and the new Forbes surface types have certain orthogonality properties over the circle described by the "normalization radius." However, at surfaces away from the stop, the optical beam is smaller than the surface, and the polynomials are not orthogonal over the area sampled by the beam. In this paper, we investigate the breakdown of orthogonality as the surface moves away from the aperture stop, and the implications of this to tolerancing.

  15. Quantization and psychoacoustic model in audio coding in advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents complete optimized architecture of Advanced Audio Coder quantization with Huffman coding. After that psychoacoustic model theory is presented and few algorithms described: standard Two Loop Search, its modifications, Genetic, Just Noticeable Level Difference, Trellis-Based and its modification: Cascaded Trellis-Based Algorithm.

  16. Metrological digital audio reconstruction

    DOEpatents

    Fadeyev; Vitaliy , Haber; Carl

    2004-02-19

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

  17. Non polynomial B-splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksâ, Arne

    2015-11-01

    B-splines are the de facto industrial standard for surface modelling in Computer Aided design. It is comparable to bend flexible rods of wood or metal. A flexible rod minimize the energy when bending, a third degree polynomial spline curve minimize the second derivatives. B-spline is a nice way of representing polynomial splines, it connect polynomial splines to corner cutting techniques, which induces many nice and useful properties. However, the B-spline representation can be expanded to something we can call general B-splines, i.e. both polynomial and non-polynomial splines. We will show how this expansion can be done, and the properties it induces, and examples of non-polynomial B-spline.

  18. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J. . E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

  19. Polynomial Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.

  20. Chaotic Polynomial Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu

    This paper introduces a class of polynomial maps in Euclidean spaces, investigates the conditions under which there exist Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets, studies the chaotic dynamical behavior and strange attractors, and shows that some maps are chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Devaney. This type of maps includes both the Logistic map and the Hénon map. For some diffeomorphisms with the expansion dimension equal to one or two in three-dimensional spaces, the conditions under which there exist Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets on which the systems are topologically conjugate to the two-sided fullshift on finite alphabet are obtained; for some expanding maps, the chaotic region is analyzed by using the coupled-expansion theory and the Brouwer degree theory. For three types of higher-dimensional polynomial maps with degree two, the conditions under which there are Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets are given, and the topological conjugacy between the maps on the invariant sets and the two-sided fullshift on finite alphabet is obtained. Some interesting maps with chaotic attractors and positive Lyapunov exponents in three-dimensional spaces are found by using computer simulations. In the end, two examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  1. Satellite Orbital Interpolation using Tchebychev Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jean-Yves; Deleflie, Florent; Edorh, Sémého

    2014-05-01

    A satellite or artificial probe orbit is made of time series of orbital elements such as state vectors (position and velocities, keplerian orbital elements) given at regular or irregular time intervals. These time series are fitted to observations, so that differences between observations (distance, radial velocity) and the theoretical quantity be minimal, according to a statistical criterion, mostly based on the least-squared algorithm. These computations are carried out using dedicated software, such as the GINS used by GRGS, mainly at CNES Toulouse and Paris Observatory. From an operational point of view, time series of orbital elements are 7-day long. Depending on the dynamical configurations, more generally, they can typically vary from a couple of days to some weeks. One of the fundamental parameters to be adjusted is the initial state vector. This can lead to time gaps, at the level of a few dozen of centimetres between the last point of a time series to the first one of the following data set. The objective of this presentation consists in the improvement of an interpolation method freed itself of such possible "discontinuities" resulting between satellite's orbit arcs when a new initial bulletin is adjusted. We compare solutions of different Satellite Laser Ranging using interpolation methods such as Lagrange polynomial, spline cubic, Tchebychev orthogonal polynomial and cubic Hermite polynomial. These polynomial coefficients are used to reconstruct and interpolate the satellite orbits without time gaps and discontinuities and requiring a weak memory size. In this approach, we have tested the orbital reconstruction using Tchebychev polynomial coefficients for the LAGEOS and Starlette satellites. In this presentation, it is showed that Tchebychev's polynomial interpolation can achieve accuracy in the orbit reconstruction at the sub-centimetre level and allowing a gain of a factor 5 of memory size of the satellite orbit with respect to the Cartesian

  2. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices. PMID:21854384

  3. On a Perplexing Polynomial Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    It seems rather surprising that any given polynomial p(x) with nonnegative integer coefficients can be determined by just the two values p(1) and p(a), where a is any integer greater than p(1). This result has become known as the "perplexing polynomial puzzle." Here, we address the natural question of what might be required to determine a…

  4. Graphical Solution of Polynomial Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grishin, Anatole

    2009-01-01

    Graphing utilities, such as the ubiquitous graphing calculator, are often used in finding the approximate real roots of polynomial equations. In this paper the author offers a simple graphing technique that allows one to find all solutions of a polynomial equation (1) of arbitrary degree; (2) with real or complex coefficients; and (3) possessing…

  5. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  6. The Audio-Tutorial System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postlethwait, S. N.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the audio-tutorial program in Botany at Purdue University. Advantages include adaptability to individual stduent needs, integration of laboratory activities and information giving, aid flexibility in use of media and means of presentation. (EB)

  7. RPM-WEBBSYS: A web-based computer system to apply the rational polynomial method for estimating static formation temperatures of petroleum and geothermal wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Loya, J. A.; Santoyo, E.; Andaverde, J. A.; Quiroz-Ruiz, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Web-Based Computer System (RPM-WEBBSYS) has been developed for the application of the Rational Polynomial Method (RPM) to estimate static formation temperatures (SFT) of geothermal and petroleum wells. The system is also capable to reproduce the full thermal recovery processes occurred during the well completion. RPM-WEBBSYS has been programmed using advances of the information technology to perform more efficiently computations of SFT. RPM-WEBBSYS may be friendly and rapidly executed by using any computing device (e.g., personal computers and portable computing devices such as tablets or smartphones) with Internet access and a web browser. The computer system was validated using bottomhole temperature (BHT) measurements logged in a synthetic heat transfer experiment, where a good matching between predicted and true SFT was achieved. RPM-WEBBSYS was finally applied to BHT logs collected from well drilling and shut-in operations, where the typical problems of the under- and over-estimation of the SFT (exhibited by most of the existing analytical methods) were effectively corrected.

  8. Distributed audio recording using OFDR with double interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a phase sensitive, dynamic and long range fiber-optic sensing system with fully distributed audio recording capabilities. The proposed system implements a recently developed OFDR design, which is based on double interrogation of a sensing fiber with equally-spaced discrete reflectors. In this paper, the ability of each sensing segment to operate as an independent, purely optical audio recorder with little cross-talk artifacts is demonstrated.

  9. Modelling Trends in Ordered Correspondence Analysis Using Orthogonal Polynomials.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Rosaria; Beh, Eric J; Kroonenberg, Pieter M

    2016-06-01

    The core of the paper consists of the treatment of two special decompositions for correspondence analysis of two-way ordered contingency tables: the bivariate moment decomposition and the hybrid decomposition, both using orthogonal polynomials rather than the commonly used singular vectors. To this end, we will detail and explain the basic characteristics of a particular set of orthogonal polynomials, called Emerson polynomials. It is shown that such polynomials, when used as bases for the row and/or column spaces, can enhance the interpretations via linear, quadratic and higher-order moments of the ordered categories. To aid such interpretations, we propose a new type of graphical display-the polynomial biplot. PMID:25791164

  10. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  11. Three-dimensional audio using loudspeakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.

    1997-12-01

    3-D audio systems, which can surround a listener with sounds at arbitrary locations, are an important part of immersive interfaces. A new approach is presented for implementing 3-D audio using a pair of conventional loudspeakers. The new idea is to use the tracked position of the listener's head to optimize the acoustical presentation, and thus produce a much more realistic illusion over a larger listening area than existing loudspeaker 3-D audio systems. By using a remote head tracker, for instance based on computer vision, an immersive audio environment can be created without donning headphones or other equipment. The general approach to a 3-D audio system is to reconstruct the acoustic pressures at the listener's ears that would result from the natural listening situation to be simulated. To accomplish this using loudspeakers requires that first, the ear signals corresponding to the target scene are synthesized by appropriately encoding directional cues, a process known as 'binaural synthesis,' and second, these signals are delivered to the listener by inverting the transmission paths that exist from the speakers to the listener, a process known as 'crosstalk cancellation.' Existing crosstalk cancellation systems only function at a fixed listening location; when the listener moves away from the equalization zone, the 3-D illusion is lost. Steering the equalization zone to the tracked listener preserves the 3-D illusion over a large listening volume, thus simulating a reconstructed soundfield, and also provides dynamic localization cues by maintaining stationary external sound sources during head motion. This dissertation will discuss the theory, implementation, and testing of a head-tracked loudspeaker 3-D audio system. Crosstalk cancellers that can be steered to the location of a tracked listener will be described. The objective performance of these systems has been evaluated using simulations and acoustical measurements made at the ears of human subjects. Many

  12. Respiratory motion management using audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy of synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion beam delivery

    PubMed Central

    He, Pengbo; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Zhao, Ting; Fu, Tingyan; Shen, Guosheng; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qiyan; Yan, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently deliver respiratory-gated radiation during synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion radiotherapy, a novel respiratory guidance method combining a personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system, breath hold (BH), and synchrotron-based gating was designed to help patients synchronize their respiratory patterns with synchrotron pulses and to overcome typical limitations such as low efficiency, residual motion, and discomfort. Methods: In-house software was developed to acquire body surface marker positions and display BFB, gating signals, and real-time beam profiles on a LED screen. Patients were prompted to perform short BHs or short deep breath holds (SDBH) with the aid of BFB following a personalized standard BH/SDBH (stBH/stSDBH) guiding curve or their own representative BH/SDBH (reBH/reSDBH) guiding curve. A practical simulation was performed for a group of 15 volunteers to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Effective dose rates (EDRs), mean absolute errors between the guiding curves and the measured curves, and mean absolute deviations of the measured curves were obtained within 10%–50% duty cycles (DCs) that were synchronized with the synchrotron’s flat-top phase. Results: All maneuvers for an individual volunteer took approximately half an hour, and no one experienced discomfort during the maneuvers. Using the respiratory guidance methods, the magnitude of residual motion was almost ten times less than during nongated irradiation, and increases in the average effective dose rate by factors of 2.39–4.65, 2.39–4.59, 1.73–3.50, and 1.73–3.55 for the stBH, reBH, stSDBH, and reSDBH guiding maneuvers, respectively, were observed in contrast with conventional free breathing-based gated irradiation, depending on the respiratory-gated duty cycle settings. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory guidance method with personalized BFB was confirmed to be feasible in a group of volunteers. Increased effective dose

  13. Respiratory motion management using audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy of synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    He, Pengbo; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qiyan; Yan, Yuanlin; Li, Qiang Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Zhao, Ting; Fu, Tingyan; Shen, Guosheng

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To efficiently deliver respiratory-gated radiation during synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion radiotherapy, a novel respiratory guidance method combining a personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system, breath hold (BH), and synchrotron-based gating was designed to help patients synchronize their respiratory patterns with synchrotron pulses and to overcome typical limitations such as low efficiency, residual motion, and discomfort. Methods: In-house software was developed to acquire body surface marker positions and display BFB, gating signals, and real-time beam profiles on a LED screen. Patients were prompted to perform short BHs or short deep breath holds (SDBH) with the aid of BFB following a personalized standard BH/SDBH (stBH/stSDBH) guiding curve or their own representative BH/SDBH (reBH/reSDBH) guiding curve. A practical simulation was performed for a group of 15 volunteers to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Effective dose rates (EDRs), mean absolute errors between the guiding curves and the measured curves, and mean absolute deviations of the measured curves were obtained within 10%–50% duty cycles (DCs) that were synchronized with the synchrotron’s flat-top phase. Results: All maneuvers for an individual volunteer took approximately half an hour, and no one experienced discomfort during the maneuvers. Using the respiratory guidance methods, the magnitude of residual motion was almost ten times less than during nongated irradiation, and increases in the average effective dose rate by factors of 2.39–4.65, 2.39–4.59, 1.73–3.50, and 1.73–3.55 for the stBH, reBH, stSDBH, and reSDBH guiding maneuvers, respectively, were observed in contrast with conventional free breathing-based gated irradiation, depending on the respiratory-gated duty cycle settings. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory guidance method with personalized BFB was confirmed to be feasible in a group of volunteers. Increased effective dose

  14. Automated bias-compensation of rational polynomial coefficients of high resolution satellite imagery based on topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaehong; Lee, Changno

    2015-02-01

    As the need for efficient methods to accurately update and refine geospatial satellite image databases is increasing, we have proposed the use of 3-dimensional digital maps for the fully-automated RPCs bias compensation of high resolution satellite imagery. The basic idea is that the map features are scaled and aligned to the image features, except for the local shift, through the RPCs-based image projection, and then the shifts are automatically determined over the entire image space by template-based edge matching of the heterogeneous data set. This enables modeling of RPCs bias compensation parameters for accurate georeferencing. The map features are selected based on four suggested rules. Experiments were carried out for three Kompsat-2 images and stereo IKONOS images with 1:5000 scale Korean national topographic maps. Image matching performance is discussed with justification of the parameter selection, and the georeferencing accuracy is analyzed. The experimental results showed the automated approach can achieve one-pixel level of georeferencing accuracy, enabling economical hybrid map creation as well as large scale map updates.

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of networks using graph polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Cheng; Comin, César H.; Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Silva, Filipi N.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Torsello, Andrea; Hancock, Edwin R.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a method for characterizing the evolution of time-varying complex networks by adopting a thermodynamic representation of network structure computed from a polynomial (or algebraic) characterization of graph structure. Commencing from a representation of graph structure based on a characteristic polynomial computed from the normalized Laplacian matrix, we show how the polynomial is linked to the Boltzmann partition function of a network. This allows us to compute a number of thermodynamic quantities for the network, including the average energy and entropy. Assuming that the system does not change volume, we can also compute the temperature, defined as the rate of change of entropy with energy. All three thermodynamic variables can be approximated using low-order Taylor series that can be computed using the traces of powers of the Laplacian matrix, avoiding explicit computation of the normalized Laplacian spectrum. These polynomial approximations allow a smoothed representation of the evolution of networks to be constructed in the thermodynamic space spanned by entropy, energy, and temperature. We show how these thermodynamic variables can be computed in terms of simple network characteristics, e.g., the total number of nodes and node degree statistics for nodes connected by edges. We apply the resulting thermodynamic characterization to real-world time-varying networks representing complex systems in the financial and biological domains. The study demonstrates that the method provides an efficient tool for detecting abrupt changes and characterizing different stages in network evolution.

  16. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  17. Hadamard Factorization of Stable Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo-Villalobos, Carlos Arturo; Aguirre-Hernández, Baltazar

    2011-11-01

    The stable (Hurwitz) polynomials are important in the study of differential equations systems and control theory (see [7] and [19]). A property of these polynomials is related to Hadamard product. Consider two polynomials p,q ∈ R[x]:p(x) = anxn+an-1xn-1+...+a1x+a0q(x) = bmx m+bm-1xm-1+...+b1x+b0the Hadamard product (p × q) is defined as (p×q)(x) = akbkxk+ak-1bk-1xk-1+...+a1b1x+a0b0where k = min(m,n). Some results (see [16]) shows that if p,q ∈R[x] are stable polynomials then (p×q) is stable, also, i.e. the Hadamard product is closed; however, the reciprocal is not always true, that is, not all stable polynomial has a factorization into two stable polynomials the same degree n, if n> 4 (see [15]).In this work we will give some conditions to Hadamard factorization existence for stable polynomials.

  18. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  19. Comparing the Effects of Classroom Audio-Recording and Video-Recording on Preservice Teachers' Reflection of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of audio and video self-recording on preservice teachers' written reflections. Participants (n = 201) came from a secondary teaching methods course and its school-based (clinical) fieldwork. The audio group (n[subscript A] = 106) used audio recorders to monitor their teaching in fieldwork placements; the video group…

  20. Capacity-optimized mp2 audio watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Dittmann, Jana

    2003-06-01

    Today a number of audio watermarking algorithms have been proposed, some of them at a quality making them suitable for commercial applications. The focus of most of these algorithms is copyright protection. Therefore, transparency and robustness are the most discussed and optimised parameters. But other applications for audio watermarking can also be identified stressing other parameters like complexity or payload. In our paper, we introduce a new mp2 audio watermarking algorithm optimised for high payload. Our algorithm uses the scale factors of an mp2 file for watermark embedding. They are grouped and masked based on a pseudo-random pattern generated from a secret key. In each group, we embed one bit. Depending on the bit to embed, we change the scale factors by adding 1 where necessary until it includes either more even or uneven scale factors. An uneven group has a 1 embedded, an even group a 0. The same rule is later applied to detect the watermark. The group size can be increased or decreased for transparency/payload trade-off. We embed 160 bits or more in an mp2 file per second without reducing perceived quality. As an application example, we introduce a prototypic Karaoke system displaying song lyrics embedded as a watermark.

  1. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  2. Orthogonal polynomials and deformed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    In the example of the Fibonacci oscillator, we discuss the construction of oscillator-like systems associated with orthogonal polynomials. We also consider the question of the dimensions of the corresponding Lie algebras.

  3. Experiences with audio feedback in a veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W; Spiller, Jo; Pearson, Geoff T

    2013-01-01

    On a national scale in the United Kingdom, student surveys have served to highlight areas within higher education that are not achieving high student satisfaction. Of particular concern to the veterinary and medical disciplines are the persistently poor levels of student satisfaction with academic feedback compared to students in other subjects. In this study we describe experiences with audio feedback trials in a veterinary curriculum. Students received audio feedback on either an in-course laboratory practical report or on an in-course multiple-choice test. Shortly after receiving their feedback, students were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In both courses, more students strongly agreed that audio feedback was helpful compared to either text-based (course A) or whole-class (course B) feedback. When asked to reflect on the helpfulness of various types of feedback they had received, audio feedback was rated less helpful than individual discussion with a member of staff (course A and course B), more helpful than peer discussion or automated feedback (course A and course B), and more helpful than written comments or whole-class review sessions (course B). From a faculty perspective, in course A, use of audio feedback was more efficient than handwritten feedback. In course B, the additional time commitment required was approximately 5 hours. Major themes in the qualitative data included the personal and individual nature of the feedback, quantity of feedback, improvement in students' insight into the process of marking, and the capacity of audio feedback to encourage and motivate. PMID:23470242

  4. Towards predictive data-driven simulations of wildfire spread - Part I: Reduced-cost Ensemble Kalman Filter based on a Polynomial Chaos surrogate model for parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochoux, M. C.; Ricci, S.; Lucor, D.; Cuenot, B.; Trouvé, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is the first part in a series of two articles and presents a data-driven wildfire simulator for forecasting wildfire spread scenarios, at a reduced computational cost that is consistent with operational systems. The prototype simulator features the following components: a level-set-based fire propagation solver FIREFLY that adopts a regional-scale modeling viewpoint, treats wildfires as surface propagating fronts, and uses a description of the local rate of fire spread (ROS) as a function of environmental conditions based on Rothermel's model; a series of airborne-like observations of the fire front positions; and a data assimilation algorithm based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for parameter estimation. This stochastic algorithm partly accounts for the non-linearities between the input parameters of the semi-empirical ROS model and the fire front position, and is sequentially applied to provide a spatially-uniform correction to wind and biomass fuel parameters as observations become available. A wildfire spread simulator combined with an ensemble-based data assimilation algorithm is therefore a promising approach to reduce uncertainties in the forecast position of the fire front and to introduce a paradigm-shift in the wildfire emergency response. In order to reduce the computational cost of the EnKF algorithm, a surrogate model based on a polynomial chaos (PC) expansion is used in place of the forward model FIREFLY in the resulting hybrid PC-EnKF algorithm. The performance of EnKF and PC-EnKF is assessed on synthetically-generated simple configurations of fire spread to provide valuable information and insight on the benefits of the PC-EnKF approach as well as on a controlled grassland fire experiment. The results indicate that the proposed PC-EnKF algorithm features similar performance to the standard EnKF algorithm, but at a much reduced computational cost. In particular, the re-analysis and forecast skills of data assimilation strongly relate

  5. Towards predictive data-driven simulations of wildfire spread - Part I: Reduced-cost Ensemble Kalman Filter based on a Polynomial Chaos surrogate model for parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochoux, M. C.; Ricci, S.; Lucor, D.; Cuenot, B.; Trouvé, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper is the first part in a series of two articles and presents a data-driven wildfire simulator for forecasting wildfire spread scenarios, at a reduced computational cost that is consistent with operational systems. The prototype simulator features the following components: an Eulerian front propagation solver FIREFLY that adopts a regional-scale modeling viewpoint, treats wildfires as surface propagating fronts, and uses a description of the local rate of fire spread (ROS) as a function of environmental conditions based on Rothermel's model; a series of airborne-like observations of the fire front positions; and a data assimilation (DA) algorithm based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for parameter estimation. This stochastic algorithm partly accounts for the nonlinearities between the input parameters of the semi-empirical ROS model and the fire front position, and is sequentially applied to provide a spatially uniform correction to wind and biomass fuel parameters as observations become available. A wildfire spread simulator combined with an ensemble-based DA algorithm is therefore a promising approach to reduce uncertainties in the forecast position of the fire front and to introduce a paradigm-shift in the wildfire emergency response. In order to reduce the computational cost of the EnKF algorithm, a surrogate model based on a polynomial chaos (PC) expansion is used in place of the forward model FIREFLY in the resulting hybrid PC-EnKF algorithm. The performance of EnKF and PC-EnKF is assessed on synthetically generated simple configurations of fire spread to provide valuable information and insight on the benefits of the PC-EnKF approach, as well as on a controlled grassland fire experiment. The results indicate that the proposed PC-EnKF algorithm features similar performance to the standard EnKF algorithm, but at a much reduced computational cost. In particular, the re-analysis and forecast skills of DA strongly relate to the spatial and temporal

  6. Polynomial Conjoint Analysis of Similarities: A Model for Constructing Polynomial Conjoint Measurement Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Forrest W.

    A model permitting construction of algorithms for the polynomial conjoint analysis of similarities is presented. This model, which is based on concepts used in nonmetric scaling, permits one to obtain the best approximate solution. The concepts used to construct nonmetric scaling algorithms are reviewed. Finally, examples of algorithmic models for…

  7. Constructing general partial differential equations using polynomial and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zjavka, Ladislav; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Sum fraction terms can approximate multi-variable functions on the basis of discrete observations, replacing a partial differential equation definition with polynomial elementary data relation descriptions. Artificial neural networks commonly transform the weighted sum of inputs to describe overall similarity relationships of trained and new testing input patterns. Differential polynomial neural networks form a new class of neural networks, which construct and solve an unknown general partial differential equation of a function of interest with selected substitution relative terms using non-linear multi-variable composite polynomials. The layers of the network generate simple and composite relative substitution terms whose convergent series combinations can describe partial dependent derivative changes of the input variables. This regression is based on trained generalized partial derivative data relations, decomposed into a multi-layer polynomial network structure. The sigmoidal function, commonly used as a nonlinear activation of artificial neurons, may transform some polynomial items together with the parameters with the aim to improve the polynomial derivative term series ability to approximate complicated periodic functions, as simple low order polynomials are not able to fully make up for the complete cycles. The similarity analysis facilitates substitutions for differential equations or can form dimensional units from data samples to describe real-world problems. PMID:26547244

  8. Spatial Audio on the Web: Or Why Can't I hear Anything Over There?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Technical Monitor); Johnson, Gerald (Technical Monitor); Frey, Mary Anne (Technical Monitor); Schneider, Victor S. (Technical Monitor); Ahunada, Albert J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Auditory complexity, freedom of movement and interactivity is not always possible in a "true" virtual environment, much less in web-based audio. However, a lot of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to spatial audio on the web. My talk will discuss some of these engineering constraints and their perceptual consequences, and attempt to relate these issues to implementation on the web.

  9. QRDA: Quantum Representation of Digital Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. It includes two main medias: image and audio. However, by contrast with the rapid development of quantum image processing, quantum audio almost never been studied. In order to change this status, a quantum representation of digital audio (QRDA) is proposed in this paper to present quantum audio. QRDA uses two entangled qubit sequences to store the audio amplitude and time information. The two qubit sequences are both in basis state: |0> and |1>. The QRDA audio preparation from initial state |0> is given to store an audio in quantum computers. Then some exemplary quantum audio processing operations are performed to indicate QRDA's usability.

  10. Digital Audio Application to Short Wave Broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    1997-01-01

    Digital audio is becoming prevalent not only in consumer electornics, but also in different broadcasting media. Terrestrial analog audio broadcasting in the AM and FM bands will be eventually be replaced by digital systems.

  11. Zernike polynomials for photometric characterization of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, J. L.; Ferrero, A.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.; Hernanz, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a method based on Zernike polynomials to characterize photometric quantities and descriptors of light emitting diodes (LEDs) from measurements of the angular distribution of the luminous intensity, such as total luminous flux, BA, inhomogeneity, anisotropy, direction of the optical axis and Lambertianity of the source. The performance of this method was experimentally tested for 18 high-power LEDs from different manufacturers and with different photometric characteristics. A small set of Zernike coefficients can be used to calculate all the mentioned photometric quantities and descriptors. For applications not requiring a great accuracy such as those of lighting design, the angular distribution of the luminous intensity of most of the studied LEDs can be interpolated with only two Zernike polynomials.

  12. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability. PMID:25097883

  13. On Building Immersive Audio Applications Using Robust Adaptive Beamforming and Joint Audio-Video Source Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beracoechea, J. A.; Torres-Guijarro, S.; García, L.; Casajús-Quirós, F. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with some of the different problems, strategies, and solutions of building true immersive audio systems oriented to future communication applications. The aim is to build a system where the acoustic field of a chamber is recorded using a microphone array and then is reconstructed or rendered again, in a different chamber using loudspeaker array-based techniques. Our proposal explores the possibility of using recent robust adaptive beamforming techniques for effectively estimating the original sources of the emitting room. A joint audio-video localization method needed in the estimation process as well as in the rendering engine is also presented. The estimated source signal and the source localization information drive a wave field synthesis engine that renders the acoustic field again at the receiving chamber. The system performance is tested using MUSHRA-based subjective tests.

  14. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  15. Audio-Visual Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsett, Loyd G.

    An audiovisual teaching machine (AVTM) presents programed audio and visual material simultaneously to a student and accepts his response. If his response is correct, the machine proceeds with the lesson; if it is incorrect, the machine so indicates and permits another choice (linear) or automatically presents supplementary material (branching).…

  16. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  17. Audio-Visual Materials Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX.

    This catalog lists 27 audiovisual programs produced by the Department of Medical Communications of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute for public distribution. Video tapes, 16 mm. motion pictures and slide/audio series are presented dealing mostly with cancer and related subjects. The programs are intended for…

  18. Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: Low Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treblay, Remy; Fyvie, Barb; Koritko, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    A comparison was conducted of "Voxwire MeetingRoom" and "iVocalize" v4.1.0.3, both Web-conferencing products using voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) to provide unlimited, inexpensive, international audio communication, and high-quality Web-conferencing fostering collaborative learning. The study used the evaluation criteria used in earlier…

  19. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  20. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  1. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  2. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... Audio equipment. The operation or use of audio devices including radios, recording and playback...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 1002.12... RECREATION § 1002.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating motorized equipment or machinery such as an electric generating plant, motor vehicle, motorized toy, or an audio...

  4. On the formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    We provide methods to compute the colored HOMFLY polynomials of knots and links with symmetric representations based on the linear skein theory. By using diagrammatic calculations, several formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials are obtained. As an application, we calculate some examples for hyperbolic knots and links, and we study a generalization of the volume conjecture by means of numerical calculations. In these examples, we observe that asymptotic behaviors of invariants seem to have relations to the volume conjecture.

  5. Audio-guided audiovisual data segmentation, indexing, and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-12-01

    While current approaches for video segmentation and indexing are mostly focused on visual information, audio signals may actually play a primary role in video content parsing. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic segmentation, indexing, and retrieval of audiovisual data, based on audio content analysis. The accompanying audio signal of audiovisual data is first segmented and classified into basic types, i.e., speech, music, environmental sound, and silence. This coarse-level segmentation and indexing step is based upon morphological and statistical analysis of several short-term features of the audio signals. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes, such as applause, explosions, bird sounds, etc. This fine-level classification and indexing step is based upon time- frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model as the classifier. On top of this archiving scheme, an audiovisual data retrieval system is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has an accuracy rate higher than 90 percent for the coarse-level classification, and higher than 85 percent for the fine-level classification. Examples of audiovisual data segmentation and retrieval are also provided.

  6. Realization of guitar audio effects using methods of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buś, Szymon; Jedrzejewski, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    The paper is devoted to studies on possibilities of realization of guitar audio effects by means of methods of digital signal processing. As a result of research, some selected audio effects corresponding to the specifics of guitar sound were realized as the real-time system called Digital Guitar Multi-effect. Before implementation in the system, the selected effects were investigated using the dedicated application with a graphical user interface created in Matlab environment. In the second stage, the real-time system based on a microcontroller and an audio codec was designed and realized. The system is designed to perform audio effects on the output signal of an electric guitar.

  7. Using Tutte polynomials to analyze the structure of the benzodiazepines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadavid Muñoz, Juan José

    2014-05-01

    Graph theory in general and Tutte polynomials in particular, are implemented for analyzing the chemical structure of the benzodiazepines. Similarity analysis are used with the Tutte polynomials for finding other molecules that are similar to the benzodiazepines and therefore that might show similar psycho-active actions for medical purpose, in order to evade the drawbacks associated to the benzodiazepines based medicine. For each type of benzodiazepines, Tutte polynomials are computed and some numeric characteristics are obtained, such as the number of spanning trees and the number of spanning forests. Computations are done using the computer algebra Maple's GraphTheory package. The obtained analytical results are of great importance in pharmaceutical engineering. As a future research line, the usage of the chemistry computational program named Spartan, will be used to extent and compare it with the obtained results from the Tutte polynomials of benzodiazepines.

  8. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  9. Audio Classification in Speech and Music: A Comparison between a Statistical and a Neural Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugatti, Alessandro; Flammini, Alessandra; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2002-12-01

    We focus the attention on the problem of audio classification in speech and music for multimedia applications. In particular, we present a comparison between two different techniques for speech/music discrimination. The first method is based on Zero crossing rate and Bayesian classification. It is very simple from a computational point of view, and gives good results in case of pure music or speech. The simulation results show that some performance degradation arises when the music segment contains also some speech superimposed on music, or strong rhythmic components. To overcome these problems, we propose a second method, that uses more features, and is based on neural networks (specifically a multi-layer Perceptron). In this case we obtain better performance, at the expense of a limited growth in the computational complexity. In practice, the proposed neural network is simple to be implemented if a suitable polynomial is used as the activation function, and a real-time implementation is possible even if low-cost embedded systems are used.

  10. General complex polynomial root solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, J.; Gould, A.

    2012-12-01

    This general complex polynomial root solver, implemented in Fortran and further optimized for binary microlenses, uses a new algorithm to solve polynomial equations and is 1.6-3 times faster than the ZROOTS subroutine that is commercially available from Numerical Recipes, depending on application. The largest improvement, when compared to naive solvers, comes from a fail-safe procedure that permits skipping the majority of the calculations in the great majority of cases, without risking catastrophic failure in the few cases that these are actually required.

  11. Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2004-06-01

    Since digital music is often stored in a compressed file, it is desirable that an audio watermarking method in a content management system handles compressed files. Using an audio watermarking method that directly manipulates compressed files makes it unnecessary to decompress the files before embedding or detection, so more files can be processed per unit time. However, it is difficult to detect a watermark in a compressed file that has been compressed after the file was watermarked. This paper proposes an MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) bitstream watermarking method using a two-dimensional pseudo-random array. Detection is done by correlating the absolute values of the recovered MDCT coefficients and the pseudo-random array. Since the embedding algorithm uses the same pseudo-random values for two adjacent overlapping frames and the detection algorithm selects the better frame in the two by comparing detected watermark strengths, it is possible to detect a watermark from a compressed file that was compressed after the watermark was embedded in the original uncompressed file. Though the watermark is not detected as clearly in this case, the watermark can still be detected even when the watermark was embedded in a compressed file and the file was then decompressed, trimmed, and compressed again.

  12. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  13. On the minimum polynomial of supermatrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellouris, Anargyros G.; Matiadou, Lina K.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, a new selection of factors for the construction of the minimum polynomial of a supermatrix M is proposed, leading to null polynomials of M of lower degree than the degree of the corresponding polynomial obtained by using the method proposed in the work of Urrutia and Morales [1]. The case of (1 + 1) × (1 + 1) supermatrices has been completely discussed. Moreover, the main theorem concerning the construction of the minimum polynomial as a product of factors from the characteristic polynomial in the general case of (m + n) × (m + n) supermatrices is given. Finally, we prove that the minimum polynomial of a supermatrix M, in general, is not unique.

  14. Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).

  15. Optical homodyne tomography with polynomial series expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Benichi, Hugo; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-09-15

    We present and demonstrate a method for optical homodyne tomography based on the inverse Radon transform. Different from the usual filtered back-projection algorithm, this method uses an appropriate polynomial series to expand the Wigner function and the marginal distribution, and discretize Fourier space. We show that this technique solves most technical difficulties encountered with kernel deconvolution-based methods and reconstructs overall better and smoother Wigner functions. We also give estimators of the reconstruction errors for both methods and show improvement in noise handling properties and resilience to statistical errors.

  16. Using TTS Voices to Develop Audio Materials for Listening Comprehension: A Digital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments with text-to-speech (TTS) voices. These experiments have been conducted to develop audio materials for listening comprehension as an alternative technology to traditionally used audio equipment like the compact cassette. The new generation of TTS voices based on unit selection synthesis provides…

  17. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  18. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  19. A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.

  20. Nodal Statistics for the Van Vleck Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Alain

    The Van Vleck polynomials naturally arise from the generalized Lamé equation as the polynomials of degree for which Eq. (1) has a polynomial solution of some degree k. In this paper, we compute the limiting distribution, as well as the limiting mean level spacings distribution of the zeros of any Van Vleck polynomial as N --> ∞.

  1. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  2. Modal wavefront reconstruction over general shaped aperture by numerical orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingfei; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qun

    2015-03-01

    In practical optical measurements, the wavefront data are recorded by pixelated imaging sensors. The closed-form analytical base polynomial will lose its orthogonality in the discrete wavefront database. For a wavefront with an irregularly shaped aperture, the corresponding analytical base polynomials are laboriously derived. The use of numerical orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront with a general shaped aperture over the discrete data points is presented. Numerical polynomials are orthogonal over the discrete data points regardless of the boundary shape of the aperture. The performance of numerical orthogonal polynomials is confirmed by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results demonstrate the adaptability, validity, and accuracy of numerical orthogonal polynomials for estimating the wavefront over a general shaped aperture from regular boundary to an irregular boundary.

  3. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue. PMID:26170050

  4. Measuring polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, M.S.; Linden, N.; Winter, A.

    2004-05-01

    We present networks for directly estimating the polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states under local transformations. The structure of these networks is closely related to the structure of the invariants themselves and this lends a physical interpretation to these otherwise abstract mathematical quantities. Specifically, our networks estimate the invariants under local unitary (LU) transformations and under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). Our networks can estimate the LU invariants for multiparty states, where each party can have a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension and the SLOCC invariants for multiqubit states. We analyze the statistical efficiency of our networks compared to methods based on estimating the state coefficients and calculating the invariants.

  5. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  6. Audio and Video Reflections to Promote Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how 15 graduate students enrolled in a US school leadership preparation program understand issues of social justice and equity through a reflective process utilizing audio and/or video software. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on the tradition of grounded theory. The researcher…

  7. National Center for Audio Tapes 1971 Catalog Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Boulder. National Center for Audio Tapes.

    About 600 audio tapes are cataloged in this supplement to the 1970-71 catalog (ED 038 854). The catalog is organized in three sections. The subject index, based on the Library of Congress subject area classification scheme, includes these categories: art, education, languages and literature, mathematics, physical education and recreation, science,…

  8. Influence of Audio-Visual Presentations on Learning Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Ling

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that investigated whether various types of visual illustrations influenced abstract concept learning when combined with audio instruction. Discusses results of analysis of variance and pretest posttest scores in relation to learning performance, attitudes toward the computer-based program, and differences in…

  9. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  10. Developing a Framework for Effective Audio Feedback: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Claire; Forrester, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the use of technology-enhanced learning in higher education has included a growing interest in new approaches to enhance the quality of feedback given to students. Audio feedback is one method that has become more popular, yet evaluating its role in feedback delivery is still an emerging area for research. This paper is based on a…

  11. Audio frequency analysis in mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía Aguilar, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is given about the relationship between voice bandwidth and voice quality.

  12. Quadratic-Like Dynamics of Cubic Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2016-02-01

    A small perturbation of a quadratic polynomial f with a non-repelling fixed point gives a polynomial g with an attracting fixed point and a Jordan curve Julia set, on which g acts like angle doubling. However, there are cubic polynomials with a non-repelling fixed point, for which no perturbation results into a polynomial with Jordan curve Julia set. Motivated by the study of the closure of the Cubic Principal Hyperbolic Domain, we describe such polynomials in terms of their quadratic-like restrictions.

  13. On pseudo-Boolean polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'ev, V. K.

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-Boolean function is an arbitrary mapping of the set of binary n-tuples to the real line. Such functions are a natural generalization of classical Boolean functions and find numerous applications in various applied studies. Specifically, the Fourier transform of a Boolean function is a pseudo-Boolean function. A number of facts associated with pseudo-Boolean polynomials are presented, and their applications to well-known discrete optimization problems are described.

  14. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  15. Solving the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation using the ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial equations with trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers have attracted some interest among researchers in mathematics, engineering and social sciences. There are some methods that have been developed in order to solve these equations. In this study we are interested in introducing the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation and solving it using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers. The ranking method concept was firstly proposed to find real roots of fuzzy polynomial equation. Therefore, the ranking method is applied to find real roots of the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. We transform the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation to a system of crisp interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. This transformation is performed using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on three parameters, namely value, ambiguity and fuzziness. Finally, we illustrate our approach by numerical example.

  16. Digital Audio Radio Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the beginning of phase two of Digital Audio Radio testing conducted by the Consumer Electronic Manufacturers Association (a sector of the Electronic Industries Association and the National Radio Systems Committee) and cosponsored by the Electronic Industries Association and the National Association of Broadcasters. The bulk of the field testing of the four systems should be complete by the end of October 1996, with results available soon thereafter. Lewis hosted phase one of the testing process, which included laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes (see the following table). Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes, thus making a total of nine systems for testing. These nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent channel (IBAC), and new bands - the L-band (1452 to 1492 MHz) and the S-band (2310 to 2360 MHz).

  17. On adaptive weighted polynomial preconditioning for Hermitian positive definite matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Freund, Roland W.

    1992-01-01

    The conjugate gradient algorithm for solving Hermitian positive definite linear systems is usually combined with preconditioning in order to speed up convergence. In recent years, there has been a revival of polynomial preconditioning, motivated by the attractive features of the method on modern architectures. Standard techniques for choosing the preconditioning polynomial are based only on bounds for the extreme eigenvalues. Here a different approach is proposed, which aims at adapting the preconditioner to the eigenvalue distribution of the coefficient matrix. The technique is based on the observation that good estimates for the eigenvalue distribution can be derived after only a few steps of the Lanczos process. This information is then used to construct a weight function for a suitable Chebyshev approximation problem. The solution of this problem yields the polynomial preconditioner. In particular, we investigate the use of Bernstein-Szego weights.

  18. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals. PMID:22087919

  19. Solutions of interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials using a new ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab.; Ahmad, Noor'Ani

    2015-10-01

    A few years ago, a ranking method have been introduced in the fuzzy polynomial equations. Concept of the ranking method is proposed to find actual roots of fuzzy polynomials (if exists). Fuzzy polynomials are transformed to system of crisp polynomials, performed by using ranking method based on three parameters namely, Value, Ambiguity and Fuzziness. However, it was found that solutions based on these three parameters are quite inefficient to produce answers. Therefore in this study a new ranking method have been developed with the aim to overcome the inherent weakness. The new ranking method which have four parameters are then applied in the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials, covering the interval type-2 of fuzzy polynomial equation, dual fuzzy polynomial equations and system of fuzzy polynomials. The efficiency of the new ranking method then numerically considered in the triangular fuzzy numbers and the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Finally, the approximate solutions produced from the numerical examples indicate that the new ranking method successfully produced actual roots for the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials.

  20. Instructional Audio Communications at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage.

    Audio conferencing, or teleconferencing, is fast becoming an important method of delivering education to students at a distance. Audio conferencing equipment consists of a convener (speaker) and push-to-talk microphone. Use of the system costs less than using a number of separate telephone lines and is more comfortable for users. Advantages of…

  1. Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Broadcast Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    An experiment assessed the potential effectiveness of "dual audio television instruction" (DATI) as a mass education medium. The DATI consisted of a radio program heard by children while they watched television shows. The audio instructor did not talk when the television characters spoke, but used the "quiet" times to help with reading, define…

  2. Enhancing Manual Scan Registration Using Audio Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntsoko, T.; Sithole, G.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor mapping and modelling requires that acquired data be processed by editing, fusing, formatting the data, amongst other operations. Currently the manual interaction the user has with the point cloud (data) while processing it is visual. Visual interaction does have limitations, however. One way of dealing with these limitations is to augment audio in point cloud processing. Audio augmentation entails associating points of interest in the point cloud with audio objects. In coarse scan registration, reverberation, intensity and frequency audio cues were exploited to help the user estimate depth and occupancy of space of points of interest. Depth estimations were made reliably well when intensity and frequency were both used as depth cues. Coarse changes of depth could be estimated in this manner. The depth between surfaces can therefore be estimated with the aid of the audio objects. Sound reflections of an audio object provided reliable information of the object surroundings in some instances. For a point/area of interest in the point cloud, these reflections can be used to determine the unseen events around that point/area of interest. Other processing techniques could benefit from this while other information is estimated using other audio cues like binaural cues and Head Related Transfer Functions. These other cues could be used in position estimations of audio objects to aid in problems such as indoor navigation problems.

  3. Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

  4. Audio-Visual Aids in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jackie

    1970-01-01

    A report on the proceedings and ideas expressed at a one day seminar on "Audio-Visual Equipment--Its Uses and Applications for Teaching and Research in Universities." The seminar was organized by England's National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education in conjunction with the British Universities Film Council. (LS)

  5. The Concept of Audio-Tutorial Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, D. D.; Postlethwait, S. N.

    Audio-tutorial teaching, originated at Purdue University, employs an audio tape as a vehicle for guiding the student through a series of learning experiences. The student may be directed to use his textbook for an explanation of a diagram, to refer to his laboratory manual, or to observe the specimens and experimental materials prepared for his…

  6. Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael J.

    Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

  7. Audio-Tutorial Instruction in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Gloria J.; Herrick, Merlyn C.

    This progress report concerns an audio-tutorial approach used at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine. Instructional techniques such as slide-tape presentations, compressed speech audio tapes, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), motion pictures, television, microfiche, and graphic and printed materials have been implemented,…

  8. Properties of convergence for [omega],q-Bernstein polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heping

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss properties of the [omega],q-Bernstein polynomials introduced by S. Lewanowicz and P. Wozny in [S. Lewanowicz, P. Wozny, Generalized Bernstein polynomials, BIT 44 (1) (2004) 63-78], where f[set membership, variant]C[0,1], [omega],q>0, [omega][not equal to]1,q-1,...,q-n+1. When [omega]=0, we recover the q-Bernstein polynomials introduced by [G.M. Phillips, Bernstein polynomials based on the q-integers, Ann. Numer. Math. 4 (1997) 511-518]; when q=1, we recover the classical Bernstein polynomials. We compute the second moment of , and demonstrate that if f is convex and [omega],q[set membership, variant](0,1) or (1,[infinity]), then are monotonically decreasing in n for all x[set membership, variant][0,1]. We prove that for [omega][set membership, variant](0,1), qn[set membership, variant](0,1], the sequence converges to f uniformly on [0,1] for each f[set membership, variant]C[0,1] if and only if limn-->[infinity]qn=1. For fixed [omega],q[set membership, variant](0,1), we prove that the sequence converges for each f[set membership, variant]C[0,1] and obtain the estimates for the rate of convergence of by the modulus of continuity of f, and the estimates are sharp in the sense of order for Lipschitz continuous functions.

  9. Point estimation of simultaneous methods for solving polynomial equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Miodrag S.; Petkovic, Ljiljana D.; Rancic, Lidija Z.

    2007-08-01

    The construction of computationally verifiable initial conditions which provide both the guaranteed and fast convergence of the numerical root-finding algorithm is one of the most important problems in solving nonlinear equations. Smale's "point estimation theory" from 1981 was a great advance in this topic; it treats convergence conditions and the domain of convergence in solving an equation f(z)=0 using only the information of f at the initial point z0. The study of a general problem of the construction of initial conditions of practical interest providing guaranteed convergence is very difficult, even in the case of algebraic polynomials. In the light of Smale's point estimation theory, an efficient approach based on some results concerning localization of polynomial zeros and convergent sequences is applied in this paper to iterative methods for the simultaneous determination of simple zeros of polynomials. We state new, improved initial conditions which provide the guaranteed convergence of frequently used simultaneous methods for solving algebraic equations: Ehrlich-Aberth's method, Ehrlich-Aberth's method with Newton's correction, Borsch-Supan's method with Weierstrass' correction and Halley-like (or Wang-Zheng) method. The introduced concept offers not only a clear insight into the convergence analysis of sequences generated by the considered methods, but also explicitly gives their order of convergence. The stated initial conditions are of significant practical importance since they are computationally verifiable; they depend only on the coefficients of a given polynomial, its degree n and initial approximations to polynomial zeros.

  10. Orbifold E-functions of dual invertible polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Wolfgang; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    An invertible polynomial is a weighted homogeneous polynomial with the number of monomials coinciding with the number of variables and such that the weights of the variables and the quasi-degree are well defined. In the framework of the search for mirror symmetric orbifold Landau-Ginzburg models, P. Berglund and M. Henningson considered a pair (f , G) consisting of an invertible polynomial f and an abelian group G of its symmetries together with a dual pair (f ˜ , G ˜) . We consider the so-called orbifold E-function of such a pair (f , G) which is a generating function for the exponents of the monodromy action on an orbifold version of the mixed Hodge structure on the Milnor fibre of f. We prove that the orbifold E-functions of Berglund-Henningson dual pairs coincide up to a sign depending on the number of variables and a simple change of variables. The proof is based on a relation between monomials (say, elements of a monomial basis of the Milnor algebra of an invertible polynomial) and elements of the whole symmetry group of the dual polynomial.

  11. Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    2015-04-01

    Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.

  12. Video salient event classification using audio features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchs, Silvia; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Fiori, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the events in video sequences that are salient with respect to the audio signal. In particular, we focus on the audio analysis of a video, with the goal of finding which are the significant features to detect audio-salient events. In our work we have extracted the audio tracks from videos of different sport events. For each video, we have manually labeled the salient audio-events using the binary markings. On each frame, features in both time and frequency domains have been considered. These features have been used to train different classifiers: Classification and Regression Trees, Support Vector Machine, and k-Nearest Neighbor. The classification performances are reported in terms of confusion matrices.

  13. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  14. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  15. SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2008-08-01

    Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise. PMID:18632363

  16. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  17. A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Raeven, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

  18. Separation of Audio-Visual Speech Sources: A New Approach Exploiting the Audio-Visual Coherence of Speech Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoyer, David; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Girin, Laurent; Klinkisch, Jacob; Jutten, Christian

    2002-12-01

    We present a new approach to the source separation problem in the case of multiple speech signals. The method is based on the use of automatic lipreading, the objective is to extract an acoustic speech signal from other acoustic signals by exploiting its coherence with the speaker's lip movements. We consider the case of an additive stationary mixture of decorrelated sources, with no further assumptions on independence or non-Gaussian character. Firstly, we present a theoretical framework showing that it is indeed possible to separate a source when some of its spectral characteristics are provided to the system. Then we address the case of audio-visual sources. We show how, if a statistical model of the joint probability of visual and spectral audio input is learnt to quantify the audio-visual coherence, separation can be achieved by maximizing this probability. Finally, we present a number of separation results on a corpus of vowel-plosive-vowel sequences uttered by a single speaker, embedded in a mixture of other voices. We show that separation can be quite good for mixtures of 2, 3, and 5 sources. These results, while very preliminary, are encouraging, and are discussed in respect to their potential complementarity with traditional pure audio separation or enhancement techniques.

  19. Interactive MPEG-4 low-bit-rate speech/audio transmission over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kim, JongWon; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-11-01

    The recently developed MPEG-4 technology enables the coding and transmission of natural and synthetic audio-visual data in the form of objects. In an effort to extend the object-based functionality of MPEG-4 to real-time Internet applications, architectural prototypes of multiplex layer and transport layer tailored for transmission of MPEG-4 data over IP are under debate among Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and MPEG-4 systems Ad Hoc group. In this paper, we present an architecture for interactive MPEG-4 speech/audio transmission system over the Internet. It utilities a framework of Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) over Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) to provide controlled, on-demand delivery of real time speech/audio data. Based on a client-server model, a couple of low bit-rate bit streams (real-time speech/audio, pre- encoded speech/audio) are multiplexed and transmitted via a single RTP channel to the receiver. The MPEG-4 Scene Description (SD) and Object Descriptor (OD) bit streams are securely sent through the RTSP control channel. Upon receiving, an initial MPEG-4 audio- visual scene is constructed after de-multiplexing, decoding of bit streams, and scene composition. A receiver is allowed to manipulate the initial audio-visual scene presentation locally, or interactively arrange scene changes by sending requests to the server. A server may also choose to update the client with new streams and list of contents for user selection.

  20. From Jack polynomials to minimal model spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a deep connection between free field realizations of conformal field theories and symmetric polynomials is presented. We give a brief introduction into the necessary prerequisites of both free field realizations and symmetric polynomials, in particular Jack symmetric polynomials. Then we combine these two fields to classify the irreducible representations of the minimal model vertex operator algebras as an illuminating example of the power of these methods. While these results on the representation theory of the minimal models are all known, this note exploits the full power of Jack polynomials to present significant simplifications of the original proofs in the literature.

  1. The q-Laguerre matrix polynomials.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The Laguerre polynomials have been extended to Laguerre matrix polynomials by means of studying certain second-order matrix differential equation. In this paper, certain second-order matrix q-difference equation is investigated and solved. Its solution gives a generalized of the q-Laguerre polynomials in matrix variable. Four generating functions of this matrix polynomials are investigated. Two slightly different explicit forms are introduced. Three-term recurrence relation, Rodrigues-type formula and the q-orthogonality property are given. PMID:27190749

  2. Interference from audio distracters during speechreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2005-12-01

    Although many audio-visual speech experiments have focused on situations where the presence of an incongruent visual speech signal influences the perceived utterance heard by an observer, there are also documented examples of a related effect in which the presence of an incongruent audio speech signal influences the perceived utterance seen by an observer. This study examined the effects that different distracting audio signals had on performance in a color and number keyword speechreading task. When the distracting sound was noise, time-reversed speech, or continuous speech, it had no effect on speechreading. However, when the distracting audio signal consisted of speech that started at the same time as the visual stimulus, speechreading performance was substantially degraded. This degradation did not depend on the semantic similarity between the target and masker speech, but it was substantially reduced when the onset of the audio speech was shifted relative to that of the visual stimulus. Overall, these results suggest that visual speech perception is impaired by the presence of a simultaneous mismatched audio speech signal, but that other types of audio distracters have little effect on speechreading performance.

  3. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  4. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Mark; McKinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  5. Network meta-analysis of survival data with fractional polynomials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pairwise meta-analysis, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis for aggregate level survival data are often based on the reported hazard ratio, which relies on the proportional hazards assumption. This assumption is implausible when hazard functions intersect, and can have a huge impact on decisions based on comparisons of expected survival, such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Methods As an alternative to network meta-analysis of survival data in which the treatment effect is represented by the constant hazard ratio, a multi-dimensional treatment effect approach is presented. With fractional polynomials the hazard functions of interventions compared in a randomized controlled trial are modeled, and the difference between the parameters of these fractional polynomials within a trial are synthesized (and indirectly compared) across studies. Results The proposed models are illustrated with an analysis of survival data in non-small-cell lung cancer. Fixed and random effects first and second order fractional polynomials were evaluated. Conclusion (Network) meta-analysis of survival data with models where the treatment effect is represented with several parameters using fractional polynomials can be more closely fitted to the available data than meta-analysis based on the constant hazard ratio. PMID:21548941

  6. On polynomial-time testable combinational circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Toida, Shunichi

    1994-11-01

    The problems of identifying several nontrivial classes of Polynomial-Time Testable (PTT) circuits are shown to be NP-complete or harder. First, PTT classes obtained by using circuit decompositions proposed by Fujiwara and Chakradhar et al. are considered. Another type of decompositions, based on fanout-reconvergent (f-r) pairs, which also lead to PTT classes are proposed. The problems of obtaining these decompositions, and also some structurally similar general graph decompositions, are shown to be NP-complete or harder. Then, the problems of recognizing PTT classes formed by the Boolean formulae belonging to the weakly positive, weakly negative, bijunctive and affine classes (proposed by Schaefer) are shown to be NP-complete.

  7. Polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    We present a general polynomial chaotic inflation model in supergravity, for which the predicted spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio can lie within the 1σ region allowed by the Planck results. Most importantly, the predicted tensor-to-scalar ratio is large enough to be probed in the on-going and future B-mode experiments. We study the inflaton dynamics and the subsequent reheating process in a couple of specific examples. The non-thermal gravitino production from the inflaton decay can be suppressed in a case with a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. We find that the reheating temperature can be naturally as high as O(10{sup 9−10}) GeV, sufficient for baryon asymmetry generation through (non-)thermal leptogenesis.

  8. On the Waring problem for polynomial rings

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, Ralf; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Shapiro, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In this note we discuss an analog of the classical Waring problem for . Namely, we show that a general homogeneous polynomial of degree divisible by k≥2 can be represented as a sum of at most kn k-th powers of homogeneous polynomials in . Noticeably, kn coincides with the number obtained by naive dimension count. PMID:22460787

  9. Fractal Trigonometric Polynomials for Restricted Range Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, A. K. B.; Navascués, M. A.; Viswanathan, P.; Katiyar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    One-sided approximation tackles the problem of approximation of a prescribed function by simple traditional functions such as polynomials or trigonometric functions that lie completely above or below it. In this paper, we use the concept of fractal interpolation function (FIF), precisely of fractal trigonometric polynomials, to construct one-sided uniform approximants for some classes of continuous functions.

  10. Point vortex equilibria related to Bessel polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Kevin A.

    2016-05-01

    The method of polynomials is used to construct two families of stationary point vortex configurations. The vortices are placed at the reciprocals of the zeroes of Bessel polynomials. Configurations that translate uniformly, and configurations that are completely stationary, are obtained in this way.

  11. A Study of Audio Tape: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reen, Noel K.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate reel audio tape, tests were performed to identify: signal-to-noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, dynamic response, frequency response, biased and virgin tape noise, dropout susceptibility and oxide coating uniformity. (SCC)

  12. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.

  13. Tutte polynomial in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Castillón, Marlly V.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of graph theory are applied to the processing of functional magnetic resonance images. Specifically the Tutte polynomial is used to analyze such kind of images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging provide us connectivity networks in the brain which are represented by graphs and the Tutte polynomial will be applied. The problem of computing the Tutte polynomial for a given graph is #P-hard even for planar graphs. For a practical application the maple packages "GraphTheory" and "SpecialGraphs" will be used. We will consider certain diagram which is depicting functional connectivity, specifically between frontal and posterior areas, in autism during an inferential text comprehension task. The Tutte polynomial for the resulting neural networks will be computed and some numerical invariants for such network will be obtained. Our results show that the Tutte polynomial is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize the networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  15. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Embedded Audio Feedback for English as a Foreign Language Students in Asynchronous Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesova, Larisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of asynchronous embedded audio feedback on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' higher-order learning and perception of the audio feedback versus text-based feedback when the students participated in asynchronous online discussions. In addition, this study examined how the impact and perceptions…

  16. DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS IN KAON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. T. P. HUTAURUK, D. G. IRELAND, G. ROSNER

    2009-04-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections from the latest CLAS data sets,6 for the reaction γ + p→K+ + Λ have been analyzed using associated Legendre polynomials. This analysis is based upon theoretical calculations in Ref. 1 where all sixteen observables in kaon photoproduction can be classified into four Legendre classes. Each observable can be described by an expansion of associated Legendre polynomial functions. One of the questions to be addressed is how many associated Legendre polynomials are required to describe the data. In this preliminary analysis, we used data models with different numbers of associated Legendre polynomials. We then compared these models by calculating posterior probabilities of the models. We found that the CLAS data set needs no more than four associated Legendre polynomials to describe the differential cross section data. In addition, we also show the extracted coefficients of the best model.

  17. Using the ENF Criterion for Determining the Time of Recording of Short Digital Audio Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijbregtse, Maarten; Geradts, Zeno

    The Electric Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion is a recently developed forensic technique for determining the time of recording of digital audio recordings, by matching the ENF pattern from a questioned recording with an ENF pattern database. In this paper we discuss its inherent limitations in the case of short - i.e., less than 10 minutes in duration - digital audio recordings. We also present a matching procedure based on the correlation coefficient, as a more robust alternative to squared error matching.

  18. An algorithm for constructing polynomial systems whose solution space characterizes quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P.; Severyanov, Vasily M.

    2006-05-01

    An algorithm and its first implementation in C# are presented for assembling arbitrary quantum circuits on the base of Hadamard and Toffoli gates and for constructing multivariate polynomial systems over the finite field Z II arising when applying the Feynman's sum-over-paths approach to quantum circuits. The matrix elements determined by a circuit can be computed by counting the number of common roots in Z II for the polynomial system associated with the circuit. To determine the number of solutions in Z II for the output polynomial system, one can use the Grobner bases method and the relevant algorithms for computing Grobner bases.

  19. Temperature dependence of gas properties in polynomial form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. R.; Biblarz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Based on a least-squares polynomial approximation, a procedure is introduced for calculating existing tabular values of thermodynamic and transport properties for common gases. The specific heat at constant pressure is given for 238 gases, the thermal conductivity for 55 gases, the dynamic viscocity for 58 gases, and the second and third virial coefficients for 14 gases. At sufficiently low pressures, ideal gas behavior prevails and temperature may be used as the single independent variable. The algorithm for nested multiplication is presented, optimized for hand-held or desktop electronic calculators. Using the polynomial approximations and a suitable calculator, it is possible to duplicate existing reference source tabular values directly, obviating the need for interpolation or further reference to the tables per se. The accuracy of the calculated values can be within 0.5% of the tabular values. The polynomial coefficients are given in the International System of Units (SI). Methods are presented to calculate the temperature corresponding to a given property value. Extrapolation features of the polynomials are discussed.

  20. Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

    In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

  1. Audio recording and reproduction in CARROUSO: Getting closer to perfection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutsch, Heinz; Spors, Sascha; Buchner, Herbert; Rabenstein, Rudolf; Kellermann, Walter

    2002-05-01

    State-of-the-art systems for spatial audio reproduction utilize two to six discrete playback channels. A problem inherent to these systems is the relatively small area where the listener is able to experience a true 3-D sound sensation. This so-called ``sweet spot'' can be significantly enlarged by using loudspeaker arrays in combination with wave field synthesis (WFS) technology, initially developed at Delft University. By following this approach, actual sonic spaces can be reproduced in their entirety and not only discrete multichannel representations thereof. While loudspeaker arrays can be used to reproduce sound fields, microphone arrays can be used for sound field capture and analysis. Having high-quality audio reproduction in mind, microphone array designs are presented that need to fulfill stricter requirements than what has been traditionally considered for microphone array applications. Information on acoustic source position is essential for WFS-based rendering techniques. As will be shown, joint audio-video object tracking proves to be efficient for this task. Moreover, full-duplex applications based on WFS technology, like high-quality teleconferencing or remote music teaching, call for sophisticated multichannel acoustic echo cancellation algorithms. The European project ``CARROUSO'' aims at developing, integrating, and building a real-time system that embraces all previously described technologies in an MPEG-4 context.

  2. Digital Multicasting of Multiple Audio Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, Mitchell; Bullock, John

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Control Center Voice Over Internet Protocol (MCC VOIP) system (see figure) comprises hardware and software that effect simultaneous, nearly real-time transmission of as many as 14 different audio streams to authorized listeners via the MCC intranet and/or the Internet. The original version of the MCC VOIP system was conceived to enable flight-support personnel located in offices outside a spacecraft mission control center to monitor audio loops within the mission control center. Different versions of the MCC VOIP system could be used for a variety of public and commercial purposes - for example, to enable members of the general public to monitor one or more NASA audio streams through their home computers, to enable air-traffic supervisors to monitor communication between airline pilots and air-traffic controllers in training, and to monitor conferences among brokers in a stock exchange. At the transmitting end, the audio-distribution process begins with feeding the audio signals to analog-to-digital converters. The resulting digital streams are sent through the MCC intranet, using a user datagram protocol (UDP), to a server that converts them to encrypted data packets. The encrypted data packets are then routed to the personal computers of authorized users by use of multicasting techniques. The total data-processing load on the portion of the system upstream of and including the encryption server is the total load imposed by all of the audio streams being encoded, regardless of the number of the listeners or the number of streams being monitored concurrently by the listeners. The personal computer of a user authorized to listen is equipped with special- purpose MCC audio-player software. When the user launches the program, the user is prompted to provide identification and a password. In one of two access- control provisions, the program is hard-coded to validate the user s identity and password against a list maintained on a domain-controller computer

  3. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  4. Spatial domain entertainment audio decompression/compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. K.; Tam, Ka Him K.

    2014-02-01

    The ARM7 NEON processor with 128bit SIMD hardware accelerator requires a peak performance of 13.99 Mega Cycles per Second for MP3 stereo entertainment quality decoding. For similar compression bit rate, OGG and AAC is preferred over MP3. The Patent Cooperation Treaty Application dated 28/August/2012 describes an audio decompression scheme producing a sequence of interleaving "min to Max" and "Max to min" rising and falling segments. The number of interior audio samples bound by "min to Max" or "Max to min" can be {0|1|…|N} audio samples. The magnitudes of samples, including the bounding min and Max, are distributed as normalized constants within the 0 and 1 of the bounding magnitudes. The decompressed audio is then a "sequence of static segments" on a frame by frame basis. Some of these frames needed to be post processed to elevate high frequency. The post processing is compression efficiency neutral and the additional decoding complexity is only a small fraction of the overall decoding complexity without the need of extra hardware. Compression efficiency can be speculated as very high as source audio had been decimated and converted to a set of data with only "segment length and corresponding segment magnitude" attributes. The PCT describes how these two attributes are efficiently coded by the PCT innovative coding scheme. The PCT decoding efficiency is obviously very high and decoding latency is basically zero. Both hardware requirement and run time is at least an order of magnitude better than MP3 variants. The side benefit is ultra low power consumption on mobile device. The acid test on how such a simplistic waveform representation can indeed reproduce authentic decompressed quality is benchmarked versus OGG(aoTuv Beta 6.03) by three pair of stereo audio frames and one broadcast like voice audio frame with each frame consisting 2,028 samples at 44,100KHz sampling frequency.

  5. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study. PMID:24637036

  6. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Mangontarum, Mahid M.; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P.; Abdulcarim, Normalah S.

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers.

  7. Heisenberg algebra, umbral calculus and orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Levi, D.; Winternitz, P.

    2008-05-15

    Umbral calculus can be viewed as an abstract theory of the Heisenberg commutation relation [P,M]=1. In ordinary quantum mechanics, P is the derivative and M the coordinate operator. Here, we shall realize P as a second order differential operator and M as a first order integral one. We show that this makes it possible to solve large classes of differential and integrodifferential equations and to introduce new classes of orthogonal polynomials, related to Laguerre polynomials. These polynomials are particularly well suited for describing the so-called flatenned beams in laser theory.

  8. More on rotations as spin matrix polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.

    2015-09-15

    Any nonsingular function of spin j matrices always reduces to a matrix polynomial of order 2j. The challenge is to find a convenient form for the coefficients of the matrix polynomial. The theory of biorthogonal systems is a useful framework to meet this challenge. Central factorial numbers play a key role in the theoretical development. Explicit polynomial coefficients for rotations expressed either as exponentials or as rational Cayley transforms are considered here. Structural features of the results are discussed and compared, and large j limits of the coefficients are examined.

  9. Polynomial meta-models with canonical low-rank approximations: Numerical insights and comparison to sparse polynomial chaos expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    The growing need for uncertainty analysis of complex computational models has led to an expanding use of meta-models across engineering and sciences. The efficiency of meta-modeling techniques relies on their ability to provide statistically-equivalent analytical representations based on relatively few evaluations of the original model. Polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) have proven a powerful tool for developing meta-models in a wide range of applications; the key idea thereof is to expand the model response onto a basis made of multivariate polynomials obtained as tensor products of appropriate univariate polynomials. The classical PCE approach nevertheless faces the "curse of dimensionality", namely the exponential increase of the basis size with increasing input dimension. To address this limitation, the sparse PCE technique has been proposed, in which the expansion is carried out on only a few relevant basis terms that are automatically selected by a suitable algorithm. An alternative for developing meta-models with polynomial functions in high-dimensional problems is offered by the newly emerged low-rank approximations (LRA) approach. By exploiting the tensor-product structure of the multivariate basis, LRA can provide polynomial representations in highly compressed formats. Through extensive numerical investigations, we herein first shed light on issues relating to the construction of canonical LRA with a particular greedy algorithm involving a sequential updating of the polynomial coefficients along separate dimensions. Specifically, we examine the selection of optimal rank, stopping criteria in the updating of the polynomial coefficients and error estimation. In the sequel, we confront canonical LRA to sparse PCE in structural-mechanics and heat-conduction applications based on finite-element solutions. Canonical LRA exhibit smaller errors than sparse PCE in cases when the number of available model evaluations is small with respect to the input dimension, a

  10. Uncertainty quantification in simulations of epidemics using polynomial chaos.

    PubMed

    Santonja, F; Chen-Charpentier, B

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations are a useful tool to study the processes involved in epidemiology. Many models consider that the parameters are deterministic variables. But in practice, the transmission parameters present large variability and it is not possible to determine them exactly, and it is necessary to introduce randomness. In this paper, we present an application of the polynomial chaos approach to epidemiological mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations with random coefficients. Taking into account the variability of the transmission parameters of the model, this approach allows us to obtain an auxiliary system of differential equations, which is then integrated numerically to obtain the first-and the second-order moments of the output stochastic processes. A sensitivity analysis based on the polynomial chaos approach is also performed to determine which parameters have the greatest influence on the results. As an example, we will apply the approach to an obesity epidemic model. PMID:22927889

  11. Orthonormal curvature polynomials over a unit circle: basis set derived from curvatures of Zernike polynomials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H

    2013-12-16

    Zernike polynomials are an orthonormal set of scalar functions over a circular domain, and are commonly used to represent wavefront phase or surface irregularity. In optical testing, slope or curvature of a surface or wavefront is sometimes measured instead, from which the surface or wavefront map is obtained. Previously we derived an orthonormal set of vector polynomials that fit to slope measurement data and yield the surface or wavefront map represented by Zernike polynomials. Here we define a 3-element curvature vector used to represent the second derivatives of a continuous surface, and derive a set of orthonormal curvature basis functions that are written in terms of Zernike polynomials. We call the new curvature functions the C polynomials. Closed form relations for the complete basis set are provided, and we show how to determine Zernike surface coefficients from the curvature data as represented by the C polynomials. PMID:24514717

  12. Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanam, Barchand; Dewan, K. K.

    2007-12-01

    Let , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant][mu][less-than-or-equals, slant]n, be a polynomial of degree n such that p(z)[not equal to]0 in z0, then for 0polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 2 (2) (1999) 203-205] proved Equality holds for the polynomial where n is a multiple of [mu]E In this paper, we obtain an improvement of the above inequality by involving some of the coefficients. As an application of our result, we further improve upon a result recently proved by Aziz and Shah [A. Aziz, W.M. Shah, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 7 (3) (2004) 379-391].

  13. Schur Stability Regions for Complex Quadratic Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Sui Sun; Huang, Shao Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Given a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions are found in terms of the coefficients such that all its roots have absolute values less than 1. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Adapted polynomial chaos expansion for failure detection

    SciTech Connect

    Paffrath, M. Wever, U.

    2007-09-10

    In this paper, we consider two methods of computation of failure probabilities by adapted polynomial chaos expansions. The performance of the two methods is demonstrated by a predator-prey model and a chemical reaction problem.

  15. Hermite polynomials and quasi-classical asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. Twareque; Engliš, Miroslav

    2014-04-15

    We study an unorthodox variant of the Berezin-Toeplitz type of quantization scheme, on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space generated by the real Hermite polynomials and work out the associated quasi-classical asymptotics.

  16. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. PMID:25948255

  17. Combinatorial and algorithm aspects of hyperbolic polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvits, Leonid I.

    2004-01-01

    Univariate polynomials with real roots appear quite often in modern combinatorics, especially in the context of integer polytopes. We discovered in this paper rather unexpected and very likely far-reaching connections between hyperbolic polynomials and many classical combinatorial and algorithmic problems. There are still several open problems. The most interesting is a hyperbolic generalization of the van der Waerden conjecture for permanents of doubly stochastic matrices.

  18. Stochastic processes with orthogonal polynomial eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Bob

    2009-12-01

    Markov processes which are reversible with either Gamma, Normal, Poisson or Negative Binomial stationary distributions in the Meixner class and have orthogonal polynomial eigenfunctions are characterized as being processes subordinated to well-known diffusion processes for the Gamma and Normal, and birth and death processes for the Poisson and Negative Binomial. A characterization of Markov processes with Beta stationary distributions and Jacobi polynomial eigenvalues is also discussed.

  19. The Fixed-Links Model in Combination with the Polynomial Function as a Tool for Investigating Choice Reaction Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    A model with fixed relations between manifest and latent variables is presented for investigating choice reaction time data. The numbers for fixation originate from the polynomial function. Two options are considered: the component-based (1 latent variable for each component of the polynomial function) and composite-based options (1 latent…

  20. On the cardinality of twelfth degree polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaraiya, S.; Sapar, S. H.; Johari, M. A. Mohamat

    2016-06-01

    Let p be a prime and f (x, y) be a polynomial in Zp[x, y]. It is defined that the exponential sums associated with f modulo a prime pα is S (f :q )= ∑ e2/π i f (x ) q for α >1 , where f (x) is in Z[x] and the sum is taken over a complete set of residues x modulo positive integer q. Previous studies has shown that estimation of S (f; pα) is depends on the cardinality of the set of solutions to congruence equation associated with the polynomial. In order to estimate the cardinality, we need to have the value of p-adic sizes of common zeros of partial derivative polynomials associated with polynomial. Hence, p-adic method and newton polyhedron technique will be applied to this approach. After that, indicator diagram will be constructed and analyzed. The cardinality will in turn be used to estimate the exponential sums of the polynomials. This paper concentrates on the cardinality of the set of solutions to congruence equation associated with polynomial in the form of f (x, y) = ax12 + bx11y + cx10y2 + sx + ty + k.

  1. Frameworks for Logically Classifying Polynomial-Time Optimisation Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gate, James; Stewart, Iain A.

    We show that a logical framework, based around a fragment of existential second-order logic formerly proposed by others so as to capture the class of polynomially-bounded P-optimisation problems, cannot hope to do so, under the assumption that P ≠ NP. We do this by exhibiting polynomially-bounded maximisation and minimisation problems that can be expressed in the framework but whose decision versions are NP-complete. We propose an alternative logical framework, based around inflationary fixed-point logic, and show that we can capture the above classes of optimisation problems. We use the inductive depth of an inflationary fixed-point as a means to describe the objective functions of the instances of our optimisation problems.

  2. High performance MPEG-audio decoder IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, M.; Benbassat, G.; Cyr, K.; Li, S.; Gill, M.; Kam, D.; Walker, K.; Look, P.; Eldridge, C.; Ng, P.

    1993-01-01

    The emerging digital audio and video compression technology brings both an opportunity and a new challenge to IC design. The pervasive application of compression technology to consumer electronics will require high volume, low cost IC's and fast time to market of the prototypes and production units. At the same time, the algorithms used in the compression technology result in complex VLSI IC's. The conflicting challenges of algorithm complexity, low cost, and fast time to market have an impact on device architecture and design methodology. The work presented in this paper is about the design of a dedicated, high precision, Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) audio decoder.

  3. Free audio archive brings legends to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-09-01

    A free online archive that contains thousands of hours of interviews with physicists and astronomers has been launched by the American Institute of Physics (AIP). The archive currently contains full transcripts of interviews with over 400 physicists that were recorded by historians and journalists from 1960 onwards as well as selected parts of the audio files. By the end of the year, the archive, belonging to the AIP's Niels Bohr Library and Archives in Washington, DC, will contain 500 online transcripts and over a dozen audio interviews.

  4. Beta-integrals and finite orthogonal systems of Wilson polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Neretin, Yu A

    2002-08-31

    The integral is calculated and the system of orthogonal polynomials with weight equal to the corresponding integrand is constructed. This weight decreases polynomially, therefore only finitely many of its moments converge. As a result the system of orthogonal polynomials is finite. Systems of orthogonal polynomials related to {sub 5}H{sub 5}-Dougall's formula and the Askey integral is also constructed. All the three systems consist of Wilson polynomials outside the domain of positiveness of the usual weight.

  5. Quasi-kernel polynomials and convergence results for quasi-minimal residual iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Freund and Nachtigal have proposed a novel polynominal-based iteration, the quasi-minimal residual algorithm (QMR), for solving general nonsingular non-Hermitian linear systems. Motivated by the QMR method, we have introduced the general concept of quasi-kernel polynomials, and we have shown that the QMR algorithm is based on a particular instance of quasi-kernel polynomials. In this paper, we continue our study of quasi-kernel polynomials. In particular, we derive bounds for the norms of quasi-kernel polynomials. These results are then applied to obtain convergence theorems both for the QMR method and for a transpose-free variant of QMR, the TFQMR algorithm.

  6. The Rational Polynomial Coefficients Modification Using Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoost, F.; Azizi, A.; Arefi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The high-resolution satellite imageries (HRSI) are as primary dataset for different applications such as DEM generation, 3D city mapping, change detection, monitoring, and deformation detection. The geo-location information of HRSI are stored in metadata called Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). There are many methods to improve and modify the RPCs in order to have a precise mapping. In this paper, an automatic approach is presented for the RPC modification using global Digital Elevation Models. The main steps of this approach are: relative digital elevation model generation, shift parameters calculation, sparse point cloud generation and shift correction, and rational polynomial fitting. Using some ground control points, the accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated based on statistical descriptors in which the results show that the geo-location accuracy of HRSI can be improved without using Ground Control Points (GCPs).

  7. Extending a Property of Cubic Polynomials to Higher-Degree Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David A.; Moseley, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a property that holds for all cubic polynomials given two zeros. This property is discovered after reviewing a variety of ways to determine the equation of a cubic polynomial given specific conditions through algebra and calculus. At the end of the article, they will connect the property to a very famous method…

  8. Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

  9. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  10. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  11. Providing Students with Formative Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brearley, Francis Q.; Cullen, W. Rod

    2012-01-01

    The provision of timely and constructive feedback is increasingly challenging for busy academics. Ensuring effective student engagement with feedback is equally difficult. Increasingly, studies have explored provision of audio recorded feedback to enhance effectiveness and engagement with feedback. Few, if any, of these focus on purely formative…

  12. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

  13. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  14. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  15. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  16. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment §...

  17. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment §...

  18. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  19. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  20. Improving Audio Quality in Distance Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Craig H.

    This paper discusses common causes of problems encountered with audio systems in distance learning networks and offers practical suggestions for correcting the problems. Problems and discussions are divided into nine categories: (1) acoustics, including reverberant classrooms leading to distorted or garbled voices, as well as one-dimensional audio…

  1. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  2. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  3. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  4. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  5. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  6. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  7. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  8. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. 73.403 Section 73.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast...

  9. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. 73.403 Section 73.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast...

  10. To Make a Long Story Short: Abridged Audio at 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annichiarico, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of abridged audio publishing 10 years after the formation of the Audio Publishers Association. Topics include abridged versus unabridged versions for bookstores and libraries; vendors and publishers; future possibilities for CDs and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc); and audio leasing for libraries. (LRW)

  11. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming... analog programming service currently provided to listeners. (b) Emergency information. The...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2-2 - Audio devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audio devices. 8365.2-2 Section 8365.2-2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-2 Audio devices. On... audio device such as a radio, television, musical instrument, or other noise producing device...

  13. Time-dependent generalized polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsma, Marc; Steen, Jan-Bart van der; Vos, Peter; Karniadakis, George

    2010-11-01

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) has non-uniform convergence and tends to break down for long-time integration. The reason is that the probability density distribution (PDF) of the solution evolves as a function of time. The set of orthogonal polynomials associated with the initial distribution will therefore not be optimal at later times, thus causing the reduced efficiency of the method for long-time integration. Adaptation of the set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to the changing PDF removes the error with respect to long-time integration. In this method new stochastic variables and orthogonal polynomials are constructed as time progresses. In the new stochastic variable the solution can be represented exactly by linear functions. This allows the method to use only low order polynomial approximations with high accuracy. The method is illustrated with a simple decay model for which an analytic solution is available and subsequently applied to the three mode Kraichnan-Orszag problem with favorable results.

  14. The Black Record: A Selective Discography of Afro-Americana on Audio Discs Held by the Audio/Visual Department, John M. Olin Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dain, Bernice, Comp.; Nevin, David, Comp.

    The present revised and expanded edition of this document is an inclusive cumulation. A few items have been included which are on order as new to the collection or as replacements. This discography is intended to serve primarily as a local user's guide. The call number preceding each entry is based on the Audio-Visual Department's own, unique…

  15. Torus Knot Polynomials and Susy Wilson Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giasemidis, Georgios; Tierz, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    We give, using an explicit expression obtained in (Jones V, Ann Math 126:335, 1987), a basic hypergeometric representation of the HOMFLY polynomial of ( n, m) torus knots, and present a number of equivalent expressions, all related by Heine's transformations. Using this result, the symmetry and the leading polynomial at large N are explicit. We show the latter to be the Wilson loop of 2d Yang-Mills theory on the plane. In addition, after taking one winding to infinity, it becomes the Wilson loop in the zero instanton sector of the 2d Yang-Mills theory, which is known to give averages of Wilson loops in = 4 SYM theory. We also give, using matrix models, an interpretation of the HOMFLY polynomial and the corresponding Jones-Rosso representation in terms of q-harmonic oscillators.

  16. Chebyshev Polynomials Are Not Always Optimal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, B.; Freund, E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are concerned with the problem of finding among all polynomials of degree at most n and normalized to be 1 at c the one with minimal uniform norm on Epsilon. Here, Epsilon is a given ellipse with both foci on the real axis and c is a given real point not contained in Epsilon. Problems of this type arise in certain iterative matrix computations, and, in this context, it is generally believed and widely referenced that suitably normalized Chebyshev polynomials are optimal for such constrained approximation problems. In this note, the authors show that this is not true in general. Moreover, the authors derive sufficient conditions which guarantee that Chebyshev polynomials are optimal. Also, some numerical examples are presented.

  17. Fitting parametrized polynomials with scattered surface data.

    PubMed

    van Ruijven, L J; Beek, M; van Eijden, T M

    1999-07-01

    Currently used joint-surface models require the measurements to be structured according to a grid. With the currently available tracking devices a large quantity of unstructured surface points can be measured in a relatively short time. In this paper a method is presented to fit polynomial functions to three-dimensional unstructured data points. To test the method spherical, cylindrical, parabolic, hyperbolic, exponential, logarithmic, and sellar surfaces with different undulations were used. The resulting polynomials were compared with the original shapes. The results show that even complex joint surfaces can be modelled with polynomial functions. In addition, the influence of noise and the number of data points was also analyzed. From a surface (diam: 20 mm) which is measured with a precision of 0.2 mm a model can be constructed with a precision of 0.02 mm. PMID:10400359

  18. Minimal residual method stronger than polynomial preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Joubert, W.; Knill, E.

    1994-12-31

    Two popular methods for solving symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations are the minimal residual method, implemented by algorithms such as GMRES, and polynomial preconditioning methods. In this study results are given on the convergence rates of these methods for various classes of matrices. It is shown that for some matrices, such as normal matrices, the convergence rates for GMRES and for the optimal polynomial preconditioning are the same, and for other matrices such as the upper triangular Toeplitz matrices, it is at least assured that if one method converges then the other must converge. On the other hand, it is shown that matrices exist for which restarted GMRES always converges but any polynomial preconditioning of corresponding degree makes no progress toward the solution for some initial error. The implications of these results for these and other iterative methods are discussed.

  19. Fast Huffman encoding algorithms in MPEG-4 advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the optimisation problem of Huffman encoding in MPEG-4 Advanced Audio Coding stan- dard. At first, the Huffman encoding problem and the need of encoding two side info parameters scale factor and Huffman codebook are presented. Next, Two Loop Search, Maximum Noise Mask Ratio and Trellis Based algorithms of bit allocation are briefly described. Further, Huffman encoding optimisation are shown. New methods try to check and change scale factor bands as little as possible to estimate bitrate cost or its change. Finally, the complexity of old and new methods is calculated, compared and measured time of encoding is given.

  20. Bispectrality of the Complementary Bannai-Ito Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2013-03-01

    A one-parameter family of operators that have the complementary Bannai-Ito (CBI) polynomials as eigenfunctions is obtained. The CBI polynomials are the kernel partners of the Bannai-Ito polynomials and also correspond to a q→"1 limit of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The eigenvalue equations for the CBI polynomials are found to involve second order Dunkl shift operators with reflections and exhibit quadratic spectra. The algebra associated to the CBI polynomials is given and seen to be a deformation of the Askey-Wilson algebra with an involution. The relation between the CBI polynomials and the recently discovered dual "1 Hahn and para-Krawtchouk polynomials, as well as their relation with the symmetric Hahn polynomials, is also discussed.

  1. Concurrent emotional pictures modulate temporal order judgments of spatially separated audio-tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lina; Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Müller, Hermann J

    2013-11-01

    Although attention can be captured toward high-arousal stimuli, little is known about how perceiving emotion in one modality influences the temporal processing of non-emotional stimuli in other modalities. We addressed this issue by presenting observers spatially uninformative emotional pictures while they performed an audio-tactile temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task. In Experiment 1, audio-tactile stimuli were presented at the same location straight ahead of the participants, who had to judge "which modality came first?". In Experiments 2 and 3, the audio-tactile stimuli were delivered one to the left and the other to the right side, and participants had to judge "which side came first?". We found both negative and positive high-arousal pictures to significantly bias TOJs towards the tactile and away from the auditory event when the audio-tactile stimuli were spatially separated; by contrast, there was no such bias when the audio-tactile stimuli originated from the same location. To further examine whether this bias is attributable to the emotional meanings conveyed by the pictures or to their high arousal effect, we compared and contrasted the influences of near-body threat vs. remote threat (emotional) pictures on audio-tactile TOJs in Experiment 3. The bias manifested only in the near-body threat condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that visual stimuli conveying meanings of near-body interaction activate a sensorimotor functional link prioritizing the processing of tactile over auditory signals when these signals are spatially separated. In contrast, audio-tactile signals from the same location engender strong crossmodal integration, thus counteracting modality-based attentional shifts induced by the emotional pictures. PMID:24041776

  2. On the derivatives of unimodular polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevai, P.; Erdélyi, T.

    2016-04-01

    Let D be the open unit disk of the complex plane; its boundary, the unit circle of the complex plane, is denoted by \\partial D. Let \\mathscr P_n^c denote the set of all algebraic polynomials of degree at most n with complex coefficients. For λ ≥ 0, let {\\mathscr K}_n^λ \\stackrel{{def}}{=} \\biggl\\{P_n: P_n(z) = \\sumk=0^n{ak k^λ z^k}, ak \\in { C}, |a_k| = 1 \\biggr\\} \\subset {\\mathscr P}_n^c.The class \\mathscr K_n^0 is often called the collection of all (complex) unimodular polynomials of degree n. Given a sequence (\\varepsilon_n) of positive numbers tending to 0, we say that a sequence (P_n) of polynomials P_n\\in\\mathscr K_n^λ is \\{λ, (\\varepsilon_n)\\}-ultraflat if \\displaystyle (1-\\varepsilon_n)\\frac{nλ+1/2}{\\sqrt{2λ+1}}≤\\ve......a +1/2}}{\\sqrt{2λ +1}},\\qquad z \\in \\partial D,\\quad n\\in N_0.Although we do not know, in general, whether or not \\{λ, (\\varepsilon_n)\\}-ultraflat sequences of polynomials P_n\\in\\mathscr K_n^λ exist for each fixed λ>0, we make an effort to prove various interesting properties of them. These allow us to conclude that there are no sequences (P_n) of either conjugate, or plain, or skew reciprocal unimodular polynomials P_n\\in\\mathscr K_n^0 such that (Q_n) with Q_n(z)\\stackrel{{def}}{=} zP_n'(z)+1 is a \\{1,(\\varepsilon_n)\\}-ultraflat sequence of polynomials.Bibliography: 18 titles.

  3. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhangming, Zhu; Lianxi, Liu; Yintang, Yang; Han, Lei

    2009-02-01

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 × 1.52 mm2. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  4. High degree interpolation polynomial in Newton form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    1988-01-01

    Polynomial interpolation is an essential subject in numerical analysis. Dealing with a real interval, it is well known that even if f(x) is an analytic function, interpolating at equally spaced points can diverge. On the other hand, interpolating at the zeroes of the corresponding Chebyshev polynomial will converge. Using the Newton formula, this result of convergence is true only on the theoretical level. It is shown that the algorithm which computes the divided differences is numerically stable only if: (1) the interpolating points are arranged in a different order, and (2) the size of the interval is 4.

  5. On the Waring problem for polynomial rings.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Ralf; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Shapiro, Boris

    2012-04-10

    In this note we discuss an analog of the classical Waring problem for C[x0,x1,...,x(n)]. Namely, we show that a general homogeneous polynomial p ∈ C[x0,x1,...,x(n)] of degree divisible by k≥2 can be represented as a sum of at most k(n) k-th powers of homogeneous polynomials in C[x0,x1,...,x(n)]. Noticeably, k(n) coincides with the number obtained by naive dimension count. PMID:22460787

  6. Perturbations around the zeros of classical orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2015-04-01

    Starting from degree N solutions of a time dependent Schrödinger-like equation for classical orthogonal polynomials, a linear matrix equation describing perturbations around the N zeros of the polynomial is derived. The matrix has remarkable Diophantine properties. Its eigenvalues are independent of the zeros. The corresponding eigenvectors provide the representations of the lower degree ( 0 , 1 , … , N - 1 ) polynomials in terms of the zeros of the degree N polynomial. The results are valid universally for all the classical orthogonal polynomials, including the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and its q-analogues.

  7. Comparing Audio and Video Data for Rating Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with ICC (2,1) for audio = .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care. PMID:23579475

  8. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  9. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  10. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  11. Audio and video bit-rate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B. G.; Steele, R.

    1981-02-01

    The problem of estimating limits of bit-rate reduction for audio and video information is addressed. It is noted that binary encoding of such signals is performed by a variety of techniques, which are classified here into two categories (waveform and parameter). Encoders are compared on the basis of bits per Nyquist sample. Since minimizing the Nyquist sample requires a use of source signal statistics and human perception, audio and video sources and their statistics are discussed, as are the salient properties of hearing and vision and subjective assessments of quality. The present state of waveform and parameter encoding is assessed. It is predicted that waveform encoders will be refined to the point where bit rates will be nearly optimum but also highly variable. It is concluded that dramatic reductions will come about only through sophisticated parameter encoding.

  12. Promoting Independence through Assistive Technology: Evaluating Audio Recorders to Support Grocery Shopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv; Bartlett, Whitney; Weng, Pei-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In light of a positive research base regarding technology-based self-operating prompting systems (e.g., iPods), yet a concern about the sustainability of such technologies after a research project is completed, this study sought to explore the effectiveness and efficiency of an audio recorder, a low-cost, more commonly accessible technology to…

  13. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, A.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2010-07-01

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P(α, β)n(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters (α, β). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  14. Piecewise Polynomial Representations of Genomic Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Detours, Vincent; Konopka, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Genomic data from micro-array and sequencing projects consist of associations of measured values to chromosomal coordinates. These associations can be thought of as functions in one dimension and can thus be stored, analyzed, and interpreted as piecewise-polynomial curves. We present a general framework for building piecewise polynomial representations of genome-scale signals and illustrate some of its applications via examples. We show that piecewise constant segmentation, a typical step in copy-number analyses, can be carried out within this framework for both array and (DNA) sequencing data offering advantages over existing methods in each case. Higher-order polynomial curves can be used, for example, to detect trends and/or discontinuities in transcription levels from RNA-seq data. We give a concrete application of piecewise linear functions to diagnose and quantify alignment quality at exon borders (splice sites). Our software (source and object code) for building piecewise polynomial models is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/locsmoc/. PMID:23166601

  15. Polynomials Generated by the Fibonacci Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, David; Mills, Donald; Mitchell, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The Fibonacci sequence's initial terms are F_0=0 and F_1=1, with F_n=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2} for n>=2. We define the polynomial sequence p by setting p_0(x)=1 and p_{n}(x)=x*p_{n-1}(x)+F_{n+1} for n>=1, with p_{n}(x)= sum_{k=0}^{n} F_{k+1}x^{n-k}. We call p_n(x) the Fibonacci-coefficient polynomial (FCP) of order n. The FCP sequence is distinct from the well-known Fibonacci polynomial sequence. We answer several questions regarding these polynomials. Specifically, we show that each even-degree FCP has no real zeros, while each odd-degree FCP has a unique, and (for degree at least 3) irrational, real zero. Further, we show that this sequence of unique real zeros converges monotonically to the negative of the golden ratio. Using Rouche's theorem, we prove that the zeros of the FCP's approach the golden ratio in modulus. We also prove a general result that gives the Mahler measures of an infinite subsequence of the FCP sequence whose coefficients are reduced modulo an integer m>=2. We then apply this to the case that m=L_n, the nth Lucas number, showing that the Mahler measure of the subsequence is phi^{n-1}, where phi=(1+sqrt 5)/2.

  16. On solvable Dirac equation with polynomial potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowiak, Tomasz

    2011-01-15

    One-dimensional Dirac equation is analyzed with regard to the existence of exact (or closed-form) solutions for polynomial potentials. The notion of Liouvillian functions is used to define solvability, and it is shown that except for the linear potentials the equation in question is not solvable.

  17. A recursive algorithm for Zernike polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of a function defined on a rotationally symmetric system, with either a circular or annular pupil is discussed. In order to numerically analyze such systems it is typical to expand the given function in terms of a class of orthogonal polynomials. Because of their particular properties, the Zernike polynomials are especially suited for numerical calculations. Developed is a recursive algorithm that can be used to generate the Zernike polynomials up to a given order. The algorithm is recursively defined over J where R(J,N) is the Zernike polynomial of degree N obtained by orthogonalizing the sequence R(J), R(J+2), ..., R(J+2N) over (epsilon, 1). The terms in the preceding row - the (J-1) row - up to the N+1 term is needed for generating the (J,N)th term. Thus, the algorith generates an upper left-triangular table. This algorithm was placed in the computer with the necessary support program also included.

  18. Optimization of Cubic Polynomial Functions without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D., Jr.; Hansen, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    In algebra and precalculus courses, students are often asked to find extreme values of polynomial functions in the context of solving an applied problem; but without the notion of derivative, something is lost. Either the functions are reduced to quadratics, since students know the formula for the vertex of a parabola, or solutions are…

  19. Piecewise polynomial representations of genomic tracks.

    PubMed

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Detours, Vincent; Konopka, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Genomic data from micro-array and sequencing projects consist of associations of measured values to chromosomal coordinates. These associations can be thought of as functions in one dimension and can thus be stored, analyzed, and interpreted as piecewise-polynomial curves. We present a general framework for building piecewise polynomial representations of genome-scale signals and illustrate some of its applications via examples. We show that piecewise constant segmentation, a typical step in copy-number analyses, can be carried out within this framework for both array and (DNA) sequencing data offering advantages over existing methods in each case. Higher-order polynomial curves can be used, for example, to detect trends and/or discontinuities in transcription levels from RNA-seq data. We give a concrete application of piecewise linear functions to diagnose and quantify alignment quality at exon borders (splice sites). Our software (source and object code) for building piecewise polynomial models is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/locsmoc/. PMID:23166601

  20. Polynomial preconditioning for conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    1987-12-01

    The solution of a linear system of equations, Ax = b, arises in many scientific applications. If A is large and sparse, an iterative method is required. When A is hermitian positive definite (hpd), the conjugate gradient method of Hestenes and Stiefel is popular. When A is hermitian indefinite (hid), the conjugate residual method may be used. If A is ill-conditioned, these methods may converge slowly, in which case a preconditioner is needed. In this thesis we examine the use of polynomial preconditioning in CG methods for both hermitian positive definite and indefinite matrices. Such preconditioners are easy to employ and well-suited to vector and/or parallel architectures. We first show that any CG method is characterized by three matrices: an hpd inner product matrix B, a preconditioning matrix C, and the hermitian matrix A. The resulting method, CG(B,C,A), minimizes the B-norm of the error over a Krylov subspace. We next exploit the versatility of polynomial preconditioners to design several new CG methods. To obtain an optimum preconditioner, we solve a constrained minimax approximation problem. The preconditioning polynomial, C(lambda), is optimum in that it minimizes a bound on the condition number of the preconditioned matrix, p/sub m/(A). An adaptive procedure for dynamically determining the optimum preconditioner is also discussed. Finally, in a variety of numerical experiments, conducted on a Cray X-MP/48, we demonstrate the effectiveness of polynomial preconditioning. 66 ref., 19 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  2. An active headrest for personal audio.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Stephen J; Jones, Matthew

    2006-05-01

    There is an increasing need for personal audio systems, which generate sounds that are clearly audible to one listener but are not audible to other listeners nearby. Of particular interest in this paper are listeners sitting in adjacent seats in aircraft or land vehicles. Although personal audio could then be achieved with headsets, it would be safer and more comfortable if loudspeakers in the seat headrests could be actively controlled to generate an acceptable level of acoustic isolation. In this paper a number of approaches to this problem are investigated, but the most successful involves a pair of loudspeakers on one side of the headrest, driven together to reproduce an audio signal for a listener in that seat and also to attenuate the pressures in the adjacent seat. The performance of this technique is investigated using simple analytic models and also with a practical implementation, tested in an anechoic chamber and a small room. It is found that significant attenuations, of between 5 and 25 dB, can be achieved in the crosstalk between the seats for frequencies up to about 2 kHz. PMID:16708929

  3. Synthecology: sound use of audio in teleimmersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Geoffrey; Gotsis, Marientina; Chang, Benjamin; Drinkwater, Robb; St. Clair, Dan

    2006-02-01

    This paper examines historical audio applications used to provide real-time immersive sound for CAVE TM environments and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. We examine and explain issues of providing spatialized sound immersion in real-time virtual environments (VEs), some problems with currently used sound servers, and a set of requirements for an 'ideal' sound server. We present the initial configuration of a new cross-platform sound server solution using open source software and the Open Sound Control (OSC) specification for the creation of real-time spatialized audio with CAVE applications, specifically Ygdrasil (Yg) environments. The application, aNother Sound Server (NSS) establishes an application interface (API) using OSC, a logical server layer implemented in Python, and an audio engine using SuperCollider (SC). We discuss spatialization implementation and other features. Finally, we document the Synthecology project which premiered at WIRED NEXTFEST 2005 and was the first VE to use NSS. We also discuss various techniques that enhance presence in networked VEs, as well as possible and planned extensions of NSS.

  4. Quadratically Convergent Method for Simultaneously Approaching the Roots of Polynomial Solutions of a Class of Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recchioni, Maria Cristina

    2001-12-01

    This paper investigates the application of the method introduced by L. Pasquini (1989) for simultaneously approaching the zeros of polynomial solutions to a class of second-order linear homogeneous ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients to a particular case in which these polynomial solutions have zeros symmetrically arranged with respect to the origin. The method is based on a family of nonlinear equations which is associated with a given class of differential equations. The roots of the nonlinear equations are related to the roots of the polynomial solutions of differential equations considered. Newton's method is applied to find the roots of these nonlinear equations. In (Pasquini, 1994) the nonsingularity of the roots of these nonlinear equations is studied. In this paper, following the lines in (Pasquini, 1994), the nonsingularity of the roots of these nonlinear equations is studied. More favourable results than the ones in (Pasquini, 1994) are proven in the particular case of polynomial solutions with symmetrical zeros. The method is applied to approximate the roots of Hermite-Sobolev type polynomials and Freud polynomials. A lower bound for the smallest positive root of Hermite-Sobolev type polynomials is given via the nonlinear equation. The quadratic convergence of the method is proven. A comparison with a classical method that uses the Jacobi matrices is carried out. We show that the algorithm derived by the proposed method is sometimes preferable to the classical QR type algorithms for computing the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrices even if these matrices are real and symmetric.

  5. The sweet-home project: audio technology in smart homes to improve well-being and reliance.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Michel; Istrate, Dan; Portet, François; Joubert, Thierry; Chevalier, Thierry; Smidtas, Serge; Meillon, Brigitte; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Sehili, Mohamed; Chahuara, Pedro; Méniard, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The Sweet-Home project aims at providing audio-based interaction technology that lets the user have full control over their home environment, at detecting distress situations and at easing the social inclusion of the elderly and frail population. This paper presents an overview of the project focusing on the multimodal sound corpus acquisition and labelling and on the investigated techniques for speech and sound recognition. The user study and the recognition performances show the interest of this audio technology. PMID:22255532

  6. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  7. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  8. The ratio monotonicity of the Boros-Moll polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, William Y. C.; Xia, Ernest X. W.

    2009-12-01

    In their study of a quartic integral, Boros and Moll discovered a special class of Jacobi polynomials, which we call the Boros-Moll polynomials. Kauers and Paule proved the conjecture of Moll that these polynomials are log-concave. In this paper, we show that the Boros-Moll polynomials possess the ratio monotone property which implies the log-concavity and the spiral property. We conclude with a conjecture which is stronger than Moll's conjecture on the infty -log-concavity.

  9. Managing exam stress using UMTS phones: the advantage of portable audio/video support.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela; Gaggioli, Andrea; Preziosa, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a specific protocol based on mobile narratives--multimedia narratives experienced on UMTS/3G phones. 30 female university students (M=23.48; sd=1.24) who were going to perform an exam within a week were included in the trial. They were randomly divided in five groups according to the type and mobility of the medium used: (1) audio only narrative (CD at home); (2) audio only narrative (portable MP3); (3) audio and video narrative (DVD at home); (4) audio and video narrative (UMTS based); (5) control group. Audio/video narratives induced a reduction in exam anxiety in more than 80% of the sample vs 50% of the MP3 sample and 0% of the CD sample. Further, all the users who experienced mobile narratives on UMTS phones were able to relax before the exam, against 50% of DVD users and 33% of audio-only users. The trial showed a better efficacy of mobile narratives experienced on UMTS phones in reducing the level of exam stress and in helping the student to relax. These results suggest that for the specific sample considered--Italian university students--the media used for providing an anti-stress protocol has a clear impact on its efficacy. PMID:17377312

  10. Herman's Condition and Siegel Disks of Bi-Critical Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chéritat, Arnaud; Roesch, Pascale

    2016-06-01

    We extend a theorem of Herman from the case of unicritical polynomials to the case of polynomials with two finite critical values. This theorem states that Siegel disks of such polynomials, under a diophantine condition (called Herman's condition) on the rotation number, must have a critical point on their boundaries.

  11. The New Polynomial Invariants of Knots and Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickorish, W. B. R.; Millett, K. C.

    1988-01-01

    Knot theory has been inspirational to algebraic and geometric topology. The principal problem has been to ascertain whether two links are equivalent. New methods have been discovered which are effective and simple. Considered are background information; the oriented polynomial; the Jones polynomial; the semioriented polynomial; and calculations,…

  12. The Gibbs Phenomenon for Series of Orthogonal Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Kloppers, P. Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    This note considers the four classes of orthogonal polynomials--Chebyshev, Hermite, Laguerre, Legendre--and investigates the Gibbs phenomenon at a jump discontinuity for the corresponding orthogonal polynomial series expansions. The perhaps unexpected thing is that the Gibbs constant that arises for each class of polynomials appears to be the same…

  13. Inverse of polynomial matrices in the irreducible form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Fan R.; Shieh, Leang S.; Mcinnis, Bayliss C.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for finding the inverse of polynomial matrices in the irreducible form. The computational method involves the use of the left (right) matrix division method and the determination of linearly dependent vectors of the remainders. The obtained transfer function matrix has no nontrivial common factor between the elements of the numerator polynomial matrix and the denominator polynomial.

  14. An acoustical interpretation of the zeroes of ultraspherical polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vey, Georges

    2016-06-01

    In 1887, T.J. Stieltjes gave an electrostatical interpretation of the zeroes of Jacobi polynomials. This was extended later to Laguerre and Hermite polynomials by G. Szegö. An analogous interpretation is given here for ultraspherical polynomials in terms of piecewise cylindrical acoustical resonators. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin

    2007-12-13

    The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as “local” piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi’s method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source

  16. Polynomial search and global modeling: Two algorithms for modeling chaos.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, S; Coudret, R; Drapeau, L; Jarlan, L

    2012-10-01

    Global modeling aims to build mathematical models of concise description. Polynomial Model Search (PoMoS) and Global Modeling (GloMo) are two complementary algorithms (freely downloadable at the following address: http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/us/pomos_et_glomo.html) designed for the modeling of observed dynamical systems based on a small set of time series. Models considered in these algorithms are based on ordinary differential equations built on a polynomial formulation. More specifically, PoMoS aims at finding polynomial formulations from a given set of 1 to N time series, whereas GloMo is designed for single time series and aims to identify the parameters for a selected structure. GloMo also provides basic features to visualize integrated trajectories and to characterize their structure when it is simple enough: One allows for drawing the first return map for a chosen Poincaré section in the reconstructed space; another one computes the Lyapunov exponent along the trajectory. In the present paper, global modeling from single time series is considered. A description of the algorithms is given and three examples are provided. The first example is based on the three variables of the Rössler attractor. The second one comes from an experimental analysis of the copper electrodissolution in phosphoric acid for which a less parsimonious global model was obtained in a previous study. The third example is an exploratory case and concerns the cycle of rainfed wheat under semiarid climatic conditions as observed through a vegetation index derived from a spatial sensor. PMID:23214661

  17. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-06-13

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  18. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  19. Possible quantum algorithms for the Bollobas-Riordan-Tutte polynomial of a ribbon graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2008-04-01

    Three possible quantum algorithms, for the computation of the Bollobás-Riordan-Tutte polynomial of a given ribbon graph, are presented and discussed. The first possible algorithm is based on the spanning quasi-trees expansion for generalized Tutte polynomials of generalized graphs and on a quantum version of the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) for quasi-trees . The second possible algorithm is based on the relation between the Kauffman bracket and the Tutte polynomial; and with an application of the recently introduced Aharonov-Arad-Eban-Landau quantum algorithm. The third possible algorithm is based on the relation between the HOMFLY polynomial and the Tutte polynomial; and with an application of the Wocjan-Yard quantum algorithm. It is claimed that these possible algorithms may be more efficient that the best known classical algorithms. These three algorithms may have interesting applications in computer science at general or in computational biology and bio-informatics in particular. A line for future research based on the categorification project is mentioned.

  20. New optimal polynomial theory for NN-scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, T A; Signell, P

    1980-01-01

    A new optimal polynomial theory for nucleon-nucleon scattering is presented. For the first time in nucleon-nucleon scattering, the derivative amplitudes originally introduced by Fubini, Furlan, and Rosetti are applied. Based on the properties of these amplitudes we introduce K-matrix functions which have suitable analyticity properties as functions of cos theta, where theta is the center of mass scattering angle. The K-matrix functions enable introduction of a new set of functions for which the optimal mapping techniques of Cutkosky, Deo and Ciulli can be applied. Results are shown for proton-proton phase shift analyses at 210 and 330 MeV.

  1. A digital audio/video interleaving system. [for Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of interleaving an audio signal with its associated video signal for simultaneous transmission or recording, and the subsequent separation of the two signals, is described. Comparisons are made between the new audio signal interleaving system and the Skylab Pam audio/video interleaving system, pointing out improvements gained by using the digital audio/video interleaving system. It was found that the digital technique is the simplest, most effective and most reliable method for interleaving audio and/or other types of data into the video signal for the Shuttle Orbiter application. Details of the design of a multiplexer capable of accommodating two basic data channels, each consisting of a single 31.5-kb/s digital bit stream are given. An adaptive slope delta modulation system is introduced to digitize audio signals, producing a high immunity of work intelligibility to channel errors, primarily due to the robust nature of the delta-modulation algorithm.

  2. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  3. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  4. Creating Accessible Science Museums with User-Activated Environmental Audio Beacons (Ping!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Steven; Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Giusti, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, Touch Graphics Company carried out research on a new invention that promises to improve accessibility to science museums for visitors who are visually impaired. The system, nicknamed Ping!, allows users to navigate an exhibit area, listen to audio descriptions, and interact with exhibits using a cell phone-based interface. The system…

  5. Audio-magnetotelluric data collected in the area of Beatty, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    In the summer of 1997, electrical geophysical data was collected north of Beatty, Nevada. Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) was the geophysical method used to collect 16 stations along two profiles. The purpose of this data collection was to determine the depth to the alluvial basement, based upon the needs of the geologists requesting the data.

  6. Focus on Hinduism: Audio-Visual Resources for Teaching Religion. Occasional Publication No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, David; And Others

    The guide presents annotated lists of audio and visual materials about the Hindu religion. The authors point out that Hinduism cannot be comprehended totally by reading books; thus the resources identified in this guide will enhance understanding based on reading. The guide is intended for use by high school and college students, teachers,…

  7. The Introduction and Refinement of the Assessment of Digitally Recorded Audio Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This case study critically evaluates benefits and challenges of a form of assessment included in a final year undergraduate Religious Studies Open University module, which combines a written essay task with a digital audio recording of a short oral presentation. Based on the analysis of student and tutor feedback and sample assignments, this study…

  8. Transitioning from Analog to Digital Audio Recording in Childhood Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Mcsweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing…

  9. Online Instructor's Use of Audio Feedback to Increase Social Presence and Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portolese Dias, Laura; Trumpy, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of written group feedback, versus audio feedback, based upon four student satisfaction measures in the online classroom environment. Undergraduate students in the control group were provided both individual written feedback and group written feedback, while undergraduate students in the experimental treatment…

  10. Further Examination of Covert Audio Coaching on Improving Employment Skills among Secondary Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulty maintaining employment, and there are few evidenced-based practices to guide professionals when developing employment skills among this population. The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on covert audio coaching (CAC) by examining its effects on high school students…

  11. Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT). A Systematized Audio-Visual Approach to Self-Paced Job Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, William J.; And Others

    Two Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT) courses were developed for Air Force Security Police Law Enforcement and Security specialists. The AAT was a systematized audio-visual approach to self-paced job training employing an easily operated teaching device. AAT courses were job specific and based on a behavioral task analysis of the two…

  12. Compressive sampling of polynomial chaos expansions: Convergence analysis and sampling strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, Jerrad; Doostan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Sampling orthogonal polynomial bases via Monte Carlo is of interest for uncertainty quantification of models with random inputs, using Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions. It is known that bounding a probabilistic parameter, referred to as coherence, yields a bound on the number of samples necessary to identify coefficients in a sparse PC expansion via solution to an ℓ{sub 1}-minimization problem. Utilizing results for orthogonal polynomials, we bound the coherence parameter for polynomials of Hermite and Legendre type under their respective natural sampling distribution. In both polynomial bases we identify an importance sampling distribution which yields a bound with weaker dependence on the order of the approximation. For more general orthonormal bases, we propose the coherence-optimal sampling: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which directly uses the basis functions under consideration to achieve a statistical optimality among all sampling schemes with identical support. We demonstrate these different sampling strategies numerically in both high-order and high-dimensional, manufactured PC expansions. In addition, the quality of each sampling method is compared in the identification of solutions to two differential equations, one with a high-dimensional random input and the other with a high-order PC expansion. In both cases, the coherence-optimal sampling scheme leads to similar or considerably improved accuracy.

  13. Polynomial Operators on Classes of Regular Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klíma, Ondřej; Polák, Libor

    We assign to each positive variety mathcal V and each natural number k the class of all (positive) Boolean combinations of the restricted polynomials, i.e. the languages of the form L_0a_1 L_1a_2dots a_ell L_ell, text{ where } ell≤ k, a 1,...,a ℓ are letters and L 0,...,L ℓ are languages from the variety mathcal V. For this polynomial operator we give a certain algebraic counterpart which works with identities satisfied by syntactic (ordered) monoids of languages considered. We also characterize the property that a variety of languages is generated by a finite number of languages. We apply our constructions to particular examples of varieties of languages which are crucial for a certain famous open problem concerning concatenation hierarchies.

  14. Fast and practical parallel polynomial interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Egecioglu, O.; Gallopoulos, E.; Koc, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    We present fast and practical parallel algorithms for the computation and evaluation of interpolating polynomials. The algorithms make use of fast parallel prefix techniques for the calculation of divided differences in the Newton representation of the interpolating polynomial. For n + 1 given input pairs the proposed interpolation algorithm requires 2 (log (n + 1)) + 2 parallel arithmetic steps and circuit size O(n/sup 2/). The algorithms are numerically stable and their floating-point implementation results in error accumulation similar to that of the widely used serial algorithms. This is in contrast to other fast serial and parallel interpolation algorithms which are subject to much larger roundoff. We demonstrate that in a distributed memory environment context, a cube connected system is very suitable for the algorithms' implementation, exhibiting very small communication cost. As further advantages we note that our techniques do not require equidistant points, preconditioning, or use of the Fast Fourier Transform. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Cabling procedure for the colored HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, A. S.; Morozov, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    We discuss using the cabling procedure to calculate colored HOMFLY polynomials. We describe how it can be used and how the projectors and -matrices needed for this procedure can be found. The constructed matrix expressions for the projectors and -matrices in the fundamental representation allow calculating the HOMFLY polynomial in an arbitrary representation for an arbitrary knot. The computational algorithm can be used for the knots and links with ¦ Q¦ m ≤ 12, where m is the number of strands in a braid representation of the knot and ¦ Q¦ is the number of boxes in the Young diagram of the representation. We also discuss the justification of the cabling procedure from the group theory standpoint, deriving expressions for the fundamental -matrices and clarifying some conjectures formulated in previous papers.

  16. The basic function scheme of polynomial type

    SciTech Connect

    WU, Wang-yi; Lin, Guang

    2009-12-01

    A new numerical method---Basic Function Method is proposed. This method can directly discrete differential operator on unstructured grids. By using the expansion of basic function to approach the exact function, the central and upwind schemes of derivative are constructed. By using the second-order polynomial as basic function and applying the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes to suppress the non-physical fluctuation near the shock wave, the second-order basic function scheme of polynomial type for solving inviscid compressible flow numerically is constructed in this paper. Several numerical results of many typical examples for two dimensional inviscid compressible transonic and supersonic steady flow illustrate that it is a new scheme with high accuracy and high resolution for shock wave. Especially, combining with the adaptive remeshing technique, the satisfactory results can be obtained by these schemes.

  17. On computing factors of cyclotomic polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Richard P.

    1993-07-01

    For odd square-free n > 1 the cyclotomic polynomial {Φ_n}(x) satisfies the identity of Gauss, 4{Φ_n}(x) = A_n^2 - {( - 1)^{(n - 1)/2}}nB_n^2. A similar identity of Aurifeuille, Le Lasseur, and Lucas is {Φ_n}({( - 1)^{(n - 1)/2}}x) = C_n^2 - nxD_n^2 or, in the case that n is even and square-free, ± {Φ_{n/2}}( - {x^2}) = C_n^2 - nxD_n^2. Here, {A_n}(x), ldots ,{D_n}(x) are polynomials with integer coefficients. We show how these coefficients can be computed by simple algorithms which require O({n^2}) arithmetic operations and work over the integers. We also give explicit formulae and generating functions for {A_n}(x), ldots ,{D_n}(x) , and illustrate the application to integer factorization with some numerical examples.

  18. Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Tom; Grosvenor, Kevin T.; Hořava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-12-01

    We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree P in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree P, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree P? To answer this (essentially cohomological) question, we develop a new graph-theoretical technique, and use it to prove several classification theorems. First, in the special case of P = 1 (essentially equivalent to Galileons), we reproduce the known Galileon N-point invariants, and find their novel interpretation in terms of graph theory, as an equal-weight sum over all labeled trees with N vertices. Then we extend the classification to P > 1 and find a whole host of new invariants, including those that represent the most relevant (or least irrelevant) deformations of the corresponding Gaussian fixed points, and we study their uniqueness.

  19. Trigonometric Polynomials For Estimation Of Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Orthogonal sets of trigonometric polynomials used as suboptimal substitutes for discrete prolate-spheroidal "windows" of Thomson method of estimation of spectra. As used here, "windows" denotes weighting functions used in sampling time series to obtain their power spectra within specified frequency bands. Simplified windows designed to require less computation than do discrete prolate-spheroidal windows, albeit at price of some loss of accuracy.

  20. Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, T.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.

  1. Detecting Prime Numbers via Roots of Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    It is proved that an integer n [greater than or equal] 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z[subscript n], the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z[subscript n] is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in…

  2. Vortex knot cascade in polynomial skein relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Renzo L.

    2016-06-01

    The process of vortex cascade through continuous reduction of topological complexity by stepwise unlinking, that has been observed experimentally in the production of vortex knots (Kleckner & Irvine, 2013), is shown to be reproduced in the branching of the skein relations of knot polynomials (Liu & Ricca, 2015) used to identify topological complexity of vortex systems. This observation can be usefully exploited for predictions of energy-complexity estimates for fluid flows.

  3. Detecting prime numbers via roots of polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-04-01

    It is proved that an integer n ≥ 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z n , the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z n is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in any introductory course on abstract algebra or elementary number theory.

  4. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  5. Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-09-15

    This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions. PMID:18437250

  6. Instructional Audio Guidelines: Four Design Principles to Consider for Every Instructional Audio Design Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Curtis W.

    2012-01-01

    This article contends that instructional designers and developers should attend to four particular design principles when creating instructional audio. Support for this view is presented by referencing the limited research that has been done in this area, and by indicating how and why each of the four principles is important to the design process.…

  7. Role of discriminantly separable polynomials in integrable dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir; Kukić, Katarina

    2014-11-01

    Discriminantly separable polynomials of degree two in each of the three variables are considered. Those polynomials are by definition polynomials which discriminants are factorized as the products of the polynomials in one variable. Motivating example for introducing such polynomials is the famous Kowalevski top. Motivated by the role of such polynomials in the Kowalevski top, we generalize Kowalevski's integration procedure on a whole class of systems basically obtained by replacing so called the Kowalevski's fundamental equation by some other instance of the discriminantly separable polynomial. We present also the role of the discriminantly separable polynomils in twowell-known examples: the case of Kirchhoff elasticae and the Sokolov's case of a rigid body in an ideal fluid.

  8. Polynomials and Neural Networks for Gas Turbine Monitoring: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Igor; Feldshteyn, Yakov

    2011-09-01

    Gas turbine health monitoring includes the common stages of problem detection, fault identification, and prognostics. To extract useful diagnostic information from raw recorded data, these stages require a preliminary operation of computing differences between measurements and an engine baseline, which is a function of engine operating conditions. These deviations of measured values from the baseline data can be good indicators of engine health. However, their quality and the success of all diagnostic stages strongly depend on the adequacy of the baseline model employed and, in particular, on the mathematical techniques applied to create it. To create a baseline model, we have applied polynomials and the least squares method for computing the coefficients over a long period of time. Methods were proposed to enhance such a polynomial-based model. The resulting accuracy was sufficient for reliable monitoring of gas turbine deterioration effects. The polynomials previously investigated thus far are used in the present study as a standard for evaluating artificial neural networks, a very popular technique in gas turbine diagnostics. The focus of this comparative study is to verify whether the use of networks results in a better description of the engine baseline. Extensive field data for two different industrial gas turbines were used to compare these two techniques under various conditions. The deviations were computed for all available data, and the quality of the resulting deviation plots was compared visually. The mean error of the baseline model was used as an additional criterion for comparing the techniques. To find the best network configurations, many network variations were realised and compared with the polynomials. Although the neural networks studied were found to be close to the polynomials in accuracy, they did not exceed the polynomials in any variation. In this way, it seems that polynomials can be successfully used for engine monitoring, at least for

  9. Long-time uncertainty propagation using generalized polynomial chaos and flow map composition

    SciTech Connect

    Luchtenburg, Dirk M.; Brunton, Steven L.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2014-10-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method for long-time uncertainty propagation in dynamical systems. Uncertain initial conditions and parameters are both addressed. The method approximates the intermediate short-time flow maps by spectral polynomial bases, as in the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method, and uses flow map composition to construct the long-time flow map. In contrast to the gPC method, this approach has spectral error convergence for both short and long integration times. The short-time flow map is characterized by small stretching and folding of the associated trajectories and hence can be well represented by a relatively low-degree basis. The composition of these low-degree polynomial bases then accurately describes the uncertainty behavior for long integration times. The key to the method is that the degree of the resulting polynomial approximation increases exponentially in the number of time intervals, while the number of polynomial coefficients either remains constant (for an autonomous system) or increases linearly in the number of time intervals (for a non-autonomous system). The findings are illustrated on several numerical examples including a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) with an uncertain initial condition, a linear ODE with an uncertain model parameter, and a two-dimensional, non-autonomous double gyre flow.

  10. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  11. Combining fractional polynomial model building with multiple imputation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tim P.; White, Ian R.; Carpenter, James R.; Stanworth, Simon J.; Royston, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) models are commonly used in medical research. The datasets in which MFP models are applied often contain covariates with missing values. To handle the missing values, we describe methods for combining multiple imputation with MFP modelling, considering in turn three issues: first, how to impute so that the imputation model does not favour certain fractional polynomial (FP) models over others; second, how to estimate the FP exponents in multiply imputed data; and third, how to choose between models of differing complexity. Two imputation methods are outlined for different settings. For model selection, methods based on Wald-type statistics and weighted likelihood-ratio tests are proposed and evaluated in simulation studies. The Wald-based method is very slightly better at estimating FP exponents. Type I error rates are very similar for both methods, although slightly less well controlled than analysis of complete records; however, there is potential for substantial gains in power over the analysis of complete records. We illustrate the two methods in a dataset from five trauma registries for which a prognostic model has previously been published, contrasting the selected models with that obtained by analysing the complete records only. PMID:26095614

  12. Combining fractional polynomial model building with multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tim P; White, Ian R; Carpenter, James R; Stanworth, Simon J; Royston, Patrick

    2015-11-10

    Multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) models are commonly used in medical research. The datasets in which MFP models are applied often contain covariates with missing values. To handle the missing values, we describe methods for combining multiple imputation with MFP modelling, considering in turn three issues: first, how to impute so that the imputation model does not favour certain fractional polynomial (FP) models over others; second, how to estimate the FP exponents in multiply imputed data; and third, how to choose between models of differing complexity. Two imputation methods are outlined for different settings. For model selection, methods based on Wald-type statistics and weighted likelihood-ratio tests are proposed and evaluated in simulation studies. The Wald-based method is very slightly better at estimating FP exponents. Type I error rates are very similar for both methods, although slightly less well controlled than analysis of complete records; however, there is potential for substantial gains in power over the analysis of complete records. We illustrate the two methods in a dataset from five trauma registries for which a prognostic model has previously been published, contrasting the selected models with that obtained by analysing the complete records only. PMID:26095614

  13. Uncertainty Quantification for Polynomial Systems via Bernstein Expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a unifying framework to uncertainty quantification for systems having polynomial response metrics that depend on both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The approach proposed, which is based on the Bernstein expansions of polynomials, enables bounding the range of moments and failure probabilities of response metrics as well as finding supersets of the extreme epistemic realizations where the limits of such ranges occur. These bounds and supersets, whose analytical structure renders them free of approximation error, can be made arbitrarily tight with additional computational effort. Furthermore, this framework enables determining the importance of particular uncertain parameters according to the extent to which they affect the first two moments of response metrics and failure probabilities. This analysis enables determining the parameters that should be considered uncertain as well as those that can be assumed to be constants without incurring significant error. The analytical nature of the approach eliminates the numerical error that characterizes the sampling-based techniques commonly used to propagate aleatory uncertainties as well as the possibility of under predicting the range of the statistic of interest that may result from searching for the best- and worstcase epistemic values via nonlinear optimization or sampling.

  14. Reconstruction of audio waveforms from spike trains of artificial cochlea models.

    PubMed

    Zai, Anja T; Bhargava, Saurabh; Mesgarani, Nima; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2015-01-01

    Spiking cochlea models describe the analog processing and spike generation process within the biological cochlea. Reconstructing the audio input from the artificial cochlea spikes is therefore useful for understanding the fidelity of the information preserved in the spikes. The reconstruction process is challenging particularly for spikes from the mixed signal (analog/digital) integrated circuit (IC) cochleas because of multiple non-linearities in the model and the additional variance caused by random transistor mismatch. This work proposes an offline method for reconstructing the audio input from spike responses of both a particular spike-based hardware model called the AEREAR2 cochlea and an equivalent software cochlea model. This method was previously used to reconstruct the auditory stimulus based on the peri-stimulus histogram of spike responses recorded in the ferret auditory cortex. The reconstructed audio from the hardware cochlea is evaluated against an analogous software model using objective measures of speech quality and intelligibility; and further tested in a word recognition task. The reconstructed audio under low signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions (SNR < -5 dB) gives a better classification performance than the original SNR input in this word recognition task. PMID:26528113

  15. Reconstruction of audio waveforms from spike trains of artificial cochlea models

    PubMed Central

    Zai, Anja T.; Bhargava, Saurabh; Mesgarani, Nima; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2015-01-01

    Spiking cochlea models describe the analog processing and spike generation process within the biological cochlea. Reconstructing the audio input from the artificial cochlea spikes is therefore useful for understanding the fidelity of the information preserved in the spikes. The reconstruction process is challenging particularly for spikes from the mixed signal (analog/digital) integrated circuit (IC) cochleas because of multiple non-linearities in the model and the additional variance caused by random transistor mismatch. This work proposes an offline method for reconstructing the audio input from spike responses of both a particular spike-based hardware model called the AEREAR2 cochlea and an equivalent software cochlea model. This method was previously used to reconstruct the auditory stimulus based on the peri-stimulus histogram of spike responses recorded in the ferret auditory cortex. The reconstructed audio from the hardware cochlea is evaluated against an analogous software model using objective measures of speech quality and intelligibility; and further tested in a word recognition task. The reconstructed audio under low signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions (SNR < –5 dB) gives a better classification performance than the original SNR input in this word recognition task. PMID:26528113

  16. Generic formulas for the values at the singular points of some special monic classical Hq,[omega]-orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronilho, J.

    2007-08-01

    It is well-known that the classical orthogonal polynomials of Jacobi, Bessel, Laguerre and Hermite are solutions of a Sturm-Liouville problem of the type where [sigma] and [tau] are polynomials such that deg[sigma][less-than-or-equals, slant]2 and deg[tau]=1, and [lambda]n is a constant independent of x. Recently, based on the hypergeometric character of the solutions of this differential equation, W. Koepf and M. Masjed-Jamei [A generic formula for the values at the boundary points of monic classical orthogonal polynomials, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 191 (2006) 98-105] found a generic formula, only in terms of the coefficients of [sigma] and [tau], for the values of the classical orthogonal polynomials at the singular points of the above differential hypergeometric equation. In this paper, we generalize the mentioned result giving the analogous formulas for both the classical q-orthogonal polynomials (of the q-Hahn tableau) and the classical D[omega]-orthogonal polynomials. Both are special cases of the classical Hq,[omega]-orthogonal polynomials, which are solutions of the hypergeometric-type difference equation where Hq,[omega] is the difference operator introduced by Hahn, and [sigma], [tau] and [lambda]n being as above. Our approach is algebraic and it does not require hypergeometric functions.

  17. Perturbing polynomials with all their roots on the unit circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossinghoff, M. J.; Pinner, C. G.; Vaaler, J. D.

    1998-10-01

    Given a monic real polynomial with all its roots on the unit circle, we ask to what extent one can perturb its middle coefficient and still have a polynomial with all its roots on the unit circle. We show that the set of possible perturbations forms a closed interval of length at most 4, with 4 achieved only for polynomials of the form x(2n) + cx(n) + 1 with c in [-2, 2]. The problem can also be formulated in terms of perturbing the constant coefficient of a polynomial having all its roots in [-1, 1]. If we restrict to integer coefficients, then the polynomials in question are products of cyclotomics. We show that in this case there are no perturbations of length 3 that do not arise from a perturbation of length 4. We also investigate the connection between slightly perturbed products of cyclotomic polynomials and polynomials with small Mahler measure. We describe an algorithm for searching for polynomials with small Mahler measure by perturbing the middle coefficients of products of cyclotomic polynomials. We show that the complexity of this algorithm is O(C-root d), where d is the degree, and we report on the polynomials found by this algorithm through degree 64.

  18. Audio Utilization Conventions and Techniques for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Signal Center and School, Fort Monmouth, NJ.

    A set of guidelines has been developed for the implementation of the audio mode in computer assisted instruction (CAI). The manual contains a collection of conventions and techniques synthesized from recent publications in areas pertinent to multi-media audiovisual presentation. These areas include audio message placement, positioning, frequency,…

  19. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices...

  20. The Practical Audio-Visual Handbook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scuorzo, Herbert E.

    The use of audio/visual media as an aid to instruction is a common practice in today's classroom. Most teachers, however, have little or no formal training in this field and rarely a knowledgeable coordinator to help them. "The Practical Audio-Visual Handbook for Teachers" discusses the types and mechanics of many of these media forms and proposes…

  1. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  2. Beyond Podcasting: Creative Approaches to Designing Educational Audio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a university-wide pilot designed to encourage academics to creatively explore learner-centred applications for digital audio. Participation in the pilot was diverse in terms of technical competence, confidence and contextual requirements and there was little prior experience of working with digital audio. Many innovative…

  3. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  4. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  5. A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

  6. Using Audio Books to Improve Reading and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights significant research about what below grade-level reading means in middle school classrooms and suggests a tested approach to improve reading comprehension levels significantly by using audio books. The use of these audio books can improve reading and academic performance for both English language learners (ELLs) and for…

  7. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  8. The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herickes, Sally, Ed.

    The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

  9. Making the Most of Audio. Technology in Language Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Anthony

    Prepared for practicing language teachers, this book's aim is to help them make the most of audio, a readily accessible resource. The book shows, with the help of numerous practical examples, how a range of language skills can be developed. Most examples are in French. Chapters cover the following information: (1) making the most of audio (e.g.,…

  10. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  11. 43 CFR 8365.2-2 - Audio devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audio devices. 8365.2-2 Section 8365.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-2 Audio devices....

  12. Momentum space orthogonal polynomial projection quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, C. R.; Vrinceanu, D.; Marth, C. B.; Gupta, R.

    2016-04-01

    The orthogonal polynomial projection quantization (OPPQ) is an algebraic method for solving Schrödinger’s equation by representing the wave function as an expansion {{\\Psi }}(x)={\\displaystyle \\sum }n{{{Ω }}}n{P}n(x)R(x) in terms of polynomials {P}n(x) orthogonal with respect to a suitable reference function R(x), which decays asymptotically not faster than the bound state wave function. The expansion coefficients {{{Ω }}}n are obtained as linear combinations of power moments {μ }{{p}}=\\int {x}p{{\\Psi }}(x) {{d}}x. In turn, the {μ }{{p}}'s are generated by a linear recursion relation derived from Schrödinger’s equation from an initial set of low order moments. It can be readily argued that for square integrable wave functions representing physical states {{lim}}n\\to ∞ {{{Ω }}}n=0. Rapidly converging discrete energies are obtained by setting Ω coefficients to zero at arbitrarily high order. This paper introduces an extention of OPPQ in momentum space by using the representation {{Φ }}(k)={\\displaystyle \\sum }n{{{\\Xi }}}n{Q}n(k)T(k), where Q n (k) are polynomials orthogonal with respect to a suitable reference function T(k). The advantage of this new representation is that it can help solving problems for which there is no coordinate space moment equation. This is because the power moments in momentum space are the Taylor expansion coefficients, which are recursively calculated via Schrödinger’s equation. We show the convergence of this new method for the sextic anharmonic oscillator and an algebraic treatment of Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear equation.

  13. Wavelet approach to accelerator problems. 1: Polynomial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorova, A.; Zeitlin, M.; Parsa, Z.

    1997-05-01

    This is the first part of a series of talks in which the authors present applications of methods from wavelet analysis to polynomial approximations for a number of accelerator physics problems. In the general case they have the solution as a multiresolution expansion in the base of compactly supported wavelet basis. The solution is parameterized by solutions of two reduced algebraical problems, one is nonlinear and the second is some linear problem, which is obtained from one of the next wavelet constructions: Fast Wavelet Transform, Stationary Subdivision Schemes, the method of Connection Coefficients. In this paper the authors consider the problem of calculation of orbital motion in storage rings. The key point in the solution of this problem is the use of the methods of wavelet analysis, relatively novel set of mathematical methods, which gives one a possibility to work with well-localized bases in functional spaces and with the general type of operators (including pseudodifferential) in such bases.

  14. A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

    2005-07-01

    As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

  15. Supersymmetric Casimir energy and the anomaly polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    We conjecture that for superconformal field theories in even dimensions, the supersymmetric Casimir energy on a space with topology S 1 × S D-1 is equal to an equivariant integral of the anomaly polynomial. The equivariant integration is defined with respect to the Cartan subalgebra of the global symmetry algebra that commutes with a given supercharge. We test our proposal extensively by computing the supersymmetric Casimir energy for large classes of superconformal field theories, with and without known Lagrangian descriptions, in two, four and six dimensions.

  16. A polynomial f(R) inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by the ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity, for example the string theory, we investigate a polynomial f(R) inflation model in detail. We calculate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the f(R) inflation model with the form of f(R) = R + (R{sup 2})/6M{sup 2} + (λn)/2n (R{sup n})/(3M{sup 2}){sup n-1}. Compared to Planck 2013, we find that R{sup n} term should be exponentially suppressed, i.e. |λ{sub n}|∼<10{sup −2n+2.6}.

  17. A polynomial f(R) inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-02-19

    Motivated by the ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity, for example the string theory, we investigate a polynomial f(R) inflation model in detail. We calculate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the f(R) inflation model with the form of f(R)=R+((R{sup 2})/(6M{sup 2}))+((λ{sub n})/(2n))((R{sup n})/((3M{sup 2}){sup n−1})). Compared to Planck 2013, we find that R{sup n} term should be exponentially suppressed, i.e. |λ{sub n}|≲10{sup −2n+2.6}.

  18. A multiple-scale Pascal polynomial for 2D Stokes and inverse Cauchy-Stokes problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chein-Shan; Young, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The polynomial expansion method is a useful tool for solving both the direct and inverse Stokes problems, which together with the pointwise collocation technique is easy to derive the algebraic equations for satisfying the Stokes differential equations and the specified boundary conditions. In this paper we propose two novel numerical algorithms, based on a third-first order system and a third-third order system, to solve the direct and the inverse Cauchy problems in Stokes flows by developing a multiple-scale Pascal polynomial method, of which the scales are determined a priori by the collocation points. To assess the performance through numerical experiments, we find that the multiple-scale Pascal polynomial expansion method (MSPEM) is accurate and stable against large noise.

  19. Polynomial invariants for discrimination and classification of four-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Viehmann, Oliver; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The number of entanglement classes in stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) classifications increases with the number of qubits and is already infinite for four qubits. Criteria for explicitly discriminating and classifying pure states of four and more qubits are highly desirable and therefore at the focus of intense theoretical research. We develop a general criterion for the discrimination of pure N-partite entangled states in terms of polynomial SL(d,C){sup xN} invariants. By means of this criterion, existing SLOCC classifications of four-qubit entanglement are reproduced. Based on this we propose a polynomial classification scheme in which entanglement types are identified through 'tangle patterns'. This scheme provides a practicable way to classify states of arbitrary multipartite systems. Moreover, the use of polynomials induces a corresponding quantification of the different types of entanglement.

  20. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  1. Generic expansion of the Jastrow correlation factor in polynomials satisfying symmetry and cusp conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lüchow, Arne; Sturm, Alexander; Schulte, Christoph; Haghighi Mood, Kaveh

    2015-02-28

    Jastrow correlation factors play an important role in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Together with an orbital based antisymmetric function, they allow the construction of highly accurate correlation wave functions. In this paper, a generic expansion of the Jastrow correlation function in terms of polynomials that satisfy both the electron exchange symmetry constraint and the cusp conditions is presented. In particular, an expansion of the three-body electron-electron-nucleus contribution in terms of cuspless homogeneous symmetric polynomials is proposed. The polynomials can be expressed in fairly arbitrary scaling function allowing a generic implementation of the Jastrow factor. It is demonstrated with a few examples that the new Jastrow factor achieves 85%–90% of the total correlation energy in a variational quantum Monte Carlo calculation and more than 90% of the diffusion Monte Carlo correlation energy.

  2. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  3. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  4. Polynomial solutions of the Monge-Ampère equation

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, Yu A

    2014-11-30

    The question of the existence of polynomial solutions to the Monge-Ampère equation z{sub xx}z{sub yy}−z{sub xy}{sup 2}=f(x,y) is considered in the case when f(x,y) is a polynomial. It is proved that if f is a polynomial of the second degree, which is positive for all values of its arguments and has a positive squared part, then no polynomial solution exists. On the other hand, a solution which is not polynomial but is analytic in the whole of the x, y-plane is produced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of polynomial solutions of degree up to 4 are found and methods for the construction of such solutions are indicated. An approximation theorem is proved. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  5. Bäcklund transformations, Lax system, conservation laws and multisoliton solutions for Jimbo-Miwa equation with Bell-polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjit; Gupta, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Based on binary Bell polynomial approach, the bilinear equation and B a ¨cklund transformations for (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation are obtained. By virtue of Cole-Hopf transformation, Lax system is constructed by direct linearization of coupled system of binary Bell polynomials. Furthermore, infinite conservation laws are obtained from two field condition in quick and natural way. Finally, a test function of extended three wave method is used to construct multisoliton solutions via bilinear equation.

  6. Quantum mechanical operator realization of the Stirling numbers theory studied by virtue of the operator Hermite polynomials method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Based on the operator Hermite polynomials method (OHPM), we study Stirling numbers in the context of quantum mechanics, i.e., we present operator realization of generating function formulas of Stirling numbers with some applications. As a by-product, we derive a summation formula involving both Stirling number and Hermite polynomials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175113).

  7. Spatial audio through a bone conduction interface.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Henry, Paula P; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2006-10-01

    Headphones are the standard presentation device for radio communication in the military. Although bone conduction devices possess several advantages over headphones for some military applications, they are generally considered inappropriate for inclusion in a multi-channel system. The current study tested the feasibility of a multi-channel bone conduction system by measuring the localizability of spatialized auditory stimuli presented through a pair of bone conduction vibrators. Listeners localized a Gaussian noise stimulus spatialized with individualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). The sounds were presented from eight virtual locations on the horizontal plane (0, +/-45, +/-90, +/-135, and 180 degrees ) through either stereo headphones or a stereo bone conduction system. Localization performance was found to be nearly identical for both audio systems, indicating that bone conduction systems can be effectively used for displaying spatial information. PMID:17062501

  8. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-01-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  9. Monogenic Generalized Hermite Polynomials and Associated Hermite-Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cação, I.

    2010-09-01

    A large range of generalizations of the ordinary Hermite polynomials of one or several real or complex variables has been considered by several authors, using different methods. We construct monogenic generalizations of ordinary Hermite polynomials starting from a hypercomplex analogue to the real valued Lahiri exponential generating function. By using specific operational techniques, we derive some of their properties. As an application of the constructed polynomials, we define associated monogenic Hermite-Bessel functions.

  10. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  11. Black brane solutions governed by fluxbrane polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchuk, V. D.

    2014-12-01

    A family of composite black brane solutions in the model with scalar fields and fields of forms is presented. The metric of any solution is defined on a manifold which contains a product of several Ricci-flat 'internal' spaces. The solutions are governed by moduli functions Hs (s = 1 , … , m) obeying non-linear differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. These master equations are equivalent to Toda-like equations and depend upon the non-degenerate (m × m) matrix A. It was conjectured earlier that the functions Hs should be polynomials if A is a Cartan matrix for some semisimple finite-dimensional Lie algebra (of rank m). It is shown that the solutions to master equations may be found by using so-called fluxbrane polynomials which can be calculated (in principle) for any semisimple finite-dimensional Lie algebra. Examples of dilatonic charged black hole (0-brane) solutions related to Lie algebras A1, A2, C2 and G2 are considered.

  12. Seizure prediction using polynomial SVM classification.

    PubMed

    Zisheng Zhang; Parhi, Keshab K

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for prediction of seizures in epileptic patients with low hardware complexity and low power consumption. In the proposed approach, we first compute the spectrogram of the input fragmented EEG signals from a few electrodes. Each fragmented data clip is ten minutes in duration. Band powers, relative spectral powers and ratios of spectral powers are extracted as features. The features are then subjected to electrode selection and feature selection using classification and regression tree. The baseline experiment uses all features from selected electrodes and these features are then subjected to a radial basis function kernel support vector machine (RBF-SVM) classifier. The proposed method further selects a small number features from the selected electrodes and train a polynomial support vector machine (SVM) classifier with degree of 2 on these features. Prediction performances are compared between the baseline experiment and the proposed method. The algorithm is tested using intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the American Epilepsy Society Seizure Prediction Challenge database. The baseline experiment using a large number of features and RBF-SVM achieves a 100% sensitivity and an average AUC of 0.9985, while the proposed algorithm using only a small number of features and polynomial SVM with degree of 2 can achieve a sensitivity of 100.0%, an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.9795. For both experiments, only 10% of the available training data are used for training. PMID:26737598

  13. Generalization ability of fractional polynomial models.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunwen; Ding, Lixin; Ding, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of learning the functional dependency between input and output variables from scattered data using fractional polynomial models (FPM) is investigated. The estimation error bounds are obtained by calculating the pseudo-dimension of FPM, which is shown to be equal to that of sparse polynomial models (SPM). A linear decay of the approximation error is obtained for a class of target functions which are dense in the space of continuous functions. We derive a structural risk analogous to the Schwartz Criterion and demonstrate theoretically that the model minimizing this structural risk can achieve a favorable balance between estimation and approximation errors. An empirical model selection comparison is also performed to justify the usage of this structural risk in selecting the optimal complexity index from the data. We show that the construction of FPM can be efficiently addressed by the variable projection method. Furthermore, our empirical study implies that FPM could attain better generalization performance when compared with SPM and cubic splines. PMID:24140985

  14. On factorization of generalized Macdonald polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2016-08-01

    A remarkable feature of Schur functions—the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from W_∞ —is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time variables, which is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of U_q(SL_N) and which plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMPs), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time variables, we discover a weak factorization—on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, which is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding.

  15. Using Tutte polynomials to characterize sexual contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadavid Muñoz, Juan José

    2014-06-01

    Tutte polynomials are used to characterize the dynamic and topology of the sexual contact networks, in which pathogens are transmitted as an epidemic. Tutte polynomials provide an algebraic characterization of the sexual contact networks and allow the projection of spread control strategies for sexual transmission diseases. With the usage of Tutte polynomials, it allows obtaining algebraic expressions for the basic reproductive number of different pathogenic agents. Computations are done using the computer algebra software Maple, and it's GraphTheory Package. The topological complexity of a contact network is represented by the algebraic complexity of the correspondent polynomial. The change in the topology of the contact network is represented as a change in the algebraic form of the associated polynomial. With the usage of the Tutte polynomials, the number of spanning trees for each contact network can be obtained. From the obtained results in the polynomial form, it can be said that Tutte polynomials are of great importance for designing and implementing control measures for slowing down the propagation of sexual transmitted pathologies. As a future research line, the analysis of weighted sexual contact networks using weighted Tutte polynomials is considered.

  16. Quantum algorithms for virtual Jones polynomials via Thistlethwaite theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2010-04-01

    Recently a quantum algorithm for the Jones polynomial of virtual links was proposed by Kauffman and Dye via the implementation of the virtual braid group in anyonic topological quantum computation when the virtual crossings are considered as generalized swap gates. Also recently, a mathematical method for the computation of the Jones polynomial of a given virtual link in terms of the relative Tuttle polynomial of its face (Tait) graph with some suitable variable substitutions was proposed by Diao and Hetyei. The method of Diao and Hetyei is offered as an alternative to the ribbon graph approach according to which the Tutte polynomial of a given virtual link is computed in terms of the Bollobás- Riordan polynomial of the corresponding ribbon graph. The method of Diao and Hetyei can be considered as an extension of the celebrated Thistlethwaite theorem according to which invariant polynomials for knots and links are derived from invariant polynomials for graphs. Starting from these ideas we propose a quantum algorithm for the Jones polynomial of a given virtual link in terms of the generalized Tutte polynomials by exploiting the Thistlethwaite theorem and the Kauffman algorithm . Our method is claimed as the quantum version of the Diao-Hetyei method. Possible supersymmetric implementations of our algortihm are discussed jointly with its formulations using topological quantum lambda calculus.

  17. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. PMID:26302946

  18. Method for constructing approximate analytic solutions of differential equations with a polynomial right-hand side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, A. P.; Dzyuba, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    A method for constructing approximate analytic solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations with a polynomial right-hand side is proposed. The implementation of the method is based on the Picard method of successive approximations and a procedure of continuation of local solutions. As an application, the problem of constructing the minimal sets of the Lorenz system is considered.

  19. Readings on American Society. The Audio-Lingual Literary Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamura, Shigeo; Ney, James W.

    This text contains 11 lessons based on an adaptation of the 1964 essay "Automation: Road to Lifetime Jobs" by A.H. Raskin and 14 lessons based on an adaptation of John Fischer's 1948 essay "Unwritten Rules of American Politics." The format of the book and the lessons is the same as that of the other volumes of "The Audio-Lingual Literary Series."…

  20. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter audio subsystem. [to communication and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    The selection of the audio multiplex control configuration for the Space Shuttle Orbiter audio subsystem is discussed and special attention is given to the evaluation criteria of cost, weight and complexity. The specifications and design of the subsystem are described and detail is given to configurations of the audio terminal and audio central control unit (ATU, ACCU). The audio input from the ACCU, at a signal level of -12.2 to 14.8 dBV, nominal range, at 1 kHz, was found to have balanced source impedance and a balanced local impedance of 6000 + or - 600 ohms at 1 kHz, dc isolated. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) electroacoustic test laboratory, an audio engineering facility consisting of a collection of acoustic test chambers, analyzed problems of speaker and headset performance, multiplexed control data coupled with audio channels, and the Orbiter cabin acoustic effects on the operational performance of voice communications. This system allows technical management and project engineering to address key constraining issues, such as identifying design deficiencies of the headset interface unit and the assessment of the Orbiter cabin performance of voice communications, which affect the subsystem development.

  2. The Sweet-Home project: audio processing and decision making in smart home to improve well-being and reliance.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Michel; Chahuara, Pedro; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Istrate, Dan; Portet, Francois; Joubert, Thierry; Sehili, Mohamed; Meillon, Brigitte; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Fabre, Sébastien; Roux, Camille; Caffiau, Sybille

    2013-01-01

    The Sweet-Home project aims at providing audio-based interaction technology that lets the user have full control over their home environment, at detecting distress situations and at easing the social inclusion of the elderly and frail population. This paper presents an overview of the project focusing on the implemented techniques for speech and sound recognition as context-aware decision making with uncertainty. A user experiment in a smart home demonstrates the interest of this audio-based technology. PMID:24111430

  3. Uncertainty Analysis via Failure Domain Characterization: Polynomial Requirement Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis framework based on the characterization of the uncertain parameter space. This characterization enables the identification of worst-case uncertainty combinations and the approximation of the failure and safe domains with a high level of accuracy. Because these approximations are comprised of subsets of readily computable probability, they enable the calculation of arbitrarily tight upper and lower bounds to the failure probability. A Bernstein expansion approach is used to size hyper-rectangular subsets while a sum of squares programming approach is used to size quasi-ellipsoidal subsets. These methods are applicable to requirement functions whose functional dependency on the uncertainty is a known polynomial. Some of the most prominent features of the methodology are the substantial desensitization of the calculations from the uncertainty model assumed (i.e., the probability distribution describing the uncertainty) as well as the accommodation for changes in such a model with a practically insignificant amount of computational effort.

  4. Experimental evaluation of chromatic dispersion estimation method using polynomial fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2014-11-01

    We experimentally validate a non-data-aided, modulation-format independent chromatic dispersion (CD) estimation method based on polynomial fitting algorithm in single-carrier coherent optical system with a 40 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) system. The non-data-aided CD estimation for arbitrary modulation formats is achieved by measuring the differential phase between frequency f±fs/2 (fs is the symbol rate) in digital coherent receivers. The estimation range for a 40 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal can be up to 20,000 ps/nm with a measurement accuracy of ±200 ps/nm. The maximum CD measurement is 25,000 ps/nm with a measurement error of 2%.

  5. Predicting Cutting Forces in Aluminum Using Polynomial Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadi, H. El; Deiab, I. M.; Khattab, A. A.

    Due to increased calls for environmentally benign machining processes, there has been focus and interest in making processes more lean and agile to enhance efficiency, reduce emissions and increase profitability. One approach to achieving lean machining is to develop a virtual simulation environment that enables fast and reasonably accurate predictions of various machining scenarios. Polynomial Classifiers (PCs) are employed to develop a smart data base that can provide fast prediction of cutting forces resulting from various combinations of cutting parameters. With time, the force model can expand to include different materials, tools, fixtures and machines and would be consulted prior to starting any job. In this work, first, second and third order classifiers are used to predict the cutting coefficients that can be used to determine the cutting forces. Predictions obtained using PCs are compared to experimental results and are shown to be in good agreement.

  6. Polynomial interior-point algorithms for horizontal linear complementarity problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. Q.; Bai, Y. Q.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper a class of polynomial interior-point algorithms for horizontal linear complementarity problem based on a new parametric kernel function, with parameters p[set membership, variant][0,1] and [sigma]>=1, are presented. The proposed parametric kernel function is not exponentially convex and also not strongly convex like the usual kernel functions, and has a finite value at the boundary of the feasible region. It is used both for determining the search directions and for measuring the distance between the given iterate and the [mu]-center for the algorithm. The currently best known iteration bounds for the algorithm with large- and small-update methods are derived, namely, and , respectively, which reduce the gap between the practical behavior of the algorithms and their theoretical performance results. Numerical tests demonstrate the behavior of the algorithms for different results of the parameters p,[sigma] and [theta].

  7. Kinetic term anarchy for polynomial chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-09-01

    We argue that there may arise a relatively flat inflaton potential over super-Planckian field values with an approximate shift symmetry, if the coefficients of the kinetic terms for many singlet scalars are subject to a certain random distribution. The inflation takes place along the flat direction with a super-Planckian length, whereas the other light directions can be stabilized by the Hubble-induced mass. The inflaton potential generically contains various shift-symmetry breaking terms, leading to a possibly large deviation of the predicted values of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from those of the simple quadratic chaotic inflation. We revisit a polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity as such.

  8. Orthogonal polynomials for refinable linear functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Dirk; de Villiers, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A refinable linear functional is one that can be expressed as a convex combination and defined by a finite number of mask coefficients of certain stretched and shifted replicas of itself. The notion generalizes an integral weighted by a refinable function. The key to calculating a Gaussian quadrature formula for such a functional is to find the three-term recursion coefficients for the polynomials orthogonal with respect to that functional. We show how to obtain the recursion coefficients by using only the mask coefficients, and without the aid of modified moments. Our result implies the existence of the corresponding refinable functional whenever the mask coefficients are nonnegative, even when the same mask does not define a refinable function. The algorithm requires O(n^2) rational operations and, thus, can in principle deliver exact results. Numerical evidence suggests that it is also effective in floating-point arithmetic.

  9. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  10. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio..., image, audio or video material is presented in the delivered version, or they may be listed in...

  11. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio..., image, audio or video material is presented in the delivered version, or they may be listed in...

  12. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio..., image, audio or video material is presented in the delivered version, or they may be listed in...

  13. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio..., image, audio or video material is presented in the delivered version, or they may be listed in...

  14. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio..., image, audio or video material is presented in the delivered version, or they may be listed in...

  15. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  16. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  17. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  18. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  19. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  20. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... § 201.27 Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This... and distribute, any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the...